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English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
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English Language Teaching
Number of Followers: 32  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1916-4742 - ISSN (Online) 1916-4750
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • English Language Teaching, Vol. 13, No. 9, September 2020

    • Abstract: English Language Teaching, Vol. 13, No. 9, September 2020
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 05:28:05 +000
  • Improving Flunked English Majors Performance through Enhancing
           Students' Perception of Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy at Shaqra

    • Abstract: Teachers have to support flunked English majors emotionally, academically and use creative methods to improve their academic performance. The present research examined the effect of self-efficacy and outcomes expectancy on improving the performance of flunking English majors at Shaqra’ University. The instruments required for the research were a follow-up interview, pre-posttests and a questionnaire of self-efficacy and outcomes expectancy. The sample size was thirty of flunking English major students. The research compared eight techniques to enhance self-efficacy and outcomes expectancy to regular method. To test the hypotheses, data were collected and statistically analyzed. The results showed that there was no significance difference between the control group and experimental related to regular method in the pre-tests, whereas there was a difference in the post-tests in favor of the experimental group attributed to the treatment. The findings of the questionnaire proved that students' perception of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were crucial to enhance students' academic performance. The research suggested further investigations to examine the effect of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy on enhancing language oral and written skills.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 05:18:45 +000
  • The Effectiveness of Blended Learning in Enhancing Saudi Students’
           Competence in Paragraph Writing

    • Abstract: Blended learning approach has become an emerging trend in the field of education and has caught the attention and interest of many researchers as a new approach to encourage students in their learning process. The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of blended learning in improving Saudi EFL students’ English paragraph writing at Shaqra University. The sample of the study consists of 70 EFL students at Shaqra University. The experiment was conducted for six weeks (2018). A pre-test and post-paragraph writing test was used to measure the effectiveness of the blended learning in enhancing paragraph writing skills. Results showed that there were significant differences in the mean scores of the control group (traditional teaching mode) and the experimental group (blended learning) in favor of the experimental group. This proved the effectiveness of blended learning approach in developing Saudi students’ competence in paragraph writing.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Aug 2020 05:08:02 +000
  • Neoliberal Policies and English Language Education in Turkey

    • Abstract: Turkey has adopted a new trend regarding English-medium education in recent decades. The development of capitalism has also affected Turkey and the Turkish education system. The Turkish Council of Higher Education has aspired to make higher education in Turkey more global and international. Therefore, the British Council has prepared a report to show the situation of English in Turkey. It has been found that Turkey needs serious ameliorations in many ways in the sphere of English-medium instruction. The report findings show that Turkey can develop economically more if it can endorse English-based education. The popularity of neoliberalism has shown its effects in Turkish higher education. Therefore, English has been prioritized as a result of neoliberalism. In the future, the situation of English can be evaluated by teachers, scholars, students, policymakers, and international organizations. The findings also show that The Turkish Council of Higher Education believes that the British Council has contributed to the development of English in Turkey following neoliberal policies.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 07:54:46 +000
  • A Rasch-Based Validation of ELT Certificate-LORT

    • Abstract: The present study was executed with the purpose of validating ELT Certificate Lesson Observation and Report Task (ELTC-LORT), which was developed by China Language Assessment to certify China’s EFL teachers by performance-based testing. The ELT Certificate has high-stakes considering its impacts on candidates’ recruitment, ELT in China and quality of education, so it is crucially important for its validation so as to guarantee fairness and justice. The validity of task construct and rating rubric went through a process suited for many-facet Rasch measurement supplemented with qualitative interviews. Participants (N = 40) were provided with a video excerpt from a real EFL lesson, and required to deliver a report on the teacher’s performance. Two raters graded the records of the candidates’ reports using rating scales developed to measure EFL teacher candidates’ oral English proficiency and ability to analyze and evaluate teaching. Many-facet Rasch analysis demonstrated a successful estimation, with a noticeable spread among the participants and their traits, proving the task functioned well in measuring candidates’ performance and reflecting the difference of their ability. The raters were found to have good internal self-consistency, but not the same leniency. The rating scales worked well, with the average measures advancing largely in line with Rasch expectations. Semi-structured interviews as well as focus group interviews were executed to provide knowledge regarding the raters’ performance levels and the functionalities of the rating scale items. The findings provide implications for further research and practice of the Certificate.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 07:30:11 +000
  • A Language Teacher in the ESP Classroom: Can We be a Successful Dweller in
           This Strange and Uncharted Land'

    • Abstract: The English for specific purposes (ESP) classroom has been described by a number of scholars as a strange and uncharted land for many language teachers. This is because ESP is designed to meet the specific needs of the learner, making it related to subject specialist content. Accordingly, some people feel that language teachers without a specialist subject background are “unqualified” to teach ESP courses. Rather, subject specialists should be the ones who teach these courses even though, in many cases, they are not trained to teach language. This paper therefore aims to find out whether it is possible that language teachers, who have limited subject specialist knowledge, can “settle down” happily in this strange and uncharted land. Reviews of the literature and previous studies of related topics, namely the definition of ESP, subject specificity, subject specialist knowledge, strategies for dealing with a lack of subject specialist knowledge, and the roles of the ESP practitioner, are discussed first. Then, the answer to the question is presented at the end.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 07:20:04 +000
  • The Impressionistic Study of English /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ in Initial
           Position by L2 Thai Learners

    • Abstract: Although studies on English sound learning by L2 Thai learners have been widely examined, there have been no studies on the production of the English /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ sounds in the initial position by L2 Thai learners with consideration of vowel contexts, the experience of L2 learners and target sounds. The aim of this study is to examine the production of the English /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ sounds in the initial position while taking the aforementioned factors into account. The data was from 48 L2 Thai learners, and the subjects were divided into two groups of university students: English-majors and non-English-majors. The two target sounds: English /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ together with the Thai /tɕʰ/ sound were tested in 27 words (9 words for each target sound). The subjects produced the target sounds five times, and their production was transcribed by two British transcribers. The results showed that the subjects had high target-like production when producing /ʃ/ but low target-like production when producing /tʃ/. In finding the correlation between the factors and the target-like production, neither the vowel contexts nor the experience could account for the production. The only factor that relates to the production of English /tʃ/ and /ʃ/ was the target sounds, i.e. the number of the productions that was deemed non-target-like was significantly higher when the target sound was /tʃ/ than when it was /ʃ/. This suggests that the target sounds, rather than the L2 experience and the vowel contexts, play a significant role in L2 speech production.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Aug 2020 07:31:23 +000
  • The Effects of Integrating Board Games into Ice-breaking Activities in a
           Fifth-Grade English Class to Reduce Students’ Anxieties

    • Abstract: Elementary-level English teachers in Taiwan were facing problems caused by students’ bimodal distribution of English achievements. Many of the teachers tried new teaching tools to eliminate the obstacles of teaching. This study was based on a quasi-experimental research design and supplemented by qualitative feedback to explore how the new teaching method, ice-breaking board games, could reduce students’ anxieties of learning English. The researchers combined popular board games, Halli Galli and Alles Tomate, with English words and sentences in ice-breaking activities for 10 weeks in two fifth-grade English classes in Taiwan. Forty-eight fifth-grade students were invited to participate in the study and randomly divided into two equal-sized classes. One class was selected as the experimental group, and the other as the control group. The study lasted for 10 weeks. The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) developed by Horwitz et al. (1986) was employed as the instrument to measure students’ English learning anxieties. Quantitative data were analyzed by using independent-sample and paired-sample t-tests as well as descriptive statistics, whereas qualitative data (which included the participating students’ feedback and teacher’s reflection notes) were analyzed through content analysis. The research findings suggested that integrating board games in English teaching as ice-breaking activities did not effectively reduce students’ overall foreign language anxiety. However, the descriptive statistics and qualitative data revealed that the constructs of anxiety for both groups had changed in opposite directions, and ice-breaking board games appeared to be more impactful in reducing certain aspects of anxiety construct, namely, communication apprehension.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Aug 2020 03:18:00 +000
  • Pre-service Teachers’ Beliefs about Language Learning Inventory (BALLI)
           on Bilingualism: Getting Insights to Developing Knowledge

    • Abstract: The goal of pre-service teacher (PST) programs is to provide students with pragmatic working experience and pedagogy that they need for becoming eligible teachers. In a bilingual classroom, however, some perspectives about second language learning (SLL) held by PSTs are too arbitrary. To assist PSTs in developing concepts of second language acquisition as related to educational settings and to cultivate PSTs’ burgeoning educational beliefs, this study was conducted using the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI). Seventeen PSTs who were enrolled in a university located along the southern U.S. border provided data for the present study. Three of the 27 belief statements included in the BALLI survey were critically analyzed. This critical analysis explored why certain PSTs’ beliefs about second language learning diverged from social reality at schools. Based on the analysis and results from our findings, suggestions about how to improve the bilingual education for PSTs are provided.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Aug 2020 03:10:42 +000
  • A Review of the Washback of English Language Tests on Classroom Teaching

    • Abstract: Scholars have long recognized the Washback effect of English language tests on English teaching inside the classroom. However, the lack of scholarly reports in this area is also nonnegligible. Therefore, the present study intends to review some empirical researches that focus on the washback of some English language tests on different aspects of classroom teaching, including the washback on course content, teaching materials, and teaching activities. Both positive and negative washback are found on these aspects and can be attributed to a number of factors, including differences in features of the test content, differences in tests’ coordination to course syllabus, differences in teachers’ adoption of teaching methods, etc. The final discussion recognizes the complicated mechanism of washback of the English language test on classroom teaching and serves to bring out some scholarly and pedagogical implications. On the one hand, future studies could focus more on how to bring out positive washback of English language tests on classroom teaching. On the other hand, pedagogical practices could take advantage of the latest scholarly findings to maximize the efficacy of the aforementioned positive washback.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Aug 2020 02:52:04 +000
  • Code-switching Versus Target-language-only for English as a Foreign
           Language: Saudi Students’ Perceptions

    • Abstract: Selecting the medium of instruction to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) has been a controversial issue for several years. This article explores the impact of code-switching (CS) versus target-language-only (TL-only) teaching strategies on the learning and affective sustenance of EFL reading comprehension beginner students based on their perceptions. It also investigates whether there is a significant difference between the participants’ perceptions of these two teaching strategies’ possible impact on their learning and affective sustenance. Fifty-two female Saudi college students participated in the study. A questionnaire and follow-up interviews were used to collect the data. The results indicate that the participants had positive perceptions about the impact of CS on their learning and affective sustenance in the EFL reading classes as opposed to negative perceptions about TL-only instruction. The results also show that there is a significant difference between their perceptions of TL-only instruction and CS, indicating that they prefer CS to TL-only instruction in their EFL reading classes. We recommend that reading comprehension teachers for beginners utilize CS as a facilitating instructional strategy for EFL beginners to give them affective support and make the input more comprehensible.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2020 05:53:29 +000
  • Investigating Metacognitive Think-Aloud Strategy in Improving Saudi EFL
           Learners' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes

    • Abstract: The current study's objective examines the effectiveness of using a Think-Aloud strategy in improving Saudi EFL learners' reading comprehension and attitudes towards learning. A quantitative study with a quasi-experimental design was implemented through applying two different instruments: Reading Comprehension Skills Test and Attitude Scale towards learning EFL. The study adopts a pre-post control group design where forty students were randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental group. Students of the experimental group were instructed by using metacognitive Think-Aloud strategy, whereas, the control group received traditional treatment such as skimming and scanning techniques. The findings of the study showed that the attitudes and reading comprehension skills of the experimental group improved significantly as opposed to the control group. The study gives more insight into the importance of applying a Think-Aloud strategy in teaching reading comprehension inside EFL educational context. The study also suggests recommendations for EFL teachers to increase the efficiency of applying this strategy through their teaching procedures.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2020 02:47:07 +000
  • Impact of Virtual Teaching on ESL Learners' Attitudes under Covid-19
           Circumstances at Post Graduate Level in Pakistan

    • Abstract: Covid-19 proved a pandemic that has affected the whole world on a large scale. Every walk of life got disturbed by this pandemic. Educational institutions not only in Pakistan but all over the globe remain close, which causes a loss of study for the students of all Grades, notably Higher education (Postgraduate Level), which directly affected education, learners,  and teachers in terms of learning, time, and economically. Virtual Teaching (VT) is proving an emerging method of teaching in the field of education all over the world. Developed countries have opted for this method of teaching much before. In Pakistan, universities under the directions of HEC started Virtual Teaching VT (Online Teaching) for the students, which was an attempt to cover the loss on an experimental basis. This study is conducted to know the impact of VT on ESL students' behavior. For this purpose among 100 students of KFUEIT, RYK University distributed a questionnaire to measure their behavior level. Students' participation was inspiriting, and their response found positive in this new field of Teaching.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Aug 2020 05:03:38 +000
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