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Asian Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cancer and Clinical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Computer and Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
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English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global J. of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Intl. Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Intl. J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Marketing Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Psychological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Statistics and Probability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. Law Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Education and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Educational and Developmental Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Geography and Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
J. of Management and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Materials Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Mathematics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Plant Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Politics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Network and Communication Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Public Administration Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Review of European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Global Journal of Health Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.416
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1916-9736 - ISSN (Online) 1916-9744
Published by CCSE Homepage  [43 journals]
  • Drug-Using Female Sex Workers and HIV Risk: A Systematic Review of the
           Global Literature

    • Authors: Yeon Jung Yu, Xiaoming Li
      First page: 1
      Abstract: This review examines the global literature concerning HIV risk among drug-using female sex workers (DU-FSWs). In the context of HIV prevention, the possible synergetic effects of sexual risk and drug-related risk merit a systematic review to get a better understanding of such effects among this highly vulnerable population. In particular, we look at research on the association between drug use and HIV risk among female sex workers (FSWs) in terms of multiple indicators such as HIV infection, needle sharing, and unprotected sex.The current review, through synthesizing the findings from 41 studies conducted in multiple nations, reveals a complex picture of HIV risk for DU-FSWs across diverse societies. Research findings are mixed but tend to show that drug-related and sex-related risk behaviors accelerated the risk of HIV/STI among DU-FSWs, underscoring considerable vulnerabilities. However, findings about the level of the association and significance, as well as the mechanisms of HIV transmission, are inconsistent among various empirical studies. The variations in findings may be attributed to the specificities of diverse social contexts, various characteristics of the study samples, and different measurements in different studies. The mixed findings point to the need for more empirical studies targeting DU-FSWs to understand how drug use and sexual risk interactively affect this population differently in different social contexts. Future research should focus on multiple-level risk/preventive factors, assess the overlap between drug-using networks and sexual networks, and identify the synergetic dynamics between drug use and sex work. Development of conceptual frameworks and methodological innovations are also needed.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Intervention Programs for Developing Play Skills in Children With Autistic
           Spectrum Disorder to Foster Interaction

    • Authors: Faris Algahtani
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Autistic spectrum disorder has gained attention in terms of developing therapies and support to enhance the developmental and social attributes of children. The aim of this study is to assess the favourable influence of play therapies among autistic children. An observational analysis has been conducted in a local rehabilitation centre. A class of 250 autistic children, aged between 4 to 5 years, was evaluated. Pre and post analysis for common indications of autism were made with regard to the play therapy. The symptoms, concerning behavioural aspects, were recorded on a simple checklist. The study did not provide any concrete relevancy of being effective for play therapy among the autistic children. The study showed that interventions based on play skills are recognized as imperative approach to develop social associations among children. The developmental approaches of autistic children differ from normal children, as they require different facilities and special attention.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Stress and Coping Strategies Among Nursing Students

    • Authors: Emad Adel Shdaifat, Aysar Jamama, Mohammed AlAmer
      First page: 33
      Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Nursing students suffer from high levels of stress related to academic assignments in addition to clinical skills training. As a psychosocial phenomenon, stress affects students’ academic achievement and wellbeing. Coping mechanisms help students deal with the challenges arising from stress.AIMS: To illustrate the level of stress and common stressors among nursing students; to describe the difference in stress level related to demographic data; and to identify coping mechanisms used by nursing students.METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the type of stress and coping strategies among nursing students. The level of stress was evaluated through Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and type of coping strategies were assessed by use of Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI).RESULTS: Students perceived moderate level of stress, most commonly attributed to assignments and workload, teachers and nursing staff, peers and daily life, and taking care of patients. The most frequently used coping mechanism was problem solving. The study found that age, GPA, education level and residence are good predictors of the use of transference as a coping behaviour.CONCLUSION: A moderate level of stress among students illustrates the need for stress management programs and the provision of suitable support.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Perception About Oral Health and Its Determinants in Women in Context of

    • Authors: Alejandro Vásquez- Hernández, Carolina Zapata- Villa, Andrés Alonso Agudelo-Suárez
      First page: 42
      Abstract: BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Women in context of prostitution (commonly called sex workers) are considered a vulnerable group due to their precarious employment, abuse and exploitation. This study aimed to understand the knowledge, practices and social representations about the oral health component for the health-disease process and its determinants in this group.METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted by means of 12 semi-structured interviews in women ≥ 18 years of age who are dedicated to the act of prostitution. In addition, three interviews were conducted with leaders of projects and/or social organizations within Medellin who work alongside sex workers. The information was analyzed using the Atlas.Ti 6.0 software by identifying meaning codes and grouping in emergent categories.RESULTS: The analysis of the interviews allowed to establish categories related to oral health and quality of life, social determinants and accessibility to health care. The concept of oral health is related to their self-perception of hygiene and the aesthetic appearance. They relate the concept of quality of life to meet basic needs such as food, housing, health, education, and have a decent job. The economic, political and social context in which they are located affects the quality of life. They identify barriers to access to oral health services, although much of these women recognize their lack of compromise when they need to seek health care.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health and its determinants as perceived by the people interviewed is a true reflection about the situation of social vulnerability of the women in context of prostitution.
      PubDate: 2018-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Ability of School Teachers to Manage Asthmatic Attacks Among School Going
           Children in Jordan

    • Authors: Mariam M. Kawafha
      First page: 55
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Chronic asthma has been characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing and breathing. However, the frequency and severity of the disease vary from one person to another. PURPOSE: The study aims to assess the ability of school teachers for providing appropriate mediation for the students, who suffer asthmatic attack at school.DESIGN: The study has incorporated descriptive cross sectional quantitative research design to investigate the capability of school teachers in managing asthmatic attack among children. METHODS: Teachers from primary schools have been recruited by using cluster random sample, and a structured questionnaire has been used for data collection. The data acquired from the questionnaire was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.RESULTS: The results showed that the teachers lack awareness about asthma and unable to manage students with asthma. None of the teachers had received educational conference or workshop about asthma.CONCLUSION: The study has concluded that the level of knowledge of school teachers regarding asthma is limited and not satisfactory; and teachers are also unable to take care for students with asthma.
      PubDate: 2018-04-04
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Pain Assessment in People With Dementia: Remaining Controversies

    • Authors: Mohammad Rababa
      First page: 62
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Pain in people with dementia is under recognized, underestimated, and under-treated due to the complexity of pain assessment in this population.SUMMARY: Self-report tools are the gold standard of pain assessment. However, people with dementia are not always able to clearly and meaningfully self-report their pain. Self-report tools capture the affective experience of pain, which is impaired in people with dementia. Observational pain tools are more useful to assess pain especially in people with advanced dementia who are unable to self-report. Observational pain tools capture the physical component of pain experience, which is unchanged in people with dementia. However, nurses often misunderstand the behavioral changes associated with pain in people with dementia. Also, there is a huge inconsistency in presentation of these behavioral changes associated with pain among people with dementia as behaviors can be due to multiple different unmet needs, pain being one.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Program for Promoting the Employment of Schizophrenic Patients in Japan

    • Authors: Hatsumi Yoshii, Nobutaka Kitamura
      First page: 70
      Abstract: In Japan, a large proportion of schizophrenic patients cannot find work. Accordingly, it is necessary to promote positive attitudes among employers about hiring such patients. However, few programs in Japan educate employers about schizophrenia and there is little evaluation of such programs. Our study participants were 1,175 executives in private enterprises who registered with an Internet questionnaire survey company. The participants in the intervention group viewed an educational video developed to increase understanding about schizophrenia. This longitudinal study examined how employers’ attitudes about hiring schizophrenic patients changed before and after watching the video. The number of respondents from both the intervention and non-intervention groups who responded that they did not understand how to employ and manage schizophrenics and so would not hire them showed a significant increase at 1 week after baseline (p = 0.001); however, there was a significant increase at 3 years after baseline only in the non-intervention group (p = 0.019). Only in the non-intervention group did Social Distance Scale-Japanese version scores show a significant decrease at 1 week after baseline (p = 0.011); they increased significantly from 1 week after to 3 years after baseline (p = 0.001). Our educational intervention aimed to promote employers’ willingness to employ schizophrenic patients. However, to reduce stigma and increase such willingness, our program could be improved.
      PubDate: 2018-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Effect of Special Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention on Commitment to
           Exercise and Mental Health

    • Authors: Ahmad Derakhshanpour, Mohammad VaezMousavi, Hamid Reza Taheri
      First page: 78
      Abstract: BACKGROUND: Although most people are aware of the advantages of physical exercise, they have failed to commit to it. This forms justification for this intervention.OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of special cognitive-behavioral intervention on commitment to exercise and mental health in adults was investigated by controlling the role of the commitment-to-exercise variable.METHODS: The statistical population for this study comprised 635 employees with over 10 years’ professional experience: 235 were selected from amongst these. Thereafter, 80 employees were randomly assigned to two groups—experimental and control—of 40 each. The experimental group was trained for four months in fourteen sessions for using cognitive-behavioral therapy. To collect data, a commitment-to-exercise and mental health questionnaire was used.RESULTS: When the effect of the pretest variable on the dependent variable was adjusted, it was observed that there is a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the means of the scores for commitment and mental health. The covariance test revealed that the difference in the mental health of the experimental and control groups after controlling the effects of commitment to exercise was not significant (p < 0.05).CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that commitment to exercises can be improved in individuals by using the aforementioned cognitive-behavioral protocol. Furthermore, using the mediating role of commitment to exercise improves mental health. Therefore, counselors and therapists can use the cognitive-behavioral intervention protocol to improve the commitment to exercise and the mental health of individuals.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Separating Prescription From Dispensation Medicines: Economic Effect
           Estimation in Japan

    • Authors: Masayuki Yokoi, Takao Tashiro
      First page: 88
      Abstract: This study examined the effects of the separation between dispensing and prescribing medicines by pharmacists in pharmacies and doctors in medical institutions, respectively (separation system). The methodology avails public national data. The participation of Japanese medical institutions to the separation system was optional according to the legal system. Consequently, its spreading rate for each administrative district is highly variable, allowing us to study its correlation with various medication costs and other factors, such as the generic medicine replacement ratio, proportion of elderly, and number of doctors per 100 000 individuals as independent variables. These four factors are known to be influential in medical compensation. We used regression analysis by the weighted least square method, with dependent variables being costs of daily medicines, specifically, total, internal, one-shot, external, and injection medicines; medical devices, brand-name medicines, generic medicines, and number of prescribed medicines; as well as technical fees. The analysis focused on whether the extent of the separation system reduces costs such as those for medicines, medical devices, technical fees, or number of prescribed medicines. The partial regression coefficient of the spreading rate of the separation system was found to have negative relationships with all daily costs and number of prescribed medicines, as well as the technical fee, except for external medicines, for which most of the market is represented by light analgesics (taken by patients as needed). The necessity of separating prescribing and dispensing is thus low because of the low information asymmetry between doctors and patients. The results revealed that promoting the separation system reduced medication costs, because it normalized the medication market for daily necessities by compensating information asymmetry. Furthermore, the separation system reduced excesses in prescribing medicines.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Disagreement Between Self-Reporting and Objective Diagnosis in Chronic
           Diseases Among Omanis 2008

    • Authors: Hilal Al Shamsi, Abdullah Almutairi
      First page: 97
      Abstract: Background: Health specialists and researchers usually collect information about chronic diseases from self-reports. However, the accuracy of self-reports has been questioned as it relies on the respondents’ understanding of pathological conditions and their ability to recall information. Accordingly, an objective diagnosis is generally regarded as a more precise indication of the presence of disease.Objective: The study objectives were to determine the extent of disagreement between self-reporting and objective diagnosis, identify contributory factors to the discrepancy, and examine the effects of the incongruity on quality of healthcare services and health status.Methods: Secondary data from the most recent Oman World Health Survey (OWHS), for which data were readily available (2008), were analysed in the current study. This was the most recent survey conducted in Oman to date as collection of the data for the subsequent survey only commenced in February 2017 and is still in progress. Agreement between the self-reporting of chronic disease (diabetes mellitus and hypertension) and the results of medical examinations was calculated using kappa (ϰ) statistics. Sociodemographic risk factors for the self-reported and objective measurement of disease were identified (second objective). Univariate analysis was measured initially to determine associations between the variables and the outcome. Thereafter, significant variables were included in multivariate analysis performed using logistic regression. The impact of disagreement on quality of healthcare service and health status (third objective) was also examined using the chi-square test in relation to health service quality and health status variables.Results: Of 3524 Oman adults, aged ≥ 20 years (48% males), agreement between the self-reported and objective measurement of chronic disease was found to be poor to moderate (ϰ = 0.001-0.141). The highest agreement was observed for diabetes mellitus (ϰ = 0.402) and the lowest was found for asthma (ϰ = 0.000). Socioeconomic or demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with the degree of agreement attained between the methods used to measure chronic disease (p = > 0.050), except for sex, age and region. The discrepancy did not significantly impact on familial support (i.e., financial, social, health, physical and personal), the responsiveness of the health system, and household income or expenditure. However, the disagreement was associated with significant effects for other healthcare service and health status variables, i.e., quality of life and health service utilisation (p = < 0.050). It was found that people with the chronic disease and aware of their health status (positive agreement), and those with negative objective measure but positive self-reported disease (negative disagreement), were more likely to access healthcare services (83% of who had a positive agreement for chronic lung disease) and to be satisfied with the quality of care provided (82% of who had a negative disagreement for hypertension), compared to those who assumed they were healthy but had a chronic disease.Conclusions and Recommendations: Although agreement between the self-reported and objective measurement of chronic disease was found to be poor to moderate, we found that some socioeconomic demographic characteristics, such as educational and economic level, did not affect the agreement of measure tools for hypertension and diabetes, except for sex, age and region. Contrary to our expectations, disagreement between objective and self-reported measures in chronic diseases appears not to significantly impact on the quality of healthcare services and health status. The high use of health care services in participants with positive disagreement may result in unnecessary healthcare service costs required to treat chronic diseases. The implications on health services use and planning of this disagreement in the diagnosis of chronic diseases have been scarcely addressed in the literature, therefore, the results from our study need to be taken as a first approximation to this issue. Provided the unexpected results, we recommend examining closely the integrity of the dataset before giving full value about the validity of them.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
  • Zika Virus Knowledge: A Study of Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal
           Clinic at a Local Health Center in Trinidad and Tobago

    • Authors: Philip Onuoha, Natasha Charles, Oscar Ocho
      First page: 117
      Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIM: The ZIKV is a major public health concern and has the potential to cause a pandemic. Health knowledge is a critical factor in the prevention of the ZIKV. This study aims to ascertain the knowledge levels of the antenatal women attending the antenatal clinic at the Sangre Grande Health Center Trinidad, regarding the ZIKV and its implications as well as to determine the socio-demographic factors that influence their knowledge.MATERIAL & METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted. 69 pregnant women were randomly selected from registers of attendance at the clinic on days of data collection. The researchers-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was utilized for data collection. Using the SPSS version 20, results were presented as frequencies.RESULTS: Most of the participants (98.6%) were of the reproductive age, 18 to 40 years and mainly of mixed ethnicity. The majority of the population had secondary school education and mostly married or in common law relationships. Knowledge of the ZIKV was mostly adjudged moderate; the majority had low knowledge on the implications of the ZIKV. A weak positive correlation (p≤ 0.05) was noted between the educational levels of the participants and their knowledge of the ZIKV as well as between ages of the participants and their levels of knowledge of the implications of ZIKV (p≤ 0.050). CONCLUSION: The study showed that the pregnant women had moderate knowledge levels of Zika but not a corresponding knowledge on the implications of the conditions. Healthcare geared at increasing the knowledge level of ZIKV and its implications among the populace is recommended. The development of health education and health promotion programs that target disease prevention and control are principal components necessary for success against the ZIKV and its implications.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 10, No. 5 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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