Abstract: Since the Hubble-Lemaitre equation v = Hr (1)proposes the expansion velocity of the Space (International Astrophysical Union, 2018), the equation H2r2 has been assumed as the squared of velocity (Cassé, 2001). Therefore, it may be proposed, logically, the equation ΓH = H2r (2)to correspond to the Space acceleration expansion, which was demonstrated to be a constant in reference (Lartigue, 2016). On this assumption, the expression for the Hubble parameter results as (Lartigue, 2018a) H = √2/t (3).In this paper it is revised the concept of the Hubble potential to substitute the dark energy. The present values of some Space parameters are also obtained. In ref. (Lartigue, 2018b) they were discussed the two main theories about the origin of the Universe: the Big Bang and the Quantum Fluctuation, arriving to the conclusion that the Big Bang (creation ex-nihilo) was the most probable option; besides, they were mentioned two metaphysical conditions in the creation of human beings: transcendence and ethics. This paper reviews those conditions and proposes some metaphysical subjects related to probable steps in the creational task. PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 17:06:43 +000

Abstract: All the experiments supporting special relativity (SR) formulated with Einstein synchronization support as well SR with absolute synchronization, if the corresponding coordinate transformations foresee time dilation and length contraction. We first test absolute vs relative simultaneity with a non-relativistic model of the spin-orbit interaction by taking into account either the effect of the electron hidden momentum or the relativistic effect of the Thomas precession, based on non-conservation of simultaneity. As second test, we consider a thought experiment equivalent to the Sagnac effect, where a clock measures the time taken by a counter-propagating light signal to perform a round trip on a closed path. While these experiments are coherently described with absolute simultaneity, the result of our tests points out inconsistencies in the case of relative simultaneity, thus favoring the formulation of SR with absolute synchronization, while advocating that further research and tests on simultaneity are needed for the comprehension of relativistic theories. PubDate: Fri, 19 Jul 2019 18:01:06 +000

Abstract: One recalls that we have shown in our precedent publications that the ether is an elastic isotropic medium. One presents the exact equation and its non-relativistic approximation that govern the ether in presence of a Schwarzschild-Coulomb field to which is submitted a Par(m,e) (particle of mass m and of electric charge e ). We present the exact relativistic solution of this exact equation in the circular case. We prove that the Schrödinger equation is such a non-relativistic approximation, that is, is a particular case of the ether elasticity theory.One recalls that the Schrödinger equation was obtained by the use of operators and not from the theory of elasticity. It follows that this manner of obtaining this equation from operators is arbitrary and does not permit to obtain its complete relativistic form, but permits to reach absurd conclusions as, e.g., the cat that, at the same moment, is alive and dead. One shows then that other results ensuing from the Schrödinger equation are particular cases of the non-relativistic equation that governs the elastic ether, like for example: the Bohr-Sommerfeld condition, and the eigenstates function equation. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:54:35 +000

Abstract: In our approach we have combined knowledge of Old Masters (working in this field before the year 1905), New Masters (working in this field after the year 1905) and Dissidents under the guidance of Louis de Broglie and David Bohm. In our model the photon is represented as the Huygens-de Broglie’s particle on the helical path (full wave) guided by the Newton-Bohm entangled evolute (empty wave). We have formulated the concept of the Super-Elastic Photon WAVE based on the Great Works of Weber, Abbe, Voigt and Einstein. This model works with the longitudinal elasticity of that WAVE that was already very well tested experimentally. Newly, we propose to test the elastic amplitude of this WAVE for the case of the Doppler’s redshift, the Doppler’s blueshift, and the Zwicky’s redshift. We have newly used the concept of the Lorentz’ force for the description of the photon acting force and the fermion reacting force. In this model the Lorentz’ factors γ and γ3 do not describe the “transverse mass of fermions” and longitudinal mass of fermions” but the “reacting transverse force of fermions” and the “reacting longitudinal force of fermions”. (The mass of photons and fermions does not change with their speed). It is very well-known that the cylindrical helix observed from different angles forms shadows in the Plato’s Cave as circle, sine, cosine, trochoid, cochleoid, hyperbolic spiral. Therefore, the resulting shape depends on the observer position in the Plato’s Cave-this is the famous Rashomon effect between observers. Based on the Newton-Bohm helical evolute and the Huygens-de Broglie helical path of the particle we have derived interesting formula known as the quantum of the magnetic flux. When we work further with this concept based on the Mathematical Beauty developed by Dirac, Gell-Mann, Schwinger, Polchinski, Witten and many others, we will obtain possible properties of the magnetic monopole. This photon quantum of the magnetic flux can be experimentally evaluated in the known tests with superconductors and micro-WAVES and infrared-WAVES. Can it be that Nature cleverly works with the magnetic monopole hidden in plain sight' We want to pass this concept into the hands of Readers of this Journal better educated in the Mathematics and Physics. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:53:08 +000

Abstract: The essence of electric charge has been a mystery. So far, no theory has been able to derive the attributes of electric charge, which are: bivalency, stability, quantization, equality of the absolute values of the bivalent charges, the electric field it creates and the radii of the bivalent charges. Our model of the electric charge and its field (this paper) enables us (in additional papers), for the first time, to derive simple equations for the radii and masses of the electron/positron muon/anti-muon and quarks/anti-quarks. These equations contain only the constants G, c, ℏ and α (the fine structure constant). The calculated results based on these equations comply accurately with the experimental results. In this paper, which serves as a basis for the other papers, we define electric charge density, based on space density. This definition alone, without any phenomenology, yields the theory of Electrostatics. Electrostatics together with Lorentz Transformation is known to yield the entire Maxwell Electromagnetic theory. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:51:26 +000

Abstract: With recent detection of black hole mergers by LIGO, the 'Black Holes' and 'Neutron Stars' have become common house-hold names, albeit fanciful names in public domain. However, for the scientific community black holes are the ultimate paradoxes of nature. The claimed observations of black hole mergers are in fact interpretations of certain observations under the spacetime model of Relativity. These interpretations can change significantly with the change in operating model of the phenomenon. A black hole is believed to be a ‘region of spacetime’ exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing, not even light can escape from it. We demonstrate in this paper that this conviction is based on erroneous derivation for the gravitational redshift and the correct derivation shows that a photon cannot be prevented from escaping a gravitating body of any mass and size. Due to erroneous depiction of spacetime as a physical entity in GR, a mathematical singularity predicted by Schwarzschild metric solution of EFE has been projected as a physical possibility in the form of Black Holes. To strengthen the physical basis of Black Hole creation, the observations of Super Nova explosions are being interpreted under core collapse models. The core collapse models are now regarded as the physical foundation of Black Holes and Neutron stars. In this paper we have established the invalidity of current core collapse models on the grounds of treating electrons, ions and nuclei as non-interacting particles and using kinetic theory of gases for analyzing compressive stresses in solid iron core. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:49:50 +000

Abstract: Spin-on dopant technique has been investigated in the paper. The boron and phosphorus were used as p- and n-type dopant sources and were deposited on silicon substrates, followed by the baking process to evaporate the solvents from spin-on dopant layers. The standard drive-in process was applied to diffuse and activate the dopants. The curing temperature varied from 150 to 200 oC to investigate the temperature effect on dopant activation. It is suggested that for our selected spin-on dopant sources, the curing temperature and time of 175 oC and 60 minutes would lead to the best result of dopant activation during drive-in process, evidenced by the lowest sheet resistance, which was measured using four-point probe measurement method. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:48:30 +000

Abstract: We have measured variations in the times of flight of 25fsec laser pulses, along a given distance from A to B, in different directions in space. Flights from A to B are termed one-way versus two-way - from A to B and back to A. The isotropy obtained, despite the motion of Earth in global space, supports the possibility that the local space of Earth, and probably that of other stars, is confined - captured inside the sphere of the star. To maintain space continuity, despite this confinement, space must necessarily be an elastic fluid, as Einstein, for a different reason, concluded in 1939.In addition, we wonder if this confinement of a local space in a star or galaxy explains its non-participation in the Hubble expansion of space.Our experiment used an auto-correlation technique that dispels the need for clocks, which in one-way measurements require a problematic synchronization scheme. PubDate: Mon, 15 Jul 2019 09:46:06 +000

Abstract: We present a rigorous theory for oblique incident Hermite-Gaussian beams, diffracted by two optical nano-slits of width l and separation d, in a thick metallic screen for the case of polarization TM (P). The far field spectra as a function of several opto-geometrical parameters, wavelength λ , slit width l, separation d , incidence angle θi and Hermite order m is analyzed. In the vectorial diffraction region given when λ /l >0.2, where l is the incident wavelength and as a function of the separation between slits d; we have numerically analyzed: the far field spectra, the energy diffracted along the incident beam direction Ei , and the validity of an approximate diffraction (scalar) property, namely Ei= Ntao/lambda .