Authors:Eyal Brodet First page: 1 Abstract: In this paper we will develop further the absolute position of a particle defined in (1), (2) which involves the particle's decay time or when relevant internal time and the particle's velocity with respect to the expanding universe. We will refine the previous definition to give two separate absolute position definitions, one termed the absolute position at rest and the other termed the absolute position which includes also a contribution of the particle's velocity with respect to the velocity of the expanding universe. Next we will discuss how we may define the particle's absolute energy from the particle's absolute position definition. We will show, how the absolute energy definition may help us to identify a dependence between the particle's decay time, as measured in its rest frame, and its velocity with respect to the expanding universe. Consequently, we will relate the above to the particle's mean lifetime and discuss the affect and relationship of the running coupling constant and the possible mean lifetime dependence on velocity. Finally, experimental ways by which one may investigate and test the above are presented. PubDate: 2018-07-12 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p1 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Bright Kwakye-Awuah, Ralph Kwakye, Baah Sefa-Ntiri, Isaac Nkrumah, Elizabeth Von-Kiti, Craig Williams First page: 11 Abstract: Zeolite types LTZ and LSX were synthesized from bauxite and kaolin in Ghana and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and Fouries transformed infrared spectroscopy. The zeolites were then applied to used lubricant oil and parameters lubricant engine oil were measured and compared to those of fresh ones. Parameters such as flashpoint, viscosity index, pour point, sulfur content, heavy metals, specific gravity, refractive index and carbon residue were analyzed. The results obtained showed that zeolite types A and X successfully removed heavy metals, particularly lead, copper and iron that were in the spent oil. A removal efficiency of 23.40 % Fe, 96.76 % Zn, 19.05 % Cu and 12 % Cr were obtained for Zeolite A with a yield of 62 % whilst 32.81 % Fe, 39.00 %, Zn, 47.61 %, Cu and 24 % Cr were obtained for zeolite LSX with a yield of 67 %. The viscosity index of the virgin, zeolite LTA treated and zeolite LSX treated oils were 115, 121 and 115 respectively. These results showed that used engine oils recovered using glacial acetic acid and zeolites A and LSX can be reused. PubDate: 2018-07-12 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p11 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:David L. Selke First page: 24 Abstract: Loops that enforce a correct output and that restart with a changed parameter may emulate a brute force search, even against the design intent. A Python program is presented analogous to Shor's Algorithm but with random number generation replacing the math. It factors integers. Shor's Algorithm devices may operate similarly to the Python program, not in being random, but in being classical. PubDate: 2018-07-12 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p24 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Jiri Stavek First page: 26 Abstract: Johannes Kepler made his great breakthrough when he discovered the elliptical path of the planet Mars around the Sun located in one focus of that ellipse (on the 11th October in 1605 in a letter to Fabricius). The first generation of researchers in the 17th century intensively discussed about the possible mechanism needed for the generation of that elliptical orbit and about the function of the empty focus of that ellipse. First generations of researchers proposed an interplay between attractive and repulsive forces that might guide the planet on its elliptical orbit. Isaac Newton made a giant mathematical progress in his Principia and introduced the concept of the attractive gravitational force between the Sun and planets. However, Newton did not propose a possible mechanism behind this attractive force. Albert Einstein in 1915 left the concept of attractive and repulsive forces and introduced his Theory based on the elastic spacetime. In his concept gravity itself became fictitious force and the attraction is explained via the elastic spacetime. In our proposed model we try to re-open the discussion of Old Masters on the existence of attractive and repulsive forces. The guiding principle for our trigonometrical model is the generation of the ellipse discovered by one of the last ancient Greek mathematicians – Anthemius of Tralles – who generated the ellipse by the so-called gardener’s method (one string and two pins fixed to the foci of that ellipse). Frans van Schooten in 1657 invented a series of original simple mechanisms for generating ellipses, hyperbolas, and parabolas. Schooten’s antiparallelogram might simulate the interplay of attractive and repulsive forces creating the elliptical path. We propose a model with trigonometrically organized Solar and planet gravitons. In this model the Solar and planet gravitons are reflected and refracted in predetermined directions so that their joint momentum transferred on the planet atoms guides the planet on an elliptical path around the Sun. At this stage we cannot directly measure the gravitons but we can use the analogy with behavior of photons. We propose to observe paths of photons emitted from one focus of the ellipse towards the QUARTER-silvered elliptical mirror. 1/4 of photons will be reflected towards to the second empty focus and the ¾ of photons might be reflected and refracted into the trigonometrically expected directions. (Until now we have experimental data only for the FULLY–silvered elliptical mirrors). The observed behavior of photons with the quarter-silvered elliptic mirror might support this concept or to exclude this model as a wrong model. The quantitative values of attractive and repulsive forces could be found from the well-known geometrical properties of the ellipse. The characteristic lengths of distances will be inserted into the great formula of Isaac Newton - the inverse square law. (In order to explain some orbit anomalies, we can use Paul Gerber’s formula derived for the Pierre Fermat principle). We have found that the Kant’s ellipse rotating on the Keppler’s ellipse might express the co-operation of attractive and repulsive forces to guide the planet on its elliptic path. Finally, we have derived a new formula inspired by Bradwardine - Newton - Tan - Milgrom that might contribute to the MOND gravitational model. We have found that the Kepler ellipse is the very elegant curve that might still keep some hidden secrets waiting for our future research. PubDate: 2018-07-12 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p26 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Koshun Suto First page: 38 Abstract: In the thought experiment in this paper, we consider inertial frames M and A moving at constant velocity relative to each other. First, a light signal is emitted from inertial frame M toward inertial frame A when the time on a clock in inertial frame M is 1 (s). In the scenario of this paper, that light arrives at inertial frame A when time on the clock in A is 2 (s). Next, the situation is reversed, and a light signal is emitted from inertial frame A toward inertial frame M when the time in inertial frame A is 1 (s). That light arrives at inertial frame M when the time in M is 2 (s). According to the special theory of relativity (STR), the two inertial frames are equivalent, and thus it is not surprising that symmetric experiment results are obtained. However, it has already been pointed out that, among the coordinate systems regarded by Einstein as inertial frames, there are “classically stationary frames” where light propagates isotropically, and “classically moving frames” where light propagates anisotropically. If a classically stationary frame is incorporated into a thought experiment, it becomes easier to predict the experiment results. This paper elucidates a system whereby symmetrical experiment results can be obtained, even if the two coordinate systems are not equivalent. If one attempts to explain such experiment results from the standpoint of the STR, it ironically requires the use of logic that is unacceptable under the STR. Thus, this paper explains those experiment results by using logic different from the STR, and demonstrates the breakdown in the STR. PubDate: 2018-07-13 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p38 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Ola A. Jarabah First page: 50 Abstract: The Euler Lagrange equation is studied to obtain the equations of motion for conservative systems with second order Lagrangian. The solutions of these equations are substituted in the given Lagrangian. The action function is then derived by calculating the time integral of the Lagrangian. To explain the application of our formalism two examples are discussed. PubDate: 2018-07-13 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p50 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Chuki Sangalugeme, Philbert Luhunga, Agness Kijazi, Hamza Kabelwa First page: 55 Abstract: The WAVEWATCH III model is a third generation wave model and is commonly used for wave forecasting over different oceans. In this study, the performance of WAVEWATCH III to simulate Ocean wave characteristics (wavelengths, and wave heights (amplitudes)) over the western Indian Ocean in the Coast of East African countries was validated against satellite observation data. Simulated significant wave heights (SWH) and wavelengths over the South West Indian Ocean domain during the month of June 2014 was compared with satellite observation. Statistical measures of model performance that includes bias, Mean Error (ME), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Standard Deviation of error (SDE) and Correlation Coefficient (r) are used. It is found that in June 2014, when the WAVEWATCH III model was forced by wind data from the Global Forecasting System (GFS), simulated the wave heights over the Coast of East African countries with biases, Mean Error (ME), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (r) and Standard Deviation of error (SDE) in the range of -0.25 to -0.39 m, 0.71 to 3.38 m, 0.84 to 1.84 m, 0.55 to 0.76 and 0.38 to 0.44 respectively. While, when the model was forced by wind data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Foresting (ECMWF) simulated wave height with biases, Mean Error (ME), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (r) and Standard Deviation of error (SDE) in the range of -0.034 to 0.008 m, 0.0006 to 0.049 m, 0.026 to 0.22 m, 0.76 to 0.89 and 0.31 to 0.41 respectively. This implies that the WAVEWATCH III model performs better in simulating wave characteristics over the South West of Indian Ocean when forced by the boundary condition from ECMWF than from GFS. PubDate: 2018-07-13 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p55 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)

Authors:Ogaba Philip Obande First page: 66 Abstract: A new perspective of the black hole BH is introduced. Based on the assumption that space and matter are fundamentally fields and governed by same deterministic quantum laws, the field dynamics is analyzed with classical (Newtonian) mechanics to argue that: i) the BH is not a singularity but Hawking’s ‘apparent horizon’; ii) the Schwarzschild BH does not exist; iii) the naked ‘singularity’ NS might not be ruled out in observational atomic and molecular emissions; iv) the Kerr-Newman black hole KBH functions to modulate and transform frequency of matter waves and re-orient same across the three particle-generations universes in perpetual energy re-cycles, no new creation but endless energy re-cycling; vi) the BH process is not thermodynamics but electrodynamics; vii) accretion is not random, it is motivated by a universal ‘aging’ process in which matter progresses from one symmetry group to another; viii) spatial alignment arises from universal diagonal orientation of constituent elements of intrinsic cubic geometry of nature’s periodic envelopes; ix) all spatial periodic envelopes are binaries, the causality is illustrated in some detail. It is suggested that a frequency modulator/transformer circuitry might be a better model for simulating the BH than thermodynamics. PubDate: 2018-07-16 DOI: 10.5539/apr.v10n4p66 Issue No:Vol. 10, No. 4 (2018)