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Publisher: CCSE   (Total: 41 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 41 of 41 Journals sorted alphabetically
Applied Physics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Culture and History     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asian Social Science     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Cancer and Clinical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computer and Information Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Earth Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Energy and Environment Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Engineering Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
English Language and Literature Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
English Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Environment and Natural Resources Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Environment and Pollution     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Global J. of Health Science     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Higher Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 59)
Intl. Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. Education Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of English Linguistics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Marketing Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Intl. J. of Psychological Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Statistics and Probability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Agricultural Science     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Education and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Educational and Developmental Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
J. of Food Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Geography and Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
J. of Management and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Materials Science Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Mathematics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Plant Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Politics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Modern Applied Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Network and Communication Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Review of European Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Sustainable Agriculture Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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International Journal of Chemistry
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1916-9698 - ISSN (Online) 1916-9701
Published by CCSE Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Degradation of Ethylene Diaminetetra Acetic Acid With Ferrous Ions Using
           Fenton’s Reagent in Absence of Light

    • Abstract: Accumulation of deposit corrosion products inside secondary side of steam generator can lead to serious issue for pressurized water reactor in operation.One way to avoid accumulation of these deposits is to perform chemical cleaning which removes certain amount of deposits but this kind of operation generates high amount of liquid waste which contains process chemicals and metal ions in complex state. Oxidation of complexes will render radioactive ions in free state enabling us for further treatment to innocuous level and condition. In waste treatment there are various treatment technologies (advance oxidation process, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, electrochemical oxidation, supercritical water oxidation, electro flocculation etc to remove the accumulated deposit.).In decontamination process removal of the deposits was carried out using EDTA. which complexes the metal ions but it generates secondary waste with EDTA. We have made an attempt to degrade ethylene diaminetetra acetic acid (with ferrousions) using Fenton’s reagent in absence of light. This will free the radioactive ion for further treatment. We have studied different volume of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and different concentration of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). Study was also done to find the effect of pH and temp on the degradation of EDTA. In the range of concentration of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid 400ppm to 22500 ppm % degradation was found to change from 57 to 98% in 180 min. The pH was found to change from 4.0 to 8.2. The temperature was found to change from 298K to 328K. The rate constant of the degradation reaction was found to be in the range 10-4 to 10-3 in temperature range 298K to 328K. Activation energy for degradation reaction was found to be 33-88 KJ/mol.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Aug 2019 10:16:05 +000
       
  • Nutritive Values of the Leaves of Crescentia Cujete (Ugbuba)

    • Abstract: Mineral and proximate analysis of Crescentia Cujete (Ugbugba) leaves were examined using the methods recommended by Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC). The leaves contained 51.00+1.05% moisture, 2.30+0.2% ash, crude protein 51.00+0.43%, crude lipid 1.90+0.08%, crude fibre 4.00+0.12%, carbohydrates 40.40+0.02%. The minerals ranges from mg/g dry weight K(30.02 + 0.03), Na (12.10+0.32), Ca (60.00+0.01). Mg (361.42+0.01), P(14.19 +0.42), Mn (6.32 + 1.01), Fe (2.43+0.01), Cu (13.04+0.10), Zn (1.20+0.43), Na/K (0.40) and Ca/P (2.14), K, Mg, Ca and Fe were found in significant concentrations. The findings showed that Crescentia Cujete leaves are source of nutrients for edible purpose, a good Na/K ratio for lowering blood pressure.
      PubDate: Fri, 02 Aug 2019 02:18:47 +000
       
  • Hydrolysis Kinetics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch in Ionic Liquids and
           Cellulase Integrated System

    • Abstract: Ionic liquids (ILs) are developing as potential solvents in lignocellulose solvation, which enables cellulase accessibility into the substrate. Nevertheless, ILs could result in enzyme deactivation because of the high polarity. Therefore, developing a system of ILs-compatible cellulase (IL-E) to promote lignocellulose conversion into sugars is a challenge in ILs applications. This study used an IL-E to attain high conversion yield of sugars from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB). Cellulase (Tr-Cel) from Trichoderma reesei was stable in the ILs, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium diethyl phosphate [EMIM]DEP and choline acetate [Cho]OAc. The inhibition and deactivation of cellulase were evaluated using the model substrate, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and EFB as a lignocellulosic material to assess the hydrolytic activity. The enzyme kinetics revealed that [Cho]OAc acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor. Additionally, [EMIM]DEP may not be considered as an inhibitor as it increases the Vmax and does not significantly affect the KM. In both cases, the study proved that IL did not result in a severe loss of cellulase activity, which is a promising outcome for one-pot hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials.
      PubDate: Fri, 26 Jul 2019 07:58:26 +000
       
  • Contamination Control in a Portable-Materials With Photochemical Process

    • Abstract: Contamination control area refers to the control / eliminated of the activities of microorganisms present in the materials or process. This technique to eliminated is major importance in this study are those that cause food spoilage and are infectious. The principal areas of interest in this study are health, aerospace and food industry because the materials utilized in the process charging the contamination; thus, to control these microorganisms, moist heat and chemicals are used. However, technological development has led to a problem with some portable-materials, as these techniques are not suitable in specific cases in which there may be material damage and health safety problems. To address these problems, the present research identified a new constructive experimental device that has a triple deck (UV, Ozone, and UV-Ozone). This configuration can sterilize material with photochemical process cannot be damaged. After this protocol was generated, flat plate materials were contaminated with E. coli and 3 different configuration protocols were applied. The results show a microbial reduction of approximately 99.999% after an exposure of 30 – 40 min with ozone/UV, 30 min with UV-only, and 20 min with ozone. This device has the ability to sterilize the materials.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 08:28:52 +000
       
  • Physico-Chemical Characterization of Local Tannery Waste Water Before and
           After Flocculation Treatment

    • Abstract: This paper presents the variation in physico-chemical properties of a local Maroua tannery effluent before and after a flocculation treatment. Tanning is a process that consists of the transformation of the animal skin into leather by using different baths which contain many chemical reagents and produces high quantity of liquid and solid waste. The used water of traditional tannery of Maroua is directly thrown in nature without any pre-treatment posing a potential risk to the environment and human health. Physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH and conductivity, Total suspended solids, Total hardness, chlorides, sulfides, nitrates,COD, BOD5 , ammonium ion, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, colour and odour were determined before and after aluminum sulfate powder flocculation treatment for effluents collected from soaking, liming, deliming and vegetable tanning stages of the tannery process. The results obtained showed that most of the physico-chemical parameters are higher than the international standard. The results obtained made it possible to classify these four effluents in order of toxicity as follows: Liming water > vegetable tanning water > deliming water > soaking water. The treatment of these waste waters by flocculation reduces the concentrations of certain pollutant loads such as TSS, turbidity, hardness, COD, BOD5, sulfate; but remains less effective on others such as nitrate, chloride and ammonium ion (8%). There is also a decrease in pH, an increase in dissolved oxygen and conductivity. The flocculation treatment thus considerably reduced the toxicity of these effluents, especially its organic load.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jul 2019 03:21:52 +000
       
  • Activated Bentonite: Low Cost Adsorbent to Reduce Phosphor in Waste Palm
           Oil

    • Abstract: The Palm Oil Factory produces wastewater containing high enough Phosphor (P). High levels of Phosphor can cause pollution load for the environment, so it needs to be lowered. The decrease of this content can be done by adsorption process using bentonite as adsorbent. The purpose of this research is to determine the absorption of activated bentonite to the absorption of Phosphor contained in waste water. Phosphor measurements were performed using the UV-vis Spectrophotometric Instrument. Bentonite was activated using HCl 1.6 M. Characterization of bentonite using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Divertive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results showed that bentonite was able to adsorb Phosphor contained in the waste water of Palm Oil Factory, with adsorption capacity> 90%. Activated Bentonite has greater power capability than natural bentonite.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jul 2019 03:46:52 +000
       
  • Synthesis and Styrene Copolymerization of New Halogen and Methoxy
           Ring-Trisubstituted Propyl Cyanophenylpropenoates

    • Abstract: New ring-trisubstituted propyl cyanophenylpropenoates, RPhCH=C(CN)CO2C3H7 (where R is 2-bromo-3-hydroxy-4-methoxy, 5-bromo-2,3-dimethoxy, 5-bromo-2,4-dimethoxy, 6-bromo-3,4-dimethoxy, 2-chloro-3,4-dimetoxy, 5-chloro-2,3-dimetoxy, 4-bromo-2,6-difluoro, 3-chloro-2,6-difluoro, 4-chloro-2,6-difluoro) were prepared by the piperidine catalyzed Knoevenagel condensation of ring-trisubstituted benzaldehydes and propyl cyanoacetate and characterized by CHN elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C-NMR. The propenoates formed copolymers with styrene in solution with radical initiation (ABCN) at 70°C. The copolymers were characterized by nitrogen elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C-NMR, DSC. Decomposition of the copolymers in nitrogen (TGA) occurred in two steps, first in the 200-500ºC range with residue (4.2 -8.1% wt.), which then decomposed in the 500-800ºC range.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Jun 2019 01:40:08 +000
       
  • Determination of Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in Muscle Cells as Potential Markers of
           Oxidative Stress by Laser Ablation and Solution Based ICP-MS

    • Abstract: Oxidative stress is imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant levels in living systems. Human cells are protected from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Most of these compounds require particular redox metals in their structures as cofactors to allow them to scavenge the free radicals, in particular Cu, Zn or Mn-with SOD and Fe with catalase. The aim of this study was to quantify these metals in human cells to evaluate their effectiveness as novel biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. The metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn) were measured in vitro in skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) which were incubated under hypoxia or hyperoxia conditions generated by varying oxygen levels from 1% - 60% for 24 and 48 hours. Two methods were used to perform the analyses. Solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to quantify Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn in cell populations, and laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS was employed to compare their relative levels in individual cells. The data acquired from both techniques were positively correlated confirming the validity of the two approaches. The results showed that the concentration of the measured elements increased dramatically in cells grown at 25% - 60% O2, the most significant increase being in Cu at 60% O2. None showed any increase at 5% - 15% O2, indicating normoxia states. At 1% O2, all elements, except Fe, showed a significant increase and the most remarkable growth was in Mn. Increasing the incubation time to 48 hours had differing effects on the elements. Zn and Cu concentrations were unaffected by increasing incubation time except at 60% O2 where they showed further growth. In contrast, Mn concentration grew sharply for oxygen levels of 30% - 50% with no further effect at 1%, while Fe concentration decreased at 1% O2 and grew steadily for oxygen levels of 5% - 60%. It can be concluded that all four elements were significantly affected by stress conditions applied to cells, but at different rates. Importantly, this paper describes a novel method for estimating oxidative stress in cells based on the determination of redox elements in single cells and cell populations using ICP-MS.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jun 2019 02:49:49 +000
       
  • Characterization of the Pyrolytic Products of Pine Nut Shells

    • Abstract: Have been determined the technical characteristics and elemental composition of shells. The elemental composition of the shell was determined by a microanalytical method such as 5Е С2000 model CNH-analyzer. The pyrolysis of shells investigated by using a standard quartz retort (tube) at different heating temperatures and determined the yields of pyrolysis products such as hard residue, tar, pyrolytic water, and gas. As a result of these experiments have been determined that 30% hard residue, higher yield 13% of tar, can be obtained at heating temperature 500oC. Thermogravimetric analysis of shells carried out in TG/DTA7200, Hitachi, Japan model equipment. The shells’ ash chemical composition was first time determined by the X-ray diffractions powder, that it consists of significantly higher 40% these chemical elements including manganese, nickel, little zinc, sulfur, aluminum, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, and calcium. The solubility of purified pyrolysis tar of shells in hexane, benzene and dichloromethane were investigated by using silicagel column and the chemical composition of each fraction determined by using of GC/MS chromatography system. The FTIR spectra of shell and pyrolysis tar determined by using of a Nicolet 20-PC spectrometer. The porosity structure of activated pyrolysis hard residue determined by the SEM analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jun 2019 06:02:16 +000
       
  • Substituent Effect on Oxidative Decomposition of Acylferrocenes

    • Abstract: Acylferrocenes are oxidized by iron(III) chloride in methanol and then immediately decomposed. In this study, the oxidative decomposition of some alkanoyl- and aroylferrocenes was performed and the substituent effect on the reaction rate was investigated. It was found that the reaction was governed by the accessibility of the oxidizing agent to the iron atom and the degree of electron-withdrawing effect of the carbonyl group towards the ferrocene nucleus.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 May 2019 05:53:09 +000
       
  • Effect of Sonication Pre-treatment of TiO2 Catalyst for Photo-Degradation
           of Acid Orange 7 Azo Dye

    • Abstract: In this study, Acid Orange 7 azo dye was degraded on TiO2 catalyst layer illuminated with ultra-violet light. The TiO2 suspension had prior been sonicated at 20 kHz before electrophoretic deposition on smooth stainless steel surfaces, with the aim of increasing the efficiency of azo dyes degradation. The effect of sonication on the TiO2 suspension of 10 g.L-1 and electrophoretic deposition loading to layers on surfaces was studied. Morphological properties of the electrophoretic layers from two different suspensions, Alpha and Sigma TiO2 were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy to establish the specific surface properties, particle loading and crystalline sizes. A four–position reactor was used for dye degradation experiments under Ultra Violet light at 355 nm wavelength. The degradation of the azo dye was monitored at 30minutes interval for a total of 2 hours using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometer at λ = 485 nm. It was found out that 60% of dye degradation was achieved after 120 minutes without sonication pretreatment. Sonication pre-treatment resulted in 71.42% increase on the rate of photo-degradation, at a loading of 0.32 mg/cm2. Particulate layers coated with Alpha TiO2 showed more photoactivity compared to Sigma TiO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy indicated that Alpha TiO2 had  50 m2/g surface area and  28 nm crystal size compared to Sigma TiO2 with 10 m2/g and 169 nm crystal size. This study shows that sonication pretreatment of Alpha TiO2 /UV light system is most effective in photo-degrading Acid Orange 7 dye.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 01:36:46 +000
       
  • Optimisation of Organic Solvent Mediated Solubilisation of Apple Pomace
           Polyphenolic Compounds Using Response Surface Methodologies

    • Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds extraction from industrial apple pomace was optimised by applying design of experiments (DoE) and surface response methodology using the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The degree solubilisation and the yield of total phenolic content from the apple pomace using organic solvents was shown to be influenced by process parameters including solvent type, solvent concentration, temperature, apple pomace to solvent ratio, and extraction time (residency time). Optimal conditions of extracting phenolic compounds were as follows: acetone concentration, 65 % (v/v); solid to solvent ratio 1 %; extraction time 30 minutes and temperature 60oC. Optimum condition for solubilisation was as follows: acetone concentration 78 % (v/v); solid to solvent ratio 4.7 %; extraction time 54 minutes and temperature 21oC. Under these conditions, the total phenolic content and solubilisation were 21.70 ± 0.2 mg GAE/g dw and 19.20 ± 0.1g/100g of the dried apple pomace respectively and largely agreed with those predicted by the Stat-Ease software. Independent variables for optimisation of total phenolic content and solubilisation were completely different. The reverse phase HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the major polyphenolic compounds were chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, caffeic acid, epicatechin, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside and phloridzin.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 May 2019 01:24:20 +000
       
 
 
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