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Publisher: Western Michigan University   (Total: 4 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 4 of 4 Journals sorted alphabetically
Open J. of Occupational Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Reading Horizons     Full-text available via subscription  
The Hilltop Review : A J. of Western Michigan University Graduate Student Research     Open Access  
Transference     Open Access  
Journal Cover Reading Horizons
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0034-0502
   Published by Western Michigan University Homepage  [4 journals]
  • Exploring Effective Professional Development Strategies for In-Service
           Teachers on Guiding Beginning Readers to Become More Metacognitive in
           Their Oral Reading
    • Authors: Sharon M. Pratt et al.
      Abstract: This case study explored professional development centered on explicit teaching strategies with in-service first-grade teachers as they engaged beginning readers to consider stronger self-awareness of their thinking processes as they read. In this paper, we report on how teacher beliefs shifted regarding the impact of explicit versus implicit instructional practices that increased their students’ metacognitive awareness and regulation. Teachers adopted specific instructional strategies over the course of the professional development that positively impacted their students’ achievement, including one teacher’s use of peer coaching. As teachers observed their students doing more than they thought they were capable of, their beliefs about beginning readers’ capabilities to selfmonitor their oral reading and explain their thinking processes increased, thus positively impacting the value they placed on the role of explicit metacognitive instruction in early literacy instruction. Our study demonstrated effective components of professional development include integrating reflective and collective reflection within a teacher-driven inquiry model.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 11:18:16 PDT
  • Written Language Performance Following Embedded Grammar Instruction
    • Authors: Ginger Collins et al.
      Abstract: This study explored whether presenting grammar instruction within the context of reading and writing would improve writing skills. The participating schools were using a traditional grammar instruction in which grammar lessons were predominately taught using worksheets and were presented separately from other reading and writing activities. This was termed Discrete Grammar Instruction (DGI). The researchers introduced a contextualized grammar instruction approach, termed Embedded Grammar Instruction (EGI), which taught grammar within authentic contexts of reading and writing. Students in grades three through eight were assigned to either the EGI group (N = 164) or the DGI group (N = 156). Two subtests of the Test of Written Language- Third Edition (Hammill & Larsen, 1996) were given at pre- and posttest: Sentence Combining, which is a measure of grammatical complexity, and Contextual Conventions, which is a measure of written conventions (i.e., punctuation and capitalization). Following six weeks of instruction, the EGI group outperformed the DGI group on sentence combining ability, but no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in use of contextual conventions. The results suggest that teaching grammar in context yields improvements in written grammar following a very short period of instruction and merits further exploration.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 11:18:12 PDT
  • Conferring in the CAFÉ: One-to-One Reading Conferences in Two First
           Grade Classrooms
    • Authors: Bethanie Pletcher et al.
      Abstract: The purpose of this qualitative descriptive case study was to explore the teacher/student reading conferences in two first grade teachers’ classrooms in one primary school. Sixteen one-to-one reading conferences were recorded and transcribed over a two-month period and coded for content as related to the CAFÉ (Boushey & Moser, 2009) model of reading instruction, which the teachers used daily. We found that the two teachers placed heavy emphasis on students’ reading accuracy (the “A” in CAFÉ) and did not spend as much time working on comprehension, fluency, or expanding vocabulary (the C, F, and E in CAFÉ). We suggest teachers work toward balancing instruction in these areas during individual reading conferences with students and that they may benefit from recording and analyzing their conferences for teaching points and related prompts.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 11:18:09 PDT
  • “This I Believe” About the Teaching of Writing: Secondary Teachers’
           Digital Essays About Their Pedagogical Understandings
    • Authors: Denise N. Morgan et al.
      Abstract: This case study (Merriam & Tisdell, 2016) examines the final projects of two secondary teachers in a graduate course about writing pedagogy. Teachers created digital essays along the lines of the National Public Radio’s “This I Believe” essays, which articulated their beliefs about the teaching of writing. We posed two research questions: a) What pedagogical understandings do teachers identify as their beliefs about writing and how do they represent those ideas in a digital composition' b) What did teachers learn from participating in the process of composing a digital essay' We found that teachers “reimagined” the teaching of writing, were personally drawn to the assignments in ways that surprised them, and realized the power of digital tools to accomplish what words simply cannot fully capture.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 11:18:04 PDT
  • Editorial Review Board
    • PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 11:18:01 PDT
  • Reading in English and in Chinese: Case Study of Retrospective Miscue
           Analysis with Two Adult ELLs
    • Authors: Yang Wang et al.
      Abstract: Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) has proved to be a useful instructional tool in language arts classrooms and for English learners from various cultures. However, it has not been used with native Mandarin-speaking English learners. This qualitative case study explored the reading process of two adult Mandarin-speaking ELs through RMA. They read two pieces in simplified Chinese and two in English respectively. This study demonstrates that RMA supports adult ELs to become more metacognitive about their reading process, uncover reading strategies they use, build their confidence to read, acquire more agency, and learn more about the English language. RMA is a powerful instructional strategy for adult ELs. This qualitative case study explored the reading process of two adult Mandarin-speaking ELs through Retrospective Miscue Analysis. It demonstrates that RMA supports adult ELs to become more metacognitive about their reading process, uncover reading strategies they use, build their confidence to read, acquire more agency, and learn more about the English language.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 12:56:19 PDT
  • Effects of a Technology-Assisted Reading Comprehension Intervention for
           English Learners with Learning Disabilities
    • Authors: Sara L. Jozwik et al.
      Abstract: This study integrated technology tools into a reading comprehension intervention that used explicit instruction to teach strategies (i.e., asking questions, making connections, and coding the text to monitor for meaning) to mixed-ability small groups, which included four English Learners with learning disabilities in a fourth-grade general education classroom. We used a multiple baseline design across participants to evaluate the effects of instruction on strategy application as measured through comprehension rubrics (Keene, 2006) and on comprehension-question answering as measured through researcher-developed literal and inferential comprehension questions. Results showed that participants applied comprehension strategies and improved their percentage accuracy with answering comprehension questions after being introduced to explicit strategy instruction, a mnemonic to facilitate strategy application, web-based tools, and peer collaboration to co-construct meaning from text. Participants perceived the instructional technology tools (i.e., mind-mapping applications, web-linked text, weblogs, and an interactive whiteboard recording application) and reading comprehension strategy instruction as helpful. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 12:56:15 PDT
  • Writing with Parents in Response to Picture Book Read Alouds
    • Authors: Danielle L. DeFauw 5935426
      Abstract: High-quality writing instruction needs to permeate elementary students’ in- and outside-of-school experiences. The aim of this research was to explore how teaching writing to parents may support home-school literacy connections. This qualitative case study explored parents’ experiences in interactive writing sessions. The descriptive coding and constant comparative analysis of transcribed parent writing sessions, field notes, and documents revealed three themes: (1) Writing Tips and Strategies, (2) Parent-Writers, and (3) Story Connections. The parent writing sessions facilitated parents’ understanding of how to support their elementary-age children’s writing development. Parents demonstrated a desire to support their children’s writing development, and they needed strategies to understand how to help. Parents applied suggestions as writers to support their children’s writing development at home. Collaborating with the children’s parents helped increase the likelihood the writing strategies gleaned from the writing clinic would be used within the children’s homes.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 12:56:12 PDT
  • Exploring Writing Circles as Innovative, Collaborative Writing Structures
           with Teacher Candidates
    • Authors: Sherron Killingsworth Roberts et al.
      Abstract: Writing circles are “small groups . . . meeting regularly to share drafts, choose common writing topics, practice positive response, and in general, help each other become better writers” (Vopat, 2009, p. 6). In this exploratory study, writing circles were employed with elementary teacher candidates in hopes of enhancing their perceptions about writing and authorship. This mixed methods pilot used a convenience sample of 28 teacher candidates in a language arts methods course. Based on interest and using writing workshop elements, weekly writing circles were formed and generated one collaborative manuscript. Afterward, 68% of candidates reported improvement in writing skills. Retrospective responses were analyzed and coded to reveal the following themes: ideas, relationships, choice, improvement, and feedback. Furthermore, 96% of candidates reported enthusiasm for using writing circles in their future classrooms.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 12:56:08 PDT
  • Editorial Review Board v.56 n.1
    • PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 09:18:23 PDT
  • Learning to Facilitate Highly Interactive Literary Discussions to Engage
           Students as Thinkers
    • Authors: Cheryl L. Rosaen et al.
      Abstract: Helping novices learn to facilitate interactive whole-class discussions is an important “high-leverage practice” for becoming an effective teacher due to its strong potential to increase students’ learning opportunities. A semester-long classroom-based assignment in a senior-level elementary literacy methods course supported preservice teachers in developing the practice of leading one text-based interactive literary discussion, along with learning to establish norms and routines for discussions, and to analyze instruction for the purpose of improving it. Analysis of 83 preservice teachers’ written work investigated their learning during the beginning stages of developing the complex practice of leading discussions. We propose a learning trajectory outlining three areas of development that may offer direction for helping preservice teachers improve in specific areas and provide a focus for future research.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 14:54:39 PDT
  • Implementation of Common Core–Based Curriculum in a Fourth-Grade
           Literacy Classroom: An Exploratory Study
    • Authors: Elizabeth Jaeger
      Abstract: The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were adopted by most states by 2010. Yet, many teachers still lack confidence in their ability to integrate these standards into their classroom instruction and this uncertainty undermines their effectiveness. This article presents findings from a study of a fourth grade literacy curriculum informed by the CCSS. The study mobilized the Vygotskian notion of mediation as it applies in a literacy learning context and addresses the following research questions: (a) What were fourth grade student English language arts achievement levels and beliefs about literacy prior to and following the implementation of a CCSS-based curriculum? (b) What was the collaborating teacher’s response to participating in the implementation project? and (c) What roles did mediating tools play within this literacy learning system? Several types of data were collected: unit assessments from the core curriculum; scaled scores from the state standards test; Informal Reading Inventory and interview responses from six focal students; and teacher interview responses. Analysis demonstrated (a) gains by all students, particularly those who struggled, on all assessment measures, (b) increased metacognitive awareness and positive changes in beliefs about reading on the part of focal students, (c) the teacher’s growing confidence in and commitment to the new curriculum, and (d) a growing use of mediational tools by students. These findings support the argument that a structured CCSS curriculum, adapted by classroom teachers, can serve as an important tool serving to mediate the space between students and literacy achievement.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 14:54:34 PDT
  • A Socio-Psycholinguistic Perspective on Biliteracy: The Use of Miscue
           Analysis as a Culturally Relevant Assessment Tool
    • Authors: Bobbie Kabuto
      Abstract: Through the presentation of two bilingual reader profiles, this article will illustrate how miscue analysis can act as a culturally relevant assessment tool as it allows for the study of reading across different spoken and written languages. The research presented in this article integrates a socio-psycholinguistic perspective to reading and a translanguaging perspective to language use to highlight how differences in language and writing systems did not lead to difficulties or barriers in orally reading or comprehending texts. Contrarily, the use of miscue analysis was a culturally relevant assessment that provided a multidimensional perspective into the ways in which the readers constructed meaning. The article concludes with the benefits and the challenges of using miscue analysis with bilingual readers, and the implications of incorporating miscue analysis as a reading assessment tool in classrooms.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 14:54:29 PDT
  • Popular Culture and Academic Literacies Situated in a Pedagogical Third
    • Authors: Stephanie Buelow
      Abstract: This critical participatory action research study sought to understand what happens when students’ interest and experiences with popular culture are integrated into a standards-based sixth grade English language arts curriculum. Multiple data sources were analyzed using the theoretical concept of third space. Findings showed that (a) a democratic, collaborative learning zone was established for all members of the classroom community, (b) students were successful in a curriculum that was situated in academic literacies and their popular culture interests and literacies, and (c) this experience resulted in a transformation of teacher practice. Given the current educational climate, these findings suggest the importance of fostering spaces where academic literacies and popular culture are not positioned as binary opposites; rather they are viewed as two interrelated and relevant components of a child’s education. Furthermore, the findings call for an emphasis on pedagogy to produce powerful learning experiences, drawing upon popular culture funds of knowledge as assets for learning.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 14:54:25 PDT
  • The Common Core Writing Standards: A Descriptive Study of Content and
           Alignment with A Sample of Former State Standards
    • Authors: Gary A. Troia et al.
      Abstract: Many students do not meet expected standards of writing performance, despite the need for writing competence in and out of school. As policy instruments, writing content standards have an impact on what is taught and how students perform. This study reports findings from an evaluation of the content of a sample of seven diverse states’ current writing standards compared to content of the Common Core State Standards for writing and language (CCSS-WL). Standards were evaluated for breadth of content coverage (range), how often content was referenced (frequency), the degree of emphasis placed on varied content elements (balance), and the degree of overlap between one set of standards and another (alignment). The study addressed two research questions: (1) What is the nature of the CCSS-WL and the sample states’ standards for writing with respect to content breadth, frequency, and balance? (2) To what degree do the states' writing standards align with the CCSS-WL? Results indicated that CCSS-WL are succinct and balanced, with breadth of coverage in some aspects of writing but not others. The seven states’ standards represented varying degrees of breadth, frequency, and balance with few patterns across states. None of the states’ standards had strong alignment with CCSS-WL, indicating a potential mismatch between prior curricular materials and instructional methods developed with former standards as guides to help students meet grade-level writing expectations in the new CCSS.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2016 14:27:27 PDT
  • Exploring How Secondary Pre-Service Teachers’ Use Online Social
           Bookmarking to Envision Literacy in the Disciplines
    • Authors: Jamie Colwell et al.
      Abstract: This study considers how pre-service teachers envision disciplinary literacy through an online social bookmarking project. Thirty secondary pre-service teachers participated in the project through an undergraduate literacy course. Online bookmarks and post-project reflections were collected and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to determine emergent themes. Results suggest varying levels of disciplinary knowledge among pre-service teachers, influences of pre-service teachers' envisionments on posted bookmarks, and considerations about standardized testing in disciplinary literacy instruction. Implications for teacher education are discussed in light of these results.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2016 14:27:22 PDT
  • Making Meaning with Friends: Exploring the Function, Direction and Tone of
           Small Group Discussions of Literature in Elementary School Classrooms
    • Authors: Katie Peterson
      Abstract: The merits of decentralized small groups has been questioned in literature and by practicing teachers; thus this study shows the academic and identity work children do as they attempt to make meaning in these spaces.This study explores the affordances and drawbacks of decentralized small group discussion contexts in a multiage (3rd/ 4th) grade classroom. Practical and theoretical implications from the data suggest that decentralized small groups are valuable in a variety of ways, but children need to be guided in developing effective interactional styles. Data were analyzed using a combination of constant comparative methods and a micro analysis of talk drawing on traditions of sociolinguistics.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2016 14:27:17 PDT
  • Fictional Narratives about Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder:
           Focus Group Analysis and Insight
    • Authors: Teresa Cardon et al.
      Abstract: Given the CDC’s report of a 30% increase in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses over the past two years, it is important to increase awareness and educate teachers and students in both general and special education classrooms. One way to bridge the gap between students with and without ASD is to use authentic narrative fiction as a teaching tool. The goal of this study was to identify aspects of stories with characters with ASD that contribute to authentic and accurate depictions. Insights were elicited from focus groups that included insiders, individuals or family members with ASD, and educators who work with students with ASD. The participants read, reviewed, and discussed fictional narratives that highlighted a character with ASD. Various themes emerged from the focus groups regarding views on authentic and accurate ASD depictions. Discussion and suggestions are presented for future use of narrative fiction in raising awareness in educational settings.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Oct 2016 14:27:12 PDT
  • Choice and Rigor: Achieving a Balance in Middle School Reading/Language
           Arts Classrooms in the Era of the Common Core
    • Authors: Nancy L. Stevens
      Abstract: While the advantages of reading workshops are well known (Atwell, 1998), there is currently a debate among scholars, practitioners, and politicians about the use of instructional/independent level texts in light of the Common Core Standards’ end-of-year requirement for students to be reading at grade level (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). Particularly in middle school, where motivation to read often declines, a workshop approach can help students develop and strengthen their interest in reading. A classroom survey completed by middle school students in a suburban school district in the Midwestern United States illustrates students’ positive response to a reading workshop approach (Atwell). However, students must also be able to read grade-level text proficiently. Using a combination of workshop and instruction with grade-level texts will help support students in reaching the end-of-year standards required by the Common Core.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2016 13:01:17 PDT
  • Pre-Service Teachers' Growth In Understandings of Best Practice
           Literacy Instruction Through Paired Course and Field Experience
    • Authors: Jamie Lipp et al.
      Abstract: Illiteracy is on the rise in the United States, and the potential negative impact on today’s struggling reader is devastating. Now more than ever, preparing pre-service teachers to be effective teachers of literacy is crucial. This study examined the growth in understandings of best practice literacy of eleven pre-service teachers through paired course and field work. Results reveal that through paired course and field work, growth of best practice literacy instruction is shown by pre-service teachers’ enhanced abilities to define, assign importance, and relate to implications for student learning as well as develop efficacy around their use. Results of this research have an impact on teacher preparation programs and highlight the importance of engaging pre-service teachers in literacy experiences that are connected to the course and field to better prepare them to meet the challenges of ensuring all students grow to be literate individuals.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jul 2016 13:01:13 PDT
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