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Publisher: Tehran University of Medical Sciences   (Total: 18 journals)   [Sort by number of followers]

Showing 1 - 18 of 18 Journals sorted alphabetically
Academic J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Audiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Basic and Clinical Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.272, h-index: 4)
DARU J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.495, h-index: 21)
Dermatology and Cosmetic     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Hayat : J. of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 3)
Hospital     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Hospital Research     Open Access  
Iranian J. of Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.186, h-index: 3)
Iranian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.196, h-index: 8)
Iranian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 20)
J. of Dental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.245, h-index: 4)
Medical J. of the Islamic Republic of Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, h-index: 6)
Modern Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Tehran University Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 6)
Transport Phenomena in Nano and Micro Scales     Open Access  
Journal Cover Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
  [SJR: 0.209]   [H-I: 6]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1016-1430 - ISSN (Online) 2251-6840
   Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [18 journals]
  • Falls and postural control in older adults with cataracts

    • Authors: Maryam Goudarzian
      Abstract: Background: There is increasing evidence that visual impairment contribute to falling. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of vision impairment of old adult patients with cataract on the occurrence of falls and postural control.Methods:According to the results of screening ophthalmic examination, 48 cataract patients (mean±SD aged 68.5 ± 6.08 yrs.) and 50 individuals without any obvious eye disorders (mean age ± SD 70.7 ± 5.97 yrs.) were enrolled in this study. The postural control was determined using the clinical test of Sensory Interaction and Balance (CTSIB) and Timed up and Go (TUG) test.Results:The results of this study revealed that 18% (n = 9) of the normal individuals and 22.9% (n =11) of the cataract patients had at least two falls in the past 12 months. However, the result of chi-square test did not show any differences between the two groups (p= 0.36). The mean ± SD TUG times in cataract and control groups in our study were15.17 ± 3.58 and13.77 ± 4.90, respectively.  However, no significant differences were found between the two groups (p= 0.12).The results of CTSIB test showed no significant differences between the two groups on standing on the floor with eyes open and eyes closed (p= 0.61,p= 0.89) and on standing on the foam with eyes open and eyes closed (p= 0.32, p= 0.74 ).Conclusion:According to the results of CTSIB and TUG tests, vision impairment of old adultpatients with cataract is not associated with falls and balance disorders. Further work including assessment of postural control with advanced devices and considering other falls risk factors are also required to identify predictors of falls in cataract patients.
       
  • Static balance function in children with a history of preterm birth

    • Authors: Zahra Jafari
      Abstract: Background: The incomplete maturation of brain in preterm children results in long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. This study aimed to investigate the static balance function in children with a history of preterm birth.Methods: Participants were 31 preterm children including 21 moderately preterm (MPT), 10 very preterm (VPT), and 20 term children aged 5.5 and 6.5 years. The cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test and four static balance subscales of BOT-2 were performed.Results: The VPT children showed a significant increase in P1 and N1 wave latencies in cVEMP test compared to those in the term children (p= 0.041). Mean scores in the four static balance subscales of BOT-2 were significantly lower in the preterm children compared to those in the term children (p= 0.025). The P1 wave latency (p= 0.003) and mean score of standing on a balance beam with open eyes (p= 0.039) were significantly lower in the VPT children compared to those in the MPT children. A significant correlation was observed between the mean score in exercise 4 (standing on one leg on a balance beam with closed eyes) of static balance subscales of BOT-2 and P1 (r= -0.267, p= 0.036) and N1 (r= -0.304, p= 0.016) wave latencies of cVEMP.Conclusion: The longer latency of cVEMP waves along with a poor performance of children with a history of preterm birth suggests a possible defect in central vestibular pathway.
       
  • Worldwide inequality in production of systematic reviews

    • Authors: Saharnaz Nedjat
      Abstract: Background: Investment in science is vital for the development and well-being of societies. This study aims to assess the scientific productivity of countries by quantifying their publication of systematic reviews taking the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) into account.Methods: Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched for systematic reviews published between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2010. The productivity of each country was quantified by exploring the authors’ affiliation. The GNIPC was used according to the World Bank Report. Concentration index (CI) was calculated as the index of inequality. Results: CI of percentage of systematic reviews as a function of percentage of countries ranked by GNIPC was 0.82 which indicates inequality in production of systematic reviews in pro rich countries. Countries with high income produced 206.23 times more systematic reviews than low income countries, while this ratio for lower middle and upper middle countries was 9.67 and 12.97, respectively. The highest concentration index was observed in clinical sciences (0.76) and the lowest in public health (0.61).Conclusion: This study demonstrates a significant gap between industrialized and non-industrialized countries in the production of systematic reviews. Addressing this gap needs tremendous national and international efforts.
       
  • Clinical and laboratory manifestation and outcome of icterohemorrhagic
           leptospirosis patients in Northern Iran

    • Authors: Alireza Davoudi
      Abstract: Background: Icterohemorrhagic form of leptospirosis has a high mortality rate.  In this study, the clinical manifestations, epidemiologic and laboratory findings and outcome of Weil’s disease were investigated.Methods: A descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on 66 consecutive patients with icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis who were admitted to Razi Hospital (The Therapeutic Center of Infectious Diseases in the North of Iran) in 2013. The inclusion criteria were as follows: All patients who had clinical and epidemiological data suggestive of leptospirosis and displayed icterohemorrhagic form at the time of admission or during hospitalization. All patients were visited on admission, one, two and six weeks later. Demographic data, clinical, laboratory features and complications were evaluated, and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.0.Results: Among 66 patients, 89.4% (n = 59) were male, 60% (n = 40) were farmers and 9.1% (n= 6) had a history of swimming in rivers. The most common complaints were fever and jaundice, respectively. The most common clinical symptoms were fever (90.9%), myalgia (75.8%), chills (70.8%) and headache (65.1%). Hyponatremia and hypernatremia were seen in 7.6% and 72.8% of the participants, respectively. Also, hypokalemia was observed in two patients (3%). Approximately, half of the cases had leukocytosis and 90% had thrombocytopenia.  Rise of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin were seen in 95.2%, 93.6%, 76.2% and 100% of the patients, respectively. Of the patients, 42.4% experienced complications of icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis including acute renal failure (30.3%) pneumonia (25.8%), pancreatitis (4.5%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.5%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (1.5%). Three cases (4.5%) died, 42 cases (63.7%) were discharged with residual effects and 52 patients (78.8%) had positive serology.Conclusion: The most significant biochemical abnormalities were thrombocytopenia, hyperbilirubinemia, hyponatremia and hypernatremia and azotemia and the latter remained stable in 2% of the patients at least until the end of the 6-week period.
       
  • Facilitators of implementing occupation based practice among Iranian
           occupational therapists: A qualitative study

    • Authors: Afsoon Hassani Mehraban
      Abstract: Background: The Occupation-Based Practice (OBP) is a central core of occupational therapy (OT).It refers to using a meaningful occupation based on the client’s interests, needs, health and participation in daily life. This study aimed to explore the facilitators of implementing OBP among Iranian occupational therapists.Methods: Fourteen occupational therapists participated in this study. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the sampling method was purposeful. The interviews were continued until data saturation was reached, and data were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis using constant comparative analysis.Results: Our analysis explored two themes: Factors attributed to context, and factors attributed to therapists. The first theme consisted of three subthemes: Educational programs of OT department, public information about OBP and clinical setting compatible with OBP. The second theme also contained three subthemes including: Positive attitude regarding effectiveness of OBP, emphasis on client-centered and family- centered practice and convincing the clients to utilize OBP.Conclusion: The facilitators of implementing OBP are attributed to factors internal to the therapists as well as to issues in the external environment and context. Understanding these factors will help occupational therapists, OT educational staff, administrators and rehabilitation team members to facilitate the implementation of OBP.
       
  • ECG changes of cardiac origin in elderly patients with traumatic brain
           injury

    • Authors: Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
      Abstract: Background: Simultaneous electrocardiographic (ECG) changes are seen in hemorrhagic brain events even in the absence of associated myocardial infarction (MI). This study was designed to assess the role of ECG changes to predict true MI in patients with hemorrhagic brain trauma.Methods: Data of 153 patients with traumatic brain injury and concomitant ECG changes were recorded. Enzyme study was performed for the patients, and a cardiologist confirmed the diagnosis of MI.Results: Overall, 83 females and 70 males older than 50 years of age were enrolled in the study. The most common type of hemorrhagic brain event was subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the most common ECG change was an inverted T wave. MI was confirmed in 15 (9.8%) patients. Patients with intracranial hemorrhage had significantly (p= 0.023) higher rates of associated MI than other types of brain hemorrhages. ST segment elevation was found to have a positive predictive value of 71.4% in males and 25% in females in terms of diagnosing a true MI associated with hemorrhagic brain events.Conclusion: Although simultaneous cardiac changes are seen after sympathetic over- activity in brain hemorrhages, regular ECG screening of elder patients with traumatic brain injury is suggested, particularly in patients with intracranial hemorrhages.
       
  • Developing a household survey tool for health equity: A practical guide in
           Islamic Republic of Iran

    • Authors: Ardeshir Khosravi
      Abstract: Background: An obvious gradient in health outcomes has been implicated in many evidences relating to social and economic factors. Proper data are requested to convince policy-makers calling for intersectoral action for health. Recently, I.R. of Iran has come up with 52 health equity indicators to monitor health equity through the country. Conducting regular surveys on 14 out of 52 national health equity indicators is needed to provide a basis for the health inequality analysis through the country. We aimed to introduce a survey tool and its related protocols on health equity indicators.Methods: This study was conducted through addressing the literature and expertise of health and demographic surveys at the national and international levels. Also, we conducted technical and consultative committee meetings, a final consensus workshop and a pilot study to finalize the survey tool.Results: We defined the study design, sampling method, reliable questionnaires and instructions, data collection and supervision procedure. We also defined the data analysis protocol on health equity indicators, generated from non-routine data.Conclusion: A valid and reliable tool, which could be employed at the national and sub-national levels, was designed to measure health equity in Iran. Policy-makers can use this survey tool to generate useful information and evidence to design appropriate required intervention and reduce health inequality across the country. 
       
  • Analysis of development levels in the cities of Tehran province regarding
           health infrastructural index: the strategy of standardized score and
           Morris’ inequality index

    • Authors: Azadeh Chatrouz
      Abstract: Background: One of the main indexes of development is health index or the degree to which a society enjoys health and therapeutic services. The present study was done with the aim to analyze development levels in cities in Tehran regarding health infrastructural index using the standardized score and Morris’ model.Methods: This is a descriptive and pragmatic study which ranks 14 cities in Tehran province using the standardized score and Morris’ models based on 10 selected health indexes. The required data were gathered using a researcher-made information list and the information gathered from the Statistics Center and Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data were analyzed using Excel software.Results: The development coefficient in the studied cities varies from 0.595 to -0.379 so that Rey city has the highest level of development and Pishva city has the lowest level of development among the studied cities. The more number of the cities (43%) was among the rather undeveloped group and none of the cities (0%) was in the rather developed group.Conclusion: Regarding the findings, there is a big gap and difference regarding enjoying health and therapeutic infrastructural indexes among the cities in Tehran province. Therefore, it is suggested that development-oriented plans consistentent with development levels should be implemented in these cities.
       
  • Urban family physician plan in Iran: challenges of implementation in
           Kerman

    • Authors: Ali Reza Kalantari
      Abstract: Background: The Family Physician Plan has recently been implemented in three provinces of Iran on a pilot basis and is going to be implemented throughout Iran in the future. Through a qualitative design, this study aims to determine probable implementation challenges of Family Physician Plan in Kerman.Methods: This study was conducted in Kerman in 2013. Data were collected through interviews with 21 experts in the field. Sampling continued until data saturation level was achieved. All interviews were recorded and then analyzed, and main themes and subgroups were extracted from them based on a framework analysis model.Results: most prevalent establishment challenges of Family Physician Plan were classified into policy-making, financial supply, laws and resources.Conclusion: The urban Family Physician Plan can be carried out more effectively by implementing this plan step by step,  highlighting the relationships between the related organizations, using new payment mechanisms e.g Per Capita, DRG, make national commitment and proper educational programs for providers, development the health electronic Record, justifying providers and community about advantages of this plan,  clarifying regulatory status about providers'  Duties and most importantly considering a specific funding source.    
       
  • Causes of academic failure of medical and medical sciences students in
           Iran: a systematic review

    • Authors: Ladan Fata
      Abstract: Background: Academic failure of medical and medical sciences students is one of the major problems of higher education centers in many countries. This study aims to collect and compare relevant researches in this field in Iran.Methods: The appropriate keywords were searched in the national and international databases, and the findings were categorized into related and non-related articles accordingly.Results: Only 22 articles were included in this systematic review. In terms of content analysis, gender, living in a dorm, employment, marital status, age, special rights in the entrance exams, the time lag between diploma and university, diploma average, learning style, being nonnative students, being a transferred student, psychological problems, occupation of the mother, salary level, diploma type, field of study, self-esteem, exam anxiety and interest on the field of study were considered as the influential factors for academic failure of the students.Conclusion: This systematic review showsthat there is no definite academic failure criterion. It is also suggested Iranian researchers should pay more attention on the documentation of the higher educational strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure.
       
  • Comparison of motor development of low birth weight (LBW) infants with and
           without using mechanical ventilation and normal birth weight infants

    • Authors: Faranak Aliabadi
      Abstract: Background: To determine whether using mechanical ventilation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) influences motor development of low birth weight (LBW) infants and to compare their motor development with normal birth weight (NBW) infants at the age of 8 to 12 months using Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2 (PDMS-2).Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 70 LBW infants in two groups, mechanical ventilation (MV) group, n=35 and without mechanical ventilation (WMV) group, n=35 and 40 healthy NBW infants matched with LBW group for age. Motor quotients were determined using PDMS-2 and compared in all groups using ANOVA statistical method and SPSS version 17.Results: Comparison of the mean developmental motor quotient (DMQ) of both MV and WMV groups showed significant differences with NBW group (p
       
  • Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic
           neuropathy: a case control study

    • Authors: Morteza Naserbakht
      Abstract: Background: Sleep apnea is temporary cessation or absence of breathing during sleep. Significant increase in blood pressure is clinically seen in apneic episodes. The aim of this study was to examine sleep apnea syndrome as a risk factor for non- arthritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in a case control study.Methods: Nineteen NAION patients (9 men and 10 women) and 31 age and sex matched control participants (18 men and 13 women) were evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Full night polysomnography was performed and proportion of OSAS was compared between the NAION patients and the control group. Other risk factors for NAION such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease and tobacco consumption were also evaluated. Chi square test and independent samples t-test were used for statistical analysis.Results: OF the 19 NAION patients, 18 (95%) had OSAS, and of the control group 13 (41.9%) had OSAS. The frequency of OSAS was significantly higher among NAION patients compared to the controls (p< 0.001). The Mean Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) was 37.65/h SD= 37.61/h in NAION patients and it was 15.05/h SD= 11.97/h (p= 0.018) in controls. The frequency of diabetes and hypertension was significantly higher in the NAION patients than in controls.Conclusion: based on the results of this study, it seems that there is an association between NAION and OSAS.
       
  • Psychometric analysis of the ambulatory care learning education
           environment measure (ACLEEM) in Iran

    • Authors: Jalil Koohpayehzadeh
      Abstract: Background: Examining educational environment (academic and clinical) by means ofa valid, reliable and comprehensive questionnaire is a major key inachievinga highly qualified student – oriented curricula. The Persian translation of Ambulatory Care Learning Education Environment Measure-ACLEEM questionnaire has been developed to support this goal, and its psychometrics has beenexplored in this administration in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Methods: This descriptive – analytical study involved medical residents in fourmajor clinics. In this study,the ACLEEM Questionnaire was conducted after translating and retranslating the questionnaire and examinethe face and content validity, construct validity, test retest reliability and internal consistency coefficient.Results: In this study, 157 out of 192 residents completed the questionnaire (response rate 82%). The mean age of the residents was 31.81 years .The final mean of the questionnaire was calculated as 110.91 out of 200 (with 95% confidence interval).  Test – retest stability of the questionnaire was between 0.322 and 0.968. The face validity of the questionnaire was confirmed. The content validity ratio was 0.64 and content validity Index was 0.78. In Exploratory factor analysis,eight factors were confirmatory that changed the orientation of some questions. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the whole questionnaire was 0.936.Conclusion: According to thedata, thePersian version of the ACLEEM questionnaire has sufficient psychometric reliability and validity to be used forconducting research, teaching and practicingthe educational learning environment in ambulatory care in Iran.
       
  • The definition of recurrent shoulder dislocation in tramadol induced
           seizure patients

    • Authors: Morteza Nakhaei Amroodi
      Abstract: Background: Prevalence of recurrent shoulder dislocation in patients taking tramadol has not been studiedyet so, this study aims to study the recurrent shoulder dislocation following tramadol induced seizure.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 205 patients with recurrent shoulder dislocation complaints (2 or more) referred to Shafa Orthopedic and Iranmehr hospitals Tehran, Iran, from October 2012 to October 2014 were studied. Data on patient history and physical examination, patient demographic information such as age, sex, age at first dislocation, total number of dislocation, cause of the first dislocation, history of tramadol use, number of dislocation following tramadol induced seizure, history of other drugs use, the dominant hand, involved side, direction of dislocations and greater tuberosity fracture was recorded using a pre-designed questionnaire. Categorical variables were compared by chi-square test and the means were compared with student T-test.Results: In this study, 50 patients (24.4%) suffered from tramadol induced seizures and recurrent shoulder dislocation. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between the number of dislocation and tramadol use (P = 0.02). Recurrent shoulder dislocation following tramadol induced seizure was significantly associated with greater tuberosity fracture of humerus (P = 0.04) in 49 out of 50 patients (98%) dislocation was of anterior type.Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that tramadol induced seizure may increase the risk of recurrent shoulder dislocation. Furthermore, the prevalence of greater tuberosity fracture in shoulder dislocation increases following tramadol induced seizure and anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common type of dislocation following tramadol induced seizure.
       
  • Zero inflated Poisson and negative binomial regression models: application
           in education

    • Authors: Masoud Roudbari
      Abstract: Background: The number of failed courses and semesters in students are indicatorsof their performance. These amounts have zero inflated (ZI) distributions. Using ZI Poisson and negative binomial distributions we can model these count data to find the associated factors and estimate the parameters. This study aims at to investigate the important factors related to the educational performance of students.Methods: This cross-sectional study performed in 2008-2009 at Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) with a population of almost 6000 students, 670 students selected using stratified random sampling. The educational and demographical data were collected using the University records. The study design was approved at IUMS and the students’ data kept confidential. The descriptive statistics and ZI Poisson and negative binomial regressions were used to analyze the data. The data were analyzed using STATA.Results: In the number of failed semesters, Poisson and negative binomial distributions with ZI, students’ total average and quota system had the most roles. For the number of failed courses, total average, and being in undergraduate or master levels had the most effect in both models.Conclusion: In all models the total average have the most effect on the number of failed courses or semesters. The next important factor is quota system in failed semester and undergraduate and master levels in failed courses. Therefore, average has an important inverse effect on the numbers of failed courses and semester.
       
  • Predictors of physical restraint in a psychiatric emergency setting

    • Authors: Amir Hossein Jalali Nadoushan
      Abstract: Background: Considering the negative consequences of using physical restraints, we conducted this study to identify patients who are more frequently restrained in a psychiatric emergency ward as an initial step to limit the use of restraint to the minimum possible.  Methods: This was a retrospective case control study conducted in Iran Psychiatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We reviewed the files of 607 patients who were admitted during a one year period using convenience sampling of them, 186 were in the restrained group and 421 in the unrestrained group.  Results: Surprisingly, no significant difference was found between the restrained and unrestrained groups in demographic characteristics. The patients who were referred because of violence were diagnosed as having methamphetamine induced psychotic disorder or bipolar I disorder in manic 1episode and had a higher odds of being restrained (OR=2.51, OR=1.61, and OR=1.57 respectively). Being restrained was also associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and duration of staying in the emergency ward. Moreover, patients in their first admission were more frequently restrained.  Conclusion: Medical and nursing staff should consider special measures for the patients who are at a higher risk for being restrained. More frequent visits and education for both patients and staff may be effective in reducing the number of physical restraints for these groups of patients.
       
  • The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and
           active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    • Authors: Saeed Talebian
      Abstract: Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point.Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius(GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test.Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups.Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG).
       
  • Risk factors for C-section delivery and population attributable risk for
           C-section risk factors in Southwest of Iran: a prospective cohort study

    • Authors: Abbas Rezaianzadeh
      Abstract: Background: Iran has a high C-section rate (40.6% in 2005). The objective of this study was to assess the associations and population-attributable risks (PAR) of risk factors combinations and C-section in the Southwest Iran.Methods: We performed a population-based cohort study using the reports provided by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The cohort included pregnant women within September 2012 and February 2013 (n=4229), with follow-up until delivery. Then, the actual delivery was recorded i.e., C-section delivery, vaginal delivery, and miscarriage. A multiple logistic regression model was used to estimate the point and the interval probability. The adjusted population attributable risks (aPARs) were calculated through adjusted odds ratio from the final multiple logistic regression models for each variable.Results: Of 4,217 deliveries, 2,624 ones were C-section (62.2%). The rate of C-section was significantly higher in healthcare departments of private clinics compared to governmental clinics. The rate increased steadily with the mother’s age, marriage age, family income and education. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that local healthcare, supplementary insurance, maternal age, age of marriage, place of birth, family income, maternal education, education of husband and occupation were the key contributing factors to choose the mode of delivery. The multiple logistic regression analysis for reproductive factors showed that parity, previous abortion and stillbirth, previous infertility, birth weight (g) and number of live births were selected risk factors for C-section. Among the exposures, family income, location of healthcare and place of birth showed the highest population attributable risks: 43.86%, 19.2% and 18.53% respectively.Conclusion: In this survey, a relatively large contribution of non-medical factors was identified against the background of C-section. All of these factors influence the knowledge, attitudes and norms of the society. Thus, the attention of policymakers should be drawn to the factors associated with this mode of delivery.
       
  • No title

    • Authors: Maziar Moradi-Lakeh
      Abstract: Background: World Health Organization (WHO) defines three goals to assess the performance of a health system: the state of health, fairness in financial contribution and responsiveness. We assessed the responsiveness of health system for patients with diabetes in a defined population cohort in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Total responsiveness and eight domains (prompt attention, dignity, communication, autonomy, confidentiality, choice, basic amenities and discrimination) were assessed in 150 patients with diabetes as a representative sample from the Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) population cohort. We used the WHO questionnaire and methods for analysis of responsiveness.Results: With respect to outpatient services, 67% (n=100) were classified as Good for total responsiveness. The best and the worse performing results were related to information confidentiality (84% good responsiveness) and autonomy (51% good responsiveness), respectively. About 61% chose “communication” as the most important domain of responsiveness it was on the 4th rank of performance. The proportions of poor responsiveness were higher in women, individuals with lower income, lower level of education, and longer history of diabetes. “Discrimination” was considered discrimination as the cause of inappropriate services by 15%, and 29% had limited access to services because of financial unaffordability. Conclusion: Health system responsiveness is not appropriate for diabetic patients. Improvement of responsiveness needs comprehensive planning to improve attitudes of healthcare providers and system behavior. Activities should be prioritized through considering weaker domains of performance and more important domains from the patients’ perspective.
       
  • Health system responsiveness for outpatient care in people with diabetes
           Mellitus in Tehran

    • Authors: Maziar Moradi-Lakeh
      Abstract: Background: World Health Organization (WHO) defines three goals to assess the performance of a health system: the state of health, fairness in financial contribution and responsiveness. We assessed the responsiveness of health system for patients with diabetes in a defined population cohort in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Total responsiveness and eight domains (prompt attention, dignity, communication, autonomy, confidentiality, choice, basic amenities and discrimination) were assessed in 150 patients with diabetes as a representative sample from the Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) population cohort. We used the WHO questionnaire and methods for analysis of responsiveness.Results: With respect to outpatient services, 67% (n=100) were classified as Good for total responsiveness. The best and the worse performing results were related to information confidentiality (84% good responsiveness) and autonomy (51% good responsiveness), respectively. About 61% chose “communication” as the most important domain of responsiveness it was on the 4th rank of performance. The proportions of poor responsiveness were higher in women, individuals with lower income, lower level of education, and longer history of diabetes. “Discrimination” was considered discrimination as the cause of inappropriate services by 15%, and 29% had limited access to services because of financial unaffordability. Conclusion: Health system responsiveness is not appropriate for diabetic patients. Improvement of responsiveness needs comprehensive planning to improve attitudes of healthcare providers and system behavior. Activities should be prioritized through considering weaker domains of performance and more important domains from the patients’ perspective. 
       
  • Economic factors influencing mental health using multiple regression model
           in Ilam province of Iran

    • Authors: Kourosh Sayehmiri
      Abstract: Background: Mental disorder is one of the most important diseases of which is predicted to increase from 10.5% to 15% until 2020. This study aimed to determine economic factors influencing mental health using multiple regression models in Ilam province in 2013.Methods: In this cross sectional study, 903 families from different cities of Ilam were selected using multistage cluster sampling. The families were selected from each city separately and each head of family was interviewed. The instruments for data collection included general and economic questionnaires and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21, Eviews, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, single and multiple linear regressions.Results: The mean ± SD mental health score in this study was 28.5±12.10. The mental health increased for 4.26 units per each unit of life satisfaction increase, decreased for 4.09 units per each unit of gender growth, increased for 2.94 units per each unit of increase in economic status and had a significant correlation with all the three components (p
       
  • E-Learning: some unanswered questions

    • Authors: Kieran Walsh
       
  • Prehypertension patient awareness and associated cardiovascular risk
           factors in an urban population in Iran

    • Authors: Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh
      Abstract: Background: This study was to estimate the frequency of prehypertension and to characterize patient awareness and associated cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in Iran.Methods: During a hypertensive awareness program, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 2036 people. All participants completed a questionnaire about their demographic and anthropometric indices and were asked about symptoms, risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension. Data were compared between prehypertensive and non-hypertensive groups.Results: Prehypertension was detected in 30% (n=611) of the subjects. Previous CHD, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia were more prevalent in low prehypertension group compared to high normal blood pressure. The male sex, increasing age and body weight were positively associated with the rate of prehypertension. Only 8% of participants with prehypertension were aware about the symptoms of hypertension, 12% correctly mentioned at least three risk factors of hypertension, and 48% explained appropriate preventive measures.  Conclusion: Prehypertension was prevalent in this population. Age, body weight, male sex, and previous CHD were the major determinants. Furthermore, hypertension awareness was alarmingly poor. Therefore, hypertension prevention programs focused on increasing public awareness are essential. 
       
  • Application of the theory of reasoned action to promoting breakfast
           consumption

    • Authors: Teamur Aghamolaei
      Abstract: Background: Breakfast is the most important daily meal, but neglected more than other meals by children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention, based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to increase breakfast consumption among school children in Bandar Abbas, Iran.Methods: In this quasi experimental study which was conducted in 2012, 88 students of four secondary schools in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran, were enrolled. Multi-stage cluster sampling was performed with random allocation of interventional and control groups. The study tool was a questionnaire which was filled by the students before and two months after the educational intervention. For data analysis, statistical tests including paired-samples t-test, independent samples t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann-Whitney test were used through SPSS v.18 software.Results: The result of the study showed that application of TRA significantly increased scores of behavior of breakfast consumption (p
       
  • The relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of
           life in schizophrenic patients

    • Authors: Pezhman Atefimanesh
      Abstract: Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with psychotic symptoms that severely affects personal performance. Assessing problem- focused strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia may help the clinicians to use appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to find the relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients who referred to the clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2013.Methods: Non-random sampling was used in two stages (quota and convenience sampling). Data were collected through Demographic Questionnaire, 5-point Likert-type scale World Health Organization Quality of Life and Problem-Focused Strategies Standard Questionnaire. Four dimensions of QoL which were assessed among schizophrenic patients were as follows:  Physical health, mental health, social relationships and environmental factors. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis.Results: The highest mean score (Mean= 2.7) belonged to environmental factors and the lowest score to social relationships (Mean= 2.55). Overall, there was a significant direct relationship between the QoL and problem-focused coping strategies (p= 0.024, r= 0.319).Conclusion: The Schizophrenic patients who used more problem- focused coping strategies had better QoL. Therefore, it is important to take into account problem- focus coping strategies when treating the patients. The application of this research will be crucial to clinicians and healthcare executives.
       
  • Vitamin deficiencies in chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Vitorino Modesto Santos
       
  • Sexual orientation, theory of mind and empathy: a comparison of male
           homosexual and male and female heterosexuals

    • Authors: Mehrdad Eftekhar Ardebili
      Abstract: Background: Researchers have been investigating similarities of and differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals for past few decades. Several studies have shown that in the particular domain (e.g., spatial ability), male homosexuals would resemble female heterosexuals better than male heterosexuals. Executive function, however, has received more attention than social cognition in this line of research.Methods: This study focuses on theory of mind and empathy as two important components of social cognition in male homosexuals (N=14), male heterosexuals (N=15) and female heterosexuals (N=14).Results: Applying Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and the Empathy Quotient, no significant difference between groups was identified.Conclusion: This study suggests that similarities of male homosexuals and female heterosexuals may be confined to executive function and not extended to some social cognition abilities like theory of mind or empathy.
       
  • Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks in Iran, 2006-2011

    • Authors: Hossein Masoumi Asl
      Abstract: Background: The outbreaks of foodborne diseases is a major health problem and occur daily in all countries, from the most to the least developed. This study is the first report of foodborne outbreaks in Iran that carried out from 2006 to 2011.Methods:  A retrospective, longitudinal study carried out using foodborne disease national surveillance system data from 2006-2011, which have been reported by all provincial health centers to the Center for Communicable Disease Control. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 software.Results: Since 2006 to 2011, a total of 2250 outbreaks were reported in Iran. Analyzed data showed that the outbreak rate has increased from 0.07/100000 in 2006 to 1.38/100000 population in 2011. Khuzestan, Kermanshah and Qazvin were three provinces that reported more outbreaks than nationally expected outbreak incidence rate during 2011. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of foodborne outbreaks during 2011 indicated that the numbers of outbreaks were highest in warm months, e.g. 17.8% of total outbreaks was just reported in August. Females and age group of 16-30 years old were more affected and 55% of cases occurred in rural area. Among 684 human samples which have been tested, E. coli, Shigella, Hepatitis A and Vibrio cholera were predominant etiologic agents respectively.Conclusion: Increasing the detection rate of foodborne outbreaks imply the expansion of surveillance activities and improved primary health care in Iran in recent years. Foodborne disease surveillance system is a new program in Iran that should be continued and strengthened including diagnostic laboratory capacities.
       
  • Using 360-degree multi-source feedback to evaluate professionalism in
           surgery departments: An Iranian perspective

    • Authors: Patricia Khashayar
      Abstract: Background: Medical professionalism helps physicians adopt a proper and good healing action for the patients based on their particular circumstance. This study was conducted to assess professionalism in surgical residents, using a 360-degree evaluation technique in several teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran.Methods: This study was conducted on all the second and third year surgery residents from three university teaching hospitals in Tehran. Multi-source feedback questionnaire contained 10 questions on the residents’ professional behavior and was completed by the faculty and staff members (nurses, operation room staff, and medical assistants) as well as other surgery residents, interns and patients to evaluate each resident. Response rates were used to determine feasibility for each of the respondent groups and the mean and standard deviation score for each question was computed to determine the viability of the items. Reliability was assessed using alpha Cronbach coefficient for each respondent group. The correlation between these scores and the residents’ final and OSCE grade was also assessed.Results: The internal consistency reliability for 360-degree rating was 0.889. There was no significant difference in the residents’ score in different hospitals. While male residents obtained higher total score, there was no significant difference between them. The residents, however, obtained lower scores compared to the staff. The highest score was recorded for question 6, suggesting that the residents treated the patients regardless of their socioeconomic status.Conclusion: This study revealed a strong agreement between the results gathered from different respondents, confirming the reliability of the questionnaire and the respondents’ unbiased response. It also revealed that the residents did well in the whole test, showing they were conscientious and learning to become medical professionals.
       
  • Health locus of control and self-care behaviors in diabetic foot patients

    • Authors: Fariba Bolourchifard
      Abstract: Background:Diabetic foot affects more than 25% of diabetic patients and finally up to 20% of cases result in amputation. The most important factor resulting in severe complications or even death is lack of self-care. Health locus of control has been introduced as one of health factors and predicting factors of self-care. This research was performed for analyzing the correlation between self-care behaviors and health locus of control in diabetic foot patients.Methods:In this descriptive study, 120 patients with diabetic foot were chosen using convenience sampling from endocrine clinic and wards of endocrine and vascular surgery of Teleqani Hospital of ShahidBeheshti Medical University. The data were gathered by demographic, self-care behavior, and health locus of control questionnaires.  The t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spearman coefficient were used to analyze the data.Results:Results of this research showed that there is a direct and significant relation between self-care behaviors and internal health locus of control (p
       
  • Factors affecting ethical behavior in pediatric occupational therapy:A
           qualitative study

    • Authors: Mohammad Kamali
      Abstract: Background: It is the responsibility of each occupational therapist to always act ethically and professionally in a clinical setting. However, there is little information available concerning the factors influencing ethical behavior of occupational therapists at work. Since no study has been conducted in Iran on this topic, this qualitative study aimed to identify the factors influencing ethical behavior of pediatric occupational therapists.Methods: Twelve pediatric occupational therapists participated in this study. The sampling was purposeful, and the interviews continued until reaching data saturation. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis, and the ethics of qualitative research was considered.Results: The factors influencing ethical behavior were classified into four main categories including organizational factors, therapist related factors, client’s family issues, and social factors.Conclusion: This study identified numerous factors influencing the ethical behavior of pediatric occupational therapists that could be used to train occupational therapists, human resources managers, professional policy makers, and could also be used to conduct future researches, and produce tools.
       
  • Correlation of pregnancy outcome with quadruple screening test at second
           trimester

    • Authors: Zinatossadat Bouzari
      Abstract: Background: Abnormal levels of the markers AFP, hCG, and uE3 could be useful in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study was designed to determine the correlation between second trimester maternal serum markers and adverse pregnancy outcome (APO).Methods: In this historical cohort study, we randomly followed 231 obstetric patients with quadruple screening test in 14-18 weeks of gestation from March 2012 to March 2013 in a medical laboratory in Babol, Iran. We measured maternal serum levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A. The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) were then compared between patients with negative and positive test results. We used Chi-square and Fisher-exact tests for qualitative variables and t-test for quantitative variables. Demographic differences between the two groups were minimized by applying logistic regression.Results: The risk of having an APO such as pre-eclampsia (p=0.008), fetal growth restriction (p=0.028) and premature rupture of membrane (p=0.040) increased significantly in patients with abnormal markers.Conclusion: Abnormal results of quadruple screening test could be associated with APO in women with normal appearing fetus.
       
  • A comparison between serum levels of interleukin-6 and CA125 in patients
           with endometriosis and normal women

    • Authors: Maryam Kashanian
      Abstract: Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare the serum levels of IL6 and CA125 in women with and without endometriosis. They were also compared in mild, moderate and severe cases.Methods: In this case-control study, CA125 and IL6 levels in 76 women with laparoscopic proven endometriosis were compared with 76 women without evidence of endometriosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were then calculated for each test.Results: Both groups did not show significant difference in their age, BMI, ESR and gravidity. Mean serum levels of IL-6 and CA125 were significantly higher in the case group (30.4±6.43 vs 13.9±3.17 Pg/ml and 62.6±10.69 vs 16.6±1.79 IU/ml respectively). Considering a cutoff point of 30 Pg/ml for IL-6, sensitivity, specifically, PPV and NPV value of 21.1%, 66.6%, 86.8% and 23.37% were obtained, respectively. Considering a cutoff point of 35 IU/ml for CA125, sensitivity, specifically, PPV and NPV were 44.76%, 94.73%, 89.47% and 63.15%, respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 0.69 for CA125 and 0.54 for IL6, which showed a low value for these tests.Conclusion: Although CA125 and IL-6 were higher than normal controls in endometriosis, area under the ROC curve, did not show significant any diagnostic value for these tests.
       
  • The effect of emotion regulation training in decreasing emotion failures
           and self-injurious behaviors among students suffering from specific
           learning disorder(SLD)

    • Authors: Saeed Pourabdol
      Abstract: Background: A great deal of attention has been given to the study of learning disorders. Hence, the aim of this research was to study the effect of emotion regulation training in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors among students suffering from specific learning disorder.Methods: This was an experimental study with the pre-test, post-test and a control group. Research population included all 5th grade male students suffering from specific learning disorder (case study: 5th grade students in Ardabil in 2015). Research sample included 40 male students suffering from specific learning disorder(SLD) who were selected through multi-step cluster sampling and classified into two groups: Experimental group (n= 20) and control group (n= 20). The following tools were used for data collection: Kay Math mathematic Test, Raven Intelligence Test, Reading Test of Shafiei et al, Falahchay Writing Expression, Emotion Failures Scale, Self-Injurious Behavior Questionnaire and Diagnostic Interview based on DSM-5. Data were analyzed by multivariate of variance analysis (MANOVA) model in the SPSS software version 22.Results: The results of MANOVA revealed that emotion regulation training was effective in decreasing emotion failures in all parameters (difficulty in describing feelings, difficulty in identifying feelings, and externally oriented thinking style) and self-injurious behaviors in students suffering from specific learning disorder (p< 0.001).Conclusion: In this study, it was found that since emotion regulation training can have a remarkable effect on reducing negative emotions and increasing the positive ones this treatment can play an eminent role in decreasing emotion failures and self-injurious behaviors in such students.
       
  • Surgical infrainguinal revascularization for peripheral arterial disease:
           factors affecting patency rate

    • Authors: Fezzeh Elyasinia
      Abstract: Background: Peripheral arterial disease is a source of morbidity and mortality. Surgical vascular reconstruction is a treatment option but probability of failure and complications are important concerns. In this study, we evaluated outcome of surgical infrainguinal reconstruction and factors affecting graft patency for a period of one year.Methods: In this cohort study, 85 consecutive patients with chronic ischemia who underwent lower extremity surgical vascular reconstruction (including 52 femoropopliteal and 25 femorofemoral bypass) from March 2007 to Feb 2009 were recruited. Graft patency was evaluated before discharge from hospital and one year after the surgical operation using duplex ultrasonography. Association between possible risk factors and graft patency were evaluated.Results: In general, 71% (37 patients) of femoropopliteal and 52% (13 patients) of femorofemoral reconstructions were patent during the follow up period. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, opium use and ischemic heart disease were significantly associated with decreased rate of patency (p
       
  • Survival from skin cancer and its associated factors in Kurdistan province
           of Iran

    • Authors: Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran
      Abstract: Background: We explored survival of skin cancer and its determinants in Kurdistan province of Iran.Methods: In a retrospective cohort design, we identified all registered skin cancer patients in Kurdistan Cancer Registry from year 2000 to 2009. Information on time and cause of death were obtained from Registrar’s office and information on type, stage and anatomic locations were extracted from patients’ hospital records. Additional demographic information was collected via a telephone interview. We calculated the 3 and 5 years survival. Survival experiences in different groups were compared using log rank test. Cox proportional hazard model was built and hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results: Of a total of 1353, contact information for 667 patients were available, all of which were followed up. 472 telephone interviews were conducted. Mean follow-up time was 34 months. We identified 78 deaths in this group of patients and 44 of them were because of skin cancer. After controlling for confounding, tumour type, anatomical location, and diseases stage remained significantly associated with survival. Hazard ratios for death because of squamous cell carcinoma was 74.5(95%CI:4.8-1146) and for melanoma was 24.4(95%CI:1.3-485) compared with basal cell carcinomas.  Hazard ratio for tumours in stage 4 was 16.7 (95%CI:1.8-156.6) and for stage 3 was 16.8(95%CI:1.07-260) compared with stage 1 and 2.Conclusion: Tumour stage is independently associated with survival. Relatively low survival rates suggest delayed diagnosis. Increasing public awareness through media about the warning signs of skin cancers could increase the chance of survival in these patients.
       
  • Exploring Iranian nurses’ experiences of missed nursing care: a
           qualitative study: a threat to patient and nurses’ health

    • Authors: Fatemeh Ghaffari
      Abstract: Background: The main objective of nursing is to provide comprehensive nursing care that is appropriate to patients’ needs. However, the incidence of missed nursing care compromises the provision of comprehensive and safe care and threatens patients’ lives. Thus, this in-depth qualitative study aimed to explore nurses’ experiences of missed care and factors affecting it. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of missed care in clinical practice.Methods: In this study, qualitative research methodology, with a content analysis approach was used. The sample included 23 nurses in referral teaching hospitals. Data were collected through focus group discussions, face-to-face and telephonic interviews, using semi-structured questions.Results: Three themes, comprising several sub-themes, emerged, and included contextual conditions, coercion, and deprivation.Conclusion: The results indicated that organizational and personal factors facilitate the incidence of coerced, missed nursing care. High quality of care, the prevention of missed care incidences and patient safety depend on the provision of adequate staff, appropriate equipment and a sense of responsibility for patients’ care needs among nurses.
       
  • Auditory memory function in expert chess players

    • Authors: Ahmad Geshani
      Abstract: Background: Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test.Methods: The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21.Results: The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p&le0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results.  Conclusion: Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.
       
  • Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus, Hepatitis C virus and human
           immunodeficiency virus infections among patients candidate for orthopedic
           trauma surgeries

    • Authors: Babak Otoukesh
      Abstract: Background: Infectious diseases are major public health problems, among which blood-borne ones are the most important infections. Patients who undergo orthopedic surgery are at higher risk of transmitting infectious diseases from and to others, due to repeated blood examinations and injection, drains secretion and receiving blood products. Accordingly, in this study we determined prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections in patients who underwent surgery in a general training hospital.Methods: In this cross-sectional study the prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections was determined among 320 patients under orthopedic trauma surgeries in a general training hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2009 to 2011. Associations of these rates with age, gender, marital status, residence location, substance abuse history, hospital admission history, previous surgery, blood transfusion, dentistry procedures, and previous medical history were also assessed.Results: A total of 320 patients (290 male, 30 female) were studied. Ten patients (3.2%) had at least one of these three infections. Totally 10 patients (3.2%), 2 subjects (0.6%), and 8 patients (2.5%) had HCV, HIV, and HBV infections, respectively. None of the evaluated variables had significant relationship with HCV, HBV, and HIV infections (p> 0.05).Conclusion: According to the obtained results, routine use of diagnostic tests for infectious disease such as HIV and viral hepatitis is recommended and should be considered before orthopedic operations.
       
  • Effects of creatine supplementation on learning, memory retrieval, and
           apoptosis in an experimental animal model of Alzheimer disease

    • Authors: Hamideh Pishva
      Abstract: Background: Alzheimer disease is the main cause of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people. Considering the improving effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance, this study aimed to determine the effects of creatine supplementation on learning, memory, and apoptosis in an experimental model of Alzheimer’s disease.Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats each weighing 250±50 grams were divided into four groups. The AdCr+ (A&beta injection, creatine supplementation) and AdCr- groups (A&beta injection, no creatine supplementation) were injected bilaterally with amyloid beta (A&beta) (0.2µg in each CA1 area), and the sham group was injected with normal saline in the same area. After the injection, the AdCr+ group received a diet of 2% creatine for six weeks. The control group underwent no surgical or dietary intervention. After six weeks the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was administered, to measure learning and memory retrieval. After sacrificing the animals, TUNEL staining for an anti-apoptosis assay was performed for the sham, AdCr+, and AdCr- groups. All groups were compared by independent t-test using SPSS software.Results: Results of MWM show that rats in sham and control groups performed better than those in the AdCr- and AdCr+ groups. Compared to sham group, AdCr+ and AdCr- groups had more TUNEL positive neurons count.  Results indicated no differences between the AdCr+ and AdCr- groups in learning, memory retrieval, and percentage of TUNEL positive neurons.Conclusion: After A&beta injection, creatine supplementation had no effect on learning, memory retrieval, or neuron apoptosis in male Wistar rats.
       
  • The prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection in the
           oligospermic and azoospermic men

    • Authors: Seyed Hamidreza Monavari
      Abstract: Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases that affects men like women and infected cutaneous and mucosal squamous epithelium. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in the semen of oligospermic, azoospermic and normal patients.Methods: From June 2012 to June 2013, a total of 90 individuals were enrolled in this cross sectional comparative study. The participants were classified into three groups (oligospermia, azoosprmia and normal). This classification was based on a new WHO reference values for human semen characteristics published on 2010. After extraction of DNA from specimens L1 gene of HPV was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (Nested-PCR) and the PCR products of positive specimens were genotyped using INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay.Results:Among 50 confirmed oligospermic male, 15 were HPV DNA positive (30%). In azoospemic group we had 8 HPV DNA positive (40%) and in normal group just 3 of 20(15%) samples were positive. Statistical assessment was done with SPSS v.15. Chi-square test showed no significant relationship between 3 groups results. Based on independent samples t-test, we found statistical significant relationship for sperm count (p
       
  • Relationship between esophageal clinical symptoms and manometry findings
           in patients with esophageal motility disorders: a cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Hashem Fakhre Yaseri
      Abstract: Background: Manometry is the gold-standard diagnostic test for motility disorders in the esophagus. The development of high-resolution manometry catheters and software displays of manometry recordings in color-coded pressure plots have changed the diagnostic assessment of esophageal disease. The diagnostic value of particular esophageal clinical symptoms among patients suspected of esophageal motor disorders (EMDs) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive accuracy of presenting esophageal symptoms between abnormal and normal esophageal manometry findings.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 623 patients aged 11-80 years. Data were collected from clinical examinations as well as patient questionnaires. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated after high-resolution manometry plots were reviewed according to the most recent Chicago Criteria.Results: The clinical symptoms were not sensitive enough to discriminate between EMDs. Nevertheless, dysphagia, noncardiac chest pain, hoarseness, vomiting, and weight loss had high specificity and high accuracy to distinguish EMDs from normal findings. Regurgitation and heartburn did not have good accuracy for the diagnosis of EMDs.Conclusion: Clinical symptoms are not reliable enough to discriminate between EMDs. Clinical symptoms can, however, discriminate between normal findings and EMDs, especially achalasia. 
       
  • Investigation of relationship between social capital and quality of life
           in female headed families

    • Authors: Maryam Dastoorpoor
      Abstract:   Background: Although most studies on female-headed families focus on women's access to social support, the associations between social capital and quality of life in these families are unclear in many societies (such as Iran). This study aimed to determine the associations between social capital and quality of life in Iranian female headed families.   Methods : This cross-sectional study was performed on 152 female-headed households supported by Tehran Municipality, district 9 from April 2011 to July 2012. Convenience sampling was employed. Data were collected using demographic questionnaire, the Iranian version of World Health Organization Quality of Life, and the Word Bank Social Capital. Descriptive and multiple regression methods were used to analyze the data.   Results : The mean±SD age of participants was 50.8±13.8 years. Findings revealed that in quality of life, the domains of environment health and social relation received the lowest (9.87 ± 2.41) and the highest (12.61 ±3.43) scores respectively and with respect to social capital, membership in groups and social trust had the least (19.61 ± 17.11) and the most (51.04 ± 17.37) scores, respectively. The multiple regression model revealed a significant positive association between total score of the quality of life and the total score for the social capital (p< 0.001).   Conclusion : Findings suggest that quality of life of female-headed families and social capital domains are strongly related. This means that by improving the social capital, women’s life can also be improved.  
       
  • Genotype and allele frequency of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian
           population

    • Authors: Nader Tajik
      Abstract:   Background: Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is important in metabolism of wide range of drugs. CYP2C19*17 is a novel variant allele which increases gene transcription and therefore results in ultra-rapid metabolizer phenotype (URM). Distribution of this variant allele has not been well studied worldwide. The aim of present study was to investigate allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C19*17 in a healthy Iranian population and compare them with other ethnic groups.   Methods : One hundred eighty healthy unrelated Iranian volunteer took part in this study and were genotyped for CYP2C19 *2, *3, *17 (-3402) by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and CYP2C19*17 (-806) by a nested-PCR assays. The distribution of CYP2C19*17 polymorphism in Iranian population was then compared with other ethnic groups.   Results : The CYP2C19*17 allele frequency was 21.6% in Iranian population. Among studied subjects 5.5% were homozygous for CYP2C19*17 and phenotyped as ultra-rapid metabolizers 28.8% were genotyped as CYP2C19*1*17 (extensive metabolizers) and 3.3% as CYP2C19*2*17 (intermediate metabolizers).   Conclusion : The CYP2C19*17 genetic distribution in Iranian population is similar to Middle East or European countries. The high frequency of CYP2C19*17 in Iranian population highlights the importance of this new variant allele in metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates. Thus, future association studies are required to reveal clinical consequence of this genetic polymorphism in carrier individuals.
       
  • Psychometric assessment of Beck scale for suicidal ideation (BSSI) in
           general population in Tehran

    • Authors: Maryam Esfahani
      Abstract:   Background: Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI) is a widely used instrument to assess suicidality. However, there is only limited information about the psychometric characteristics of BSSI in the Persian language. In this study, we investigated the validity, reliability and factor structure of the BSSI in the general population of Tehran.   Methods : Initially, 900 questionnaire packages were distributed to the general population of Tehran (response rate: 59 percent), using cluster random sampling method. The questionnaire package consisted of a demographic questionnaire, the Persian translation of the BSSI, Symptom checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Hopelessness Inventory (BHI) and Philips Social Support Appraisal Scale. Internal consistency and correlations of the BSSI scores with other constructs were investigated. Factor analysis was done using principal component method.   Results : The Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the screening part and the whole scale were satisfactory (>0.8). The scores of both the screening part and the total scale in individuals who experienced suicidal attempt were higher than others. Both the screening part and the total scale had a positive correlation with depression and Global Severity Index in SCL-90-R, and a negative correlation with social support. The scores of the screening part had a positive correlation with anxiety, psychoticism, hostility and hopelessness as well. The screening part consisted of a single factor which explains 60% of the total variance.   Conclusion : The Persian translation of the BSSI has desirable psychometric properties in research setting. However, the clinical usage of the scale remains to be explored, and the factor structure of the whole questionnaire should be assessed in a clinical sample.
       
  • Opium addiction in patients with coronary artery disease: a grounded
           theory study

    • Authors: Fatemeh Ghaffari
      Abstract:   Background: There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach.   Methods : The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998).   Results : The core category was ‘Fighting for Survival’, comprising three main themes, namely, ‘the gateway’, ‘blowing into the fire’ and ‘getting stuck in the mud’.   Conclusion : Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients’ family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students’ must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs.
       
  • Technical efficiency and resources allocation in university hospitals in
           Tehran, 2009-2012

    • Authors: YarAllah Roumiani
      Abstract:     Background: Assessment of hospitals’ performance in achieving its goals is a basic necessity. Measuring the efficiency of hospitals in order to boost resource productivity in healthcare organizations is extremely important. The aim of this study was to measure technical efficiency and determining status of resource allocation in some university hospitals, in Tehran, Iran.   Methods : This study was conducted in 2012 the research population consisted of all hospitals affiliated to Iran and Tehran medical sciences universities of. Required data, such as human and capital resources information and also production variables (hospital outputs) were collected from data centers of studied hospitals. Data were analyzed using data envelopment analysis (DEA) method, Deap2,1 software and the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) method, Frontier4,1 software.   Results : According to DEA method, average of technical, management (pure) and scale efficiency of the studied hospitals during the study period were calculated 0.87, 0.971, and 0.907, respectively. All kinds of efficiency did not follow a fixed trend over the study time and were constantly changing. In the stochastic frontier's production function analysis, the technical efficiency of the studied industry during the study period was estimated to be 0.389.   Conclusion : This study represented hospitals with the highest and lowest efficiency. Reference hospitals (more efficient states) were indicated for the inefficient centers. According to the findings, it was found that in the hospitals that do not operate efficiently, there is a capacity to improve the technical efficiency by removing excess inputs without changes in the level of outputs. However, by the optimal allocation of resources in most studied hospitals, very important economy of scale can be achieved.  
       
  • Changes in postural and trunk muscles responses in patients with chronic
           nonspecific low back pain during sudden upper limb loading

    • Authors: Javad Sarrafzadeh
      Abstract:   Background: Alterations in the neuromuscular control of the spine were found in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Sudden loading of the spine is assumed to be the cause of approximately 12% of lower back injuries. However, some aspects of this problem, such as alterations in the sensory–motor control of the spine, remain questionable. This study investigated postural and neuro–motor changes in trunk muscles during sudden upper limb loading in patients with CLBP.  Methods : Electromyography of the erector spinae (ES) and transverses abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) and external oblique (EOA) muscles were recorded in 20 patients with CLBP and 20 asymptomatic individuals with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Moreover, measurements of the center of pressure (COP) and vertical ground reaction force (GRF) or Fz were recorded using a force plate. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05.  Results : In patients with CLBP, decreased electrical activity of the ES muscle was observed under both the EO and EC conditions and that of the TrA/IO muscle was observed under the EO condition (p< 0.05). Other findings included a shorter peak latency of the ES muscle in the EO condition and a greater increase in the peak latency of the ES muscle following the EC condition (p< 0.05). No significant differences were observed in COP and GRF measurements between the groups.  Conclusion : Electrical muscle activity may indicate less stiffening or preparatory muscle activity in the trunk muscle of patients with CLBP. Altered latency of the muscle may lead to microtrauma of lumbar structures and CLBP.
       
  • Prediction of unwanted pregnancies using logistic regression, probit
           regression and discriminant analysis

    • Authors: Katayoon Bakhteyar
      Abstract:   Background: Unwanted pregnancy not intended by at least one of the parents has undesirable consequences for the family and the society. In the present study, three classification models were used and compared to predict unwanted pregnancies in an urban population.  Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 887 pregnant mothers referring to health centers in Khorramabad, Iran, in 2012 were selected by the stratified and cluster sampling relevant variables were measured and for prediction of unwanted pregnancy, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, and probit regression models and SPSS software version 21 were used. To compare these models, indicators such as sensitivity, specificity, the area under the ROC curve, and the percentage of correct predictions were used.  Results : The prevalence of unwanted pregnancies was 25.3%. The logistic and probit regression models indicated that parity and pregnancy spacing, contraceptive methods, household income and number of living male children were related to unwanted pregnancy. The performance of the models based on the area under the ROC curve was 0.735, 0.733, and 0.680 for logistic regression, probit regression, and linear discriminant analysis, respectively.  Conclusion : Given the relatively high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies in Khorramabad, it seems necessary to revise family planning programs. Despite the similar accuracy of the models, if the researcher is interested in the interpretability of the results, the use of the logistic regression model is recommended.
       
  • Comparison of temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and
           temporal lobe epilepsies due to other etiologies

    • Authors: Ali A. Asadi-Pooya
      Abstract:   Background: This study compares the clinical characteristics of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (mTLE-HS) with those who have temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to other etiologies.   Methods : In this retrospective study all patients with a clinical diagnosis of TLE were recruited in a referral outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from September 2008 to May 2013. We classified the patients with TLE as having mesial temporal sclerosis if they had clear signs of mesial temporal sclerosis and/or atrophy in their MRI and others who had any other MRI abnormality.   Results : A total of 174 patients were studied (including 105 patients with mTLE-HS and 69 patients with TLE due to other etiologies). Frequency of seizure types was not significantly different between these two groups. Earlier age at epilepsy onset (p= 0.005), a past history of febrile seizures (p= 0.010) and presence of affective auras (p= 0.008) were commonly seen in patients with mTLE-HS, while auditory auras (p= 0.020) were more frequent in those with TLE due to other etiologies.   Conclusion : The mainstay for making a correct diagnosis, when evaluating a patient with seizure, is having a standardized approach, particularly with regard to taking a detailed clinical history. One may find important clues in the clinical history (e.g., age at disease onset, detailed seizure description and past history) to make a correct diagnosis.
       
  • Embryo transfer in days 2 to 4 following intracytoplasmic sperm injection:
           a prospective cohort study

    • Authors: Atossa Mahdavi
      Abstract:   Background: Improvement of assisted reproductive technique (ART) results in higher pregnancy rates from positive Beta HCG to take home baby statistics. Despite developments in culture media allowing blastocyst stage transfer, some centers apply second, third and sometimes fourth day post injection for embryo transfer. This study aimed to compare their reproductive outcomes.   Methods : This prospective cohort study conducted on 218 infertile couples with at least 4 oocytes retrieved and 2 good quality embryos. They were divided consecutively into 2nd (ET2) or 3rd (ET3) day embryo transfer. Some patients experienced 4rd (ET4) day embryo transfer due to weekend reasons, so we included them in our comparison as well. There were 98, 97 and 23 patients in the aforementioned groups, respectively. Reproductive and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated by Chi square and t-test with the significance level set at α=0.05.   Results : Totally, 73 patients (33%) had positive beta HCG and 39.7 percent of them (n=29) experienced pregnancy loss. Positive Beta HCG was detected in 31(31.6%) of ET2 patients, 38 (39.2%) of ET3 patients and 4 (17.4%) of ET4 group. Abortion or pregnancy loss was reported in 9(29%) of ET2 patients, 18 (47.4%) of ET3 patients and 2 (50%) of ET4 group.   Conclusion : Our study demonstrated that there may be a higher pregnancy as well as higher abortion in day 3 embryo transfer.
       
  • Acute effects of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptoms of
           delayed onset muscle soreness

    • Authors: Khadijeh Hoseinzadeh
      Abstract:   Background: Inflammation and pain induced by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) as a result of eccentric exercise (EE) or unaccustomed activity cause some difficulties in exercise for athletes. The purpose of this study was to survey the effect of ginger extract on biochemical and functional symptom of delayed onset muscle soreness.   Methods : In a quasi-experimental study, 36 healthy female subjects, who were recruited by intra dormitory calls, randomly divided into 3 groups, including: ginger intake 1 hour before exercise (GIBE), ginger intake immediately after exercise (GIAE) and placebo group (PL). Subjects consumed capsules contain 60 mg of ginger extract (equivalent of 2 g dried ginger powder) or placebo before and after exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of a 20 minute step test using a 46cm step at a rate of 15 steps per minute. The blood samples were taken before, 1, 24 and 48 hour after exercise to assay creatine kinase (CK) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Muscle pain scores, isometric strength and circumference of thigh muscle, and hip range of motion were recorded at mentioned times. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure was used to determine the differences between groups.   Results : The results showed a significant reduction of pain in GIBE compared to GIAE after 24 and 48h of EE and GIAE compared to PL (p
       
  • Using drug sales data to evaluate the epidemiology of cardio-metabolic
           risk factors and their inequality: an ecological study on atorvastatin and
           total cholesterol in Iran

    • Authors: Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni
      Abstract:   Background: Statins have been effective medications in lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations across populations over time. The aim of this study was to estimate national and provincial trends in atorvastatin sales in Iran, to systematically quantify its relationship with socio-economic indicators, and changes in TC level.   Methods : In this retrospective ecological study, conducted in Iran, we examined trends in atorvastatin sales, the wealth index (WI) as a validly-available socio-economic indicator, and TC level between 2004 and 2011. The main outcome variable was mean atorvastatin sold in defined daily dose per 100,000 people per day (DPD). We analyzed the relationship between WI and DPD and between DPD and mean TC across time and space.   Results : At national level, both mean WI and mean DPD showed increasing trend over time, while we observed decreasing trend for TC. Mean WI and DPD in 2011 was nearly 5 and 50 time that of their respective figures in 2004, while the mean TC decreased for nearly 10%. Increases in both WI and DPD had happened in every province, but with different patterns. The maximum and minimum changes in DPD versus WI were seen in Gilan and North Khorasan respectively.   Conclusion : A striking increase occurred in the sales for atorvastatin in Iran from 2004-2012 in most provinces examined. The wealthier a province became, the more sales were seen for atorvastatin. TC optimistically decreased from 2005 to 2011 and its decrease was positively correlated with increasing sales for atorvastatin.  
       
  • Silent osteonecrosis of the femoral head following high-dose
           corticosteroid (CS) medications

    • Authors: Nasim Bahar
      Abstract:   Background: Osteonecrosis (ON) is known to be one of the most disabling complications following corticosteroid (CS) medications. However, evidence regarding risk of asymptomatic prevalence of ON among different diseases and the impact of variable steroid regimens are conflicting. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ON of femoral head in asymptomatic patients with systemic rheumatic diseases who received high-dose CS and also clarify its relationship with different dosages and regimens.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 50 consecutive patients receiving high-dose CS for rheumatic diseases who have no pelvic pain were recruited. MRI of both hips was performed on all patients using a 1.5 Tesla to diagnose ON.   Results : Of 50 subjects, 18 (36%) developed ON of the femoral head. Groups with and without ON were comparable in terms of sex, age and mean starting CS dose. There was no statistical difference in the type of CS regimen including daily dose, peak dose and cumulative dose between the two groups. However, silent ON was associated with both the cumulative CS dose and the duration of CS therapy.   Conclusion : According to high prevalence of ON in our selected patients with no other identifiable risk factor for ON, monitoring of high risk patients with periodic hip MRI would help diagnose necrosis in early stage.
       
  • Safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation
           therapy: a systematic review

    • Authors: Amir Norouzi
      Abstract:   Background: Intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT) is the transfer of a single large radiation dose to the tumor bed during surgery with the final goal of improving regional tumor control. This study aimed to investigate the safety, effectiveness and economic evaluation of intra-operative radiation therapy.   Methods : The scientific literature was searched in the main biomedical databases (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Cochrane Library and PubMed) up to March 2014. Two independent reviewers selected the papers based on pre-established inclusion criteria, with any disagreements being resolved by consensus. Data were then extracted and summarized in a structured form. Results from studies were analyzed and discussed within a descriptive synthesis.   Results : Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. It seems that outcomes from using intra-operative radiation therapy can be considered in various kinds of cancers like breast, pancreatic and colorectal cancers. The application of this method may provide significant survival increase only for colorectal cancer, but this increase was not significant for other types of cancer. This technology had low complications and it is relatively safe. Using intra-operative radiation therapy could potentially be accounted as a cost-effective strategy for controlling and managing breast cancer.   Conclusion : According to the existing evidences, that are the highest medical evidences for using intra-operative radiation therapy, one can generally conclude that intra-operative radiation therapy is considered as a relatively safe and cost-effective method for managing early-stage breast cancer and it can significantly increase the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Also, the results of this study have policy implications with respect to the reimbursement of this technology.   
       
  • A qualitative study on personal information management (PIM) in clinical
           and basic sciences faculty members of a medical university in Iran

    • Authors: Leila Abdollahi
      Abstract:   Background: Personal Information Management (PIM) refers to the tools and activities to save and retrieve personal information for future uses. This study examined the PIM activities of faculty members of Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) regarding their preferred PIM tools and four aspects of acquiring, organizing, storing and retrieving personal information.   Methods : The qualitative design was based on phenomenology approach and we carried out 37 interviews with clinical and basic sciences faculty members of IUMS in 2014. The participants were selected using a random sampling method. All interviews were recorded by a digital voice recorder, and then transcribed, codified and finally analyzed using NVivo 8 software.   Results : The use of PIM electronic tools (e-tools) was below expectation among the studied sample and just 37% had reasonable knowledge of PIM e-tools such as, external hard drivers, flash memories etc. However, all participants used both paper and electronic devices to store and access information. Internal mass memories (in Laptops) and flash memories were the most used e-tools to save information. Most participants used “subject” (41.00%) and “file name” (33.7 %) to save, organize and retrieve their stored information. Most users preferred paper-based rather than electronic tools to keep their personal information.   Conclusion : Faculty members had little knowledge about PIM techniques and tools. Those who organized personal information could easier retrieve the stored information for future uses. Enhancing familiarity with PIM tools and training courses of PIM tools and techniques are suggested.
       
  • Psychometric properties of Persian version of the multifactor leadership
           questionnaire

    • Authors: Zohreh Sohrabi
      Abstract:   Background: Outstanding leadership is one of the important and vital concepts in management and educational leadership debates especially in educational organizations such as universities. Thus, effective educational leadership and adopting an appropriate tool to assess leadership in education are crucial in these institutions. The present study was conducted to develop an instrument for measuring the leadership style in faculty members.  Methods : In this descriptive cross-sectional study, content and face validity of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was examined using the opinions of 10 experienced faculty members as a panel of experts. For construct validity, 210 questionnaires were administered to faculty members of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Confirmatory factor analysis was run using principal component analysis and Varimax rotation method. The reliability of the scale was measured through internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha formula. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.16 and LISREL software.  Results : Factor analysis and expert opinion resulted in a questionnaire with 18 items across six subscales including idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, contingent reward, and management by exception. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was acceptable (0.90). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the scale had appropriate goodness of fit.  Conclusion : The 18-item Educational Leadership Questionnaire was found to have acceptable validity and reliability for measuring leadership style in the faculty. It is recommended that the questionnaire be administered to a larger sample.
       
  • Can hand dexterity predict the disability status of patients with multiple
           sclerosis'

    • Authors: Malahat Akbarfahimi
      Abstract:   Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological disease. Hand dysfunction is one of the main complaints of patients with MS. The present study aimed to compare hand dexterity of MS patients with low Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and healthy adults. It also sought to identify the predictors of disability status of patients with MS based on their manual dexterity and demographic characteristics.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 60 (16 male/44 female) patients with MS and 60 (19 male/41 female) healthy people, who matched in terms of age and sex, were recruited. Their hand dexterity was evaluated by the Purdue Pegboard Test. The disability status of the MS group was determined by the Expanded Disability Status Scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS15.   Results : The hand dexterity in MS group even with low EDSS score (1.5 ± 1.07) was weaker than control group. Moreover, the dexterity of dominant hand and alternating two hands coordination subtests of the PPT was a good discriminator between two groups (p
       
  • Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    • Authors: Hamid Salehiniya
      Abstract: Background: is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized)of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran).Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancerMethodsRegistry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers weredefined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentagechange (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied.: Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in CancerResults46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breastcancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in menwere stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasingtrend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p
       
  • Dietary protein intakes and risk of ulcerative colitis

    • Authors: Azita Hekmatdoost
      Abstract:   Background: The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) is rising in populations with western-style diet, rich in fat and protein, and low in fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary protein intakes and the risk of developing incident UC.   Methods : Sixty two cases of UC and 124 controls were studied using country-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Group comparisons by each factor were done using χ2 test, and significance level was set at α= 0.05. Logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding variables was carried out.   Results : Univariate analysis suggested positive associations between processed meat, red meat and organ meat with risk of ulcerative colitis. Comparing highest versus lowest categories of consumption, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis accounting for potential confounding variables indicated that patients who consumed a higher amount of processed meat were at a higher risk for developing UC (P value for trend= 0.02). Similarly, patients who consumed higher amounts of red meat were at a higher risk for UC (P value for trend= 0.01). The highest tertile of intake of organ meat was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis with a statistically significant trend across tertiles (P value for trend= 0.01) when adjusted.   Conclusion : In this case-control study we observed that higher consumptions of processed meat, red meat and organ meat were associated with increased risk for UC.
       
  • Pamphlet as a tool for continuing medical education: performance
           assessment in a randomized controlled interventional study

    • Authors: Amir Hossein Emami
      Abstract:   Background: Pamphlet is a tool used for distance continuous professional development programs. In this study, we assessed the impact of an educational pamphlet on improving prescription writing errors in general physicians’ performance.   Methods : In this randomized controlled interventional study, we prepared a training pamphlet according to the most prevalent prescription writing problems. We randomized 200 participants among general physicians affiliated with Tehran Social Security Insurance Organization, and randomly divided them into intervention and control groups. Participants’ prescriptions (N=34888) were investigated over a month, and then the prepared pamphlet was sent out to the participants in the intervention group. After three months we examined their one-month prescriptions again (N=30296) and investigated the changes in prescription errors.   Results : There was no significant difference in the mean number of prescriptions in two groups before and after intervention (p=0.076). Mean number of medicinal items reduced significantly in intervention group. Also mean number of prescriptions including injection drugs (p=0.024), Corticosteroids (p=0.036), Cephalosporin (p=0.017) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (p=0.005) reduced significantly. No significant differences were found for other errors.   Conclusion : This study showed that use of an appropriate pamphlet has a considerable impact on improving general physicians’ performance and could be applied for continuous professional development.
       
  • Patient safety culture in hospitals of Iran: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis

    • Authors: Farbod Ebadifard Azar
      Abstract: Background: healthcare organizations is being increasingly used. The aim of this study was to clarify PSC statusin Iranian hospitals using a meta-analysis method.Nowadays, for quality improvement, measuring patient safety culture (PSC) inMethodsSID and IranMedex using the search terms including patient safety, patient safety culture, patientsafety climate and combined with hospital (such as “hospital survey on patient safety culture”),measurement, assessment, survey and Iran. A total of 11 articles which conducted using HospitalSurvey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire initially were reviewed. To estimateoverall PSC status and perform the meta-analyses, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) softwarev. 2 was employed.: Six databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Magiran,Resultsunits” dimension received the highest score of PSC (67.4%) and “Non-punitive response to error”the lowest score (32.4%). About 41% of participants in reviewed articles evaluate their hospitals’performance in PSC as ‘excellent/very good’. Approximately %52.7 of participants did not reportany adverse event in the past 12 months.: The overall PSC score based on the random model was 50.1%. “Teamwork within hospitalConclusionAmong the 12 dimensions of HSOPSC questionnaire, the “Non-punitive response to error” achievedthe lowest score and could be a priority for future interventions. In this regard, hospitals staff shouldbe encouraged to report adverse event without fear of punitive action.: The results of this study show that Iranian hospitals’ performances in PSC were poor.
       
  • Stakeholders' perspective on health equity and its indicators in Iran

    • Authors: Massomeh Goshtaei
      Abstract: Background: In this regard, in Iran a plan was developed and accordingly 52 indicators to measure equity inhealth were developed and announced by the Ministry of Health in collaboration with other sectors.This study aims to obtain a deeper understanding of the development of health equity indicators andidentify their implementation challenges and proposed solutions from the perspective of policy makersand executives responsible for the indicators development and implementation.To reduce the health inequity, it is necessary to measure and monitor these inequalities.MethodsStakeholders involved in the development and implementation of these health equity indicators (atnational and provincial levels), and the review and analysis of relevant documents including meetingminutes, working plans and working progress reports. Data were analyzed using a framework analysisapproach.: In this qualitative study, data were gathered using semi-structured interviews with 15Resultsthe use of health equity indicators and process of indicators development, challenges ofdevelopment and implementation of the indicators and laying the groundwork for the establishmentof indicators. The findings showed that policy makers' viewpoint on concepts and indicators is differentfrom those of executives and their perceptions have little in common. The establishment ofindicators requires accurate stakeholders' understanding and accurate insight into the issue of equityin health, political will, financing, training and empowerment of organization's employees, legal requirements,and finally a clear action plan.: Four main themes were identified, including the concept of equity in health and its importance,Conclusionand executives. As the attention has been focused recently on the issue, in addition to knowledgeimprovement, proper solutions with an intersect oral collaboration approach in order to tackle challengesshould be considered.: The development of the indicators requires a shared understanding among policy makers
       
  • Effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose levels and post-partum
           screening in mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    • Authors: Mehrnaz Geranmayeh
      Abstract:   Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. GDM, defined as glucose intolerance, first diagnosed or initiated during pregnancy affects 1-14% of pregnancies based on various studies. Screening and early diagnosis and appropriate glycemic control can improve prenatal outcomes. Telephone follow-up seems to be a reasonable way for pregnant women follow-up. The present study evaluated the effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose level during pregnancy and postpartum screening.   Methods :Eighty mothers with GDM were enrolled in this clinical trial and randomly divided into intervention and control groups. All mothers were asked to check their blood sugar levels fivetimes daily. In intervention group, telephone intervention was performed for 10 weeks. In each follow-up, individuals were followed for insulin injections, diet, clinical tests and reminding the next visit. In control group, three times of telephone call was established to record blood sugar levels. Another telephone call was established at 6 weeks of postpartum in both study groups to evaluate the performance of the screening test for blood sugar.   Results :The mean age of mothers was 30.9±5 years in the control and 30.7±5.1 years in the intervention groups In intervention group, mean level of blood glucose, 2 hours after lunch at 28 weeks of pregnancy was significantly lower than the control group (P
       
  • Comparison of quality of clinical supervision as perceived by attending
           physicians and residents in university teaching hospitals in Tehran

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Baradaran
      Abstract: Background: Clinicalsupervision is an important factor in the development of competency in residencyprogram. Attending physicians play a key role in supervision of residents.However little is known about how attending physicians and residents perceivethe quality of clinical supervision. The aim of this study was to explore thedifferences between perceived qualities of supervision in these two groups indifferent wards in teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran.  Methods: A valid questionnaire were completed by 219attending physicians  and residents fromsurgery, psychiatry, gynecology, pediatrics, internal medicine, orthopedics andradiology wards in two teaching hospital affiliated to Iran University ofMedical Sciences. This questionnaire contained 15 items in regards tosupervisory roles, rated on a five point Likert scale (1=never, 2=seldom,3=sometimes, 4=often, 5=always).   Results: Out of 219 participants, 90 (41%) were attendingphysicians and 129 (59%) were residents. The overall mean±SD scores ofperceived clinical supervision achieved by attending physicians and residentswere respectively, 4.20±0.5 and 3.00±0.7 which was statistically significant(p
       
  • Abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders based on Rome
           III criteria in a pediatric gastroenterology clinic

    • Authors: Ali Bidari
      Abstract: Background: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) entail several distinct conditions that collectively account for a sizeable proportion of patients complaining of abdominal pain. Physicians’ awareness is fundamental to avoid unnecessary evaluations and to alleviate stress-related problems. This study aimed to assess the relative frequencies of FGIDs and related categories in a selected Iranian population.  Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study in a gastroenterology clinic of a tertiary care pediatric hospital in Iran. Children and adolescents between the age of 4 and 18 years referred to the clinic from October 2011 to February 2013 were enrolled if they were diagnosed with FGID according to the Rome III criteria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, pain location, duration and frequency, associated symptoms, and pertinent family history. We used descriptive analyses to show mean (±SD) and relative frequencies of categories of FGIDs.Results: We diagnosed 183 (114 female) with FGIDs out of 1307 children and adolescents who were visited in the clinic. There was history of psychiatric disorders in 42 (22.9%) participants, and migraine headaches and gastrointestinal disorders were at least in one of the parents in 21 (11.5%) and 64 (34.9%) participants, respectively. We defined 84 (46%) patients under Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) category, 38 (21%) under Abdominal Migraine, 26 (14%) under Functional Abdominal Pain, 21 (11%) under Functional Dyspepsia, and 7 (4%) under Functional Abdominal Pain Syndrome. Seven children (4%) had no defining feature for FGID categories and therefore labeled as unclassified. Conclusion: FGID was a prevalent diagnosis among children and adolescents with abdominal pain. IBS was the largest category. Only a minority were unclassifiable under the Rome III criteria, indicating improved differentiation characteristics of Rome III criteria compared to the Rome II version. 
       
  • Measuring equity in household's health care payments (Tehran- Iran 2013):
           technical points for health policy decision makers

    • Authors: Ali Sarabi Asiabar
      Abstract: Background: Households’ financial protection against health payments and expenditures and equity in utilizationof health care services are of the most important tasks of governments. This study aims to measuring equityin household’s health care payments according to fairness in financial contribution (FFC) and Kakwani indicesin Tehran-Iran, 2013.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.The study sample size was estimated to be 2200households. Households were selected using stratified-cluster sampling including typical families who reside inthe city of Tehran. The data were analyzed through Excel and Stata v.11 software. Recall period for the inpatientcare was 1 year and for outpatient 1 month.Results: The indicator of FFC for households in health financing was estimated to be 0.68 and the trend of theindicator was ascending by the rise in the ranking of households’ financial level. The Kakwani index was estimatedto be a negative number (-0.00125) which indicated the descending trend of health financing system. Byredistribution of incomes or the exempt of the poorest quintiles from health payments, Kakwani index was estimatedto be a positive number (0.090555) which indicated the ascending trend of health financing system.Conclusion: According to this study, the equity indices in health care financing denote injustice and a descendingtrend in the health care financing system. This finding clearly shows that deliberate policy making in healthfinancing by national health authorities and protecting low-income households against health expenditures arerequired to improve the equity in health.
       
  • Inequity in household's capacity to pay and health payments in
           Tehran-Iran-2013

    • Authors: Ali Sarabi Asiabar
      Abstract: Background: Health inequalitymonitoring especially in Health care financing field is very important. Hence, this study tends to assess the inequality in household's capacity to pay and out-of-pocket health carepaymentsin Tehran metropolis.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2013.Thestudy population was selected by stratified cluster sampling, and they constitute the typical households living in Tehran (2200 households). The required data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using Excel and Stata v.11. Concentration Index on inequality wasused for measuring inequality status in capacity to pay and household payments for health care expenses and also the concentration index for out-of-pocket payments and capacity to pay was used to determine the extent of inequality. The recall period for inpatient care was one year and 1 month for outpatient.Results: The average of out-of-pocket payments for receiving the outpatient services was determined to be 44.33US$ and for each inpatient1861.11 US$. Concentration index for household's out-of-pocket payments for inpatient health care, out-of-pocket payments for outpatient health care and health prepayments werecalculated 0.13, -0.10 and -0.11, respectively. Also, concentration index in household’s capacity to pay was estimated to be 0.11whichindicatedinequality to the benefit of the rich. The households used financing strategies like savings, borrowing or lending to pay their health care expenditures.Conclusion: According to this study, the poor spend a greater portion of their capacity to pay for outpatient and inpatient health care costs and prepayment, in comparison to the rich. Thus, supporting the vulnerable groups of the society to decrease out-of-pocket payments and increasing the household’s capacity to pay through government support in order to improve the household economic potential, must be considered very important.
       
  • Application of hurdle model with random effects for evaluating the balance
           improvement in stroke patients

    • Authors: Somayeh Ahmadi Gooraji
      Abstract: Background: Stroke is a prevalent cause of disability in adults. The fall is the most common balanceand motor impairments, which affects the quality of life in stroke patients. This study aims toemploy random effects hurdle model for evaluating the balance improvement in stroke patients underthe occupational therapy.Methods: In this longitudinal study with repeated measurement during one year between 2013 and2014, the data was collected using non-random sampling method from three occupational therapyclinics. For a total of 38 stroke patients, the number of falls was recorded every two weeks. The randomeffects hurdle model and random effects zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) model were fitted to thedata and were compared together. Data analysis was carried out using SAS Software version 9.2.Results: The results of random effects ZIP model showed that the covariates of sex and age andaffected side of stroke and follow up duration had statistically significant effect on balance improvement(p< 0.05). The occupational therapy has been effective on balance improvement morethan 40% during one year.Conclusion: The ZIP model with random effects can capture zero inflation and correlation structurein longitudinal count data simultaneously. Older patients, women and patients with left-side impairmentswere more at risk of fall and balance impairment, so they need more care and therapy.
       
  • The financing of the health system in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A
           National Health Account (NHA) approach

    • Authors: Alireza Olyaeemanesh
      Abstract: Background: The National Health Accounts keep track of all healthcare related activities from thebeginning (i.e. resource provision), to the end (i.e. service provision). This study was conducted toaddress following questions: How is the Iranian health system funded' Who distribute the funds' Forwhat services are the funds spent on', What service providers receive the funds'Methods: The required study data were collected through a number of methods. The family healthexpenditure data was obtained through a cross sectional multistage (seasonal) survey while libraryand field study was used to collect the registered data. The collected data fell into the following threecategories: the household health expenditure (the sample size: 10200 urban households and 6800rural households-four rounds of questioning), financial agents data, the medical universities financialperformance data.Results: The total health expenditure of the Iranian households was 201,496,172 million Rials in2008, which showed a 34.4% increase when compared to 2007. The share of the total health expenditurewas 6.2% of the GDP. The share of the public sector showed a decreasing trend between2003-2008 while the share of the private sector, of which 95.77% was paid by households, had anincreasing trend within the same period. The percent of out of pocket expenditure was 53.79% of thetotal health expenditure. The total health expenditure per capita was US$ 284.00 based on the officialUS$ exchange rate and US$ 683.1 based on the international US$ exchange rate.( exchange rate:1$=9988 Rial).Conclusion: The share of the public and private sectors in financing the health system was imbalancedand did not meet the international standards. The public share of the total health expenditureshas increased in the recent years despite the 4th and 5th Development Plans. The inclusion of householdhealth insurance fees and other service related expenses increases the public contribution to73% of the total.
       
  • The effect of physical and psychosocial occupational factors on the
           chronicity of low back pain in the workers of Iranian metal industry: a
           cohort study

    • Authors: Seyed Alireza Mortazavi
      Abstract: Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common problems among the workers ofdifferent industries. The role of occupational factors in causing the LBP has been indicated previously.LBP has great socio-economic costs and most of its costs are related to the chronic LBP. The aimof this study was to identify the occupational risk factors that are related to the progression of theLBP from acute to chronic phase.Methods: This cohort study has been conducted on 185 workers with acute LBP. Information relatedto their occupational exposure at baseline has been measured with a valid questionnaire using theself-report approach. Patients follow up was done monthly for three months after the start of the pain.Those workers whose occupational exposure had not changed during the follow up were divided intotwo groups of chronic LBP (n = 49) and cured (n = 136) according to the duration of the pain period(more or less than 3 months), and their job exposures were compared.Results: Among the physical and psychosocial risk factors, social support (OR= 0.466, CI= 0.231-0.940) and job satisfaction (OR= 0.455, CI= 0.232-0.891), and lifting weights more than 15kg(OR=2.482, CI= 1.274-4.834) indicated a significant relationship with the chronicity of the LBP.After putting the variables into the regression model, only lifting>15kg remained statistically significant.Conclusion: According to the observed relationship between these occupational risk factors (socialsupport, job satisfaction, lifting>15kg) and the chronicity of the LBP, there is hope that eliminatingthese factors in the workers with acute LBP will prevent its progression to the chronic phase.
       
  • Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran:a systematic
           review and meta- analyses

    • Authors: Farshad Farzadfar
      Abstract:   Background: Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population.   Methods : We systematically searched international databases ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages.   Results : Based on our search strategy we found 151 records of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity.   Conclusion : Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses.  
       
  • Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP): A marker of cardiovascular disease

    • Authors: Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam
      Abstract: Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the cause of one third of deaths worldwide and thiswill progress because of increasing CVD's risk factors. The most basic task of dealing with the epidemicof CVD is primary prevention of risk factors. As Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) is astrong marker to predict the risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, we assessed the correlationbetween AIP and other important factors.Methods: This cross-sectional study was a part of national non-communicable risk factors surveillancesystem data that has been established since 2004 in Iran. This was done on 1000 people between2008 and 2010. The study was approved by Ethics Committee of Mashhad University of MedicalScience. Chi square, Mann-Whitney U, correlation tests were used in this study. Statistical analysiswas performed using SPSS version 11. In all calculations, p
       
  • Evaluating the accuracy of fine needle aspiration and frozen section based
           on permanent histology in patients with follicular lesions

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Alizadeh Otaghvar
      Abstract: Background: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) has led to a decrease in unnecessary surgeries for thyroidnodules. This study was designed to compare diagnostic value of FNA and frozen section methodsin the follicular lesions.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on the medical records of 42 patients who were referredto surgery clinic of Rasool-e-Akram hospital in Tehran with complaint of thyroid nodules. AllFNAs were diagnosed as follicular lesions in pathologic evaluation. All the patients underwent thyroidsurgery and their frozen section results were also assessed. Finally, diagnostic value of the twotests was compared based on final permanent histologic report.Results: Forty two patients with follicular thyroid nodules diagnosed with FNA were included.During the operation, using frozen sections, diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, non-papillary malignancies,benign lesion and intermediate cytology was made in 13 (31%), 3 (7%), 25 (59.5%), 1(2.5%) patients, respectively. Results of permanent histology showed that follicular adenoma is themost prevalent lesion which appeared in 25 (59.5%) cases. Papillary and follicular carcinomas weredetected in 10 (23.8%) and 4 (9.5%) cases, respectively.Conclusion: Results of the study demonstrate a 73% reduction in second surgery in patients withfollicular thyroid lesions based on intraoperative frozen section results
       
  • Prevalence of osteoporosis and vitamin D receptor gene polymor-phisms
           (FokI) in an Iranian general population based study (Kurdistan) (IMOS)

    • Authors: Mahsa M Amoli
      Abstract:   Background: Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass density (BMD) and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and increased risk of hip, spine, and wrist fractures. There are numerous risk factors for osteoporosis. While many of these factors are non-genetic in nature, there is a definite genetic component responsible for this condition. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the association between VDR (Vitamin D receptor gene) polymorphisms (Fok1) A>G (rs2228570) and bone mineral density in an Iranian defined population.   Methods : The study participants comprised of 1032 Iranians recruited from the city of Sanandaj during IMOS (Iranian Multi Center Osteoporosis Study). Bone mineral density measurement was performed in all the participants with and without osteoporosis. All samples were genotyped for VDR genes (Fok1) polymorphism with polymerase chain reaction, using a predesigned TaqMan allele discrimination assay.   Results : There was a significant association between Fok1 polymorphism and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women, 0.138(0.025-0.768).   Conclusion : It seems that cohort studies, which are more powerful than case-control studies, can be useful in evaluating the roles of genetic variants as risk or protective factors for osteoporosis.
       
  • Evaluation of transesophageal echocardiography in detecting cardiac
           sources of emboli in ischemic stroke patients

    • Authors: Sadegh Izadi
      Abstract:   Background: Embolus is one of the causes of ischemic stroke that can be due to cardiac sources such as valvular heart diseases and atrial fibrillation and atheroma of the aorta. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is superior in identifying potential cardiac sources of emboli. Due to insufficient data on TEE findings in ischemic stroke in Iran, the present study was done to evaluate TEE in detecting cardiac sources of emboli. The main aim of this study was to describe the cardiogenic sources of emboli using TEE in the ischemic stroke patients.   Methods : This is a cross-sectional study conducted during a 13-month period from January 2012 to February 2013 in Shiraz Nemazee teaching hospital. Patients admitted with stroke diagnosis were included but hemorrhagic stroke cases were excluded. 229 patients with ischemic stroke diagnosis were included and underwent TEE.   Results : Causes of cardiac emboli were detected in 65 cases (40.7%) and categorized to high-risk (29.7%) and potential risk (11%). High risk cardiac sources included atrial fibrillation (8.7%), mitral valve disease (MS or MI) 11 cases (4.75%), aortic valve disease (AS or AI) 8 (3.5%), prosthetic valve 3 (1.35%), dilated cardiomyopathy 45 (19.65%) and congestive heart failure with ejection fraction < 30% in 8 cases (3.5%). Potential cardiac sources of emboli comprised 7 cases (3.05%) of septal aneurysm, 4 (1.75%) left ventricular hypokinesia, 13 (5.7%) mitral annular calcification and 9 cases (3.95%) complex atheroma in the ascending aorta or proximal arch.   Conclusion : Our study showed that high risk cardiac sources of emboli can be detected using TEE in a considerable percentage of ischemic stroke patients. The most common high risk cardiac etiologies were dilated cardiomyopathy and valvular heart diseases.
       
  • Effects of aerobic and anaerobic training programs together with omega-3
           supplement on interleukin-17 and CRP plasma levels in male mice

    • Authors: Hamid Alizadeh
      Abstract:   Background: Herein, we studied the effects of two different exercise protocols on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels along with the anti-inflammatory effects of fish oil. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) consumption along with two different types of physical activities on IL-17 and CRP plasma levels in trained male mice.   Methods : A total of 130 adult male mice of Syrian race with the age of 2 months and the weight of 35±1 grams were selected. At the beginning, 10 mice were killed in order to determine the amounts of pre-test variables. The rest of the mice were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group (n=20), supplement (n=20), aerobic exercise (n=20), anaerobic exercise (n=20), supplement-aerobic exercise (n=20), and supplement-anaerobic exercise (n=20). Blood samples were withdrawn from the tail under intraperitoneal ketamine and xylasineanaesthesia. The anaerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 3 sessions per week the aerobic training program included 8 weeks of running on treadmill, 5 sessions per week. At the end of the training program, the blood sample from each group was taken in order to measure the CRP and IL-17 levels. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the differences among the groups.   Results : The results showed that there was a significant difference in IL-17 and CRP plasma levels between the groups after 8 weeks (P
       
  • Prevalence of Burnout in residents of obstetrics and gynecology: A
           systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Baradaran
      Abstract: Background: Burnout is currently a major concern among physicians due to their high level of stress at work. There are several reports on various levels of burnout in residency programs due to several predisposing factors. The aim of this systematic review was to estimate a more precise prevalence of burnout among residents of obstetrics and gynecology.Methods: PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus were searched to identify peer-reviewed English-language studies published from January 1974 to 2005 reporting burnout among residents of obstetrics and gynecology.  The key words used in the search were as follows: Residents, gynecology and obstetrics, professional burnout, depersonalization, distress, anxiety, or emotional exhaustion. Relevant additional articles were identified from the lists of the retrieved articles.Results: We identified 12 studies which met our criteria. A total of 2509 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The overall prevalence rate of burnout on all the three subscales was 44% (95% CI: 30 - 57) in this group of residents.Conclusion:This meta-analysis revealed a high prevalence of burnout syndrome in residents during obstetrics and gynecology residency program. Therefore, it is recommended to consider and address this important issue to develop solutions and interventions which could improve the work condition of the medical residents.
       
  • Prevalence, etiology, and types of dental trauma in children and
           adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Farbod Ebadifard Azar
      Abstract: Background: Dental traumas are common among children and adolescents in many societies posing health and social problems. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on prevalence, etiology, types, and other epidemiologic aspects of dental trauma in children and adolescents (0-18 years old).  Methods: In this systematic meta-analytical review, data were collected searching for key words including traumatic dental injuries, dental trauma, dental injury, dental trauma, tooth injuries, tooth trauma, traumatized teeth, dentoalveolar trauma, oral trauma, epidemiology, etiology, prevalence, incidence, occurrence, child*, and adolescence in the following databases: Scopus, CINAHL, Science Direct, PubMed and Google scholar.  Results: From the total of 3197 articles, 44 completely relevant papers were included in the study. The prevalence of dental trauma was variable based on geographical area and was estimated 17.5% in the population, with higher prevalence in boys. Falling was the major cause for dental trauma, and the most frequent location was home. The most frequent type of trauma was enamel fracture.  Conclusion: A relatively high prevalence was detected for dental trauma, which calls for effective planning and intervention to prevent the occurrence in children and adolescents. These may include special care for children, eliminating fall-prone areas, installing safety measures at homes, using protective appliances in sports, education, and raising the knowledge and availability of services to address enamel fracture. Region-specific criteria should be taken into account in programs and interventions.
       
  • Association of nailfold capillary changes with disease activity, clinical
           and laboratory findings in patients with dermatomyositis

    • Authors: Maryam Zarei Nezhad
      Abstract: Background: The present study aimed to investigate the Nailfold Capillaroscopy (NC) features of the patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and its correlation with their disease activity indices, physical findings, and laboratory results.Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 27 DM patients above 16 years old who had referred to an(there are 3 clinics not one) outpatient rheumatology clinics from 2012 to 2013. Nailfold capillaroscopy and calculation of disease activity indices were performed separately for all the patients by two rheumatologists who were blinded to each other's results. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests.Results: The mean age of the patients was 39.2±14.1 years with the mean disease duration of 13.1±15.2 months (range: 1-72 months). Myopathic electromyography (EMG) findings showed a strong association with scleroderma pattern (p=0.015). However, disease activity in each organ system and global disease activity showed no significant association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings. (Disease activity in each organ system and also global disease activity were both assessed to see if they are associated with scleroderma pattern and other NC findings so if we use between it means we are looking for an association between scleroderma pattern and other NC findings and this is not what we have done and is wrong.)Conclusion: This study revealed no significant relationship between disease activity indices and NC features. Thus, it may be more precise to interpret the results of NC in conjunction with other physical and laboratory findings.
       
  • The relation characteristics of personality of managers working in Iran
           University of Medical Sciences with success and desirable job

    • Authors: Ali Sarabi Asiabar
      Abstract:   Background: Several studies suggest the existence of an effective relationship between individuals’characteristics and important factors such as occupational and organizational performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and etc. This study was designed based on the dimensions of personality (introversion /extroversion) of managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences at three levels (executive, middle and senior)with their career success rate.   Methods :This was a cross-sectional descriptive study, whose population was all managers of Iran University of Medical Sciences. To collect data, two valid and reliable questionnaires were used. The first questionnaire assessed personality characteristics of each director, and the second measured occupational success. Related tests such as Pearson correlation test and independent comparison (independent t-test) at a significance level of 0.05 were used for data analysis.   Results :Findings revealed no significant relationship between variables of introversion and extroversion and occupational success among the senior managers, (p> 0.05). However, there was adirect but incomplete relationship between introversion and extroversion, which correlated with job success among middle and executives managers.   Conclusion :It seems that in all three levels of managers, if the managers communicated more with employees and if the subject of communication was more of executive nature, the correlation rate would increase between extroversion and introversion with job success variables. Therefore, it is suggested to give attention to organizational interaction and communication, and contingency variables such as organization condition,structure, formality and complexity.
       
  • Validity and reliability of the Persian version of spatial hearing
           questionnaire

    • Authors: Maryam Delphi
      Abstract:   Background: Our hearing ability in space is critical for hearing speech in noisy environment and localization. The Spatial Hearing Questionnaire (SHQ) has been devised to focus only on spatial haring tasks (e.g., lateralization, distance detection and binaural detection). The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Persian translation of the SHQ (Spatial Hearing Questionnaire).   Methods : Translation and back-translation, reliability, content and construct validity were investigated. Eighty patients with sensory neural hearing loss (SNHL) (52.50% female and 47.5 % male) with the mean±SD age of 49.02±13.60 years completed SHQ, and they were categorized into mild, moderate, moderate to severe and severe groups based on their hearing threshold. Inclusion criteria in this study were the MMSE questionnaire score of higher than 21, good general health, no history of psychiatric disorders, dizziness or vertigo, dementia or alcohol abuse.   Results : The reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and found to be 0.99. Item-total correlation was between r= 0.84 and 0.92. There was a significant difference between the mean score of P-SHQ in the four groups. Based on the factor analysis, two factors were extracted from the questions in P-SHQ: sound localization and music and speech understanding in noise and quiet. These factors could explain 82.1% and 9.3% of the total variance, respectively.   Conclusion : The present study proved the reliability and validity of the Persian version of SHQ (P-SHQ). This provides a suitable tool for spatial hearing assessment in clinical/research environments.
       
  • Health literacy and its influencing factors in Iranian diabetic

    • Authors: Arash Tehrani Banihashemi
      Abstract:   Background: Health literacy is the ability to obtain, read, understand and use healthcare information to make appropriate health decisions and follow instructions for treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of various factors on health literacy in patients with diabetes.   Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 407 Iranian patients older than 15 years of age with type 1 and 2 diabetes identified from the Diabetes Clinic affiliated to the Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (IEM) of Iran University of Medical Sciences. We assessed patients' health literacy using the Persian version of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) questionnaire.   Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.85 years, and 251 (61.7%) of them were female. Females had lower educational level compared to males (p< 0.001). In total, 18.2%, 11.8% and 70.0% of the participants had adequate, marginal and inadequate health literacy scores, respectively. Tukey’s post hoc test revealed that employed patients enjoyed  a high health literacy level compared to housekeepers (p< 0.001).   Conclusion: Health literacy score in Iranian patients with diabetes seems low. Therefrom effective interventions should be designed and implemented for this group of patients to improve diabetes outcomes.
       
  • The association between air pollution and weather conditions with increase
           in the number of admissions of asthmatic patients in emergency wards: a
           case study in Kermanshah

    • Authors: Farid Najafi
      Abstract:   Background: Industrialization and urbanization had a devastating impact on public health and caused an increase in health related morbidity and mortality. In fact, asthma is a chronic condition which is considered as one of the significant challenges of public health. In this study, we investigated the association of air pollution and weather conditions with excess emergency ward admissions of asthmatic patients in Kermanshah hospitals.   Methods : This was an ecological study. The total number of hospital admissions to emergency wards from all related and major hospitals of Kermanshah was collected from September 2008 through August 2009. In addition, data on air pollution as well as meteorological data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and Meteorological Organization of Kermanshah. To determine the association between the number of hospitalization due to asthma with those parameters, Poisson regression was used.   Results : The results of Poisson regression revealed a significant association between carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and temperature with emergency room visits due to asthma in Kermanshah. No associations were found for sulfur dioxide or for particulate matter.   Conclusion : This study provides further evidence for the significant effect of monoxide carbon on asthma and it suggests that temperature may have a role in the exacerbation of asthma. However, due to the multi-factorial nature of asthma, other factors also play a major role in the development and exacerbation of this illness.
       
  • Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review

    • Authors: Mojtaba Limoee
      Abstract:   Background: Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk.   Methods : A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed.   Results : The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother’s age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk.   Conclusion : The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds.
       
  • Household food security status in the Northeast of Iran: A cross-sectional
           study

    • Authors: Zohre Foroozanfar
      Abstract:   Background: An important issue the world faces today is ensuring that households living in different countries have access to enough food to maintain a healthy life. Food insecurity is prevalent in both developed and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the household food security status and related factors among different rural districts of Neyshabur (A city in northeast of Iran).  Methods : Of 5000 selected rural households 4647 were studied in this cross-sectional study. A validated short questionnaire (with six questions) was used to measure food security. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis through SPSS software.  Results : In total, 2747 households (59.1%) were identified as food secure. The highest prevalence of food security was observed in Central district (62.3%) and the lowest was in Miyanjolgeh district (52.9%). Backward multiple logistic regression revealed that car ownership, presence of chronic disease in household and household income (per month) were significantly associated with food security in all of surveyed districts (p< 0.05).  Conclusion : According to results of this study, lower than 60% of Neyshabur rural households were food secure and economic variables were the most important factors. Therefore, a special attention should be paid to this health problem in these regions.
       
  • Labour economics and healthcare professional education

    • Authors: Kieran Walsh
      Abstract:   Healthcare professional education is the undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing professional development for doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals. Labour economics is the relationship between workers and employers, and the resultant effect on employment and wages.   Healthcare professional education ultimately produces a workforce, and that workforce is governed by the rules of labour economics like any other workforce. Despite all of these largely incontrovertible facts, there has been remarkably little interest in the relationship between healthcare professional education and labour economics. This short article attempts to redress this shortcoming by describing some of the factors that can affect healthcare professional education and labour economics, and aims to mention some of the methods in which these two disciplines can interact with each other.  
       
  • Morphology of proximal tibia in Iranian population and its corre-lation
           with available prostheses

    • Authors: Javad Moghimi
      Abstract:   Background: Total knee arthroplasty is a complex procedure aiming to relieve pain and improve function. It is critical to select prosthesis that best cover the bone surfaces. Ethnicity may affect fitness of the components mainly designed for Caucasian populations. This study aimed to evaluate morphometric features of proximal tibia in Iranian population.   Methods : During 2013, 150 consecutive patients (96 males and 54 females) form orthopedics department of Rasoul-Akram hospital with knee CT scan were randomly enrolled. We entered cases with apparent normal extremity alignment and bone maturity. Cases with history of fracture or conditions affecting knee profile were excluded. Standard cuts were simulated on CT scan. Anteroposterior (AP), mediolateral (ML) and aspect ratio (ML/AP) were measured for general morphology. Medial and lateral AP distance of tibia and their distance to tibial center were measured for checking symmetry.   Results : Mean age was 43.0± 10.4 years (rang 11-80). Males showed significantly larger values in ML dimension and aspect ratio than females under a given AP value (p
       
  • Tendency to breast reconstruction after breast mastectomy among Iranian
           women with breast cancer

    • Authors: Maryam Salehi
      Abstract:   Background: Women with the medical history of breast cancer constitute the biggest group of patients who survived cancer. Despite the high rate of mastectomy after breast cancer in Iran only limited patients elect reconstruction surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the rate of tendency to breast reconstruction (BR) surgery among women with breast cancer who had mastectomy but not undergone reconstruction.   Methods : This cross sectional study was conducted in Mashhad, north east of Iran during 2013. A total of 108 patients with mastectomy due to breast cancer were selected through convenience sampling and completed the questionnaire. Demographic data collected and 21 items of questionnaire were compared between patients with and without tendency to BR. Data were analyzed using Chi square, t tests and logistic regression.   Results : In this study 62 (57.4%) patients had a tendency to BR and 46 (42.6%) had not. The mean (±SD) age of patients in first group was 43.3±8.03 and 49.6±9.9 in the second group (p
       
  • Treatment of knee osteoarthritis with platelet-rich plasma in comparison
           with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation plus exercise: a
           randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Ali Mazaherinezhad
      Abstract:   Background: Osteoarthritis is a disabling musculoskeletal disease with no definite treatment. This study compared the effect of Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) plus exercise in the treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis.   Methods : 54 eligible patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly allocated into two groups. (IRCT2012110611382N) Group A (27 patients) received 2 injections of PRP (4 weeks apart) and group B (27 patients) received 10 sessions of TENS as well as exercise during the study period.   Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (KOOS) questionnaire before the treatment, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after that the treatment. Pain was also assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Time to an intolerable knee pain during treadmill workout was also evaluated using an objective test.   Results : In the PRP group, the mean KOOS symptom score improved significantly from baseline to the end of study, while the change was not significant over this period for the group B. In both groups, significant reductions were observed in VAS scores from baseline till the end of study. The mean time to feel intolerable knee pain during treadmill work out of PRP group increased significantly from baseline to week 4, but no significant changes were found in this parameter over the time of study in the group B.   Conclusion : Intraarticular injection of PRP is an effective, safe method for short-term treatment of patients with knee joint osteoarthritis.
       
  • Clinical reasoning assessment through medical expertise theories: past,
           present and future directions

    • Authors: Alireza Monajemi
      Abstract:   Exploration into the concept of "medical expert" dates back to more than 50 years ago, yet yielding three leading theories in the area of clinical reasoning, namely, knowledge structure, hypothetic-deductive, and dual process. Each theory defines “medical expert” in a dissimilar way. Therefore, the methods of assessment through which the experts are identified have been changed during the time. In this paper, we tried to categorize and introduce some widely used tests for identification of experts within the framework of existing main theories. Implementation of the proposed categorization for providing future assessment tools is discussed.
       
  • Measuring psychosocial exposures: validation of the Persian of the
           copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire (COPSOQ)

    • Authors: Leila Ghalichi
      Abstract:   Background: The effect of psychosocial work environment on personal and organizational aspects of employees is well-known and it is of fundamental importance to have valid tools to evaluate them. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ).   Methods : The questionnaire was translated into Persian and then back translated into English by two translators separately. The wording of the final Persian version was established by comparing the translated versions with the original questionnaire. One hundred three health care workers completed the questionnaire. Chronbach’s alpha was calculated, and factor analysis was performed.   Results : Factor analysis revealed acceptable validity for the five contexts of the questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.73 to 0.82 in different contexts.   Conclusion : This study revealed that the Persian version of COPSOQ is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring psychosocial factors at work.  
       
  • Patient education process in teaching hospitals of Tehran University of
           Medical Sciences

    • Authors: Salime Goharinezhad
      Abstract:   Background: Patient education is widely recognized as a core component of nursing. Patient education can lead to quality outcomes including adherence, quality of life, patients' knowledge of their illness and self-management. This study aimed to clarify patient education process in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) in Iran.   Methods : This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013. In this descriptive quantitative study, the sample covered 187 head nurses selected from ten teaching hospitals through convenience sampling. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The questionnaire measured patient education process in four dimensions: need assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating.   Results : The overall mean score of patient education was 3.326±0.0524. Among the four dimensions of the patient education process, planning was in the highest level (3.570±0.0591) and the lowest score belonged to the evaluation of patient education (2.840 ±0.0628).   Conclusion : Clarifying patient education steps, developing standardized framework and providing easily understandable tool-kit of the patient education program will improve the ability of nurses in delivering effective patient education in general and specialized hospitals.
       
  • Correlation between CRP and early failure of arteriovenous

    • Authors: Morteza Khavanin Zadeh
      Abstract:   Background: Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF)is the ideal method of vascular access for patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD).Therefore it is an important part of treatment in HD.There are several observations that indicate the role of inflammation in failure of AVF.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hematologic and inflammatory biomarkers in early AVF failure.   Methods : This case-control study included 110 ESRD patients,whom were undergone AVF creation, divided in two groups. About 700 radius-cephalic AVF were created during these two years. We found 55 cases with AVF failure. In this study, we compared those 55failures with 55 functional AVF which were selected using randomized sampling from the rest of patients according to age, gender, and AVF location.Levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were checked in both groups to evaluate the relation between AVF failure and CRP level before surgery.   Results : The mean±SD age of the patients was 49.7±17.28years. CRP was positive in 34 patients (61.8%)with unsuccessful fistula function,while only 4 (7.3%)of those with successful AVF had positive CRP and the resthad negative CRP.The difference between the two groups of patients was strongly significant (p
       
  • Serum and saliva collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in patients with oral lichen
           planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    • Authors: Farzaneh Agha-Hosseini
      Abstract:   Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) has been classified as a pre-malignant condition. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) or collagenase-3 may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva MMP-13 between patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).   Methods : This cross sectional study was performed on 30 patients with OLP (8 reticular and 22 erosive forms) and 20 patients with OSCC (6 in low stage and 14 in advanced stage) who were selected randomly. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva MMP-13 were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of the Student’s t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient was performed.   Results : There were no significant differences in mean saliva and serum levels of MMP-13 between patients with OSCC and OLP and their subgroups. Serum MMP-13 correlated significantly with unstimulated (r = 0.307, p= 0.048), but not with stimulated, saliva MMP-13.   Conclusion : Serum and saliva MMP-13 levels appear to be statistically similar in OLP and OSCC.
       
  • Ranking Iranian biomedical research centers according to H-variants (G, M,
           A, R) in Scopus and Web of Science

    • Authors: Shahram Sedghi
      Abstract:   Background: We conducted a comprehensive bibliometrics analysis to calculate the H, G, M, A and R indicators for all Iranian biomedical research centers (IBRCs) from the output of ISI Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus between 1991 and 2010. We compared the research performance of the research centers according to these indicators.   Methods : This was a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study, conducted on 104 Iranian biomedical research centers between August and September 2011. We collected our data through Scopus and WoS. Pearson correlation coefficient between the scientometrics indicators was calculated using SPSS, version 16.   Results : The mean values of all indicators were higher in Scopus than in WoS. Drug Applied Research Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences had the highest number of publications in both WoS and Scopus databases. This research center along with Royan Institute received the highest number of citations in both Scopus and WoS, respectively. The highest correlation was seen between G and R (.998) in WoS and between G and R (.990) in Scopus. Furthermore, the highest overlap of the 10 top IBRCs was between G and H in WoS (100%) and between G-R (90%) and H-R (90%) in Scopus.   Conclusion : Research centers affiliated to the top ranked Iranian medical universities obtained a better position with respect to the studied scientometrics indicators. All aforementioned indicators are important for ranking bibliometrics studies as they refer to different attributes of scientific output and citation aspects.   
       
  • Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with rheumatoid
           arthritis

    • Authors: Fahimeh Hajiabolhassani
      Abstract:   Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune systemic disease. Most common autoimmune diseases are multisystem disorders that may also present with otological manifestations, and autoimmune inner ear disease accompanied by vestibular dysfunction. This study aimed to compare the vestibular function between RA patients and normal subjects using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs).  Methods : In this cross- sectional study, 25patients with RA (19 female and 6 male: mean (±SD) age, 40.00 (±7.92) years) and 20 healthy subjects (15 female and 5 male: mean (±SD) age, 35.35 (±10.48) years) underwent cVEMPs, using 500 Hz-tone bursts at 95 dB nHL intensity level. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test through SPSS software v. 16.  Results : The mean peak latency of p13 was significantly higher in RA patients (p<0.001). The mean peak latency of n23 was significantly higher in patients in the left ear (p=0.03). Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses were present in all (100%) of the participants. There were no significant differences in mean peak to peak amplitude and amplitude ratio between the two groups.  Conclusion : According to the prolonged latency of VEMP responses in RA patients, lesions in the retrolabyrinthine, especially in the vestibulospinal tract are suspected.
       
  • Remifentanil versus dexmedtomidine for posterior spinal fusion surgery

    • Authors: Seyed Hamid Reza Faiz
      Abstract:   Background: Controlling the hemodynamic situation of patients who have spinal operation is of prime importance, and maintaining the heart rate and blood pressure in normal or low- normal levels in these patients can reduce their bleeding loss. One of the commonly used drugs for this purpose is remifentanil. Another sedative-hypnotic-analgesic drug, with acceptable effects is dexmedetomidine. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine with remifentanil in spinal operation.   Methods : In a double blind randomized clinical trial, using random sampling method, 60 patients with the age range of 15-65 years who were candidates for posterior spinal fusion operation were included. Induction of anesthesia was performed, and both groups received isoflurane 1% during the surgery. Remifentanil was injected via infusion pump in one group. The patients in the trial group received dexmedetomidine. As trial outcomes, heart rate and blood pressure were measured before, after induction and during the operation. Pain score, sedation score and the need to analgesic therapy were recorded in the recovery room and the ward. Independent sample t-test and chi-square were used for statistical analysis.   Results : Dexmedetomidine had a significant lowering impact on intraoperative blood pressure and heart rate compared to remifentanil (p
       
  • High crash areas resulting in injuries and deaths in Tehran traffic areas
           from november 2011 through february 2012: a geographic information system
           analysis

    • Authors: Hamid Soori
      Abstract:   Background: Evaluation of intra-city roads in terms of environmental factors of motor vehicle injuries can help us to better identify these factors and the share of each of the factors in injuries. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the high injury areas and the risk factors of motor vehicle crashes resulting in injury and death in Tehran, the capital city of Iran, from November 2011 through February 2012.   Methods : In this cross sectional study, the locations of the motor vehicle injuries resulting in injuries and deaths were obtained from police stations in Tehran. The coordinates of the injuries locations were extracted and entered into the Arc-GIS software to overlay the different layers of geographical data and extract the risk map.   Results : A total of 4257 motor vehicle injuries were evaluated in this study. Forty-two injuries (1%) resulted in death and 4215 injuries (99%) resulted in injury. The traffic districts 5 and 21 had the highest frequency of injuries resulting in death. The type of the motor vehicle resulting in injury or death was motorcycle in 2330 injuries (54.73%).   Conclusion : The frequency of traffic injuries is more in the west and northwest areas of Tehran, and it is caused more by motorcycles in terms of traffic and motor injuries resulting in injury and death. It is useful to conduct more studies to better identify these factors considering their importance in traffic injuries.
       
  • The effects of symbiotic therapy on anthropometric measures, body
           composition and blood pressure in patient with metabolic syndrome: a
           triple blind RCT

    • Authors: Rahebeh Shaker Hosseini
      Abstract:   Background: Increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which are of the main risk factors of metabolic syndrome, is not only the result of changes in genetic, diet or physical activity, but also an imbalance of micro flora may play an important role. Therefore, alteration of micro flora using pre/probiotic is considered as a new strategy for treatment of metabolic disorders.   Methods : The current study is a triple blind randomized controlled trial. 46 patients from both sexes, who fulfilled inclusion criteria, randomly categorized into intervention or placebo group. The intervention and placebo groups consumed 2 probiotic capsules or 2 placebo capsules during 3 months, respectively. Both groups received a weight loss diet, according to their adjusted ideal body weight. Anthropometric, body composition, blood pressure and nutritional measurements were done in the beginning, at 6th week, and at the end of the study. T-test and paired-t test were used for statistical analysis.   Results : 40 patients completed the study. BMI, WC, HC, fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure were reduced in all participants (p
       
  • Therapeutic effects of Ventolin versus hypertonic saline 3% for acute
           bronchiolitis in children

    • Authors: Zahra Keivani Hafshejani
      Abstract:   Background: Complications of Ventolin as the most common drug used for bronchiolitis are widely known. The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline 3%, compared with Ventolin, for treatment of acute bronchiolitis in children.   Methods : This double-blinded clinical trial study was conducted in Hajar Hospital, Shahrekord, Iran, from 2011 to 2012. A total of 70 patients under the age of two years with bronchiolitis were divided into two groups of 35 each. Ventolin nebulizer and hypertonic saline 3% nebulizer three times per day were administered in the first (Ventolin) and second (Hypersaline) group, respectively. The length of recovery was compared between the two groups. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 22) using chi-square, t-test, paired t-test, and Mann-Whitney.   Results : The mean±SD length of recovery was 4.14±0.9 and 3.06±0.6 in the Ventolin and hypersaline groups, respectively. The mean duration of recovery was significantly lower in the hypersaline group (p
       
  • Effect of iron oxide nanoparticles coating type on the relationship
           between nanoparticles concentration and signal intensity in inver-sion
           recovery T1-weighted MRI

    • Authors: Nahideh Gharehaghaji
      Abstract:   Background: Ultrasmallsuperparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles are used as blood pool contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and perfusion imaging. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of the two coating types of iron oxide nanoparticles on the relationship between nanoparticles concentration and signal intensity (SI) in T1-weighted MR images.   Methods : Different concentrations of the polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carboxydextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles were imaged using inversion recovery Turbo-FLASH (Turbo fast low-angle shot) pulse sequence with inversion times (TIs) of 300-900 ms (interval of 100 ms). The maximum non-linear and linear relationship between the corrected SI (after non-uniformity correction) and the concentration of the two coated nanoparticles were calculated in T1-weighted images.   Results : The maximum non-linear relationship between the corrected SI and the concentration of the PEG, and carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles were obtained at concentrations of 400 and 200 µmol Fe/L at a TI of 900 ms, respectively. In addition, the maximum linear relationship between the corrected SI and the concentration of the PEG, and carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles (R2=0.99) appeared at 228.184 and 205.654 µmolFe/L with a TI of 300 ms, respectively.   Conclusion : The maximum non-linear corrected SI of the carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles was slightly higher than that of the PEG-coated nanoparticles at similar TIs. However, the PEG-coated nanoparticles were better than the carboxydextran-coated nanoparticles as a T1 contrast agent for perfusion measurements.
       
  • A youth-led reproductive health program in a university setting

    • Authors: Shirin Djalalinia
      Abstract:   Background: Reproductive health problems affect youths in all countries. There is an urgent need to enhance youths reproductive health services to provide a healthy life for this group. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the Reproductive Health Peer Education Program based on the opinion of university students.   Methods :This interventional study was conducted in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences through the peer education method. The participants of this study were 24 peer educators who received training in a 40 hour peer educator training course. The peer education program was implemented in the university. In order to evaluate this community- based intervention, 329 students were selected through the stratified sampling method and their opinion was assessed. Descriptive statistical methods were used by SPSS software for data analysis.   Results :The results of the study revealed that peer education was accepted by 64.7% (n= 213) of the students, according to their opinion. The educational priorities of the students were as follows: pre-marriage counseling (78%, n= 166) STI/AIDS (17%, n= 36) and contraception (5%, n= 11). The peer education program was recognized as the most required reproductive health service in the university by 55.3% (n= 118) of the students. They believed that the most important duties of the peer educators were: education (33.5%, n= 71) counseling (30.4%, n= 65) referring to a counseling center (21.6%, n= 46) and referring to a therapeutic center (14.5%, n= 31). Also, the students stated that confidentiality (53%, n=113), suitable communication (26%, n= 55) and sufficient knowledge (21%, n= 45) were desired characteristics for the peer educators.   Conclusion : According to the students' opinion, peer education could provide suitable reproductive health services and could also be beneficial for reproductive health promotion and might reinforce positive behaviors in youths. Reproductive health peer- counseling is a sensitive process, and it is best to be conducted under the supervision of specialists.  
       
  • Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in Rafsanjan: A comparison of
           different criteria

    • Authors: Sedighe Moradi
      Abstract:   Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common during pregnancy. This survey was designed based on the frequency of GDM among an urban population according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria.  Methods : We included all pregnant women who were admitted to a gynecology clinic from September 2012 until May 2013. The fasting blood sugar (FBS) was measured. Those having FBS≥ 126 mg/dl were excluded from the study. All women underwent a standard OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) by ingesting 75g of glucose in the 24th to 32nd week of their pregnancy.  Results : Two hundred ninety pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.72±5.091 years were included in the study. The mean±SD FBS, blood glucose one hour and two hours after ingesting 75g of glucose were 82.48±9.41, 146.86±34.22 and 114.21±27.79 mg/ dl, respectively. Based on the criteria of the ADA, 9.3% (n= 27) of the admitted patients suffered from GDM. For the IADPSG and the WHO, those numbers were 31% (n= 90) and 15.2% (n= 44), respectively.  Conclusion : The prevalence of GDM was 1.5-times and 3 times higher when the IADPSG based data were compared to those of the WHO or the ADA.  
       
  • Integration of suicide prevention program into primary health care
           network: a field clinical trial in Iran

    • Authors: Mosleh Mirzaei Khoshalani
      Abstract:   Background: Suicide prevention is one of the priorities in policies of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MHME). The suicide prevention program had two main parts of identifying and treatment of the depressed and suicide high risk individuals by Primary Health Care (PHC) network. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the results of integration of the program into PHC network in two cities with moderate to high rate of suicide with diverse socio-cultural backgrounds.   Methods : This work as a field trial study was conducted in Nahavand and Savojbolagh from April 2010 to March 2011 (12 months). A screening tool was designed. Required capacities such as treatment, referral and registration system were provided six months before the main study. The intervention phase (for one year) including the treatment process and five consultation sessions was conducted to identify depressed people and individuals with high risk of suicide. The data were analyzed by Chi square test.   Results : After one year of intervention, the rate of committing suicide became 4.98 and 3.36 per one hundred thousand population in Nahavand and Savojbolagh, respectively (16 and 1.6 per 100,000 in the year of before intervention respectively, 2009-2010). The female: male ratio of committing suicide was 2:1 in Nahavand and 1:1 in Savojbolagh. The most common method of committing suicide was drug intoxication in both cities. The identified cases by health workers at rural setting were 33 to 44 per 1000, in which 1.3 cases per 1000 population had been approved by general physicians.   Conclusion : This study approved the feasibility and efficacy of integration of suicide prevention program into PHC. The increased rate of suicide in Savojbolagh could be related to low rate of screening and lack of treatment facilities (hospitalization and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and part-time psychiatrist. Increasing the PHC capacities could improve the health network efficiency to identify and manage depressed and at risk of suicide individuals. Screening tool/s and method have to be improved to provide better results.
       
  • Serum levels of vitamins A and D, and zinc in children with acute
           diarrhea: A cross-sectional study

    • Authors: Ali Bidari
      Abstract:   Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity during the early life period especially in developing countries. Micronutrients deficiencies have been proposed either as a risk factor or a consequence of diarrhea. Association studies highlight the relation of vitamins and minerals’ deficiencies with acute diarrhea. In this regard we aimed to evaluate the status of vitamins A and D, and zinc serum levels in children with acute diarrhea.   Methods : In this cross sectional study performed in a referral teaching hospital, we measured and compared baseline vitamin A, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and zinc serum levels in 25 children admitted with acute diarrhea and 25 other children who were admitted for undergoing elective surgeries.   Results : 25-(OH)D levels were significantly lower in the diarrhea group (p=0.03). We were unable to demonstrate a significant difference in the levels of vitamin A and zinc between the case and control groups (p= 0.14 and p=0.07, respectively).   Conclusion : We observed lower serum 25(OH)D levels in children with acute diarrhea. Whether this finding indicates a premorbid risk factor or simply a consequence of diarrhea needs further studies. Regardless of the cause and effect relationship, supplementation with vitamin D in acute diarrhea remains as a plausibleconsideration.   
       
  • A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran
           University of Medical Sciences

    • Authors: Kamran Yazdani
      Abstract:   Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced.   Methods : This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers.   Results : The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p
       
  • The effect of exercise therapy on cognitive functions in multiple
           sclerosis patients: A pilot study

    • Authors: Maryam Dastoorpoor
      Abstract:   Background: The positive impacts of exercise therapy on patients’ cognitive problems still remain unknown. This study was a pilot intervention to examine the effects of combined exercise on the cognitive problems of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Iranian MS Society over 2012 to 2013.   Methods : This quasi-experimental research was carried out in the form of a pretest/posttest study. Forty two patients with MS were selected from those visiting the rehabilitation center of Iranian MS Society, using non-probability convenience sampling. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) of each patient was recorded before the intervention and Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological (BRB-N) test was administered before and after the intervention. The data were analyzed using the analytical tests such as Wilcoxon test.   Results : Of 21 participants, 17 subjects (82%, n=14) female with mean (±SD) age of 37 (±9.98) years and mean (±SD) EDSS of 2.35 (±0.90) completed all stages of the study. Changes in long-term storage and permanent long-term retrieval of information after the intervention were statistically significant (p
       
  • Determinants of responsibility for health, spiritual health and
           in-terpersonal relationship based on theory of planned behavior in high
           school girl students

    • Authors: Mahnaz Solhi
      Abstract:   Background: Adolescence is a sensitive period of acquiring normal and abnormal habits for all of life. The study investigates determinants of responsibility for health, spiritual health and interpersonal relations and predictive factors based on the theory of planned behavior in high school girl students in Tabriz.   Methods : In this Cross-sectional study, 340 students were selected thorough multi-stage sampling. An author-made questionnaire based on standard questionnaires of Health Promotion and Lifestyle II (HPLPII), spiritual health standards (Palutzian& Ellison) and components of the theory of planned behavior (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention) was used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated in a pilot study. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.15 and descriptive and analytical tests (Chi-square test, Pearson correlation co-efficient and liner regression test in backward method).   Results : Students’ responsibility for health, spiritual health, interpersonal relationships, and concepts of theory of planned behavior was moderate. We found a significant positive correlation (p
       
  • Comparison of c-Kit expression between primary and metastatic melanoma of
           skin and mucosa

    • Authors: Fatemeh Sari Aslani
      Abstract:   Background: Melanoma causes the greatest morbidity and mortality of all skin cancers. Mucosal melanoma is a rare but highly aggressive neoplasm. According to previous studies the prevalence of KIT mutations in acrallentiginous and mucosal melanomas is relatively low (less than 15–20%), but it can have profound therapeutic implications for localized high risk or metastatic diseases. Our goal was to evaluate c-Kit expression in different types of primary and metastatic melanoma to discriminate potential candidates for targeted therapy.   Methods : We designed a cross-sectional study and selected 50 cases of malignant melanoma (primary, metastatic cutaneous, and mucosal) from the affiliated hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in the period of 2008 to 2012. Immunohistochemistry for KIT expression was performed. Multistage sampling method was selected for sampling and chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.   Results : In our study, male to female ratio was 1.77. The male sex was correlated with higher tumor stage (p
       
  • Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise-induced response of
           inflammatory indicators and blood lactate in male runners

    • Authors: Mostafa Armanfar
      Abstract:   Background: Heavy exercise cause muscle damage associated with production of inflammatory agents. The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of acute and 14-day Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory, blood lactate and muscle damage in male middle-distance runners.   Methods : Eighteen male middle-distance runners in a randomized and quasi experimental study were allocated into two equal groups: supplement group (n=9, Coenzyme Q10: 5mg/kg/day) and placebo group (n=9, Dextrose: 5mg/kg/day). After acute (1day) and 14-day supplementation, all subjects were participated in a training like running (competitive 3000 meters). Blood samples were obtained in the four phases: one hour before and 18-24 hours after two running protocols. Lactate, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were analyzed. Repeated ANOVA and Bonferunias a post hoc tests were used to determine the changes in four stages. Differences between groups were determined by t-test.   Results : The results showed that acute and short-term Coenzyme Q10 supplementation had not significant effect on basal parameters. The acute coenzyme Q10 supplementation attenuated only the exercise-induced increase in response of the plasma CRP. The short-term (14-day) coenzyme Q10 supplementation attenuated the exercise-induced increase in response of the lactate, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and CRP in male middle-distance runners. However, the acute and short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation had not any significant effect on the exercise-induced increase response of total serum creatine kinase.   Conclusion : Based on the present results, it can be concluded that the 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation (5mg.kg-1.day-1) is more effective than the acute supplementation to overcome the exercise-induced adverse responses in some oxidative, inflammatory and biochemical parameters. Therefore, short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation is recommended to reduce exercise-induced adverse consequences.
       
  • Diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography compared to endometrial biopsy in
           pre-menopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    • Authors: Afsaneh Tehranian
      Abstract:   Background: AUB is a common cause of women’s referring to gynecologists. Although hysteroscopy is known as the gold standard technique for diagnosing the cause of AUB, sonohysterography is less invasive, and it is performed by general gynecologists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of sonohysterography compared to the results of the endometrial biopsy, guided by hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with AUB.   Methods : This cross- sectional Study was conducted at the gynecological clinic of Roointan -Arash women's Hospital from February 2011 to February 2012. The study participants were 90 premenopausal female patients, who visited the clinic for AUB, for whom, hormonal, iatrogenic and systemic causes were ruled out. They underwent sonohysterography and hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy. The results of sonohysterography and pathological reports of endometrial biopsy were compared, and the diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography for normal endometrium, endometrial polyps, sub mucosal fibroids and endometrial hyperplasia was evaluated.   Results : The diagnostic accuracy of sonohysterography was found to be 89.1% for the normal endometrium, 90% for endometrial polyps, 99% for sub mucosal fibroids and 94.4% for endometrial hyperplasia.   Conclusion : Sonohysterography is an accurate, non-invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosing AUB causes compared to hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy. Therefore, as an initial diagnostic step, it can replace the alternative and less accurate methods such as transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial curettage or more costly and invasive methods such as hysteroscopy requiring anesthesia.
       
  • A study of professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine
           workers using GTG-banding and solid stain

    • Authors: Vahid Changizi
      Abstract:   Background: CT scan and nuclear medicine exams deliver a great part of medical exposures. This study examined professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine workers.   Methods : In a cross sectional study 30 occupationally exposed workers and 7 controls (all from personnel of a laboratory) were selected. Physical dosimetry was performed for exposed workers. Blood samples were obtained from the experimental and control groups. Three culture mediums for each one were prepared in due to routine chromosome analysis using G-banding and solid stain.   Results : There were significant increased incidence of chromatid gap (ctg) and chromatid break (ctb) with mean±SD frequencies of 3±0.84 and 3.1±1.40 per 100 cells respectively in the nuclear medicine workers versus controls with mean±SD frequencies of 1.9±0.69 and 1.3±0.84 for ctg and ctb, respectively. Chromosome gaps (chrg) were higher significantly in the nuclear medicine population (2.47±0.91) than in controls (1.4±0.9) (p
       
  • Anti-hemorrhagic activity of Punicagranatum L. flower (Persian Golnar)
           against heavy menstrual bleeding of endometrial origin: a double-blind,
           randomized controlled trial

    • Authors: Azita Goshtasebi
      Abstract:   Background: Heavy menstrual bleeding of endometrial origin (HMB) is a major healthcare problem in premenopausal women and affects several aspects of women’s health and quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Persian Golnar (PG) and tranexamic acid (TA) on heavy menstrual bleeding of endometrial origin (HMB) and patients’ QoL.   Methods : A double-blind randomized controlled trial with parallel design and block randomization technique was conducted. A total of 94 women with HMB were randomly assigned to take either PG or TA for 5 days from day 1 of menses for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Blood loss was measured by the pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC). Hematological assessments were made before the intervention and after treatment. QoL as a secondary outcome was evaluated using SF-36 and the menorrhagia questionnaire (MQ). Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, paired t-test, χ2 test, Mann–Whitney test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test.   Results : In each group, 38 women (80.8%) completed the 3-month follow-up. Both PG and TA reduced blood loss. PBAC mean (SD) score was reduced from 304.92 (176.17) and 304.44 (192.72) to 164.60 (100.24) and 143.13 (96.07) after the third treatment cycle, respectively (p
       
  • Comparison of health related quality of life between two groups of veteran
           and non-veteran spinal cord injured patients

    • Authors: Maryam Tajabadi
      Abstract:   Background: Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a lower health related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to both healthy controls and the normal population. The aim of this study was to compare HRQOL between two groups of veteran and non-veteran SCI patients.   Methods : All male paraplegic non-veterans who had sustained complete SCI before 1988 and were residents of Tehran province (Iran), and a similar group of SCI veterans who consecutively participated in a health screening program were enrolled in this study. Patients fewer than 35 and older than 65 years of age were not included in this study. The participants were interviewed based on the Persian version of SF-36 questionnaire by two psychologists. Eight sub-scales and two physical and mental component summaries of the instrument were assessed. We used chi-square, odds ratio, Mann-Whitney U, independent t-test and linear regression for analysis.   Results : Overall, 25 veterans and 22 non-veterans were enrolled in the study. The mean age, time since injury and the presence of comorbid illnesses were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). A greater number of veterans were married (p= 0.003) and employed (p= 0.047). On average, veterans had more years of formal education than non-veterans (p= 0.001). The mean (SD) bodily pain sub-scale was 72.73(31.253) for non-veterans and 49.7(28.287) for veterans (p=0.011). Absence of comorbid illnesses was associated with a better physical component summary (p
       
  • Relation between parvovirus B19 infection and fetal mortality and
           spontaneous abortion

    • Authors: Seyed Hamidreza Monavari
      Abstract:   Background: Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydropsfetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction.   Results : Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years.   Conclusion : Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.
       
  • Clinical outcomes and cost effectiveness of two aftercare models provided
           by general physicians and nurses to patients with severe mental illness

    • Authors: Narges Chimeh
      Abstract:   Background: Implementing community-based psychiatric services is one of the priorities of the WHO/EMRO mental health programs. This study presents an aftercare service, as a community based-service, for patients with severe mental illness (SMIs).   Methods : In this randomized controlled clinical trial design, 176 patients, who attended selective hospitals with SMI, were allocated into three groups: clinical case managers provided by general practitioners, nurses and the control group (usual treatment). The clients and their caregivers received monthly home visits (education and treatment supervision). The effectiveness of the intervention was measured by indicators of psychopathology such as scores of YOUNG, caregivers’ knowledge and satisfaction with the services. Health-related quality of life (SF-36) was considered as the primary outcome variable. Data were collected at baseline and at 12 months follow-up. Direct and indirect medical costs were obtained through a periodic completion of questionnaires and interviews by caregivers. Cost effectiveness ratio was estimated as cost per QALY gained in each group. SPSS 16.0 was used in this survey and statistical methods were chi-square, ANOVA, Scheffe as post-Hoc test and paired sample t-test with 95% confidence interval and 0.05 significance level.   Results : The results of our study revealed that the score of YOUNG, caregivers’ knowledge and satisfaction with service were improved in both intervention groups after 12 months. Improvement in health-related quality of life was observed in the general practitioner and nurse group. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio was 5740807 IRR and 5048459 IRR per QALYs gained in the general practitioner and nurse groups, respectively.   Conclusion : The model of aftercare services provided by trained nurses is the most cost- effective and feasible model for Iran’s socio-economic conditions with low resource allocations.   
       
  • Comparison of quadruple and triple Furazolidone containing

    • Authors: Vahid Hosseini
      Abstract:   Background: The effectiveness of classic standard triple therapy regimen of helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication has decreased to unacceptably low levels, largely related to development of resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin. Thus successful eradication of H. pylori infections remains challenging. Therefore alternative treatments with superior effectiveness and safety should be designed and appropriately tested in all areas depending on the native resistance patterns. Furazolidone has been used successfully in eradication regimens previously and regimens containing furazolidone may be an ideal regimen.   Methods : H. pylori infected patients with proven gastric or duodenal ulcers and /or gastric or duodenal erosions at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Sari/Northern Iran, were randomly allocated into three groups: group A (OABF) with furazolidone (F) (200 mg bid.), group B (OABM-F) metronidazole (M) (500 mg bid.) for the first five days, followed by furazolidone (F) (200 mg bid.) for the second five days and group C (OAF) with furazolidone (F) (200 mg tid.). Omeprazole (O) (20 mg bid.) and amoxicillin (A) (1000 mg bid.) were given in all groups bismuth (B) (240 mg bid.) was prescribed in groups A & B. Duration of all eradication regimens were ten days. Eight weeks after treatment, a 14C-urea breath test was performed for evaluation of H. pylori eradication.   Results : A total of 372 patients were enrolled in three groups randomly (124 patients in each group) 120 (97%) patients in group A (OABF), 120 (97%) in group B (OABM-F) and 116 (93%) in group C (OAF) completed the study. The intention-to-treat eradication rates were 83.7% (95% CI= 77.3–90.4), 79.8% (95% CI=72.6–87), and 84.6% (95% CI= 78.2–91.1) and per-protocol eradication rates were 86.6% (95% CI= 80.5–92.8), 82.5% (95% CI= 75.6–89.4), and 90.5% (95% CI= 85.1–95.9) for groups OABF, OABM-F, and OAF, respectively. No statistical significant differences were found in case of severe drug adverse effects between the above mentioned three groups (p>0.05). The most common side effects, namely nausea and fever, occurred in all groups, but more frequently in group C (OAF) (p
       
  • Correlation between compliance regimens with health locus of control in
           patients with hypertension

    • Authors: Zahra Safavi Bayat
      Abstract:   Background: Epidemiological changes leading to chronic diseases are becoming more important day by day. Hypertension is also known as a chronic disease. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension have caused serious complications. The disease has become a health problem in all communities. This research aims at analyze the correlation between compliance with the treatment regimen and health locus of control in hypertension patients.   Methods : In this study, 130 patients diagnosed with high blood pressure have been included using convenience sampling. Information has been gathered including demographic data, compliance with the treatment regimen and health locus of control. The patient's blood pressure was measured twice and the mean was compared with the first blood pressure recorded in medical records. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.   Results : The results showed that there is a direct correlation between the adherence to the treatment regimen with internal health locus of control. In patients with internal health locus of control, better compliance with treatment regimen was detected.   Conclusion : Health locus of control is associated with treatment regimen. Considering health locus control can help nurses and managers in their health programs and also can motivate patients to participate in their self-care and improve patients care quality.   
       
  • Reduction in ischemic brain injury following the administration of
           pentoxifylline after transient global ischemia/ reperfusion in a rat model
           

    • Authors: Mehdi Mehdizadeh
      Abstract:   Background: It is well known that the hippocampus, the CA1 Pyramidal cells in particular, is selectively vulnerable during global cerebral ischemia. Recently, it is observed that pentoxifylline has a neuroprotective effect. This study explored the pharmacological relationship between ischemia-induced cell death of the hippocampus and the efficacy of a vasodilator agent (pentoxifylline) in the prevention of delayed neuronal death.   Methods : This experimental study was performed on 4 groups: control, ischemia, experimental (200mg/kg pentoxifylline injection one hour prior to and one hour following ischemia) and vehicle (normal saline). Transient global ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion. To investigate the apoptotic bodies and caspase-3 activities as a central role in the execution phase of apoptosis, the brains were prepared for the TUNEL technique.   Results : Pentoxifylline administration limited apoptosis and caspase-3 activities in rats’ hippocampi. Our data showed no significant difference between the number of apoptotic bodies in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in the control and pentoxifylline -treated groups (p= 0.994). The results of one- way ANOVA revealed that that ischemia significantly increased caspase-3 levels in the hippocampus (p
       
  • Plasma oxysterol level in patients with coronary artery stenosis and its
           changes in response to the treatment with atorvastatin

    • Authors: Marjan Ajami
      Abstract:  Background: Considering the increasing incidence of coronary artery stenosis and its related complications, the importance of its etiology and inconsistent reports we aimed to determine the relationship between oxysterol, serum levels and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and effect of statins on oxysterol.  Methods: A total of 85 patients referred to Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 2011-2012 with coronary artery stenosis more than 75%, as determined by angiography, participated in the current study. Their demographic information and history of smoking and taking atorvastatin was carefully recorded. Two milliliters of venous blood was obtained from each patient. The serum oxysterol level of samples was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.19.  Results: Eighty five patients completed the study. Mean age of patients was 64.4 years 51 (60%) were male 55 (68%) had acute coronary syndrome and 30 (32%) had chronic stable angina. Mean±SD of plasma level of oxysterol was 24.8±0.2 pmol/ml. The normal range of oxysterol level was 13pmol/ml. Mean±SD of plasma oxysterol level in patients under statin therapy was 24.4±2.1 pmol/ml. In patients without receiving statins, plasma oxysterol level was 26.38±1.6pmol/ml.  Conclusion: Findings of the present study indicated significant correlation between serum oxysterol and severity of coronary artery stenosis. It also demonstrated that receiving atorvastatin is associated with significant reduction of plasma oxysterol level. 
       
  • ATP-dependent potassium channels are implicated in simvastatin
           pretreatment-induced inhibition of apoptotic cell death after renal
           ischemia/reperfusion injury

    • Authors: Seyed Javad Hajimiresmaiel
      Abstract:  Background: Simvastatin is a widely used medication in cardiac care. Here we evaluate the role of ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in simvastatin induced renal protection after renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.   Methods: A total of 81 male Wistar rats, were treated with simvastatin (10 and 20mg/kg/day gavage, one week). Some groups received glibenclamide (KATP channel inhibitor 5mg/kg) before ischemia (45min) and reperfusion (24h). Finally the kidneys were processed for histological analysis and measurement of biochemical parameters including tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), creatinine clearance rate (CCr) and Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) expression.  Results: IR significantly increased serum Cr (p< 0.01) and BUN levels (p< 0.01), elevated FENa (p<0.01) and tissue MDA (p<0.01), and decreased CCr (p< 0.01) and induced histological damage. Bax pro-apoptotic protein was upregulated in renal tissue after I/R injury and downregulated in simvastatin pretreated group. Simvastatin at doses of 10 and 20mg/kg/day significantly reduced serum Cr and BUN levels (p< 0.05 vs. IR group), tissue MDA contents and FENa (p< 0.05 vs. I/R) and increased CCr (p< 0.05 vs. IR). Renal tissue injury was improved only in simvastatin 20mg/kg/day group (p< 0.05). Glibenclamide significantly abolished protective effects of simvastatin and increased serum Cr and BUN and FENa and decreased CCr (p< 0.05). It also abolished the effects of simvastatin on tissue injury and MDA contents and downregulated the Bax protein after IR injury (p< 0.05).  Conclusion: Opening of KATP channels is essential for simvastatin-induced renal protection against I/R injury. 
       
  • The role of ergonomic training interventions on decreasing neck and
           shoulders pain among workers of an Iranian automobile

    • Authors: Elahe Kabir-Mokamelkhah
      Abstract:   Background: Ergonomic training had been implemented for prevention or reduction of neck and shoulder complaints among workers. The purpose of the present study was to assess the role of ergonomic training intervention on decreasing the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints among workers of an automobile factory.   Methods : Within the present randomized clinical trial, the role of three ergonomic training methods on the prevalence of neck and shoulders pain among 503 workers of an automobile factory (Response rate: 94.23%) was assessed. The eligible workers were randomly allocated into the following three interventional (pamphlet, lecture, workshop) groups and one control group. The Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints. We followed and assessed the prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints among the study employees before and one year after the intervention. We used chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests to compare the prevalence of neck and shoulder complaints between the trial and control groups. A two-tailed P-value less than or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant.   Results : The prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints among the study employees at the recent week (p= 0.002) and year (p= 0.02) had been significantly decreased in the study employees after participating in the study workshop. The prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints at the recent week and year did not significantly changed in the study employees after receiving the pamphlet and lecture as ergonomic trainings.   Conclusion : Workshop as an ergonomic training method had an effective and powerful role on decreasing the prevalence of neck and shoulders complaints among workers.
       
  • A systematic review of the effectiveness of catheter ablation NavX mapping
           system for treatment of the cardiac arrhythmia

    • Authors: Ali Akbari Sari
      Abstract:   Background: Catheter ablation is widely used for treatment of atrial fibrillation. The use of fluoroscopic and non-fluoroscopic mapping systems in catheter ablation is common. This study conducted to investigate the safety and effectiveness of Navx non-fluoroscopic mapping system.   Methods : In this study, the appropriate electronic databases including Cochrane Library and Ovid Medline searched until August 2013 using free text and MeSH. Systematic reviews, health technology assessment reports in which systematic review was conducted and controlled trials with the sample size of 100 patients and more were included into the study. Results of included studies were analyzed qualitatively.   Results : Seven papers were included in this study. According to these studies, non-fluoroscopic guidance systems may reduce the exposure to radiation compared to fluoroscopic system. NavX system has minimum exposure time. Non-fluoroscopic guidance systems are safer than fluoroscopic guidance system. NavX system reduces the procedure and fluoroscopy time. There was no significant difference between two systems, NavX and Carto, based on their safety and effectiveness.   Conclusion : EnsiteNavX system is relatively safer and more effective than fluoroscopic guidance systems for treating the cardiac arrhythmia.
       
  • MR defecography: a diagnostic test for the evaluation of pelvic floor
           motion in patients with dyssynergic defecation after biofeedback therapy

    • Authors: Nader Maroufi
      Abstract:   Background: Dyssynergic defecation is a major cause of chronic functional constipation as a common digestive complaint. We clinically evaluated the effects of biofeedback therapy on the pelvic floor motion indices through magnetic resonance (MR) defecography, quality of life and depression in patients with dyssynergic defecation.  Methods : In this clinical trial study, among patients referring to the Colorectal Clinic of HazratRasoul Hospital, 22 subjects were randomly assigned into two equal groups (n=11) to receive either standard only or biofeedback and standard therapy. Dynamic changes of the pelvic floor were measured by MR defecography. During the simulated defecation, two MR defecography dynamic indices including abnormal anorectal angle change and perineal descent were measured before and after treatment. The effects of biofeedback therapy on patients’ symptoms, quality of life and severity of depression were assessed and compared with the standard therapy. Statistical analysis was carried out using independent _t-test and Mann-Whitney test.  Results : Paradox index (p< 0.001), perineal descent index (p< 0.001), depression (p< 0.1), physical function (p<0.001), vitality (p< 0.001) and role emotion (p< 0.001) significantly improved in the biofeedback therapy group in contrast to the standard therapySDT group.  Conclusion : Biofeedback therapy appears to be effective in improving symptoms of functional constipation and dysfunction of pelvic floor motion as well as patient’s quality of life and depression state. MR defecography is able to show the changes in dynamic indices of the pelvic floor through biofeedback therapy.
       
  • The effect of rosemary extract on spatial memory, learning and antioxidant
           enzymes activities in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats

    • Authors: Shima Ababzadeh
      Abstract:   Background: The Rosemary extract (RE) possesses various antioxidant, cytoprotective and cognition-improving bioactivities. In this study, we postulated which doses of RE have a more effect on the hippocampus of middle-aged rats.   Methods : In this experimental study, thirty-two middle-aged male Wistar rats were fed by different doses (50,100 and 200 mg/kg/day) of RE (containing 40% carnosic acid) or distilled water for 12 weeks. The effects of different RE doses on learning and spatial memory scores, hippocampal neuronal survival, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation amount were evaluated by one and two way analysis of variance (ANOVA).   Results : It seemed that RE (100mg/kg) could recover the spatial memory retrieval score (p< 0.05). The amount of activity of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes in the hippocampus of animals of the RE (100mg/kg) group showed a significant increase compared to the normal group (p< 0.01), (p< 0.01) and (p< 0.05), respectively. Also, the amount of activity of GPx in the RE (50 mg/kg) group of animals showed a significant increase compared to the normal group (p< 0.05). No significant difference was found between the groups in the MDA level.   Conclusion : The results revealed that rosemary extract (40% carnosic acid) may improve the memory score and oxidative stress activity in middle aged rats in a dose dependent manner, especially in 100mg/kg.   
       
  • The effect of exercise therapy on knee osteoarthritis: a randomized
           clinical trial

    • Authors: Azizeh Farzinmehr
      Abstract:   Background: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease among old individuals which affects ability for sitting on the chair, standing, walking and climbing stairs. Our objective was to investigate the short and long-term effects of the most simple and the least expensive exercise protocols in combination to conventional conservative therapy for knee OA.   Methods : It was a single blind RCT study with a 12-months follow-up. Totally, 56 patients with knee OA were assigned into 2 random groups. The patients in exercise group received exercise for knee muscles in combination with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and 10 sessions acupuncture and physiotherapy modalities. Non-exercise group received similar treatments except exercise program. The changes in patients’ pain and functional status were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), knee and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) questionnaire and functional tests (4 steps, 5 sit up, and 6 min walk test) before and after treatment (1 and 3 months after intervention), and 1 year later at the follow-up.   Results : The results showed that the patients with knee OA in exercise group had significant improvement in pain, disability, walking, stair climbing, and sit up speed after treatment at first and second follow-up when compared with their initial status and when compared with non-exercise group. At third follow up (1 year later) there was significant difference between groups in VAS and in three items of KOOS questionnaire in functional status.   Conclusion : Non aerobic exercises for muscles around knee can augment the effect of other therapeutic interventions like medical therapy, acupuncture, and modalities for knee OA.   
       
  • Protective role of Proanthocyanidin in experimental ovarian torsion

    • Authors: Şule Yıldırım
      Abstract:   Background: Proanthocyanidin is a potent bioactive antioxidant naturally occurring in grape seed and acts as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of proanthocyanidinin in experimental ovarian torsion injury.   Methods : Twenty four rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=8). Group 1: the laparotomy group, group 2: ovarian torsion group, and group 3: intervention group administered proanthocyanidinin of 50 mg/kg before bilateral ovarian ischemia and reperfusion. Histologic examination and scoring was done at the end of the experiment. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS v. 19.   Results : Ovarian histopathologic findings of all three groups were significantly different in terms of hemorrhage (p
       
  • A computer-based selective visual attention test for first-grade school
           children: design, development and psychometric properties

    • Authors: Malahat Akbarfahimi
      Abstract:   Background: Visualattention is known as acritical base for learning.Thepurpose of the present study was to design, develop and evaluate the test-retest and internal consistency reliability as well as face, content and convergent validity of thecomputer- based selective visual attention test (SeVAT) for healthy first-grade school children.  Methods :In thefirst phase of this study,the computer-based SeVATwas developedin two versionsof original and parallel.Ten experts in occupational therapy helpedto measure the content validity using the CVR and CVI methods.Face validity was measured through opinions collected from 10 first-grade children. The convergent validity of the test was examined using the Spearman correlation between the SeVAT and Stroop test. In addition, test-retest reliability was determined by measuring the intra-class correlation (ICC) between the original and parallel versions of theSeVAT in a single session. The internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Sixty first grade children (30 girls/30boys) participated in this study.  Results : The developed test was found to have good content and face validity. The SeVAT showed an excellent test-retest reliability (ICC= 0.778, p<0.001) and internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha of original and parallel tests were 0.857 and 0.831, respectively). SeVAT and Stroop test demonstrated a positive correlation upon the convergent validity testing.  Conclusion : Our results suggested an acceptable reliability and validity for the computer-based SeVAT in the assessment of selective attention in children. Further research may warrant the differential validity of such a test in other age groups and neuro-cognitively disordered populations.
       
  • The effect of education on improvement of intake of fruits and vegetables
           aiming at preventing cardiovascular diseases

    • Authors: Asghar Ashrafi Hafez
      Abstract:   Background: Cardiovascular diseases refer to a group of diseases that affect the cardiovascular system principally cardiac diseases, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney and peripheral arterial diseases which are caused by various factors. Considering the importance of nutrition education, especially the intake of fruits and vegetables, this study was performed to determine the effect of health education, Based on the Health Belief Model, on the improvement of intake of fruits and vegetables aiming at preventing cardiovascular diseases among high school girls in the city of Shahr-e-Kord, Iran.   Methods : This was a quasi-experimental intervention study, in which 120 female students of high schools in Isfahan were selected through convenient sampling and were divided into two groups of experimental (60) and control (60).The instruments for data collection were the Health Belief Model and FFQ questionnaires. The HBM questionnaire was completed three times (before, immediately and two months after the intervention) and the FFQ questionnaire was completed two times (before and two months after the intervention) by the students. After the pre-test, six educational sessions were provided for the experimental group. Finally, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16(t-test, paired t-test and repeated measure ANOVA).   Results : There were no differences between the two groups in terms of demographic variables. Before the intervention, there were not any significant differences between the scores of different structures of this model between the two groups (p>0.05) however, after the intervention, significant differences were found between the experimental and control groups in the levels of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived efficacy and performance (p
       
  • Nurses’ experiences of humour in clinical settings

    • Authors: Nahid Dehghan-Nayeri
      Abstract:   Background: Providing holistic nursing care when there is a shortage of personnel and equipment exposes nurses to stress and a higher risk of occupational burnout. Humour can promote nurses’ health and influence nursing care. The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of humour in clinical settings and factors affecting it.   Methods : This qualitative study investigated nurses’ experiences of humour. Five hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences provided the setting for this study. The participants comprised of 17 nurses with master’s and Baccalaureate degrees (BSN) in nursing. These nurses worked at educational hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences and had minimum work experience of 12 months in various clinical wards. Nurses from all wards were invited to participate in this study. The data were collected through semi structure interviews using guides comprising probing questions. Telephonic interviews were used to further supplement the data. The data were analysed using conventional content analysis.   Results : The data were classified into five themes including the dynamics of humour, condition enforcement, Risk making probability, Instrumental use and Change: opportunities and threats.   Conclusion : Understanding nurses’ perceptions and experiences of humour helps identify its contributing factors and provides valuable guidelines for enhancing nurses and patients’ mental, emotional and physical health. Spreading a culture of humour through teaching methods can improve workplace cheerfulness and highlights the importance of humour in patient care in nurses and nursing students.
       
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with early stages of
           chronic kidney disease

    • Authors: Mojtaba Sharafkhah
      Abstract:   Background :Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurological disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to compare it with healthy children.   Methods : Seventy five 5-16-year-old children with early stages of CKD (stage 1, 2 and 3) and 75 healthy children without CKD were included in this case – control study as case and control groups, respectively. The participants were selected from those children who were referred to the pediatric clinic of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak (Iran) in the form of simple probability and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. ADHD was diagnosed using Conner's Parent Rating Scale – 48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV criteria and was confirmed by a psychologist consultant. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS18.   Results : ADHD inattentive type was observed in 8 cases (10.6%) with CKD and 2 controls (2.6%) (p= 0.109). Moreover, in the case and control groups, 7 (9.3%) and 6 (8%) children were affected by ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (p= 0.997), and 9 (12%) and 12 (16%) children were affected by ADHD mixed type (p= 0.664), respectively.   Conclusion : No differences were found between the prevalence of ADHD in the children with early stages of CKD and the control group. However, due to the importance of the relationships between different types of psychiatric disorders and CKD and lack of enough evidence concerning the relationship between ADHD and different stages of CKD in children, conducting further studies in this field is recommended.   
       
  • The effect of depression and anxiety on expression levels of toll like
           receptor signaling moleculesin chronic HBV infected patients

    • Authors: Ahmad Shabanizadeh
      Abstract:   Background: Toll- like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the recognition of DAMPs and PAMPs and induction ofinflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that depression and anxiety can influence the expression levels of immune related molecules. Our previous study revealed that mRNA levels of IRAK4, TRAF3 and IRF7 were significantly decreased in chronic HBV infected (CHB) patients when compared to healthy controls. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of depression and anxiety on the expression levels of these molecules in CHB patients.   Methods : Sixty CHB patients participated in this studyand filled out the standard questionnaires and the expression of IRAK4, TRAF3 and IRF7 were examined using Real-Time PCR techniques.   Results : The results of this study demonstrated that expression of IRAK4, TRAF3 and IRF7 did not differ between patients with various stages of depression and anxiety (all p>0.05).   Conclusion : According to the results, it seems that declined expression of IRAK4, TRAF3 and IRF7 inCHB patients were not related to depression and anxiety, and other factors including genetic and immunoregulatory effects of HBV may be responsible for the declined expression of these molecules.
       
  • The meaning of work in people with severe mental illness (SMI) in Iran

    • Authors: Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahbolaghi
      Abstract:   Background: Work is the key component for most people in regard to financial, social and wellbeing matters. Employment is an important factor underpinning mental health disorders. However, unemployment remains an unsolved issue worldwide. Numerous studies have focused on employment outcomes in people with severe mental illness (SMI) but, only a few have explored their perspective on employment. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the meaning of work among clients with SMI in Iran.   Methods : A qualitative research approach was used to conduct this research. Ten participants who were consumers of mental health services took part in this study. Data were analyzed by inductive content analysis approach.   Results : Four themes emerged from data including: acquiring identity, work as a drive, passing the time and financial independence.   Conclusion : Meaning of work in studied people with SMI was probably similar to the general population. The different finding in this study refers to the dominancy of family relationships and spiritual believes which could cover some problems and in turn affect the meaning of work. Highlighting these meanings could direct mental health professionals to better planning for their clients have better understanding of their clients’ work future and in turn provide more precise plan for them.
       
  • The prevalence of adulthood overweight and obesity in Tehran: findings
           from Urban HEART-2 study

    • Authors: Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri
      Abstract:   Background: To estimate and compare prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult people across the 22 districts of Tehran in 2011.   Method s: This was a cross-sectional study using data on 47,406 women and 47,525 men aged≥ 15 years from a large population-based survey (Urban HEART-2). Age-standardized prevalence (ASP) of overweight (25≤BMI
       
  • Quality measurement indicators for Iranian Health Centers

    • Authors: Ali Sarabi Asiabar
      Abstract:   Background: Recently, quality is a serious concern in development of organizations. There are various indicators to assess quality and the purpose of this study was to identify the main indicators for quality measurement of Iranian health centers.   Methods : This qualitative study was conducted in three stages: first, review of the literature was performed to identify different indicators for quality measurement in health centers second, a two-round Delphi process was used with participation of 18 experts in both rounds third, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied to give weights to each indicator.   Results : Twenty-seven indicators were identified from the literature review stage. The Delphi method reduced the list to 4 indicators. Developing a quality plan in the health center had the highest weight (38%) and percentage of followed complaints the lowest (12%). The consistency rate was 7.2% indicating appropriateness of the data.   Conclusion : This list of indicators can be used as a template for measuring quality of health centers in Iran and possibly in other developing countries.   
       
  • Does routine repeat testing of critical laboratory values improve their
           accuracy'

    • Authors: Ali Zare-Mirzaie
      Abstract:   Background: Routine repeat testing of critical laboratory values is very common these days to increase their accuracy and to avoid reporting false or infeasible results. We figure that repeat testing of critical laboratory values has any benefits or not.   Methods : We examined 2233 repeated critical laboratory values in 13 different hematology and chemistry tests including: hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, glucose, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. The absolute difference and the percentage of change between the two tests for each critical value were calculated and then compared with the College of American Pathologists/Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments allowable error.   Results : Repeat testing yielded results that were within the allowable error on 2213 of 2233 specimens (99.1%). There was only one outlier (0.2%) in the white blood cell test category, 9 (2.9%) in the platelet test category, 5 (4%) in the partial thromboplastin time test category, 5 (4.8%) in the international normalized ratio test category and none in other test categories.   Conclusion : Routine, repeat testing of critical hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, glucose, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin results does not have any benefits to increase their accuracy.
       
  • The effect of group mindfulness - based stress reduction program and
           conscious yoga on the fatigue severity and global and specific life
           quality in women with breast cancer

    • Authors: Siavash Talepasand
      Abstract:   Background: Cancer is not merely an event with a certain end, but it is a permanent and vague situation that is determined by delayed effects due to the disease, its treatment and its related psychological issues. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction program and conscious yoga on the mental fatigue severity and life quality of women with breast cancer.   Methods : This was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test and control group. In this study, 24 patients with the diagnosis of breast cancer were selected among the patients who referred to the Division of Oncology and Radiotherapy of Imam Hossein hospital in Tehran using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. All the participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale, Global Life Quality of Cancer Patient and Specific Life Quality of Cancer Patient questionnaires. Data were analyzed by multivariate repeated measurement variance analysis model.   Results : Findings revealed that the mindfulness-based stress reduction treatment significantly improved the overall quality of life, role, cognitive, emotion, social functions and pain and fatigue symptoms in global life quality in the experimental group. It also significantly improved the body image, future functions and therapy side effects in specific life quality of the experimental group compared to the control group. In addition, fatigue severity caused by cancer was reduced significantly. Conclusion : The results showed that the mindfulness - based stress reduction treatment can be effective in improving global and specific life quality and fatigue severity in women with breast cancer
       
  • Intimate partner violence and risky sexual behaviors among Iranian women
           with substance use disorders

    • Authors: Shahnaz Rimaz
      Abstract:   Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behaviors are serious and overlapping public health problems that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. Despite the fact that drug-using women experience extensive IPV, to date, no studies have investigated the association of IPV and risky sexual behaviors among drug-using women in Iran.  Methods : Drug-using women (N =120) were recruited from a rehabilitation center in Tehran from March to October, 2009. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), a standardized questionnaire, was used to collect data regarding violence. We used t-test and logistic regression models to explore the relationship between IPV domains and specific sexual risk behavior outcomes using SPSS 21.  Results : The means (sd) for CTS2 domains were as follows: negotiation 4.29 (1.55), psychological violence 2.55 (1.51), sexual violence 0.37 (1.00), physical abuse 1.17 (1.49), injury 2.18 (1.97), and the mean total score was 1.69 (0.96). We found significantly higher injury scores, but lower sexual abuse scores among women with sexually-transmitted infection (STI) compared to women without STI (p-values 0.030 and <0.0001, respectively). In addition, we found that psychological abuse was positively associated with STI (p-value 0.03) and increased condom use (p = 0.010), possibly mediated through an increased likelihood of having multiple partners.  Conclusion : The findings revealed that in Iran drug-involved women experience high rates of IPV and that IPV is associated with increased risky sexual behavior. Implication: Preventive interventions for violence that are integrated within drug treatment programs, as well as harm reduction programs are highly recommended.  
       
  • Clinical learning environments (actual and expected): perceptions of Iran
           University of Medical Sciences nursing students

    • Authors: Neda Mehrdad
      Abstract:   Background: Educational clinical environment has an important role in nursing students' learning. Any difference between actual and expected clinical environment will decrease nursing students’ interest in clinical environments and has a negative correlation with their clinical performance.   Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare nursing students'perception of the actual and expected status of clinical environments in medical-surgical wards.   Participants of the study were 127 bachelor nursing students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in the internship period. Data gathering instruments were a demographic questionnaire (including sex, age, and grade point average), and the Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) originally developed by Professor Chan (2001), in which its modified Farsi version (Actual and Preferred forms) consisting 42 items, 6 scales and 7 items per scale was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, paired t-test, ANOVA) were used for data analysis through SPSS version 16.   Results : The results indicated that there were significant differences between the preferred and actual form in all six scales. In other word, comparing with the actual form, the mean scores of all items in the preferred form were higher. The maximum mean difference was in innovation and the highest mean difference was in involvement scale.   Conclusion : It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of their actual clinical teaching environment and this perception is significantly different from their perception of their expected environment.
       
  • Do not underestimate fournier’s gangrene: Report of 8 cases in 10
           month survey

    • Authors: Mahdy Saboury
      Abstract:   Background : Fourniers gangrene caused by synergic aerobic and anaerobic organism is a life threatening disorder.  Methods : The medical records of 8 among 839 patients admitted to imam ali general hospital Zahedan university of Medical Sciences with fourniers gangrene during the 10 months period between 2012 and 2013 were reviewed.  Results : The most common etiology and presentation were abscess and perianal pain respectively. Mixed bacterial flora was common finding in patient. Single debridement was carried out in 2 patients and repeated procedure was needed in 6.  Conclusion : This disease is characterized with high mortality of up to 75% but in our study the rate was 37.5%. In other studies diabetes mellitus was found to be the common condition related to fourniers gangrene but in our study the common etiology was perianal abscess. Fourniers gangrene should be rule out in any patient with perianal pain and flulike, swelling skin.
       
  • Rectal cancer: a review

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Keramati
      Abstract:   Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail.  
       
  • Preparation of factor VII concentrate using CNBr-activated

    • Authors: Saleh Nasiri
      Abstract:   Background: Factor VII concentrates are used in patients with congenital or acquired factor VII deficiency or treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors. In this research, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify factor VII from prothrombin complex (Prothrombin-Proconvertin-Stuart Factor-Antihemophilic Factor B or PPSB) which contains coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X. The aim of this study was to improve purity, safety and tolerability as a highly purified factor VII concentrate.   Methods : PPSB was prepared using DEAE-Sephadex and was used as the starting material for purification of coagulation factor VII. Prothrombin complex was treated by solvent/detergent at 24°C for 6 h with constant stirring. The mixture of PPSB in the PBS buffer was filtered and then chromatographed using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled with specific antibody. Factors II, IX, VII, X and VIIa were assayed on the fractions. Fractions of 48-50 were pooled and lyophilized as a factor VII concentrate. Agarose gel electrophoresis was performed and Tween 80 was measured in the factor VII concentrate.   Results : Specific activity of factor VII concentrate increased from 0.16 to 55.6 with a purification-fold of 347.5 and the amount of activated factor VII (FVIIa) was found higher than PPSB (4.4-fold). Results of electrophoresis on agarose gel indicated higher purity of Factor VII compared to PPSB these finding revealed that factor VII migrated as alpha-2 proteins. In order to improve viral safety, solvent-detergent treatment was applied prior to further purification and nearly complete elimination of tween 80 (2 μg/ml).   Conclusion : It was concluded that immuonoaffinity chromatography using CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B can be a suitable choice for large-scale production of factor VII concentrate with higher purity, safety and activated factor VII.
       
  • Computed Tomographic measurement of distal femor rotation in Iranian
           population

    • Authors: Javad Moghimi
      Abstract:   Background: Proper rotation of components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will largely affect the postoperative outcome. Ethnical variation may affect rotational profile. We aimed to evaluate distal femur rotation in Iranian population using transepicondylar axes.   Methods : From a total of 450 knee CT scans and via consecutive sampling, 150 qualified subjects with normal lower extremities alignment were selected comprising 96 (64%) males and 54 (36%) females aging 17-80 years. The posterior condylar angle and condylar twist angles were defined as angles between either surgical epicondylar axis (line connecting lateral epicondylar prominence and the medial sulcus) or clinical epicondylar axis (line connecting most prominent points of both epicondyle) and posterior conylar line. Data were compared among genders.   Results : Average age of our samples was 43 years (ranging 11-80). Mean (±sd) values for posterior condylar angle and condylar twist angles were 2.35º(±1.34) and 5.77º(±1.70), respectively. The former variable was not discernible in twenty of our subjects because of obscure medial sulcus. Our findings were totally appeared similar to studies from other ethnicities and the observed minor differences may have originated from amount of osteoarthritis and malalignment.   Conclusion : Overall, Iranian distal femur rotational profile was similar to other reports. Some minor observed differences may be partially due to samples’ age and different amount of knee osteoarthritis. It is proposed to rely on several methods for determining rotational profile while performing TKA. Moreover, preoperative computed tomography should be fully scrutinized especially in severely osteoarthitic knees.  
       
  • Stem cell-based approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    • Authors: Parisa Goodarzi
      Abstract:   Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative brain disorder which is around 1.5 times more common in men than in women. Currently, drug medications, surgery, and lifestyle changes are common approaches to PD, while all of them focused on reducing the symptoms. Therefore, regenerative medicine based on stem cell (SC) therapies has raised a promising hope. Various types of SCs have been used in basic and experimental studies relevant to PD, including embryonic pluripotential stem cells, mesenchymal (MSCs) and induced pluripotent SCs (iPSCs). MSCs have several advantages over other counterparts. They are easily accessible which can be obtained from various tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, peripheral blood, etc. with avoiding ethical problems. Therefore, MSCs is attractive clinically because there are no related ethical and immunological concerns . Further studies are needed to answer some crucial questions about the different issues in SC therapy. Accordingly, SC-based therapy for PD also needed more complementary evaluation in both basic and clinical study areas.   
       
  • Vitamin B12 supplementation in end stage renal diseases: a sys-tematic
           review

    • Authors: Maryam Khosravi
      Abstract:   Background :Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease particularly in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Vitamin B12 supplementation on its own still remains as a controversial issue for clinicians in decreasing the level of homcysteine in this group of patients.   Methods : Using all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), clinical trials and pre-post-trial studies found during January 1999 to March 2014, we conducted a systematic review which assessed the effects of vitamin B12 in decreasing homocysteine levels in patients with ESRD.   Results : The findings of this study revealed that, overall, the greatest effect of B12 supplementation on decreasing homocysteine levels in patients with ESRDs occurred when it was combined with folate supplementation. It was also demonstrated that injection treatments might be more beneficial than oral intake treatments.   Conclusion : More rigorous studies are needed to draw a firm conclusion about B12 therapy and the level of homocyteine in patients with ESRD.
       
  • Does leadership effectiveness correlates with leadership styles in
           healthcare executives of Iran University of Medical Sciences

    • Authors: Ali Sarabi Asiabar
      Abstract:   Background: Effective leadership is essential to passing through obstacles facing the health field. The current health care system in Iran has major problems and gaps in the field of effective leadership. The aim of this study was to evaluate hospital managers’ leadership style through self-assessment and to determine the correlation between leadership styles with healthcare executives’ leadership readiness and leadership effectiveness.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study a self-administered questionnaire completed by all internal healthcare executives of all teaching and non-teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaire was composed to determine demographic information, leadership style questions, leadership effectiveness and leadership readiness. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis.   Results : According to the findings, the dominant style of healthcare executives was transformational leadership style (with a score of 4.34). The leadership effectiveness was estimated at about 4.36 that shows the appropriate level of leadership effectiveness. There was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.244) between leadership readiness and transformational leadership style (p
       
  • Sequence-based genotyping of hepatitis B virus in general popula-tion

    • Authors: Ma’soumeh Moezzi
      Abstract:     Background: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) causes acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. HBV has eight genotypes (A to H) which is the reflection of its genome with their characteristic geographical distribution. Each genotype could have different pathogenic and therapeutic characteristics. There have been few records on HBV genotyping in general population from our region. This study aimed to determine hepatitis B genotypes using sequencing in the general population of Shahrekord, a Southwestern region of Iran.   Methods: A total of 3000 serum samples (cluster sampling method) were enrolled from general population tested for HBsAg using ELISA. Using appropriate extraction kit, HBV DNA was extracted from HBsAg positive samples and each was subjected to nested PCR for detection of HBV DNA. Finally, using sequencing, the samples were used for HBV genotyping. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistics, chi square, and Fisher’s exact test. P-value < 0.05 was considered as the level of significance.   Results: Out of 3000 serum samples, 40 (1.3%) were positive for HBsAg. HBV DNA was detected in 10 out of 40 (25%) of the samples studied. Genotype D was the predominant HBV type found in all of these 10 HBV positive samples.   Conclusion: Genotype D is probably the predominant HBV type in our region.    
       
  • Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in multiple
           sclerosis participants

    • Authors: Ghassem Mohammadkhani
      Abstract:   Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that affects brain and spinal cord. The infratentorial region contains the cerebellum and brainstem. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short-latency myogenic responses. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a manifestation of vestibulocolic reflex and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) contributes to the linear vestibular–ocular reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate cVEMP and oVEMP in MS patients with and without infratentorial plaques and compare the findings with normal controls.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study, latency and amplitude of cVEMP and oVEMP were recorded in 15 healthy females with mean age of 31.13±9.27 years, 17 female MS patients with infratentorial plaque(s) and mean age of 29.88±8.93 years, and 17 female MS patients without infratentorial plaque(s) and mean age of 30.58±8.02 years. All patients underwent a complete clinical neurological evaluation and brain MRI scanning. Simple random sampling method was used in this study and data were analyzed using one way ANOVA through SPSS v22.   Results : The latency of N1-P1 and P13 in MS participants with and without infratentorial plaques were significantly prolonged compared to normal controls (p
       
  • Evaluating the prior knowledge of toxoplasmosis among students of Ferdowsi
           University of Mashhad

    • Authors: Mansour Ebrahimi
       
  • Effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing

    • Authors: Hakimeh Sabeghi
      Abstract:   Background :Nursing education can maintain its dynamic quality when it moves toward innovation and modern methods of teaching and learning. Therefore, teachers are required to employ up to date methods in their teaching plans. This study evaluated the effects of e-learning, lectures, and role playing on nursing students’ learning, retention, and satisfaction.   Methods : Sixty nursing students were selected as an experiment and control groups during two consecutive semesters. The educational content was presented as e-learning and role playing during one semester (experiment group) and as lectures in the next semester (control group). A questionnaire containing three parts was used to assess demographics, learning and satisfaction statuses. The questionnaire also included a final open-ended question to evaluate the students’ ideas about the whole course.   Results : The mean scores of posttest were 16.13 ± 1.37 using role playing, 15.50 ± 1.44 using e-learning and 16.45 ± 1.23 using lectures. The differences between the mean scores of posttest and pretest were 12.84 ± 1.43, 12.56 ± 1.57, and 13.73 ± 1.53 in the mentioned methods, respectively. Lectures resulted in significantly better learning compared to role playing and e-learning. In contrast, retention rates were significantly lower using lectures than using role playing and e-learning. Students’ satisfaction from e-learning was significantly lower than lecturing and role playing.   Conclusion : Due to the lower rates of retention following lectures, the teachers are recommended to use student-centered approaches in their lectures. Since students’ satisfaction with e-learning was lower than the other methods, further studies are suggested to explore the problems of e-learning in Iran.   
       
  • Assessing mental health literacy: What medical sciences students’
           know about depression

    • Authors: Laleh Ghadirian
      Abstract:   Background: Mental health literacy is an individual’s knowledge and belief about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management and prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate mental health literacy among students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.   Methods : In this cross-sectional study, data were collected by the anonymous self-administered questionnaires and finally 324 students participated in the study. Random cluster sampling was used. Questions were in different areas of the mental health literacy for depression include recognition of disorder, intended actions to seek help and perceived barriers, beliefs about interventions, prevention, stigmatization and impact of media. T-test was used for statistical analysis.   Results : The mean (±SD) age was 23.5±2.8. The participants were 188 (58.1%) females and 136 (41.9%) males. In response to the recognition of the disorder 115 (35.6%) students mentioned the correct answer. In help-seeking area, 208 (64.3%) gave positive answer. The majority of affected students sought for help from their friends and parents. Stigma was the greatest barrier for seeking help. Television and Internet were the most common sources of information related to mental health.   Conclusion : Generally students’ mental health literacy on depression was low in some areas. Appropriate educational programs specifically for reducing mental disorders stigma seems necessary. Organizing networks of co-helper students for mental health could be considered.   
       
  • Different patterns of association between education and wealth with
           non-fatal myocardial infarction in Tehran, Iran: A population- based
           case-control study

    • Authors: Bahman Cheraghian
      Abstract: Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a main cause of death and disability worldwide, whichinvolves a number of genetic, physiopathologic and socio-economic determinants. The aim of thisstudy was to assess the patterns of association between education, wealth and some other risk factorswith non-fatal MI in Tehran population.Methods: Data derived from a second round of large cross-sectional study, Urban HEART-2, conductedin Tehran in 2011. Out of 118542 participants, all 249 self-reported incident cases of nonfatalMI were selected as the case group. A number of 996, matched on age and sex, were selected ascontrols. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to calculate wealth index and logistic regressionmodel to assess relations between the study variables.Results: Mean (SD) age of participants was 60.25 (12.26) years. A total of 870 (69.9%) of thestudy subjects were men. Education, wealth status, family violence, hypertension and diabetes wereobserved as independent predictors of non-fatal MI. Overall, as the level of education increased, theodds of non-fatal MI decreased (p
       
  • Study of NGEP expression in androgen sensitive prostate cancer cells: A
           potential target for immunotherapy

    • Authors: Mohammad M Farajollahi
      Abstract:   Background: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among men. New gene expressed in prostate (NGEP), is a prostate-specific gene expressed only in normal prostate and prostate cancer tissue. Because of its selective expression in prostate cancer cell surface, NGEP is a potential immunotherapeutic target. To target the NGEP in prostate cancer, it is essential to investigate its expression in prostate cancer cells.   Methods : In the present study, we investigated NGEP expression in LNCaP and DU145 cells by real time and RT-PCR, flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analyses.   Results : Real time and RT-PCR analyses of NGEP expression showed that NGEP was expressed in the LNCaP cells but not in DU145 cells. The detection of NGEP protein by flow cytometric and immunocytochemistry analyses indicated that NGEP protein was weakly expressed only in LNCaP cell membrane.   Conclusion : Our results demonstrate that LNCaP cell line is more suitable than DU145 for NGEP expression studies however, its low-level expression is a limiting issue. NGEP expression may be increased by androgen supplementation of LNCaP cell culture medium.
       
 
 
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