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Publisher: RMIT Publishing   (Total: 400 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 400 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Accounting, Accountability & Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian J. of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 5)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anglican Historical Society J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 11)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 27)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Art Monthly Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.672, h-index: 51)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 8)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Drama Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 3)
Australasian J. of Human Security, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian J. of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Law Management J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 6)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Bookseller & Publisher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 31)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.252, h-index: 24)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.159, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 26)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.17, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.401, h-index: 18)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 9)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 4)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 20)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 8)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 9)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
BOCSAR NSW Alcohol Studies Bulletins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bookseller + Publisher Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.31, h-index: 19)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.143, h-index: 10)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 27)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.737, h-index: 24)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 7)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 6)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 8)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gestalt J. of Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Government News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Great Circle: J. of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Grief Matters : The Australian J. of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
He Puna Korero: J. of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion J. of Australia : Official J. of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 19)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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History of Economics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
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Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Australian Journal of Civil Engineering
  [SJR: 0.17]   [H-I: 3]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1448-8353
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [400 journals]
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Walker, David
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - High frequency radar applications in coastal
           monitoring, planning and engineering
    • Abstract: Wyatt, LR
      This paper reviews some existing and potential applications of high frequency (HF) radar surface current, wave and wind data drawing on experiences within Australia and also from elsewhere in the world. These include oil spill transport, search and rescue services, navigational safety, marine renewables, tsunami detection, water quality and coastal development projects, and many different applications in the area of marine ecology. The data are also used for studies of ocean dynamics and for the validation of hydrodynamic and wave models. Some new wind direction and wave measurements from the Australian radar systems are presented. The quality of the data is crucial to all these applications and some examples of data validation are discussed. Learning from the experiences of other more developed networks, and in particular building solid links with the user communities in Australia, is essential to ensure long-term sustainability of the Australian HF radar network.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Rapid assessment of boat-generated waves within
           sheltered waterways
    • Abstract: Macfarlane, GJ; Duffy, JT; Bose, N
      It is well known that waves generated by passing ships and boats can cause problems for other users of a waterway and the surrounding environment. In recent decades there has been a growing need to quantify these waves so that fair and realistic regulations can be implemented to ensure vessel operations cause minimal or negligible harm. The majority of regulatory criteria adopted both locally and internationally have relied upon the identification and quantification of just a single characteristic wave from the entire train of waves generated by a vessel, usually the highest. However, it has been shown that this is generally inadequate when considering the more complex wave patterns that are generated when craft operate in shallow water environments. This paper reports on a recent study that defined three key waves that should be quantified when assessing vessel wave wake in shallow water conditions to account for all potentially dangerous or damaging waves, particularly those of low height and high energy. Also outlined is the development of a tool that can rapidly and accurately predict the characteristics of the three key waves. This tool was developed using data acquired from a comprehensive set of model scale experiments and has been validated against measured data from independent full scale trials. The tool can be used to account for the effect that water depth, hull form and vessel speed has on the waves generated. The Wave Wake Predictor is now freely available online to assist those tasked with designing new vessels, or those who wish to identify any potentially serious wave wake issues very early in the planning and design stages of any vessel for a particular route.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Entrance changes in the Snowy River estuary in
           response to environmental flow releases
    • Abstract: Hinwood, JB; McLean, EJ
      Environmental flow releases (EFR) to the Snowy River were made in November 2010 and October 2011. For each release, the effects on the inlet entrance morphology and tidal response were measured on four field trips to cover the flow peak and recovery. Water level recorders were deployed in the principal channels over the period of the release and, for the 2011 release, for the prior two months and year following at Marlo. Each EFR raised water levels in the estuary but the changes were attenuated by the large storage capacity and the relatively open entrance of the estuary. Entrance scour was minor and occurred primarily in the intertidal zone, showing that the entrance was close to equilibrium for the EFR. This result was confirmed by analyses of the sediment transport capacity and through use of an attractor plot of the entrance dynamics. A measure of entrance changes before and after the 2011 surveys was provided by the use of a moving-window analysis of the tidal record and confirmed the value of this method. Instantaneous values of entrance scour and deposition were predominantly tidally driven but river fl ow biased the net scour/deposition, leading to scour on the rising and peak stages of the EFR and rapid deposition late in the falling stages. The role of tidal asymmetry was shown to be significant. The attractor map, which showed the evolution of the depth as the river flow varied, provided a useful tool for interpretation and prediction of probable changes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Influence of restricted water on the time domain
           interaction forces and moment on a berthed ship due to a passing ship
    • Abstract: Denehy, SP; Duffy, JT; Ranmuthugala, D; Renilson, MR
      An investigation was conducted into the effect that different berthed ship bow and stern blockage arrangements has on the interaction forces and moment experienced by a berthed ship due to a passing ship. Physical scale model experiments were used to quantify the magnitude and form of the interaction forces and moments for five different blockage arrangements. The interaction force and moment traces from the experiments were compared to traces predicted using existing empirical formulae based on open water scenarios. Additionally, two methods were used to adjust idealised curves using the experimental results to better represent the form and magnitude of the interaction forces and moments. To demonstrate the effect that the changes in form and magnitude of the interaction forces and moments has on the predicted berthed ship motions the interaction forces and moment from the physical scale model experiments, empirical predictions and the adjusted idealised curves were extrapolated to represent a full scale ship and used as input to a commercially available time domain numerical simulation code to predict the berthed ship motions. The bow and stern blockage was shown to have a significant effect on both the form and magnitude of the interaction forces and moments, and hence, the predicted berthed ship motions. The empirically predicted interaction forces and moments correlated poorly with the experimental results.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Case study: Assessment of the entrance stability of
           the Lake Illawarra Estuary
    • Abstract: Young, S; Couriel, E; Jayewardene, I; McPherson, B; Dooley, B
      Prior to completion of entrance improvements in 2007, Lake Illawarra behaved as an ICOLL (intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons) with entrance conditions dependent on prevailing conditions. Since construction of twin training breakwaters and dredging in 2007, the entrance has remained permanently open, with water level stations within the estuary recording an increasing tidal signal. This paper provides a case study describing methods to assess the stability of the entrance to Lake Illawarra through preliminary analysis of aerial photography, hydro-survey, continuous water level records, consecutive tidal gauging and Escoffier analysis. Regarding the case study of entrance stability, consideration is given to data for analysis, limitations of the analysis and its reliance on local or site specific empirical data, needs for ongoing monitoring and tuning to represent further data, potential implications for Lake Illawarra and on similar estuaries and possible management responses. The likely effects of expected sea level rise on stability of the entrance are also estimated based on the understood key physical processes. Since completion of the entrance works, the lake is characterised by an 'unstable scouring' entrance as indicated by empirical analysis supported by lake water level and catchment rainfall data, tidal fl ow gauging, hydro-surveys and aerial photography. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation will determine further action that may be required.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Real-time marine observing systems: Challenges,
           benefits and opportunities in Australian coastal waters
    • Abstract: Rigby, P; Steinberg, CR; Williams, DK; Brinkman, G; Brinkman, R; Tonin, H; Hughes, D
      The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is funded by the Australian Government, and designed to be a fully-integrated national array of observing equipment to monitor the open oceans and coastal marine environment around Australia. IMOS delivers physical, chemical and biological data comprising of observations from a wide spectrum of platforms including weather stations, oceanographic moorings, underway ship observations, seagliders, ocean surface radar, satellite image reception and reef based sensor networks. When data from ocean observing systems can be provided in near real-time, the operational aspects are further enhanced and provide potential for a range of value added products to be developed. Here we provide three examples of co-invested partnerships that have facilitated the development of real-time moored ocean observing systems in the coastal zone, operated by the Queensland IMOS node. For each of these examples, the project is introduced, a detailed technical description of the system is provided, operational aspects are summarised, and the uptake of data from stakeholders is discussed. These examples demonstrate the benefits of having a national collaborative approach to marine observing with a clear focus on open access to data. It is also demonstrated that the benefits and opportunities offered by real-time ocean observing can outweigh the technical challenges of developing and maintaining these complex systems.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Nearshore SWAN model sensitivities to measured and
           modelled offshore wave scenarios at an embayed beach compartment, NSW,
    • Abstract: Mortlock, TR; Goodwin, ID; Turner, IL
      Spectral wave modelling is a common dynamical approach to transform offshore wave climates to the nearshore zone for coastal hazard definition and engineering design. Knowledge of model limitations and sensitivities are thus of paramount importance to appropriate use for coastal engineering. This study reports the calibration and nearshore sensitivities of a SWAN model at Wamberal-Terrigal on the central New South Wales coast, when the model is forced with wave information from a regional WaveWatch III (WW-III) model, compared to model forcing from simultaneous offshore buoy observations. SWAN achieved good results for nearshore wave heights (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 0.2 m), but under-estimated mean wave period by approximately 1 s. Default SWAN physics were found to be largely appropriate. The inclusion of hindcast winds introduced a systematic over-estimation of high frequency (low period) wind-sea but improved the shape of the wave period distribution. Transformations of WW-III spectra through SWAN suggests that oblique swell is under-represented by WW-III at this location, with only wave directions between 80 degrees and 150 degrees accounted for. In modelling cases, the long shore transport component, typically driven by oblique long-period wave energy, would likely be under-estimated while shorter-period wind-waves that favour cross-shore sediment transport is preferenced.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 12 Issue 1 - Instructions to authors submitting to Engineers
           Australia technical journals
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Instructions to authors submitting to Engineers
           Australia technical journals
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Abstracts
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Repeatability and reproducibility of micro-surfacing
           mixture design tests and effect of aggregates surface areas on test
    • Abstract: Robati, M; Carter, A; Perraton, D
      The first part of this study evaluates the repeatability of the International Slurry Surfacing Association (ISSA) mixture design tests. Consistency of test results between two laboratories (MTQ and LCMB) was evaluated. Aggregate gradation and sample preparation method were varied, and the responses for various ISSA mix design test for micro-surfacing were examined. The repeatability of four ISSA mix design tests for micro-surfacing was computed. To do this, the micro-surfacing mixtures were prepared by four technicians in two separate laboratories in Quebec. The modified cohesion test, the wet track abrasion test, the loaded wheel test, and the resistance to compaction test were evaluated in this study. The effect of sample preparation method using aggregate splitting and sieve analysis on consistency of mixture design test results was also evaluated. It was observed that employing sieve analysis method for micro-surfacing mixture preparation yields better consistency in test responses. For the second part of this study, the role of aggregate gradation, and their total surface area on cohesion, resistance to abrasion, and resistance to permanent deformation of micro-surfacing mixtures was studied. Two different type III applications of micro-surfacing mixtures, which are used as rut-fill materials in high traffic area, were selected to determine the effects of aggregate total surface area on micro-surfacing mix design test responses. It was found that the micro-surfacing mixtures prepared using aggregate gradation with more fine aggregates have higher resistance to rutting, bleeding, abrasion and moisture susceptibility.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Design of drip irrigation system using microtubes
    • Abstract: Bhuiyan, MA; Keshtgar, A; Jayasuriya, N
      To obtain the best emission uniformity in drip irrigation the pressure regulators and pressure compensating emitters are in use since long back. In contrast, clogging has been the major obstacle, particularly in areas with brackish water where problems of precipitation of calcium-carbonate, organic materials and suspended sands are severe. Microtubes as small bore polyethylene tubes of approximately 2.0-4.0 mm internal diameters can be used to deliver equal discharges, by varying its length to adjust varying heads along a given lateral. These microtubes can be simpler than inside passages of those traditional drippers and thus will be less susceptible to clogging. The computed set of varying length microtubes that are emitting equal flows at the end-lateral can be copied to subsequent laterals of the manifold to work them as larger emitters with a characteristic pressure-discharge relationship. As such the variation of flow through these laterals is restricted by limiting their number to have emission uniformity EU >= 90%. For case studies on flat-ground for a given set of lateral diameters (10-16 mm), the exponents in the pressure-discharge relationship varied narrowly: 0.60-0.69 for larger discharges and 0.78-0.84 for smaller discharges. Similarly on sloping terrain at S = 0.25% and 0.5%, the exponents varied relatively widely: 0.62-0.92 and 0.84-0.95 for larger and smaller discharges, and 0.65-0.97 and 0.85-0.99 for larger and smaller discharges, respectively. It can be reasoned that these laterals function as long path emitters. Variation of the corresponding microtube lengths can be around 0-85%, 0-460% and 0-810% longer than the given minimum length (lmin = 1.25 m), respectively. When the required discharges and diameters of microtube, lateral and manifold and other ground conditions are given, the length of the microtubes, the pressure heads, emission uniformity and the best subunit dimensions can be obtained using the algorithm developed in this research.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Engineering characteristics of cement modified base
           course material for Western Australian pavements
    • Abstract: Jitsangiam, P; Chummuneerat, S; Nikraz, H
      In North America, cement-modified soil (CMS) is described as a soil that has been treated with a relatively small amount of cement in order to improve its engineering properties and make it suitable for construction purposes. CMS leads to a typical soil stabilisation technique employed in Western Australian base course material: hydrated cement treated crushed rock base (HCTCRB), which incorporates an additional hydration process which differs from the original CMS technique. However, because the HCTCRB technique was developed mainly by an empirical approach based on pavement trials, it is posited that HCTCRB itself may be inconsistent with regard to fundamentals such as quality control and uniformity of elements. This then causes uncertainty during the application of HCTCRB with regard to its essential qualities, mix proportion, mixing and curing processes, and construction processes. The effects of these ambiguities need to be better understood in order to maximise the application of this material to new pavement design methods where reliability and consistency is crucial. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the effects on HCTRB of the amounts of mixing water added, hydration period, and compaction effort on physical properties (ie. gradation and surface properties), and mechanical properties (ie. shear strength parameters, resilient modulus and permanent deformation) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), conventional triaxial tests and repeated load triaxial tests. HCTCRB demonstrates superior performance to the original material in terms of resilient modulus and permanent deformation. SEM and static triaxial tests revealed that crushed rock base shows higher internal friction angles but less cohesion than HCTCRB. The hydration period of HCTCRB during the manufacturing process was found to have an insignificant effect on particle size distribution. However, hydration period does affect the permanent deformation and resilient modulus characteristics of HCTCRB.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Sustainable use of coarse bauxite residue for
           alternative roadway construction materials
    • Abstract: Jitsangiam, P; Nikraz, H
      About 25 million tonnes of bauxite residue from alumina refining are generated in Australia each year. Managing this residue is costly, and the reuse of coarse bauxite residues is becoming an increasingly attractive and sustainable solution to the problem. Using coarse bauxite residue in road construction has the potential for large volume reuse. This study investigated whether coarse bauxite residue is a viable road base material in Western Australia. A pozzolanic-stabilised mixture was created to improve the properties of the residue, to satisfy the minimum requirements for road base. Laboratory tests for resilient modulus and permanent deformation were then performed. Comparisons were made between the stabilised residue and conventional road base material used in Western Australia. The performance of the stabilised residue was superior to that of the conventional material, and can provide improved performance when used as road base material in Western Australia.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 11 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Gravina, Rebecca
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Strategic management for squeezing ground conditions
           at the Argyle Diamonds block cave project
    • Abstract: Fernandez, F; Watt, G; Ooi, J
      The paper elaborates on a methodology of damage assessment based on conditions encountered in the Argyle Diamonds Underground Project (ADUP). It has been developed iteratively over a number of months and has been used to comprehensively represent damage conditions as the undercut front advances. Correlation between damage and convergence has been established. The ground support regime that has been implemented at ADUP to withstand very severe squeezing (Hoek and Marinos, 2000) has produced the outcome that only in limited areas of extreme squeezing (in excess of 20% convergence) has stripping and rehabilitation been required to enable undercutting operations to continue. This issue highlights the importance of the implementation of adequate guidelines to maintain drive stability and safety during undercutting. The long-term and strategic implications of correlating damage conditions with convergence and therefore deformation are that a practical predictive model can be developed. This can then be used to forecast the level of damage that is likely to occur in the undercut drives and extraction level drives based on displacement modelling. This model allows an optimised level of support and reinforcement to be designed depending on the predicted damage conditions. Such a "predictive" model could be used to estimate the optimal level of support and reinforcing (and to establish a realistic budget and schedule for the work), as well as an ongoing tool for forecasting damage conditions (and remedial support and reinforcing) during undercutting and block caving progression.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Blasting assessment of slopes and risks planning
    • Abstract: Kong, WK
      The most common types of blasting damage are caused by ground vibration. The sudden acceleration of the rock by the detonation energy acting on the drill-hole generates an intense stress wave of both transverse and longitudinal wave motions in the surrounding rock. Key issues associated with the process of excavation and tunnelling include blast and, to a lesser extent, other construction vibration affecting the integrity of surface structures and slopes stability. The stability of slopes subject to ground vibration, which is induced by rock blasting, may be assessed by different approaches. In this paper, pseudo-static and dynamic analysis approaches are discussed. In both approaches, analysis of the dynamics response of slopes to the bedrock vibration in association with the calculation of the allowable vibration limits (ie. critical peak particle velocity (PPV)) and charge weight per delay is presented. A worked example is given to illustrate the use of the method. The allowable charge weights per delay for rock blasting that may impact on the stability of slopes can be estimated using simple approaches, either the pseudo-static or dynamic analysis. Both approaches can give a controllable safety limits for the works. Thus, the blasting works can be carried out safely with no damage or excessive ground movements to the slopes and other sensitive receivers if the allowable PPV and charge weights are followed, and the specifi ed monitoring works are carried out.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - The site exposure of concrete cast using controlled
           permeability formwork
    • Abstract: Law, DW; Molyneaux, T; Patnaikuni, I; Adam, AA
      This paper presents a study to assess the effects of site exposure on the durability of concrete cast with ordinary Portland cement (OPC), pulverised fl y ash (PFA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) using the controlled permeability formwork (CPF). An experimental program has been undertaken in which trial specimens have been placed on exposure sites at coastal locations in Australia. Various non-destructive tests were conducted such as Schmidt hammer, water permeability, air permeability, ultrasonic pulse velocity, steel potential mapping, linear polarisation resistance corrosion rate monitoring, chloride diffusion, accelerated chloride diffusion, and resistivity. The durability data are presented to compare the effects of using CPF with those of traditional (plywood) formwork for OPC, PFA and GGBS concrete mixes, as specifi ed on actual construction projects in Australia. The results indicate that CPF gave improved performance compared to the traditional formwork for surface properties of concrete.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Bearing capacity of soil reinforced with vertical
           columns of recycled concrete aggregates
    • Abstract: Kumar, A; Sadana, D
      With the increase in environmental concerns and decrease in availability of suitable construction sites, the need to utilise what were once thought of as poor soil areas for construction is increasing. In the present study, efforts have been made to explore the possibility of using recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) for improvement of bearing capacity of soil. Use of RCA will further ensure sustainable development of society with savings in natural resources, materials and energy. In this study, plate load tests were performed on poorly-graded sand reinforced with RCA. Sand beds prepared at different densities were stabilised with vertical columns of RCA. Model tests were conducted using a square plate of size 0.3m 0.3m 25 mm thick. The vertical columns of 32 and 63 mm diameter were used to increase the bearing capacity of soil. The improvement in ultimate bearing capacity and settlement of a square footing supported on a sand bed reinforced with vertical columns has been studied in detail.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Structural condition assessment of existing structures
           in Western Australia: A review of guidelines and building licence
    • Abstract: Waller, A; Vimonsatit, V
      Australian built environment is constantly expanding and a review of the methods and guidelines used to assess existing structures is required to ensure the safety of the structure and its occupants. This paper reviews the current Australian guideline for the assessment of an existing structure (AS ISO 13822) and compares it to the guideline used in the United States of America. The analysis of the Australian guideline yielded three possible areas of improvement. A hypothesis on the introduction of building licence was set which would account for and improve these areas. A case study was carried out with the Thai Building Control Act, B.E 2522, Section 32. This Act outlined the introduction of compulsory structural assessments. Interviews with key professional members in the assessment industry were conducted to seek industrial opinions on the regulated assessment initiation and changes that would need to be made for a successful implementation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Investigating brittle failures in multiple-nail
           steel-to-timber connections
    • Abstract: Dupleix, A; Quenneville, P
      Brittle failures should be avoided in timber structures because they engender unpredictable collapse in case of cyclic plastic deformations such as during earthquakes. In such cases, ductile failures should be promoted as they allow a redistribution of the load, enabling the building to remain standing. Intrinsically, wood is a brittle material. Ductility can be achieved in timber structures through connections using mechanical fasteners made out of steel. This study contributes by investigating the modes of failure of multiple-nail steel-to-timber connections loaded parallel to the grain in case of New Zealand Radiata Pine solid timber.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Evaluation of water ingress in cement treated material
           for durability assessments
    • Abstract: Yeo, YS; Nikraz, HR
      Main Roads Western Australia currently prohibits the strength gained from cement modified materials to reduce pavement thickness due to the lack of durability of the cement treatment. It has been found both in Western Australia and internationally that the cement treatment of basecourse "disappears" due to a chemical retardation process known as carbonation. Carbonation occurs at the interface between cement matrices and pores with the presence of carbon dioxide in pore water. This paper therefore investigates the relationship between moisture ingress and cement content. The tube suction test and the unconfined compressive strength test are applied. The tube suction test measures the dielectric value, a measurement of electromagnetic wave reflection as an index of the performance of cemented basecourse. Subsequently, the sorptivity parameter is assessed which shows a correlation between the rate of water ingress and the square root of time. The results show that an increase in cement content proves to be beneficial in managing water ingress.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 2 - Durability planning for concrete on the Ross River
           Bridge, Townsville
    • Abstract: Berndt, ML; Shaw, PA
      The Ross River Bridge in Townsville is currently under construction and will be located in an aggressive environment at the river's mouth. A durability plan was developed prior to construction in order to determine appropriate concrete design and construction practices to achieve the required design life of 100 years. Possible deterioration mechanisms investigated included: chloride ingress; carbonation; alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR); sulphate attack; acid sulphate soil degradation; atmospheric corrosion and corrosion of pile casings due to sulphate reducing bacteria. This paper outlines the approach undertaken to ensure that the bridge design met the required life. The results of mathematical modelling of chloride ingress and carbonation are presented based as both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. The concrete mix design was adjusted to address AAR and sulphate attack and appropriate testing was incorporated into the project specifi cations. The design approach outlined resulted in some durability requirements exceeding those nominated in AS5100.5 such as increased cover requirements and the need for stainless steel reinforcement.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Effect of mixture temperature on slump flow prediction
           of conventional concretes using artificial neural networks
    • Abstract: Moini, MR; Lakizadeh, A; Mohaqeqi, M
      Hot weather concreting is unavoidable in the construction industry. Producing desirable workability in different temperatures needs careful recognition of temperature effects on workability. Several studies have shown that slump flow model of concrete is not only specified by the content of its ingredients, but that is also determined by fresh concrete placement temperature, ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, etc. In this study slump flow prediction of conventional concretes using artificial neural network (ANN) models are presented. This paper discusses that to what extent inclusion of fresh concrete temperature can influence slump flow prediction of ANN models. It is also detailed that how variations in the "as placed" concrete temperature change the workability and influence of ingredients on workability. The results show that: (i) the ANN models of slump flow that incorporate the concrete temperature are a little more accurate and slightly has higher prediction precision than those they do not; and (ii) the ANN models are more precise in predicting slump flow rather than non-linear and linear regression models.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Provision of protective emergency shelters in
           multi-storey buildings for earthquake protection
    • Abstract: Su, CQ
      Shaking and ground rupture created by earthquakes can severely damage buildings and other rigid structures. The collapse of a high-rise building could result in hundreds of casualties. This paper presents a new design concept which incorporates protective emergency shelters (PES) in multi-storey buildings for earthquake protection. The PES are of isolated steel or concrete structures which can withstand the impact from falling building materials caused by severe earthquakes. Elevators, stairs and bathrooms may be converted into structural PES while beds and wardrobes converted into non-structural PES. Furthermore, it is possible to retrofi t such PES in existing buildings. With this new design, hundreds of lives in multi-storey buildings could be saved in a severe earthquake. These PES are critical for those buildings of masonry structure such as schools and hospitals which are common in developing countries.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Settlement prediction and back analysis of Young's
           modulus and dilation angle of stone columns
    • Abstract: Fatahi, B; Basack, S; Premananda, S; Khabbaz, H
      Ground improvement using stone columns is one of the most suitable methods for deformation control of soft soils. The use of stone columns can improve the bearing capacity, reduce settlement, accelerate consolidation process and enhance slope stability as well as resistance to liquefaction. Settlement prediction of the ground influenced by the large stiffness difference between the columns and the surrounding soil and the induced arching is discussed in this paper. Plate load test is one of the common methods to be used for quality control of stone column reinforced ground. The test results can be used to back calculate some of the design parameters of the stone column. A finite element based procedure to estimate the Young's modulus and dilation angle of stone column material using plate load test results is proposed. The employed finite element model is axisymmetric and suitable for a cylindrical stone column. The field measurements after calibration have been in good agreement with numerical results for predicting deformations. The procedure developed in this study can be adopted by practicing engineers to estimate the Young's modulus and dilation angle of stone columns by conducting a plate load test.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Alliances and dispute review boards: Best friends or
           worst enemies'
    • Abstract: Gerber, P
      Dispute review boards (DRBs) are a very popular dispute avoidance process (DAP) used widely around the world as an effective tool for ensuring that the conflicts, which invariably arise during the course of construction projects, do not escalate into disputes. DRBs have enjoyed phenomenal success, with 98% of projects that used a DRB being completed with no outstanding disputes. However, Australia has not been part of the global DRB trend. Instead, Australia has embraced an alternative form of DAP, namely, project alliances. While alliances continue to grow in popularity within Australia, this DAP model remains virtually unknown internationally. This article examines why Australia has not embraced DRBs, and whether this country's enthusiasm for alliances has been at the expense of DRBs, before considering whether there is room for both models of dispute management.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Life-of-resource sustainability considerations for
    • Abstract: Giurco, D; Prior, T; Mason, L; Mohr, S; Mudd, G
      Mining in Australia is booming. Notwithstanding, production conditions are progressively transitioning from the mining of "cheaper, easily accessible and higher quality ores" to "lower grade, more remote, complex and expensive ores". Sustainability discussions in the minerals industry have largely sought to improve the social and environmental performance of individual operations, including planning for closure. However, the national implications of a change in the circumstances underpinning the current prosperity of mining are underexplored. This paper uses a peak minerals metaphor to map "life-of-resource" environmental and social considerations, pre- and post-peak production, at local and national scales. An examination of how the social and environmental impacts change, over the life of a resource's extraction, is used to inform strategies for the role of technological and policy innovation in underpinning long-term national benefit from minerals in Australia.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Lakes Entrance Sand Management Program overview
    • Abstract: Jeffrey, MS; Bell, CE; Fullard, A
      The Port of Gippsland Lakes is one of five regional ports operated by Gippsland Ports Committee of Management. Lakes Entrance is home to Victoria's largest commercial fishing fleet and is a popular recreational boating and tourist destination. Sand accretion at the lake's entrance has been problematic since its construction in 1889, and after many years of constant dredging, still challenges navigation. In 2005, the Victorian State Government announced funding for the Lakes Entrance Sand Management Program (LESMP). The LESMP aims to improve all aspects of sand management to ensure the entrance to Gippsland Lakes remains safe and navigable in the future.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Grillage analogy applications in analysis of bridge
    • Abstract: Sadeghi, J; Fathali, M
      Reliability and accuracy of the grillage analogy (GA) technique, as a commonly used modelling approach, in structural analyses of bridge decks are evaluated in this research. For this purpose, the vibration and design parameters including natural frequencies, mode shapes and deflections of the decks are considered as evaluation criteria. Several tests on a two-joint-span bridge with slab deck type and a three contentious span bridge with beam-and-slab deck are conducted. Simultaneously, the same parameters are theoretically calculated for the bridges, applying grillage technique. The accuracy of the grillage method is discussed by comparing the results obtained from the theoretical and experimental methods. The characteristics of the selected bridges, the GA theoretical modelling, the tests procedures, and the instrumentations including the details of a new bridge hammer, designed and constructed in this research, are described in the paper. According to the results obtained, a satisfactory degree of accuracy is obtained from the application of GA in prediction of the bridges' natural frequencies and mode shapes. The results also indicate that there is a good accuracy in the theoretical evaluations of the structural behaviour of bridge decks if the applied loads are within the allowable limits.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Strength properties of lightweight concrete made with
           LECA grading
    • Abstract: Wegian, FM
      This study examined the structural behaviour of lightweight concrete (LWAC) made with different gradings of lightweight aggregates (expanded clay aggregates LECA) and normal weight aggregates with the aim to investigate the effect of partial replacement of the normal weight aggregates with different gradings of the LECA. The paper focused on performance parameters such as compressive strength (f'c), splitting tensile strength, unit weight and workability of concrete. The LWAC was compared to normal aggregate concrete with different cement contents. The results indicate that both LECA aggregate size and its percentage and the cement content have significant effects on the properties of lightweight concrete. A critical finding of the study is related to the tensile strength (ft) of LWAC, which was shown to be overestimated if determined using the recommendations made by the Dutch code VBC 1990; a new correlation between ft and f'c is presented in this paper. In spite of the good results obtained for this type of LWAC relative to normal weight concrete, there is no certain mix proportion that can be generally used, as is the case for normal weight concrete, and more studies are still needed to ensure its optimal proportions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - The design model of unbound granular materials for
           flexible pavement
    • Abstract: Siripun, K; Jitsangiam, P; Nikraz, H
      This study aims to introduce an alternative design model of unbound granular base course materials by utilising laboratory test results such as resilient modulus, permanent deformation and bearing capacity of base course materials. Current pavement designs mostly overlook all problematical behaviours of unbound granular base layers and consider only as a layer transferring traffic loads to underneath layers regardless on the unbound granular base course deteriorations. Based on the existing design protocols in Australia, there are only the design criteria of the horizontal tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt layer and the vertical deformations occurring at the top of the subgrade. The actual performances of granular base course materials under traffic loads have been rarely accounted into the pavement design protocol. Currently, road activities are growing in terms of magnitude and frequency far beyond the past and causing the early road damages leading to major road maintenances. The study presents hypothetically the more rational approach of the stress and strain distribution in a flexible pavement using the finite element method with sophisticated laboratory results. In this study, the effects of a traffic load and material attributes which they were generated when vehicle travels, hence stress and strain contributing between tires and characteristics of unbound granular pavement materials were investigated. Moreover, the alternative design model for unbound granular layers was defined in order to draw up the guideline and recommendation on the current pavement analysis and design.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 10 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Gravina, Rebecca
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Hydrodynamic Variability along a Low-energy Estuarine
           Beach Located in an Open Estuary
    • Abstract: Jiang, AW; Ranasinghe, R; Cowell, P
      A process-based modelling study was carried out by applying a depth-averaged flow module (MIKE 21 HD) and a spectral wave model (MIKE 21 SW) to examine near-shore hydrodynamics of an estuarine beach located in an open estuary: Jimmy's Beach, Port Stephens, Australia. The models were calibrated and validated against recently acquired hydrodynamic data. Model results indicate a significant spatial variability in the near-shore wave parameters along the beach, depending on shoreline orientation; proximity to the mouth of the estuary and sheltering influences of adjacent headlands. Local bathymetry and shoreline orientation play a major role in determining the near-shore ocean wave characteristics at a site along the beach. The shoal previously thought to focus higher wave energy into the erosion spot, in contrast, results in wave energy dissipation. Locally generated waves by the prevailing westerly winds at Jimmy's Beach have low wave energy. Model results also suggest that the near-shore flow patterns are complex due to the presence of tidal eddies and variations in the near-shore wave field along the beach. Currents generated by local wind waves are subordinate to wind stress induced currents. These spatial differences reflect the complex configuration of estuarine shorelines, local topographic controls and variations in exposure to each of the forcing, and may contribute to a high level of beach mobility.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Forecasting Extreme Sea Level Events and Coastal
           Inundation from Tides, Surge and Wave Setup
    • Abstract: Gillibrand, PA; Lane, EM; Walters, RA; Gorman, RM
      A new marine forecasting system for the New Zealand region has been developed, including global and regional wave models, and regional tide and storm surge models. These form part of an integrated weather-related hazards forecasting capability, which also includes an accurate, data-assimilating high-resolution weather forecasting system and a national-scale flood forecasting system. Predicted variations in sea surface height and depth-averaged current due to tides and storm surge are provided in twice-daily 48-hour regional forecasts. Storm surge is predicted for the New Zealand region using the RiCOM hydrodynamic model on an unstructured grid in depth-averaged mode, using semi-implicit integration in time and a semi-langrangian scheme for advection. The model reproduced the storm surge event resulting from the passage of cyclone 'Funa' across New Zealand during January 2008. Root-mean-square (RMS) errors in predicted storm surge height were 4-13 cm. For a second simulated storm, which occurred in Marlborough in late July/early August 2008, the model predicted the storm surge height with RMS errors at Kaikoura and Lyttelton of 7 and 4 cm, respectively. Wave-breaking also contributes to sea levels close to the coast through radiation stresses. The forecast system runs Wavewatch III on nested global and regional structured grids, providing twice-daily 48-hour forecasts. Model developments incorporating wave radiation stresses into the hydrodynamic model forcing are described, and some investigations into the effects of wave forcing on surface setup and coastal inundation are presented. A case study of inundation around the fringes of Hawkes Bay in response to extreme sea levels exacerbated by wave-induced stresses is presented. The case study used the SWAN wave model to provide the near-shore wave characteristics and radiations stresses, and demonstrates the ability of the coupled tide-surge-wave model to simulate and predict coastal flooding on a spatial resolution of a few metres.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Tsunami Inundation Modelling Using RiCOM
    • Abstract: Lane, EM; Gillibrand, PA; Arnold, JR; Walters, RA
      The New Zealand coastline faces the risk of tsunami from a variety of sources, including remote and local earthquakes, submarine landslides, and volcanoes. Palaeotsunami studies indicate New Zealand has undergone periods of catastrophic tsunami activity, such as in the 1500s. It is important to be able to quantify the hazard posed by tsunamis. In this paper we detail the process of modelling tsunami propagation and inundation from source to destination using RiCOM, a finite element coastal hydrodynamic model on an unstructured grid. We give examples of model outputs, such as maps of tsunami inundation depth, maximum speeds, wave arrival times and time spent inundated, which can be used to quantify the hazard. We also perform sensitivity analysis of the response of the tsunami to the average slip on, and length and width of, the fault surface while keeping the moment magnitude and all other parameters constant. Larger average slip is shown to produce larger tsunamis. The width/aspect ratio of the slip has a more variable effect on the size of the tsunami, which depends upon the local coastal geometry. This information can be used to identify risk areas, plan escape routes, protect people and infrastructure and, more generally, to inform the public as to the tsunami risk in their region.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Extrapolation of Historical Coastal Storm Wave Data
           with Best-fit Distribution Function
    • Abstract: You, Z-J
      Extreme or design wave heights are often extrapolated from historical storm wave data with an assigned 'best-fit' probability distribution function. However, there is no detailed selection criterion on how to select a best-fit distribution from a pool of candidate distributions. This study is to develop this criterion. The 19-year wave data collected off the coast of Sydney in the Tasman Sea is used and analysed to obtain a large sample of peak storm wave heights with the peaks-of-threshold method. With the least-squares method, eight commonly-used candidate distributions, the lognormal, Weibull, FT-I, II and III from the generalised extreme value distribution, and GPD-I, II and III from the generalised Pareto distribution, are all fitted to the storm wave height data to determine the best-fit distribution. An extended least-squares method is also presented to estimate the shape parameter for the three-parameter distributions. It is found that the FT-III and GPD-III with the upper bounded end intend to underestimate extreme wave heights. The observed large storm wave heights are shown to be underestimated by the lognormal, but overestimated by the GPD-I or exponential. Both the FT-I and the Weibull are found to give an equally good fit to the storm wave data. Based on the findings of this study, the general selection criterion is then developed to be unboundedness, goodness of fit, simplicity and confidence level. According to this new criterion, the FT-I distribution of the eight candidates can be uniquely determined to be the best-fit distribution for extrapolation of the historical storm wave data. This general criterion can also be used to select a best-fit distribution for extrapolation of historical wave data collected at the other NSW coastal locations or at any other coasts.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - A Numerical Model to Simulate the Formation and
           Subsequent Evolution of Tidal Channel Networks
    • Abstract: van Maanen, B; Coco, G; Bryan, KR
      We present a numerical model that simulates morphological change as a result of the interactions between hydrodynamics, sediment transport and bed elevation change. Numerical simulations indicate that these morphodynamic interactions can lead to the initiation of tidal channels and potentially give rise to large-scale channel networks. We perform a sensitivity analysis to show how model outcome is sensitive to the numerical scheme adopted, hydrodynamic and morphological time-steps, and initial bathymetry. Furthermore, the formation of tidal channels and intertidal areas affects both the large-scale flow patterns, as well as the asymmetry between flood- and ebb-tidal currents.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - A Risk-informed Approach to Coastal Zone Management
    • Abstract: Jongejan, RB; Ranasinghe, R; Vrijling, JK; Callaghan, D
      Economic and population growth have led to an unprecedented increase in the value at risk in coastal zones over the last century. To avoid excessive future losses, particularly in the light of projected climate change impacts, coastal zone managers have various instruments at their disposal. These primarily concern land-use planning (establishing buffer zones) and engineering solutions (beach nourishment and coastal protection). In this paper, we focus on risk mitigation through the implementation of buffer zones (setback lines). Foregoing land-use opportunities in coastal regions and protecting coasts is costly, but so is damage caused by inundation and storm erosion. Defining appropriate setback lines for land-use planning purposes is a balancing act. It is, however, unclear what level of protection is facilitated by current approaches for defining setback lines, and whether this is, at least from an economic perspective, sufficient. In this paper, we present an economic model to determine which setback lines would be optimal from an economic perspective. The outcomes of the model provide a useful reference point in the political debate about the acceptability of risk in coastal zones. The main conclusions are: (i) that it is useful to define setback lines on the basis of their exceedance probabilities; (ii) that the exceedance probability of an economically efficient setback line will typically be in the order of magnitude of 1/100 per year; (iii) that it is important to distinguish between situations in which morphological conditions are stationary and non-stationary; and (iv) that long-term uncertainties (eg. due to climate change) influence the exceedance probability of efficient setback lines but only to a limited extent. The economic model stresses the need for a probabilistic approach to beach erosion modelling. The recently-developed Probabilistic Coastal Setback Line was applied at Narrabeen beach, Sydney, Australia, to illustrate how economically optimal setback lines can be derived for specific sites.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Extension of Asset Life for Melbourne's Swanson Dock
    • Abstract: Aziz, A; Blin, F; Dacre, M
      The growth in maritime trade in recent years has resulted in increased demand on wharf owners to extend the service life of their existing assets, while planning and constructing new infrastructures. Exacerbating the problem is that some of the existing assets are approaching the end of their original design life and are often required to cater for higher loads than originally designed. In some instances, the various elements of the wharf structures are experiencing advanced stages of deterioration, with spalling of the concrete cover and corrosion of the reinforcing steel posing further potential threat to the serviceability of the facility. This paper presents an overview of major repairs and strengthening works undertaken by Port of Melbourne Corporation of its eight container berths at Swanson Dock. It discusses the project scoping, planning and delivery challenges encountered to ensure that the project met its aims and objectives, while complying with the technical specification, as well as operational, safety and environmental requirements.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Can Standard Energetics Models Be Used to Predict Net
           Cross-shore Sediment Flux at the Beach Face'
    • Abstract: Blenkinsopp, CE; Masselink, G; Turner, IL; Russell, PE
      This paper makes use of comprehensive new measurements of net cross-shore sediment flux and flow velocity from hundreds of individual swash events to assess the use of velocity moments to predict cross-shore sediment transport in the swash zone. It is shown that the commonly used Bagnold energetics model and Shields parameter model make inadequate predictions of net sediment transport in the swash zone over individual swash cycles. In their basic form it is demonstrated that both these approaches are too simplistic to correctly capture aspects of the complex physical phenomena that drive sediment transport in the swash, such as sediment advection from the surf zone, localised suspension of sediment and swash-swash interactions. Due to the significant remaining uncertainties involved in incorporating these modifications into a fully deterministic modelling scheme, it is proposed that parallel development of longer-term, behavioural swash zone models also be pursued.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Tidal Asymmetry of a Shallow, Well-mixed Estuary and
           the Implications on Net Sediment Transport: A Numerical Modelling Study
    • Abstract: Jiang, AW; Ranasinghe, R; Cowell, P; Savioli, JC
      Tidal asymmetry plays a pivotal role in the transport of sediment and morphological change in shallow inlet/estuarine systems, particularly those with extensive tidal flats and channels. This study examined tidal circulation patterns of a shallow and well-mixed estuary on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. A numerical modelling study was carried out by applying a depth-averaged flow model (MIKE 21 HD). The model was calibrated and successfully validated against recently acquired hydrodynamic data. Model results reveal the presence of a number of eddies within the estuary, which may have substantial influence on net sediment transport when combined with wave effects. Tidal phase duration and magnitude asymmetries indicate that, in contrast to typical flood/ebb dominance, double ebb-dominance is in deep channels and the entrance cross-section, whereas the flood ramp area shows double flood-dominance. The implications of tidal asymmetry on net bed-load sediment transport were inferred from the duration and magnitude asymmetries of the above threshold velocity. The ebb-directed net transport occurs at main tidal channels and may result in further deepening channels, whereas a flood-directed net transport in the flood ramp area may cause an accumulation of sediment on the delta or a landward progradation of the tidal flat. The present-day estuary is characterised as ebb-dominated, tends to flush bed-load sediment seaward more effectively and may represent more stable geometries.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 9 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Walker, David
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Plastic Water Hammer Damper
    • Abstract: Al-Khomairi, AM
      Water hammer could be damped in pipe networks using a short piece of plastic pipe of a diameter much larger than the diameter of the pipe in which water hammer is to be controlled. Experiments using four different polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe sizes, and different damper parameters and materials show that the device can effectively reduce pressure surges resulting from water hammer. Graphs for consolidated data are established to analyse the performance of the device for given pipe and damper parameters. The graphs could also be used to design a damper or select the damper/pipe parameters for a target pressure surge reduction in pipe networks and in networks of residential/commercial buildings.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Establishment of Calibration Factors for Pavement
           Roughness Deterioration Model in Southeast Queensland
    • Abstract: Chai, GW; Chowdhury, SH; Kelly, G; Bartlett, R; Loo, Y-C
      This paper presents the outcomes of the research in establishing the calibration factors for pavement roughness deterioration model for six local council regions in southeast Queensland (SEQ). To achieve the objective, a large number of long-term pavement performance (LTPP) test sites were set up throughout the six SEQ regions. The methodology for the selection of the SEQ-LTPP test sites and the rationale behind the design of the LTPP site selection matrix are discussed. Pavement condition data were collected from the LTPP test sites over a period of five years. Modelling of the pavement deterioration at the test sites were carried out using the SMEC pavement management system (SMEC PMS) with HDM-III deterioration models. The aim was to determine the most appropriate HDM-III roughness deterioration factors for the six regions covered in the study. Three statistical techniques, namely, linear rate of roughness deterioration, regression analysis and statistical t test approach, were used in analysing the roughness data obtained from the LTPP sites and the predicted roughness data generated by the SMEC PMS. The statistical analysis established the accuracy of the prediction generated by a pavement deterioration dataset and confirmed whether the prediction yields significant or no significant deviation from the observed roughness data. Consequently, a set of pavement deterioration factors has been recommended for use in the SMEC PMS for SEQ regions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Induced Macro-cell Corrosion Phenomenon in the
           Simulated Repaired Reinforced Concrete Patch
    • Abstract: Hussain, RR; Wasim, M; Ishida, T
      The basic ideology involved behind this experimental scheme was to investigate the observed re-corrosion of the repaired reinforced concrete patches in actual field concrete works. From the experiment results it was found that the specimens having no chloride content at the middle portion showed high corrosion potential, and chloride-contaminated both sides of the specimen showed even more corrosion than before being repaired due to the separation of anode and cathode and development of a macro-cell. The research indicates that much of the needed research should focus on identification of corrosion mechanisms to effectuate the successful patch repair in reinforced concrete structures.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Permanent Deformation Behaviour and Model of Crushed
           Rock Base
    • Abstract: Siripun, K; Jitsangiam, P; Nikraz, H
      This study aims to report on the permanent deformation behaviour of a crushed rock base (CRB) subjected to repeated cyclic loads from repeated load triaxial tests with different stress levels in order to gain more understanding of such materials for Western Australian roads based on mechanistic-empirical pavement design and analysis. As is well known, road surface rutting is generally considered one of the main types of damage in flexible pavements. One factor contributing to the rutting of an asphalt road surface is the excessive deformation of a base course layer. CRB is the commonly used base course material in the Western Australia metropolitan area. In recent times, CRB has not been fully characterised based on fundamental pavement analysis, therefore the behaviour of a plastic deformation response of CRB under service loads is not well understood. In this study, CRB was mechanically investigated and the shakedown concept was utilised to explain its behaviour under cyclic loading conditions, and the limited use of CRB subjected to various degrees of stress conditions was defined. While the plastic shakedown limit of an unbound granular material is known from macro-mechanical observations of its response following the shakedown concept, the limitations of the accumulated plastic deformation in an unbound granular layer causing deterioration in pavements is predictable. The investigation was designed such that compacted CRB samples, at a compaction condition of 100% maximum dry density and 100% optimum moisture content, were subjected to applied load conditions at various stress levels (the ratio of a vertical principal stress, σ and a horizontal principal stress, σ3). The limitations on the use of CRB as a base course material will be introduced, as well as its appropriate working stress ranges.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - A Case Study of a Partially Pre-stressed Multi-storey
           Building Incorporating Fast-track Construction
    • Abstract: Vincent, T; Ozbakkaloglu, T; Seracino, R
      This paper presents a case study of the construction of a partially pre-stressed multi-storey offi ce block in Adelaide, Australia. The designers and construction managers faced numerous issues involving the construction speed and performance of the nine storey building, in particular the performance of the two-way partially pre-stressed suspended slabs. The planned construction period was an absolute minimum due to a contract for early occupancy and high daily costs of construction equipment. Excessive deflections of the 9.6 m 8.4 m 200 mm thick slabs were a concern for this fast-track construction. This situation created some significant issues to ensure satisfactory construction speed and acceptable deflection levels. This paper discusses these issues while also explaining and documenting the steps taken to obtain the final solution. A large collection of data from the construction process is presented. An emphasis is placed on the material properties of the concrete slabs, namely compressive strength (fc) and modulus of elasticity (Ec) development over time, due to their direct effect on the construction timeline. The effects of concrete curing conditions on material property development are also addressed. Lastly the outcomes and performance of the slabs, namely construction time and slab deformations, are presented.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Corrosion Durability of Strain Hardening
           Fibre-reinforced Cementitious Composites
    • Abstract: Ahmed, SFU; Mihashi, H
      This paper presents some experimental results on the corrosion durability of cracked reinforced concrete beams made with plain mortar and strain hardening fibre-reinforced cementitious composites (SHFRCCs) containing polyethylene and steel-polyethylene hybrid fibres. All beams are subjected to cyclic wetting and drying using water containing 3% sodium chloride (NaCl). In addition, an external potential is also applied to the reinforcement to accelerate the corrosion. Corrosion of steel bars is monitored through a pair of sensors attached to the reinforcing bar in each beam. Test results show that beams containing SHFRCC material exhibited better corrosion protection than that of plain mortar beams. Among all specimens, beams containing hybrid steelpolyethylene fibre-reinforced SHFRCC exhibited the best corrosion protection.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Maintenance Management Process Model for School
           Buildings: An Application of IDEF0 Modelling Methodology
    • Abstract: Akasah, ZA; Amirudin, R; Alias, M
      The purpose of this study was to develop a process model for the maintenance management of school buildings. The proposed model was developed in a three-phase process: the information gathering phase using questionnaires, interviews and document analysis; the model development phase using the IDEF0 process modelling technique; and the experts' verification phase by three school maintenance experts. The potential usefulness of the model was tested on 61 school managers. The results of the survey indicated that the model has the potential to improve the existing corrective and reactive maintenance management practices towards preventive and proactive practices.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 8 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Gravina, Rebecca
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - PacificLink Alliance: Creating the Tugun Bypass
    • Abstract: O'Dwyer, M
      The following paper outlines some of the key issues contended during the creation of the Tugun Bypass - one of the most long-awaited road infrastructure projects in southeast Queensland.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Inner Northern Busway: Queen Street to Upper Roma
    • Abstract: Rawlings, R; Burchard, D; Purchase, A; Miles, J
      The Inner Northern Busway (INB), Queen Street to Upper Roma Street, project completed the central link in Brisbane's busway network. It connects the northern, southeastern, eastern and future western bus transit routes, and improves urban connectivity and travel times while removing buses from busy city streets. Design and construction of the project was extremely challenging. The 1.2 km project was very complex; with no single 50m section the same. The project included a 500m tunnel, two major bus stations within existing city structures, a cycle centre, and significant road and rail interfaces. The INB project was delivered under budget and six months ahead of schedule over a three-year period. This paper, based on the ACAA award nomination prepared by the INB HUB Alliance partners, focuses on technical and management innovation as evidenced in the INB project. In particular, the paper details six of the most complex and difficult design and construction challenges faced on the project, and details how project leadership and management innovation helped to deliver outstanding project outcomes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - CBW Office Complex Project
    • Abstract: Szambelanczyk, C
      The CBW project has brought a new standard of office infrastructure and fit-out to Australia. Built by Brookfield Multiplex Constructions on behalf of owner and developer CBus Property, the complex incorporates two A-grade commercial towers totalling 76,000 m[2] of office space, a retail precinct containing 5000 m[2] of tenancy space set around a pedestrian laneway and public realm, and three levels of basement car park (420 spaces) and amenity areas. Two integrated fit-outs (totalling 37,000 m[2] NLA) were also completed by Brookfield Multiplex concurrently with the base construction. The technical initiatives and innovations implemented on the project, closely linked with the sustainable development, will leave a legacy for future projects to utilise these improved initiatives. The project was a success for all stakeholders, particularly in the areas of time, cost, quality, environment and customer satisfaction.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant: Stages 1A and
    • Abstract: Atmeh, G
      In 2006, Queensland was in the midst of its worst drought on record. Faced with dwindling water reserves and crippling supply restrictions, the Queensland Government, through the offices of the Coordinator General, turned to Thiess Pty Ltd, one of the state's oldest construction companies, and global water engineering company Black and Veatch to fast-track the delivery of a vital infrastructure project. In a very short and carefully planned 10 months for Stage 1A, the Thiess/Black and Veatch Joint Venture (TBJV) designed, procured, constructed, commissioned and operated the 20 ML/d Stage 1A plant of the Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant. A few months later, TBJV was awarded the Stage 1B contract to increase the capacity of the Stage 1A plant by 50% and build an additional plant with 36 ML/d capacity. The integration of combined Stages 1A and 1B plants increased capacity to 66 ML/d. The project has been acknowledged as world best practice for a project of this type in terms of quality of build, quality of product and sustainability. The project was completed with an excellent safety record: zero lost time injuries. The environmental management was challenging, however, the project has achieved outstanding results of processing purified recycled water and discharging waste to EPA guidelines, with no harm to people or the environment. Working in close proximity to an active community was also a challenge, which was overcome with a strong relationship with the community and the project was delivered without complaints. The successful outcome was due to TBJV's capability through the formation of a hand-picked team, experienced with world's best practice in design innovation. Our team has achieved the project vision, despite the public scrutiny and media publicity, and in the process generated interest from industry leaders worldwide and government ministers from Australia and overseas, including Singapore, USA, China and Malaysia.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Eastlink: Redefining the Possible
    • Abstract: Johnson, D; Humffray, H
      EastLink is the largest road infrastructure project ever built in Australia. The sheer size of the project presented a range of engineering, logistical and program complexities. Featuring two 1.6 km tunnels, 17 major interchanges and 88 bridges, Thiess John Holland not only delivered a world-class motorway but set new standards in turnover, design, construction and sustainability. EastLink was completed five months ahead of schedule, with limited disruption to surrounding communities and stakeholders.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 7 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Jaksa, Mark
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to Evaluate
           Hydraulic Performance of Spillways in Australia
    • Abstract: Ho, DKH; Riddette, KM
      In recent years, the design flood estimates of a number of dams in Australia have been revised, requiring their spillways to be upgraded to cope with increased flood discharges. Traditionally, reduced scale physical models were used in hydraulic laboratories to study spillway hydraulic performance. However, these are prone to problems associated with scaling effects, and cannot readily capture behaviours such as cavitation and air-entrainment effects, which can occur in reality. Nowadays, with the advancement in computing technology, the hydraulic performance of spillways can be investigated numerically. Since 2001, a number of spillway upgrade projects in Australia have been performed using computational fluid dynamics. This paper provides an overview of how this technology was applied to these projects. The validation process to ensure the numerical model is reliable, and various analysis capabilities allowing better understanding of the flow behaviour will be described. Current limitations are also highlighted in order that future research and development can resolve them, thus making this numerical modelling technique more robust for flow simulation of not just spillways, but also other hydraulic structures in the future.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Performance of Steel Liners in the Power Tunnel of the
           King River Power Development, Tasmania
    • Abstract: Bowling, AJ
      The King River Hydroelectric Power Development is located near Queenstown on the west coast of Tasmania. A 7 km long headrace tunnel under the West Coast Range conveys water from Lake Burbury to the 143 MW John Butters surface powerstation on the banks of the King River. The downstream 330 m of this tunnel leading to the powerstation contains a 5.5 m diameter concrete backfilled steel lining. This paper describes the basis for the design of the steel lining, which is partly supported by the surrounding concrete and rock, and the results obtained from instruments installed on the steel lining and in the surrounding rock during the operation of the tunnel.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Numerical Modelling to Reduce Baghdad Soil Subsidence
           and Settlement on Locations of Sewage Systems
    • Abstract: Al-Adili, A; Sivakugan, N; Ren, G
      Sewage-related subsidence is a serious problem in Baghdad, and it represents severe damages and disturbances to services. The soils of Baghdad show a wide range of variation in grain size distribution. The aim of this paper is to study strategies to prevent and/or minimise soil subsidence phenomena affecting the sewerage and road systems in Baghdad city. This was achieved through simulation of soil profiles with appropriate properties to a depth up to 12m at nine different locations by using PLAXIS, a finite element (FE) 2D modelling software. The subsidence and resulting settlements were reduced by providing a geosynthetic-reinforced granular fi ll placed over a soft soil deposit, as well as through grouting techniques. A simulation of these two types of ground treatments suggests that they have been quite effective in reducing the settlement. By using one layer of geotextile reinforcement with stiffness of 5 kN/m, acceptable and noticeable subsidence and settlement reduction of 12% to 80% were achieved for most of the studied locations. Grouting was modelled as volume change in soft soils and weakness cluster, and it showed reasonable results with settlement reduction from 0.5 to 0.1 mm at the nine different locations. It would appear that the particular simulation chosen for the calculation of this problem model fulfils the two important treatment methods, which are common with the FE simulations.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Assessment of Bridge Performance after Oil
           Contamination below Foundation Piles
    • Abstract: Wegian, FM; Ismail, MA
      Oil contamination does not only have a harmful impact on the environment, but it can also modify the engineering properties of soils, which may in turn affect performance of supported structures. The extent of modification of the engineering properties of sands by contamination is a function of the type of the oil, the percentage of contamination and the relative density of the sand. This paper documents results from a case history of oil leakage from a pipeline in the proximity of a bridge foundation supported on bored piles. The goal of the investigation was to assess the integrity of the foundation piles and determine whether remedial works were required to ensure a satisfactory performance of the bridge after contamination. A combination of experimental program and numerical analyses was therefore adopted in order to: (i) determine and quantify the degree of modification of the sandy soil due to the contamination, and (ii) predict the deformation of the bridge deck and forces in the piles after contamination, particularly under lateral loads. The numerical analysis involved 3D finite element modelling of the pile foundation using PLAXIS 3D Foundation software. The investigation has shown that sand contamination has the potential of increasing the deformation of the bridge. A significant increase of up to 48% in the bending moment has been predicted for the piles. Fortunately the pile structural capacity was not exceeded under the investigated conditions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Hollow Block Concrete Units Production Using
           Super-plasticiser and Pumicite
    • Abstract: Dawood, ET; Ramli, Musa
      This paper illustrates how hollow block concrete units are a good choice for different types of constructions. The research aims to improve the mechanical properties of hollow concrete block units by manipulating the super-plasticiser admixtures, with or without pozzolanic material (pumice), using dimensions, compressive strength, absorption, oven dry density, drying shrinkage, and thermal conductivity estimation as its properties. The results show that the use of admixtures (super-plasticiser with and without pumicite) gives high early strength units, which is considered as an economical factor for the production of hollow block concrete units. The percentages of the increase in compressive strength of these units are between 30-40% at all ages by using admixtures. The use of admixtures also decreases the absorption and drying shrinkage of hollow block concrete units, but increases slightly the density of these units.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - The Influence of Buildability Factors on Rebar Fixing
           Labour Productivity of Beam-supported Slab Panels
    • Abstract: Jarkas, AM
      Buildability is one of the most important factors affecting labour productivity. Nonetheless, an extensive search of the literature revealed a dearth of research into its effects on labour productivity of in-situ reinforced concrete construction, especially at the activity levels. Since rebar fixing is an integral labour intensive trade of this type of construction material, and beam-supported slab panels are among the major encountered activities on many construction sites, the objective of this research is to explore the buildability factors influencing its rebar fixing labour productivity. To achieve this objective, a sufficiently large volume of labour productivity data was collected and analysed using the categorical interaction-regression method. As a result, the effects of slab panel area, rebar diameter, quantity of reinforcement and panel geometry are determined. The findings show significant effects of these factors on rebar fixing labour efficiency, which may be used to provide designers and construction managers feedback on how well the design of this activity considers the requirements of buildability, and the consequences of designers' decisions on the efficiency of the fixing operation. In addition, a set of recommendations are presented, which upon implementation, can improve the design buildability level, and translate into higher labour productivity and more efficient planning and utilisation of resources.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Wall Panel Application of Fibre-reinforced Lightweight
    • Abstract: Arisoy, B
      In this study, material properties of lightweight concrete reinforced with randomly distributed poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres are discussed, on account of a possible structural use. Flexural, compressive and cyclic performances of the material are tested and the results are presented. The effect of fibres on high-strength lightweight concrete is investigated, and the expected performance of any wall panel produced with the mentioned material is compared with commercially-available wall panels. In the frame work of the study, hollow sphere aggregates are used to produce lightweight concrete and PVA fibres are used to increase ductility. Using 1.5% fibre volume fraction caused an increase in the flexural strength by up to 2.5 times compared to lightweight concrete, and using lightweight aggregate provides considerable decrease in density depending amount of lightweight aggregate used. Using this type of aggregate with a range between 20% to 40% of lightweight aggregate content provided densities in a range between 1.2 to 1.6 g/cm3. It is found that the matrix design of PVA fibre-reinforced lightweight concrete produced for this study has 5% to 15% higher flexural strength than the ones commercially available for approximately the same density range.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - The Effect of Using Controlled Permeability Formwork on
           the Durability of Concrete Containing OPC and PFA
    • Abstract: Adam, AA; Law, DW; Molyneaux, T; Patnaikuni, I; Aly, T
      This paper presents a study to assess the effect of using the controlled permeability formwork (CPF) on the durability of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and pulverised fuel ash (PFA) based concretes cured for different times. An experimental program has been undertaken in which trial specimens have been tested at various ages following different curing periods and regimes. Various tests were conducted and assessed using a range of destructive and non-destructive techniques such as Schmidt hammer, water permeability, sorptivity absorption, ultrasonic pulse velocity, and chloride diffusion and resistivity. The durability and strength test results during the period from 28 to 90 days are presented to compare the effects of using CPF with those of traditional (plywood) formwork on OPC and PFA concrete mixes, as specified on actual construction projects in Australia. The results indicate that CPF gave improved performance compared to the traditional formwork for surface properties of concrete. However, the effects are minimal on the bulk properties of the concrete.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 6 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Jaksa, Mark
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Author's Reply
    • Abstract: Lopes, D
      Beal has criticised this paper for suggesting that the strain versus suction relationship is "substantially non-linear". The paper by Lopes (2007) concludes et al that "a reliable linear relationship of suction/ strain has been confirmed in suction ranges from 1.7 to 3.5 pF" and also states that from 3.5 to 5.5 pF the relationship using the suction "sign posts", suggested by a number of researchers, is hyperbolic then linear from 5.5 pF to Oven Dry.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Discussion of 'A Modified Shrink/Swell Test to
           Calculate the Instability Indices of Clay' by D Lopes
    • Abstract: Beal, NS
      The paper by Lopes (2007) proposes an alternative method to the now widely used swell/shrinkage index test (AS1289.7.1.1-1992). On the basis of results obtained from his alternative test, the author asserts that the strain versus suction relationship for clay soils is substantially non-linear, and by implication, that the relationship is incorrectly characterised by the standard swell/shrinkage test as specified in AS1289.7.1.1-1992. The claimed non-linearity is at odds with previous reported results, which indicate that the strain versus suction relationship is substantially linear over the range of suction that is of likely interest. Upon consideration of the proposed method, it seems more likely that the non-linearity in the author's results is due to inaccuracies arising from the several assumptions and approximations that his method relies upon.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - On Efficiency Improvement of Demolished Concrete,
           Recycled Aggregate and Recycled Aggregate Concrete Testing
    • Abstract: Tam, Vivian WY; Le, Khoa N
      Recycled aggregate (RA) has been used in various construction applications around the world, mainly as sub-grade, roadwork and unbound materials, but not in high-grade applications. This paper examines relationships among demolished concrete (DC) characteristics, properties of their RA and strength of their recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A Vandermonde matrix for interpolation polynomials coefficient estimation is used to give detailed mathematical relationships among pairs of samples, which can be used to determine redundant tests. Different orders of interpolation polynomials are used for comparison, hence the best-fit equations with the lowest fitting errors from different orders of polynomials can be found.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Drainage Issues and Stress Developments within
           Hydraulic Fill Mine Stopes
    • Abstract: Sivakugan, Nagaratnam
      The mining industry plays a vital role in the Australian economy. The large voids created in the process of underground mining are filled with minefills, with hydraulic fill being one of the most popular backfills used in Australia and worldwide. Barricade failures within the drives have claimed many lives worldwide. Drainage and stress developments within the hydraulic fill are the two main issues that need to be addressed in an attempt to provide a safe working environment in the mines. Drainage relates to the pore water pressure developments within the stope, and proper understanding of the stress developments within the stope is necessary to quantify the loadings on the barricade more realistically. This paper summarises the research carried out at James Cook University over the past five years through four PhD projects in these two areas, namely drainage and stress developments. This includes extensive experimental studies on hydraulic fills and porous barricade bricks and numerical modelling using FLAC. A new vertical stress reduction factor (α) is proposed that quantifies the stress reduction taking place within the fill due to arching.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - The Hydraulic Stability of Some Large NSW Estuaries
    • Abstract: Nielsen, Alexander F; Gordon, Angus D
      The time histories of amplitude and phase of tidal constituents within estuaries present signatures that, along with established estuary stability theories, may allow for an informed assessment of the stability of an estuary and a prognosis of its future course. The data and theory show that several large, apparently stable estuaries in New South Wales, which have been modified by entrance breakwaters, have been in an unstable scouring mode for decades with prognoses of centuries for them to reach new hydraulically stable regimes. Implications have included extensive erosion protection works and permanent changes to fringing ecologies, none of which had been predicted.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Volunteering Pays Off - Both for the Involved Engineer
           and the World They Serve
    • Abstract: Care, Robert
      Many Australian engineers perform vital humanitarian aid work overseas and in Australia after disasters. Their professional skills and attributes render them particularly suited to making useful contributions to relief work and community development. This article provides an overview of the role Australian engineers play as volunteer humanitarian aid workers. It outlines the positive impact of their volunteer experience on the countries and people they help; on the engineers themselves as professionals and individuals; and on their co-workers and, most significantly, their employers. Five case studies describe recent individual deployments, while a sixth case study describes Red R Australia, an aid organisation that trains engineers for overseas deployments, maintains a skills and availability register, and arranges deployments when required. The article concludes that, while the current volunteer ethos is already strong, Australian companies can do even more to support their engineers as aid volunteers, and suggests specific ways by which this can be achieved.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Civil Engineering in Tenganan, Indonesia: A Unique
           Approach to Rural Water Supply with Engineers without Borders Australia
    • Abstract: Third, KA; Fun, OM; Bowen, Jerome
      The community of Tenganan (ca. 4000 people) in eastern Bali, Indonesia, has requested technical assistance from Engineers Without Borders Australia (EWB) to improve the quantity and quality of water delivered through their existing water supply system. The Tenganan people are currently suffering water shortages that significantly limit their quality of life. This is a unique development project in which the Tenganan people have identified their own needs and developed their own conceptual solution to the problem. For the first time, EWB is undertaking the design phase for the water system by an off-shore design team called a Technical Assistance Network (TAN) based in Perth, Australia in conjunction with an In-Country Team (ICT) that works directly with the Tenganan community. This allows EWB to draw on resources and experience of EWB members and their employing companies in Australia. It also enables young engineers to develop skills and experience in development work without having to leave the country. This paper discusses some of the unique aspects of the project 18 months after the project start-up in December 2006.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Avoiding Structural Disputes
    • Abstract: Charrett, Donald
      Scope of work, quality, cost and time are aspects of every construction contract, in which a perceived shortfall in the expected outcome for any one can result in a dispute. The importance of managing these issues in accordance with the requirements of the contract is stressed in this paper, and illustrated by reference to past projects. The paper also highlights the fundamental importance of implementing appropriate contractual conditions, including risk allocation, and notes certain aspects of contracts that can influence the likelihood of disputation arising from unfulfilled expectations. Suggestions are made for mechanisms that can minimise the impact of disputes that do arise.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Efficiency Improvements in Project Delivery: Best
           Practice Guide for Tendering and Contract Management
    • Abstract: Varmalis, Mark
      Despite state government influences, there is a lack of consistency throughout Victoria's 79 councils with tendering and contract management procedures. Through the daily dealings with its membership, the Civil Contractors Federation (CCF) has identified a considerable list of issues and inconsistencies that exist in the tendering marketplace. In response to issues raised, the CCF has worked with the Victorian Division of the Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia and the Municipal Association of Victoria to develop the Best Practice Guide for Tendering and Contract Management.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Leadership: The Role of Transformational Leadership and
           Emotional Intelligence
    • Abstract: Ireland, Vernon
      This paper outlines elements of leadership of vision for the achievement, plus raising team performance through transformational leadership, emotional intelligence (EI) and through leaders displaying values. Top leaders have visions for taking the group in a better direction (essentially divergent activity), whereas more junior leaders (first-line supervisors and team leaders) seek to reduce the variation in outputs of the team, which is quality - this is essentially convergent activity. Transformational leadership, which is in contrast to transactional leadership, is raising team members and followers to a higher level of performance by the leader-follower relationship. The key elements of transformational leadership found by research, with high reliability, are idealised influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration. EI supports transformational leadership. It is composed of perception of emotion in self and others, assimilation of emotions to facilitate thought, understanding or knowledge of emotions, and regulating and managing emotions in self and others. These characteristics have been tested and found to be highly reliable as distinct from other aspects of personality. Both transformational leadership and EI support more effective organisational performance and follower satisfaction. Leadership with values is also supportive of transformational leadership and EI.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Environmental Entrepreneurs: The Missing Link on the
           Road to a Carbon Constrained World
    • Abstract: O'Brien, John
      Engineers are at the forefront of the transition to a carbon constrained world. New technologies are needed that will allow the world to adapt while ensuring a good quality of life for all its inhabitants. Only through the innovation and entrepreneurship that engineers can provide will these technologies be conceived and delivered. However, it must be recognised that a vital link is required to facilitate the work of engineers. Connections between the technical and financial communities are essential to achieve desired outcomes. Through an understanding of both new sustainable technologies and the world of finance, the "environmental entrepreneur" can make connections and innovations in how technologies are financed and adopted by the community. This paper considers the theory of innovation cultures and how this can be applied to assist the transition to a carbon constrained world.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 5 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Ireland, Vernon
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Average Annual Flood Risk Analysis of the Scheldt Basin
    • Abstract: Blanckaert, J; Bulckaen, D; Schueremans, L
      The goal of this paper is to describe the actual procedure that is used to model the consequences and costs of a flood of the Scheldt basin, dealing with the actual uncertainties. This contribution fits in the framework of a project worked out by International Marine and Dredging Consultants (IMDC). The main goals of the project are to estimate the average annual risk of a flood of the Scheldt basin, on the one hand, and to estimate the effect of the position and type of structural measures on that average annual risk, on the other hand. These results will be used in the framework of a societal cost-benefit analysis to compare different long term scenarios of preventive measures to be taken for the Scheldt basin.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Sustainable Decisions for Life-cycle Based Design and
    • Abstract: Nishijima, K; Faber, MH; Straub, D
      General aspects of sustainable decision making are investigated and a possible formulation of socioeconomic sustainable decision making is illustrated on the problem of life-cycle based design and maintenance of civil engineering facilities. First, an overview is given on the present understanding of sustainability indicators, and on available theoretical and methodical frameworks for including such indicators in sustainable decision making. Thereafter, basic principles of sustainable decision making are suggested by defining the "rules" for optimising decisions that are made at present, but may have consequences in the future. A decision-theoretical framework is then formulated, which allows for modelling the interaction between intra-generational decision making and inter-generational decision making, utilising the recently developed concept of agent-based systems representation. The suggested framework is general, but is illustrated here on the specific and simple decision problems related to life-cycle based design and maintenance of civil engineering facilities. For this problem, sustainable decisions are identified through minimisation of the joint economic consequences for the present and future generations related to design and maintenance over the life cycle of such facilities. The suggested approach is demonstrated on a specific example considering the optimisation of a concrete structure subject to chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Consequence Modelling Based on Stated Preferences
    • Abstract: Maes, MA; Faber, MH
      A decision making framework is developed that includes several decision makers (instead of just one) having different preferences and value systems. The information provided by the varying opinions of decision makers can be used to optimise our own decision making. To achieve this, likelihood functions are developed for stated preferences among both discrete and continuous alternatives, and stated preference rankings of alternatives. The specific case is considered of optimisation of the life cycle utility of a structural system subject to consequences of failure proportional to the intensity of hazards exceeding a variable threshold, and to follow-up consequences.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Consequences and Acceptability of Long-term Exposure to
           Toxic Substances in Air, Water and Soil
    • Abstract: Lentz, A; Rackwitz, R
      Socioeconomics introduced risk acceptance criteria in order to assess the affordability of health related measures some decades ago. Later, engineering risk criteria were derived partly on this basis with the aim of determining an admissible and affordable safety level for facilities involving loss of human life in case of failure. The present paper shows how to apply the latter type of criterion to toxic long-term effects, while including aspects such as demography and discounting.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Aspects of Insurance Premium for Residential Houses
           against Seismic Risk in Japan
    • Abstract: Kanda, J
      This paper considers the premium for earthquake insurance for residential houses in Japan. Since individual hazards and structural capacities of houses are not sufficiently taken into account for the premium rating, the premiums may be fairly high in comparison with the existing risk for several regions and for several structural types. In this paper, the earthquake insurance premium and the expected seismic loss from engineering diagnosis are compared based on the statistics obtained after the Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake in Japan in 1995 in order to clarify some inconsistencies in the current premium rating system. The results clearly show that there exists inhomogeneity for the premium-expected loss ratio over regions and over different category of houses.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Gender Dimensions of Building Code Disparities in
           Natural Disasters: A United States Perspective
    • Abstract: Corotis, RB; Enarson, E
      There is concern that the social norms shaping codes, and thereby differential disaster impact, response and recovery, have not been considered by structural engineering professionals, just as the built environment has not been sufficiently addressed in social vulnerability theory and practice. This paper raises the hypothesis that there are social biases embedded in building codes that could be significant throughout the disaster cycle, suggesting exploration of the interface of social and structural concerns in the promotion of disaster resilience. Gender should be highlighted because of its importance and inter-connectedness with other social markers.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 4 Issue 1 - Effects of Different Sources of Uncertainty and
           Correlation on Earthquake-generated Losses
    • Abstract: Bazzurro, P; Luco, N
      Quantifying the potential impact of earthquakes on portfolios of properties is of primary interest to property owners, insurance and reinsurance companies, capital lending institutions, local government agencies, and structural engineers. The different stakeholders cope with seismic risk using a variety of strategies that range from establishing self-insurance programs, to buying earthquake insurance coverage or issuing catastrophe bonds. Regardless of the risk transfer mechanism, it is critical that the estimates of potential loss on which these decisions are based are as accurate as possible given the available information. Often earthquake loss analyses are conducted using numerical approaches that balance speed of execution with rigorousness of the methodology. A rigorous treatment of uncertainty is often the aspect that suffers the most. This paper presents three examples of the effects on the loss estimates of considering or neglecting the different sources of uncertainty and correlation that are part of a modern loss estimation study.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Historic Bridges and Roads of Norfolk Island
    • Abstract: O'Connor, C
      This paper describes the development of roads on Norfolk Island and identifies historic bridges and bridge sites. Pier Street bridge is conventionally dated 1835, but is dated here as before 1829 - Australia's second-oldest bridge. Bounty Street bridge has an unusual structural form. The remarkable rise in tide in 1834 is also described.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - A Modified Shrink/swell Test to Calculate the
           Instability Indices of Clays
    • Abstract: Lopes, D
      Australian Standard 2870-1986 introduced three test methods for the calculation of the Instability Indices (Ipt) of soils. Recently the loaded shrink/swell (S/S) test has gained popularity for the calculation of S/S index (Iss) since it does not require measurements of soil suctions and assumes a simple linear relationship. To test this assumption, a modified linear shrinkage test (MLS) was used to measure strain at various suction "sign posts". Fifty-six clay samples gathered from geotechnical investigations carried out in south-central Victoria were tested by this method. This paper examines some of the problems that exist with this test (Australian Standard 1289, 7.1.1) and suggests changes to both the test and calculation method, which may improve the accuracy of the Iss.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Geotechnical Assessment of Potential Underground Mining
           Impacts for a Proposed Urban Development Project in Cessnock, NSW
    • Abstract: Black, M; Kingsland, R; Cliff, D
      Mine subsidence is a geotechnical issue that impacts development throughout large portions of the urban areas of Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and the Hunter Valley. The geotechnical assessment of mine subsidence impacts is a complex process that is only well understood by a few engineering specialists in the field of mine subsidence engineering. This paper presents a case study of a mine subsidence assessment for a proposed industrial zoned site in Cessnock, NSW. It illustrates the assessment process for a site that features a number of potential challenges including a thick mined coal seam of widely varying depth and a history of underground coal fires. The application of the Cerberus probe as a mine subsidence investigation tool is also presented.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Defining the Storm Erosion Hazard for Beaches
    • Abstract: Nielsen, AF; Adamantidis, CA
      This paper presents a rational protocol for quantifying the dune erosion hazard resulting from coastal storms. The method is based on the application of calibrated and verified numerical models with the chosen level of risk based on long term wave data. A "design storm" is synthesised from long term wave data records of storm wave heights of various durations. The wave energy from such a storm is transformed from offshore to nearshore using a two-dimensional wave-refraction (and/or diffraction) modelling program. This provides appropriate nearshore wave conditions as input for a dune erosion model. The dune erosion model is calibrated and verified against ground survey data, usually obtained using photogrammetry. The storm erosion hazard risk assessment may then be quantified by the application of a chosen annual exceedance probability (AEP) wave height/duration event to the validated dune erosion model. This allows a "design" storm-bite to be determined at any location along a beach and it allows coastal managers to choose the level of coastal risk for existing and future foreshore development, based on an AEP approach.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Dynamic Response of Pedestrian Bridges for Random
    • Abstract: Brand, M; Sudbury, A; Sanjayan, JG
      The publicity regarding the 18-month closure of London's Millennium Bridge due to excessive lateral vibration response under crowd loading during its opening ceremony has highlighted the necessity for further investigation into the sources of this problem. Current design guidelines focus on single pedestrian dynamic loading and subsequently underestimate the dynamic response associated with crowd loading in the design of pedestrian bridges. This deficiency is addressed in this paper with the mathematical incorporation of random crowd effects into the dynamic analysis procedure. The introduction of a crowd factor (Cf) allows the individual response to be extended to incorporate multiple pedestrians with random arrival times. A subsequent statistical analysis into the mean, variance and distribution shape of Cf allowed the mathematical derivation of an equation stipulating its maximum upper value for a deemed appropriate level of confidence.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Field Evidence for Inability of ASTM C 1260 Limits to
           Detect Slowly Reactive Australian Aggregates
    • Abstract: Shayan, A
      The ASTM C 1260 method is an accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT) and has widely been used in the USA and elsewhere to assess susceptibility of aggregates to alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR). Five slowly-reactive Australian aggregates, which have caused significant damage to structures, were used to assess the suitability of this test method for detecting the reactivity of such aggregates. These aggregates were classed as non-reactive or uncertain by ASTM C 1260. This situation is unacceptable and necessitates changes to the test limits. The AMBT method used in Australia (RTA T363 designation for RTA, NSW, and RC 376.03 designation for VicRoads, Victoria) correctly classified such aggregates as slowly-reactive. It has been concluded that Australian test limits are more appropriate for the slowly-reactive aggregates. It is suggested that the Australian acceptance limit of < 0.1% expansion at 21 days of storage in 1 M NaOH solution at 80 C, be adopted by ASTM C 1260, or that the currently applied 14-day expansion limit be lowered from 0.10% to 0.08%.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 3 Issue 1 - Energy Smart Housing and Thermal Performance of the
    • Abstract: Rahman, S; Patnaikuni, I; De Silva, S
      The energy use for space heating and cooling in Australia and several other developed countries is a significant portion of their total energy use. With growing concern over climate change and global warming, the need to reduce energy consumption in major sectors such as housing is essential. Energy smart sustainable housing approach can go a long way in achieving overall reduction in green house gas emissions. Such efforts have already started and gaining momentum in developed countries including UK, Canada and Australia. The technology of energy smart housing is available, but legislative and financial support is required to achieve housing sustainability in the mainstream. In Australia, mandatory legislative support for energy smart housing was initiated in the state of Victoria from July 2005 and is expected to be incorporated in the national building code. In light of this, preliminary thermal performance of the Cairnlea Ecohome, which was designed to achieve a minimum five-star home energy rating and located in Melbourne, is reported.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Management and Leadership of a Consulting Engineering
    • Abstract: Singleton, David J
      Leading a consulting engineering business in the 21st century requires a broader range of leadership competencies to those that were successful 10 to 20 years ago. The author describes his own experiences on a journey of leading a consulting engineering enterprise, a personal learning journey that is not yet complete.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Project Delivery in a Major Consulting Organisation
    • Abstract: Urwin, Brian
      This paper briefly describes key issues in developing a project delivery capability within a large engineering consultancy.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Recognising Leadership and Management Competencies:
           Progress with Implementation
    • Abstract: Hammer, Julie; Evans, Michael; Anderson, John
      The Council of Engineers Australia established the Centre for Engineering Leadership and Management (CELM) in 2002 with a charter which includes the definition of mid-career leadership, management and business (Stage 3) competencies that engineers should acquire as they move into mid-career. Further, the Centre should ensure that engineers who can demonstrate achievement in these competencies have a suitable form of professional recognition that has strong credibility in the wider market. Through the efforts of a Competencies Working Group, established under the auspices of the national CELM Board, an overall framework for implementation of suitable arrangements has been endorsed in principle by Engineers Australia. A set of competency units and elements, with nearly 200 defining activities, have been identified, and an implementation strategy established. An initial trial process for assessing attainment of these competencies is being undertaken in the various Divisions of Engineers Australia.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - The Alice-Darwin Railway: A Feat of Project Management
    • Abstract: Lees, Dick
      This paper describes the project management of the 1420 kilometre Alice Springs to Darwin railway. The sponsor group included the Commonwealth, South Australian and Northern Territory Governments. The Asia Pacific Transport Consortium delivered the new line under a BOOT contract with the AustralAsia Railway Corporation. KBR invited the John Holland Group, Barclay Mowlem, Macmahon Holdings and Australian Railroad Group - all industry leaders - to join it in forming the Asia Pacific Transport Consortium. Funding was provided by both sponsor and deliverer under a BOOT structure.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Ultra High Performance Concrete: Recent Applications
           and Research
    • Abstract: Rahman, S; Molyneaux, T; Patnaikuni, I
      With advances in concrete technology, ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) has become a new focus for researchers and the concrete industry. UHPC is characterized by high compressive strength and excellent durability properties resulting in lighter structures and longer life. Different approaches have been adopted by researchers in achieving ultra high strength and associated other improved performances. As a result, several types of UHPC are available today such as Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC), Densified with Small Particles (DSP) concrete, Special Industrial Concrete (BSI), Macro Defect Free (MDF) concrete, Self Compacting Concrete (SCC), Compact Reinforced Concrete (CRC) etc. A general description and their range of applications are reported here. In addition, Research at RMIT on Modified Reactive Powder Concrete and very high strength (VHSC) and ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) is briefly outlined.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 2 Issue 1 - Deterioration Modelling and Prioritising of Reinforced
           Concrete Bridges for Maintenance
    • Abstract: Maheswaran, T; Sanjayan, Jay G; Taplin, Geoff
      Deterioration models capable of predicting the distribution of future condition states of bridge elements are essential components of a bridge management system. Asset management systems developed in USA employs deterioration models based on the discrete-time Markov chain. This paper presents a method to use continuous-time Markov chains for concrete bridge management. Use of the maximum likelihood method (ML) to estimate deterioration parameters and corrosion initiation time is demonstrated in this paper. The model is probability based that is essential to incorporate the uncertainties involved. The application of this methodology is illustrated through an example based on real-life bridge data. The distribution of future condition states of the bridge element is predicted using the estimated deterioration parameters and corrosion initiation time. Sample maintenance policy decisions for selecting bridge elements for maintenance action are also presented. A method based on Monte-Carlo simulation is developed to demonstrate how the bridges could be selected for maintenance action

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
  • Volume 1 Issue 1 - Architectural Concrete: Case Study of a High Quality
           Off-form Concrete Finish
    • Abstract: Evans, Stephen
      Achieving a high quality off-form finish by conventional cast in place construction techniques can create many challenges. When an architectural design requires the use of coloured concrete to blend and complement the colour and texture of existing structures and landscapes, the challenge can become complicated and somewhat compromised unless the construction team is aware of practical limitations and has the ability to manage, control and adapt so that all suppliers and sub contractors provide optimum performance to achieve optimum outcomes. This paper details the pre contract planning, control achieved, construction management, and lessons learnt throughout a successful project in Brisbane, Queensland.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:41 GMT
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