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Publisher: RMIT Publishing   (Total: 398 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 398 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Accounting, Accountability & Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 0)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.122, CiteScore: 0)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian J. of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Anglican Historical Society J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.168, CiteScore: 0)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Art Monthly Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Drama Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian J. of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian Law Management J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Bookseller & Publisher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.317, CiteScore: 1)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.399, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BOCSAR NSW Alcohol Studies Bulletins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bookseller + Publisher Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 1)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 0)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.228, CiteScore: 1)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gestalt J. of Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Government News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Great Circle: J. of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Grief Matters : The Australian J. of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
He Puna Korero: J. of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion J. of Australia : Official J. of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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History of Economics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Hong Kong J. of Emergency Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Idiom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Intl. Employment Relations Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 11  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [398 journals]
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Advances in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid nutrition
    • Abstract: Li, Duo; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Sinclair, Andrew J
      There is conclusive evidence to demonstrate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in human development and growth, vision, and cell membrane fluidity (membrane order). N-3 PUFA also contribute to human health maintenance through correction of arrhythmias, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prolongation of clotting time, lowering blood pressure, lowering serum triglycerides and plasma homocysteine, being antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory, being cardio-protective, increasing insulin sensitivity in Asians, and decreasing the risk of breast and colorectal cancers. This understanding of a wide spectrum of biological effects attributable to n-3 PUFA has been unsettled by a systematic review of randomized clinical intervention trials (RCTs) which has reported that n-3 PUFA have negligible or no effect on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Here, possible reasons for the inconsistencies in regard to n-3 PUFA and cardiovascular diseases, along with the implications for their broader biology, are considered.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Reviewing the effects of dietary salt on cognition:
           Mechanisms and future directions
    • Abstract: Kendig, Michael D; Morris, Margaret J
      Background and Objectives: Consumption of salt exceeds dietary guidelines for many countries around the world, despite efforts to increase awareness of the potential cardiovascular health risks. Emerging evidence, primarily from rodent models, indicates that high salt intake may also impair aspects of cognitive function. To our knowledge, here we provide the first review of the effects of salt on cognition. To review literature on the effects of high-salt diets on cognitive measures across human and non-human animal research to generate targeted questions for future studies.

      Methods and Study Design: Non-systematic literature review of studies manipulating (in rodents) or measuring (in humans) salt intake and assessing performance on cognitive measures.

      Results: Studies in humans have focused on older populations and show mixed associations between salt intake and cognitive performance. By contrast, most rodent studies have found impairments in cognition following chronic consumption of high-salt (typically 7-8%) diets. Most report impairments in tasks assessing spatial memory with corresponding increases in hippocampal oxidative stress and inflammatory responses originating in the gut. Notably, several rodent studies reported that high-salt diets impaired cognitive function in the absence of blood pressure changes.

      Conclusions: Contrasting results from human and animal studies emphasise the need for further studies to clarify whether salt intake affects cognition. Testing cognition in high-salt diet models that induce hypertension will increase the translatability of future studies in rodents. A challenge for research in humans is isolating the effects of salt from those of fat and sugar that tend to co-occur in 'western' diets.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - The impact of mandatory iodine fortification and
           supplementation on pregnant and lactating women in Australia
    • Abstract: Hurley, Stephen; Eastman, Creswell J; Gallego, Gisselle
      Background and Objectives: In Australia, two public health measures were introduced between 2009 and 2010 to reduce iodine deficiency. However there has been a shortage of information regarding their effectiveness and the ongoing prevalence of iodine deficiency in Australia. The primary aim of this study was to assess the extent to which these public health measures have reduced rates of iodine deficiency among pregnant and lactating women.

      Methods and Study Design: A review was conducted to identify all studies published since January 2010 that quantitatively measured the iodine status of pregnant and/or lactating women in Australia.

      Results: We found 25 publications, of which seven were included in this review after our exclusion criteria were applied. Of the seven included publications, three demonstrated the pregnant and lactating women in their studies to be iodine replete (median urinary iodine concentrations (MUIC) greater than 150 mug/L, or a breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) of greater than 100 mug/L). The remaining four publications found MUIC of pregnant and lactating women to be below the 150 mug/L threshold, in the mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency category. Only two studies, documented iodine sufficiency among pregnant and lactating women in the absence of iodine supplementation.

      Conclusions: Many pregnant and lactating women in Australia remain at least mildly iodine deficient. Antenatal iodine supplementation was the factor most consistently associated with an adequate iodine status. Larger, more representative studies or sentinel studies with a National coordination are needed to understand the differences in iodine status that exist across the country.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Utility of different indices in screening Chinese
           postmenopausal women for hepatic steatosis
    • Abstract: Liu, Peng Ju; Ma, Fang; Zhu, Yan Ning; Lou, Hui Ping
      Background and Objectives: To analyze the potential of fatty liver index (FLI) and several obesity indices and to explore which index is best for predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese postmenopausal women.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 680 Chinese postmenopausal women. NAFLD was defined as a hepatic steatosis observed on liver ultrasonography in the absence of a second cause. Odds ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) between hepatic steatosis and FLI as well as different obesity indices were evaluated by Binary Logistic regression model. Receiver operating characteristic curve and area under curve (AUC) were used to compare the ability of predicting hepatic steatosis between FLI and obesity indices.

      Results: The upper values of all indices were significantly associated with the presence of hepatic steatosis (all p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Energy requirements for patients in convalescent
           rehabilitation using motor scores as in the functional independent measure
           
    • Abstract: Inoue, Hiromasa; Morioka, Kokoro; Okamoto, Kozue; Tsutsumi, Hitose; Ishino, Shinsuke; Kiritani, Naoko; Kubo, Hiroaki; Nara, Masanobu; Tsuji, Yoshiro
      Background and Objectives: Although appropriate nutrition management could improve rehabilitation outcomes, more than 40% of patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward (CRW) suffer from malnutrition. The study was undertaken to investigate whether adequate nutrition for each patient in a CRW could be estimated based on motor scores on the Functional Independence Measure (FIM-M).

      Methods and Study Design: In 218 patients in our CRW, both basal energy expenditure (BEE) on admission and average energy intake (EI) for 2 weeks were calculated, and EI was divided by BEE to estimate the activity index (e-AI). The patients were classified according to FIM-M to investigate the relationship between the FIM-M and the e-AI.

      Results: The e-AI tended to increase in proportion to the FIM-M. In the N group, where the increase-decrease rate for body weight was within 2%, the e-AI induced by a FIM-M greater than 60 was significantly higher than that induced by a FIM-M up to 60 (1.3 vs 1.1, p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Basal energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure
           and one metabolic equivalent (1 MET) values for young Chinese adults with
           different body weights
    • Abstract: Wu, Jinghuan; Mao, Deqian; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Xiaorong; Hong, Ping; Piao, Jianhua; Zhuo, Qin; Yang, Xiaoguang
      Background and Objectives: Accurately assessing energy expenditure (EE) of people with different body weight is essential to facilitate weight management. The aim of this study was to measure basal energy expenditure (BEE), resting energy expenditure (REE) and to explore the true 1 MET value for young Chinese adults with different body weight.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 251 young Chinese adults were divided into three groups: the normal weight group, the overweight group and the obese group. Their BEE, REE and 1 MET values were measured by Cortex Metamax 3B (MM3B). Multiple linear regressions and correlation analysis were used to examine factors that influence EE in Chinese population.

      Results: The mean measured BEE and REE of young Chinese adults with normal weight, overweight and obesity was 1429, 1609, 1778 kcal/day and 1522, 1712, 1885 kcal/day, respectively. The EE per kilogram body weight decreased with the increasing body weight. The mean oxygen consumption in the three group was 3.78, 3.47, 3.21 mL/kg/min respectively. There was no significant difference in BEE and REE after adjustment for fat-free mass (FFM). The significant influencing factors were body mass index (BMI) and sex in BEE, FFM and BMI in REE in Chinese population.

      Conclusions: BEE and REE were significantly different for different body weights while these differences disappeared after adjustment for FFM, and people with different body weights may have different 1 MET values. Further studies should be conducted to obtain more accurate daily energy requirement and 1 MET value for specific Chinese populations.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Effects of cyclic parenteral nutrition on parenteral
           nutrition-associated cholestasis in newborns
    • Abstract: Bae, Hye Jung; Shin, Seung Han; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Kim, Han-Suk; Cho, Yoon Sook; Gwak, Hye Sun
      Background and Objectives: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is one of the main nutritional methods used in newborns; however, long-term PN may induce PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC). This study aims to evaluate the effect of cyclic PN in the prevention and improvement of PNAC in newborns requiring long-term PN.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients admitted at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital neonatal intensive care unit between October 2010 and September 2015 and referred to the nutrition support team with total parenteral nutrition for more than 14 days. The primary outcome was the incidence of PNAC. The incidence of hypoglycemia, changes in direct bilirubin (DB) concentrations, and length of hospital stay were investigated.

      Results: A total of 124 patients were observed in this study. Among these, 100 patients received continuous PN, whereas 24 patients received both continuous and cyclic PN. PNAC occurred in 31.5% (39/124) of study population. The incidence rates of PNAC were 27.4% during continuous PN period and 20.8% during cyclic PN period. Cyclic PN was an independent factor that significantly decreased PNAC incidence (OR=0.154; 95% CI, 0.045-0.529, p=0.003). DB concentrations significantly decreased (p=0.049) with therapeutic cyclic PN, but remained normal with prophylactic cyclic PN. No significant difference in hypoglycemia incidence and length of hospital stay was observed in both continuous PN and continuous to cyclic PN groups.

      Conclusions: Cyclic PN could be effective in the prevention and improvement of PNAC and also safe in terms of hypoglycemia in newborns.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Tolerability of partially and extensively hydrolysed
           milk formulas in children with cow's milk allergy
    • Abstract: Inuo, Chisato; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakajima, Yoichi; Yamawaki, Kazuo; Matsubara, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Yasuto
      Background and Objectives: The safety and tolerability of hydrolysed cow's milk protein-based formulas, particularly partially hydrolysed formulas (pHFs), in children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) remain poorly understood. We evaluated the tolerability of hydrolysed cow's milk-based formulas in children with CMA.

      Methods and Study Design: A three-period double-blind crossover evaluation compared the allergic tolerance against three dietary cow's milk-based formulas: extensively hydrolysed cow's milk formula (eHF), pHF, and regular cow's milk formula (rCMF). The primary outcome was the rate of tolerance against a maximum of 20.0 mL of formula.

      Results: Controlled food challenges were performed in 25 children (18 boys; 7 girls) with a median age of 4.25 years (range: 1-9 years) diagnosed with CMA. The median cow's milk-specific immunoglobulin E level was 31.9 UA/mL (range: 1.16-735 UA/mL). The tolerance rate ratios for rCMF were lower than those for pHF (2 vs 16; p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Pectin-containing liquid enteral nutrition for
           critical care: A historical control and propensity score matched study
    • Abstract: Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Naraba, Hiromu; Takahashi, Yuji; Sonoo, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Doi, Kent; Morimura, Naoto
      Background and Objectives: Pectin-containing liquid enteral nutrition (PCLEN) contains pectin, which becomes solid in the stomach and therefore mitigates vomiting and diarrhea. Its efficacy for use in critical care medicine was evaluated.

      Methods and Study Design: We used liquid enteral nutrition (LEN) (traditional LEN (TLEN)) as the primary LEN at the emergency and critical care center. We adopted PCLEN as the primary LEN from 2014. During 2012-2016, 954 patients admitted to intensive care units and emergency wards were given PCLEN or TLEN. We conducted propensity score matching for 693 eligible patients for age, sex, and organ dysfunctions for six organs.

      Results: We included 199 PCLEN patients and 199 TLEN patients. Severity was higher in the PCLEN group. The enteral nutrition failure rate was significantly lower for PCLEN than for TLEN. The diarrhea incidence rates were 28.1% vs 38.2% (p=0.033), and the incidence rates of nosocomial pneumonia were 4.5% and 9.6% (p=0.048). For PCLEN, the enteral nutrition failure rates were not different for patients with gastric acid inhibitors and without them.

      Conclusions: PCLEN can be used effectively for critically ill patients irrespective of the use of gastric acid inhibitors. It can decrease the incidence of enteral nutrition failure and diarrhea.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Nutritional status of patients admitted to a
           metropolitan tertiary care vascular surgery unit
    • Abstract: Thomas, Jolene; Delaney, Christopher; Suen, Jenni; Miller, Michelle
      Background and Objectives: Undernutrition in vascular surgery patients has a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This observational study aimed to investigate the nutritional status of a heterogeneous sample of vascular surgery inpatients and to determine the prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition (including nutrient deficiencies) and sarcopenia.

      Methods and Study Design: All participants were screened for risk of malnutrition using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and assessed using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Micronutrient status was examined via plasma/serum samples. The presence of sarcopenia was explored using an accepted algorithm incorporating gait speed, muscle mass (DEXA) and grip strength.

      Results: 322 participants (69% male, mean age 67.6+-14.1y) consented to the study. 12.5% were identified as at risk of malnutrition by the MUST while 15.8% were deemed malnourished by the PG-SGA. Only 5% were diagnosed as sarcopenic. Prevalence of malnutrition was much higher when micronutrients were examined with 79% showing low vitamin C, 56% low vitamin D and over 40% having low zinc, vitamin B-12 and folate. A smaller proportion were also low in selenium (19%).

      Conclusions: Patients with vascular disease are a nutritionally vulnerable group. The MUST and PG-SGA did not identify the full extent of nutritional deficiencies. Further investigation is warranted to assess tool validity in this group. A number of micronutrients are crucial in these patients and hence a more comprehensive assessment that encompasses a wider range of parameters, including micronutrient status appears warranted.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Effects of 1-year weight loss intervention on
           abdominal skeletal muscle mass in japanese overweight men and women
    • Abstract: Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, MotohikoSaku Control Obesity Program (SCOP) Study Group
      Background and Objectives: Limited information is available on how weight loss intervention programs affect skeletal muscle mass especially in trunk.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 235 overweight Japanese men and women aged 40-64 years with a body mass index of 28.0 to 44.8 kg/m2 participated in this randomized controlled intervention study. They were randomly divided into a lifestyle intervention group and control group. Before and after the one-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss an abdominal transverse image was acquired by computed tomography. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and skeletal muscle of rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, iliopsoas, and erector spinae muscle were calculated.

      Results: The body weight changed by approximately -5% in the intervention groups. The corresponding values for subcutaneous fat and visceral fat CSAs were -10.8 to -17.5% in both sexes. The reductions observed in skeletal muscle CSAs were significantly less (-6.0% and -7.2% in the men and women intervention groups respectively) than those in fat tissue CSAs. The CSA of each of the four skeletal muscle groups also significantly decreased; however, after adjustments for body weight at each time point, only reductions in the iliopsoas muscle in both sex and abdominal oblique muscles in men remained significant.

      Conclusions: The lifestyle weight loss intervention might reduce the relative amount of the abdominal skeletal muscles especially in iliopsoas muscle.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Eating rate as risk for body mass index and waist
           circumference obesity with appropriate confounding factors: A
           cross-sectional analysis of the Shizuoka- Sakuragaoka J-MICC Study
    • Abstract: Wuren, M A; Endoh, Kaori; Kuriki, KiyonoriThe Shizuoka-Sakuragaoka J-MICC Study group
      Background and Objectives: The relationship between eating rate (ER) and increased risk of obesity in relation to body mass index (BMI, i.e., total body fat) and waist circumference (WC, i.e., abdominal fat) has not been fully examined. Considering gender differences, we identified unknown confounding factors (CFs) for each risk, and then assessed the two actual obesity risks, adjusting for the CFs.

      Methods and Study Design: Using a questionnaire, we collected data for ER (slow, normal as "reference," and fast) and related factors and measured BMI and WC for 3,393 men and 2,495 women. Using multiple logistic regression models, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated adjusting for both conventional and candidate CFs.

      Results: The following factors were identified as appropriate CFs, but were differed between the two obesity types: fast food consumption in both genders, sleep duration and restaurants/food service use in men, and family structure and packed lunch in women. In men, actual risks of BMI obesity and WC obesity were negatively associated with slow ER (ORs and 95% CIs; 0.70 and 0.52-0.96, and 0.69 and 0.50-0.96), but positively associated with fast ER (1.48 and 1.25-1.76, and 1.45 and 1.21-1.74). In women, those risks were positively related to fast ER (1.78 and 1.39-2.26, and 1.34 and 1.11-1.61).

      Conclusions: For both BMI obesity risk and WC obesity risk, we conclude that slow and fast ER were related to decreased and increased risks when adjusted for appropriate CFs, which differed by gender and the obesity type.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Self-reported behavior of eating quickly is correlated
           with visceral fat area in Japanese non-obese adults
    • Abstract: Iwasaki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akiko; Azuma, Tetsuji; Watanabe, Kazutoshi; Deguchi, Fumiko; Obora, Akihiro; Kojima, Takao; Tomofuji, Takaaki
      Background and Objectives: This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between eating speed and fat accumulation in Japanese non-obese adults.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 381 non-obese participants aged 35-74 years underwent a health checkup including fat distribution. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Information on eating speed was obtained using a self-administrated questionnaire.

      Results: The numbers of participants with self-reported behavior of eating slowly, medium, or quickly were 24 (6.3%), 180 (47.2%), and 177 (46.5%), respectively. The prevalence of VFA >=100 cm2 was higher in the eating quickly group than in the eating slowly (p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Effects of skipping breakfast on dietary intake and
           circulating and urinary nutrients during pregnancy
    • Abstract: Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo
      Background and Objectives: More than 20% of pregnant Japanese women regularly skip breakfast, thereby resulting in a low intake of several nutrients that are required for fetal development and prevention of pregnancy complications. However, whether skipping breakfast affects circulating levels of these nutrients remains unclear. We investigated whether skipping breakfast during pregnancy was associated with decreases in dietary intake and circulating and urinary levels of several nutrients, including fatty acids and vitamins.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, between June and October 2010. Nutrient intakes were assessed using a validated diet history questionnaire. Blood and 24-hour urinary samples were collected for assessing circulating and urinary excretion levels of nutrients. Skipping breakfast was defined as forgoing breakfast including a staple food, such as rice or bread, two or more times per week. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to compare nutrient levels between breakfast skippers and non-skippers after adjusting for confounders.

      Results: Of 97 healthy pregnant women in the second trimester, 37 (38.1%) skipped breakfast two or more times per week. In multiple linear regression analysis, breakfast skippers had significant lower energy-adjusted intakes of protein than non-skippers (p=0.019). In addition, breakfast skippers had significantly lower levels of plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (p=0.008), plasma docosahexaenoic acid (p=0.027), serum beta- carotene (p=0.013), urinary urea nitrogen (p=0.027), and urinary potassium (p=0.006), compared to non-skippers.

      Conclusions: Healthcare professionals need to suggest effective strategies for encouraging breakfast skippers to have breakfast regularly and to increase the intake of these nutrients.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - The dietary intake of two groups of lactating women in
           shanghai during the puerperium
    • Abstract: Hu, Rui; Fei, Jun; Zhai, Yingchen; Feng, Yi; Warren, Janet; Jin, Yi; Papi, Bianca; Stahl, Bernd; Wang, Zhixu; Li, Jing
      Background and Objectives: Lactation is a time of increased nutritional requirements for mothers, and inadequate nutrient intake may have a detrimental effect on a woman's nutritional status. To investigate the dietary intake of two groups of women in Shanghai during the traditional confinement period.

      Methods and Study Design: Two groups of women (1) a community dwelling sample (n=92); (2) residents in a Maternity Care Centre (MCC) (n=30), kept a prospective dietary record which was complemented by photographing. This data collection was done on a single day on three occasions in the community group, and for three days on five occasions in the MCC one. The mean nutrient intakes of the two groups were compared at common time points to dietary reference intakes, and the food intake was compared to dietary guidelines.

      Results: Over half of this population had high body mass indices (BMIs) which reported that an excessive proportion of calories had come from fat intake. The mean intakes of sodium were higher than the recommended. Fruit, vegetable, bean, tuber, and milk intakes were lower than the recommendations. Over 70% of the women failed to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium. A notable proportion of all women failed to meet the EAR for vitamin C, thiamin, and riboflavin. Dietary fiber intakes were low, with a group mean intake value less than half the Adequate Intake (AI).

      Conclusions: This study on dietary intakes indicates nutritional intake issues may exist among lactating women in Shanghai, particularly in community-dwelling women.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Prevalence of and factors associated with thiamin
           deficiency in obese Thai children
    • Abstract: Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Chotipanang, Kwanjai; Junnu, Sarawut; Kunnangja, Supawan; Wongarn, Renu; Sriboonnark, Wipawee; Tirapongporn, Hathaichanok; Phuangphan, Phakkanan
      Background and Objectives: Obesity is a state that results from excessive energy consumption, and obese people often have micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with thiamin deficiency in obese Thai children.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University during 2014 to 2017. Children aged 7-15 years old with exogenous obesity were recruited. Symptoms and signs of thiamin deficiency were evaluated. Erythrocyte transketolase activity was measured by thiamin pyrophosphate effect (TPPE), with >=15% indicating thiamin deficiency. Dietary consumption from a 5-day food diary and food frequency questionnaire was calculated by INMUCAL software. Other medical complications of obesity were also evaluated.

      Results: One hundred and twenty-four subjects (81 males and 43 females) were enrolled, with a mean age of 10.9 years. Fifty-two subjects had abnormal TPPE for an overall prevalence of thiamin deficiency of 42%. Manifestations of thiamin deficiency included numbness, weakness, and calf muscle cramping. TPPE test results were correlated with at least one symptom or a sign of thiamin deficiency (p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Dietary exposure to sulfites in Indonesians
    • Abstract: Fanaike, Ruki; Andarwulan, Nuri; Prangdimurti, Endang; Indrotristanto, Nugroho; Puspitasari, Rina
      Background and Objectives: Information on dietary exposure to sulfites as preservative in consumer is needed as a scientific base for food safety policy making. The objective of this research was to conduct dietary exposure assessment to sulfites in consumers by using a deterministic method.

      Methods and Study Design: The scope of work was identification of food products containing sulfites, determination of food consumption data from the individual food consumption survey report of 2014, determination of sulfite concentration in food, and calculation of sulfite exposure.

      Results: 3,428 (9%) of 37,613 food products registered in National Agency of Drug and Food Control (2012-2015) may contain sulfite. The most used sulfite in food products was sodium metabisulfite. The mean of food containing sulfite consumption in all age groups was 131.4 g/person/day. The estimation of total exposure for all age groups were 0.27 mg/kgBW/day (38.6% ADI), 0.25 mg/kgBW/day (35.7% ADI) and 0.08 mg/kgBW/day (11.4% ADI) by using concentrations of Maximum Permitted Limit, reported maximum used level and reported maximum product test result, respectively. Food category contributed to the highest exposure in all age groups was spices, condiments, vinegar, powder or mixture for soups and broths, and other soy sauce category.

      Conclusions: The highest total exposure to sulfites was found in 0-59 month age group. The highest total exposure for the MPL (0.79 mg/kgBW/day) and the reported maximum used level (0.73 mg/kgBW/day) exceeded 112.9% ADI and 104.3% ADI, respectively while the exposure using reported maximum test result was still below ADI (0.25 mg/kgBW/day or 35.7% ADI).

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Quantitative estimates of dietary intake in households
           of South Tarawa, Kiribati
    • Abstract: Eme, Paul Eze; Burlingame, Barbara; Douwes, Jeroen; Kim, Nicholas; Foliaki, Sunia
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is a public health problem especially among the Pacific Small Island developing nations. This study assessed malnutrition with dietary intakes in households of South Tarawa, Kiribati, a West Pacific Island Nation State.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional community-based study design was used. One hundred and sixty-one households were selected from Betio, Bikenibeu and Teaorereke towns using a systematic random sampling method. About 35% each of the households was selected from Bikenebue and Besio while 30.4% was selected from Teaoraeke. Family (including children) dietary surveys including 24- hour dietary recall were administered to assess adequacy of nutrient intakes and dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores. A 3-day weighed food record was collected on a sub-sample. Data were analysed using FoodWorks Pro 8 for nutrient intake and Statistical Product for Service Solution (SPSS) version 21 for descriptive statistics.

      Results: Sixty-one percent of the subjects had the lowest dietary diversity, 36.3% had a medium dietary diversity and only 2.7% had the highest dietary diversity. Based on the weighed food record results (n=29), male subjects of all age groups had adequate intakes of riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, magnesium, iron and zinc, but had high intakes of protein and sodium; and low intakes of potassium and calcium. Female subjects had adequate intakes of vitamin C, iron, magnesium and zinc, but had high intakes of protein and sodium; and low intakes of potassium and calcium.

      Conclusions: Across all groups, 61% of the adult Kiribati population studied showed low dietary diversity, and a high prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Longitudinal nutritional changes in aging Australian
           women
    • Abstract: Hill, Edward; Hodge, Alison; Clifton, Peter; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Campbell, Stephen; Szoeke, Cassandra
      Background and Objectives: The importance of diet for the maintenance of health during aging is attracting a growing body of research interest. Given dietary intakes, along with BMI, are substantial contributors to disease burden, this study aimed to investigate prospective changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes in a sample of mid to late-life women over 14 years.

      Methods and Study Design: Participants were from the Women's Healthy Ageing Project (WHAP); a longitudinal cohort of Australian-born women within the Melbourne metropolitan area. 173 participants were included in this analysis, their mean age in 1998 was 55 years (range 51-62) and in 2012 was 70 years (range 66-76). Diet was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies Version 2 in 1998 and 2012. Nutritional intakes, Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores, Mediterranean Diet (MD) scores, sociodemographic and physical measures were calculated for all participants at both time points.

      Results: Energy intake was found to significantly decrease over time (p
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Soy product consumption and type 2 diabetes among
           adults in Beijing, China
    • Abstract: Zhu, Zhu; He, Haizhen; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Guirong; Zhuang, Guoliang; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping
      Background and Objectives: To examine the association between the frequency of soy products consumption and type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study of 3,314 subjects aged 18-79 years was conducted in Beijing, China in 2016. Consumption of soy products was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire and examined with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glucose risk using multiple logistic regression.

      Results: 509 of the 3,314 participants (15.4%) included in the current analyses had diabetes, and among them 453 were diabetes uncontrolled. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 11.9%. After adjustment for demographic variables, smoke, alcohol, physical activity and BMI, soy products consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk and impaired fasting glucose. ORs and 95% CI for diabetes uncontrolled across soy products consumption frequencies (monthly, weekly, daily) were 1 (reference), 0.819 (0.627-1.070), 0.605 (0.387, 0.944) respectively (ptrend=0.033). ORs (95% CI) for impaired fasting glucose across soy products consumption frequencies were 1 (reference), 0.873 (0.661-1.152), 0.616 (0.385, 0.985) respectively (ptrend=0.046).

      Conclusions: Consuming soy products daily may decrease the risk of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Differences and overlap between Sarcopenia and
           physical frailty in older community-dwelling Japanese
    • Abstract: Mori, Hiroyasu; Tokuda, Yasunobu
      Background and Objectives: Sarcopenia and frailty result in loss of function and independence. Sarcopenia may be a risk factor for frailty; however, risk factors for sarcopenia with frailty, and associated incidence of falls and poor quality of life remain unclear. We investigated the clinical characteristics and relevant factors for sarcopenia with frailty in older community-dwelling Japanese.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 331 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged >=60 years. We assessed falls history in the past year, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), including physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), age, total energy intake per ideal body weight (TEI/kg IBW), total protein intake/kg IBW, vitamin D intake, and exercise habits. Sarcopenia was determined using low hand grip strength or slow gait speed and low skeletal muscle mass index. Frailty was determined if >=3 components, such as unintended weight loss, exhaustion, low muscle strength, slow gait speed, and low physical activity were present.

      Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia with frailty was 3.6%; such participants had a higher risk of recurrent falls and lower PCS and MCS scores than robust participants. Age, TEI/kg IBW, total protein intake/kg IBW, and vitamin D intake were significantly associated with risk of sarcopenia with frailty by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

      Conclusions: This study showed that sarcopenia with frailty was had higher incidences of recurrent fall and poor HRQOL than robust older adults. Aging and poor energy, protein, and vitamin D intake, may be relevant factors for sarcopenia with frailty.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Development of nutrition science competencies for
           undergraduate degrees in Australia
    • Abstract: Lawlis, Tanya; Coates, Alison Mary; Clark, Karin; Charlton, Karen Elizabeth; Sinclair, Andrew James; Wood, Lisa Gai; Devine, Amanda; Torres, Susan Jane
      Background and Objectives: The need for updated competencies for nutrition scientists in Australia was identified. The aim of this paper is to describe the process of revising of these competencies for undergraduate nutrition science degrees in Australia.

      Methods and Study Design: An iterative multiple methods approach comprising three stages was undertaken: 1. Scoping study of existing competencies; 2. Exploratory survey; and, 3. Modified Delphi process (2 rounds) involving 128 nutrition experts from industry, community, government and academia. A >=70% consensus rule was applied to Rounds 1 and 2 of the Delphi process in order to arrive at a final list of competencies.

      Results: Stage 1: Scoping study resulted in an initial list of 71 competency statements, categorised under six core areas. Stage 2: Exploratory survey-completed by 74 Nutrition Society of Australia (NSA) members; 76% agreed there was a need to update the current competencies. Standards were refined to six core areas and 36 statements. Stage 3: Modified Delphi process-revised competencies comprise five core competency areas, underpinned by fundamental knowledge, skills, attitudes and values: Nutrition Science; Food and the Food System; Nutrition Governance, Sociocultural and Behavioural Factors; Nutrition Research and Critical Analysis; and Communication and Professional Conduct; and three specialist competency areas: Food Science; Public Health Nutrition; and Animal Nutrition.

      Conclusions: The revised competencies provide an updated framework of nutrition science knowledge for graduates to effectively practice in Australia. They may be used to benchmark current and future nutrition science degrees and lead to improved employability skills of nutrition science graduates.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Carotenoid metabolic (BCO1) polymorphisms and personal
           behaviors modify the risk of coronary atherosclerosis: A nested
           case-control study in Han Chinese with dyslipidaemia (2013-2016)
    • Abstract: Cai, Xiao; Lian, Fuzhi; Kong, Yuling; Huang, Liu; Xu, Liangwen; Wu, Yinyin; Ma, Haiyan; Yang, Lei
      Background and Objectives: beta-Carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) is a key enzyme involved in carotenoid metabolism and has been linked with the development of coronary atherosclerosis. This study investigated the association between BCO1 polymorphisms and the risk of coronary atherosclerosis in dyslipidemia participants, and analyzed the influence of personal behaviors on coronary atherosclerosis.

      Methods and Study Design: A nested case-control study was conducted from 2013 to 2016 in which 1359 dyslipidemia participants were recruited. Personal lifestyle parameters, mainly physical activities and diet, were obtained by questionnaires and the genotypes of rs11641677, rs11646692, rs12934922, rs6564851 and rs7501331 in BCO1 were analyzed by ligase detection reaction. In 2016, 166 participants were diagnosed with coronary atherosclerosis and 498 age-and gendermatched controls were recruited. The association between BCO1 polymorphisms and risk of coronary atherosclerosis were analyzed with logistic regression, and the effect of gene-behaviors interaction on the risk of coronary atherosclerosis were determined with crossover analysis.

      Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that fried food intake (OR=1.637, 95% CI: 1.127 2.378; p=0.010), dessert intake (OR=1.733, 95% CI: 1.158 2.595; p=0.008), and physical activity (OR=0.511, 95% CI: 0.309 0.846; p=0.009) were risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis. Rs12934922 and rs11646692 reflected high susceptibility to coronary atherosclerosis. Crossover analysis indicated that rs12934922 and rs11646692 interacted with physical activity (Inter-OR=8.82; Inter-OR=3.69), fried food intake (Inter-OR=2.95; Inter-OR=2.36) and dessert intake (Inter-OR=3.95; Inter-OR=2.39) to influence the risk of coronary atherosclerosis.

      Conclusions: In dyslipidemia patients, rs12934922 and rs11646692 may influence the development of coronary atherosclerosis. A combination of BCO1 polymorphisms and several behavioral factors may affect the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Obesity risk and preference for high dietary fat
           intake are determined by FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism in selected
           Indonesian adults
    • Abstract: Daya, Mulianah; Pujianto, Dwi Ari; Witjaksono, Fiastuti; Priliani, Lidwina; Susanto, Jimmy; Lukito, Widjaja; Malik, Safarina G
      Background and Objectives: Data suggest that genetic factors are associated with BMI. The fat mass and obesity- associated (FTO) gene modulates adipogenesis through alternative splicing and m6A demethylation. Individuals with FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism have a preference for energy-dense foods. This study investigates the relationship between FTO rs9939609 and obesity and preference for dietary fat intake among selected Indonesian adults.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 40 non-obese and 40 obese participants aged 19-59 living in Jakarta were recruited. Body composition measurements included body weight, height, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat mass. Dietary intake was assessed using a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire and food recall over 2 24-h periods. Genetic variation was determined using amplification-refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction.

      Results: The genotype distribution of the FTO gene (rs9939609) was at Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium (p=1) with minor allele frequency=0.19. Individuals with AT/AA genotypes had 3.72 times higher risk of obesity (p=0.009) and 5.98 times higher dietary fat intake (p=0.02) than those with TT genotype. Obese participants with the AT/AA genotypes had 1.40 times higher dietary fat intake than those with the TT genotype (p=0.016).

      Conclusions: These findings suggest that Indonesian adults with AT/AA genotypes of the FTO rs9939609 have higher obesity risks and preferences for high dietary fat intake than those with TT genotype.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue 1 - Combined effect of FTO and MC4R gene polymorphisms on
           obesity in children and adolescents in Northwest China: A case-control
           study
    • Abstract: Yang, Yang; Gao, Xianghui; Tao, Xiujuan; Gao, Qinghan; Zhang, Yuhong; Yang, Jianjun
      Background and Objectives: Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) genes associated with obesity have been identified through Genome-wide Association Studies. However, no multiple loci interaction studies have been conducted in the Chinese population. This study investigated whether the combined effects of FTO and MC4R increase the risk of obesity in children and adolescents living in Northwest China.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 370 subjects (170 overweight/obese and 200 normal BMI subjects according to the Working Group on Obesity in China criteria) were enrolled using the random sampling method. FTO rs9939609 and rs9935401 and MC4R rs12970134 and rs17782313 interactions were analysed through generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction, and logistic regression models were used to calculate the risk of the relationship between genotypes and obesity.

      Results: Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed a significant gene-gene interaction among FTO rs9939609/MC4R rs12970134/MC4R rs17782313, with a score of 10/10 for the cross-validation consistency and 9 for the sign test (p=0.011). A 2.453-fold increased risk of obesity was observed in individuals carrying the genotypes of FTO rs9939609 TA/AA, MC4R rs12970134 GA/AA, and MC4R rs17782313 TC/CC (adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity; 95% CI=1.12-5.37, p=0.025).

      Conclusions: Our results suggested that FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs12970134, and MC4R rs17782313 are strongly associated with obesity. The combined effects were highly significant on obesity in children and adolescents living in Northwest China.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Mar 2019 01:26:16 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The double burden of malnutrition in Association of
           South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries: A comprehensive review of the
           literature
    • Abstract: Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison
      Background and Objectives: The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) - a combination of undernutrition and overnutrition - is a problem faced by many countries. This study aimed to comprehensively review the DBM in ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) countries, including levels (population [including country, city, or any community], household, or individual), types (the type of undernutrition and overweight), and prevalence.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were sourced from four electronic databases, Medline via OvidSP, Scopus, Global Health via OvidSP and Web of Science, from January 1990 until May 2017. We only included studies that reported prevalence of DBM, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals and were available in full text. Studies were formally assessed against a published critical appraisal tool to produce a robust narrative review.

      Results: We included 48 studies in the review from eight countries. No study was found from Singapore or Brunei Darussalam. Most studies were from Indonesia and there was only one study from Lao PDR. There were a range of criteria for anthropometry used in these studies, hence comparison is impossible. DBM happened at community, household, and individual levels, with different types of undernutrition (stunting/ underweight/wasting/thinness) in combination with overweight/obesity. At the household level, DBM ranged from 5.0% in Vietnam to 30.6% in Indonesia.

      Conclusions: ASEAN countries may need to strengthen surveillance using WHO standards to improve the comparability of data, further develop strategies to address under- or overweight issues and investigate potential "double-duty actions" as suggested by the World Health Organization.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Development of a screening tool to detect nutrition
           risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    • Abstract: Haskey, Natasha; Pena-Sanchez, Juan Nicolas; Jones, Jennifer L; Fowler, Sharyle A
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is a known complication of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). We assessed a known screening tool, as well as developed and validated a novel screening tool, to detect nutrition risk in outpatients with IBD.

      Methods and Study Design: The Saskatchewan IBD-Nutrition Risk (SaskIBD-NR Tool) was developed and administered alongside the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Nutrition risk was confirmed by the IBD dietitian (RD) and gastroenterologist (GI). Agreement between screening tools and RD/GI assessment was computed using Cohen's kappa.

      Results: Of the 110 patients screened, 75 (68.2%) patients had Crohn's Disease and 35 (31.8%) ulcerative colitis. Mean BMI was 26.4 kg/m2 (SD=5.8). RD/GI assessment identified 23 patients (20.9%) at nutrition risk. The SaskIBD-NR tool classified 21 (19.1%) at some nutrition risk, while MUST classified 17 (15.5%). The SaskIBD-NR tool had significant agreement with the RD/GI assessment (k 0.83, p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Accuracy of basal metabolic rate estimated by
           predictive equations in Japanese with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Tabata, Shogo; Kinoshita, Norimitsu; Yamada, Satoru; Matsumoto, Hideo
      Background and Objectives: Estimation of energy demand using basal metabolic rate (BMR) is a rational approach for optimizing glycemic control and weight management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we assessed the accuracy of predictive equations in estimating BMR in Japanese patients with T2DM.

      Methods and Study Design: BMR was measured indirectly (BMRm) with a portable gas analyzer in the fasting state in 69 Japanese patients with T2DM. BMR was estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation (BMRhb) and Ganpule equation (BMRg). An original predictive equation (BMRdm) was formulated by stepwise multiple regression analysis using subject age, lean soft tissue mass, fat mass and bone mineral content. Mean differences and 95% limits of agreement between measured and three estimated BMRs were evaluated by Bland-Altman plots. In addition, subjects were divided into three BMI groups (normal, BMI =25; obese, BMI >=30), and the influence of BMI on the error size between measured and estimated BMRs was assessed.

      Results: Between BMRm and the three estimated BMRs (BMRhb, BMRg, and BMRdm), there were small systematic errors with large random errors (mean difference+-2SD ; -32+-365 kcal,26+-405 kcal, and -1.6+-349 kcal, respectively) and significant proportional errors (r=0.42, 0.44, and 0.30, respectively). BMI subgroup analysis revealed that the obese group showed larger random errors and significant proportional errors compared to the overweight and normal weight groups.

      Conclusion: Predictive equations provide unacceptably inaccurate estimates of BMR in Japanese patients with T2DM, particularly in obese individuals.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Risk factors for parenteral nutrition-dependence and
           mortality with the short bowel syndrome: A 10-year retrospective study in
           Thailand
    • Abstract: Lakananurak, Narisorn
      Background and Objectives: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare and life-threatening disease. Few studies have investigated risk factors for parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependence and death in SBS. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for PN-dependence and long-term mortality in SBS.

      Methods and Study Design: This retrospective study reviewed and evaluated children and adults who were diagnosed with SBS at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from October 2005 to January 2015. Age, causes of SBS, length of remnant bowel, type of anastomosis, types of nutrition support, SBS-associated complications, PN-dependence rate, duration of PN-dependence, mortality rate, and causes of death were evaluated.

      Results: Twenty-two adults and 19 children were reviewed. The median follow-up time was 48 months. At the end of follow-up, PNdependence rate was 51.2%. The residual colon ≥50% group had a significantly lower PN-dependence rate, with a hazard ratio of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.14-0.93; p=0.03). The most frequent cause of death was infection, with the highest percentage of mortality occurring within the first 2 years after surgery. The mortality rate was 53.8% and the residual colon >=50% group had a significantly lower mortality rate, with a hazard ratio of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.14- 0.88; p=0.03).

      Conclusions: PN-dependence and death occurred in about half of all patients. Residual colon >=50% was significantly associated with lower death rate and PN-dependence. The crucial role of colon in continuity as a protective factor should be investigated further in prospective studies.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Determinants and nutritional assessment value of hand
           grip strength in patients hospitalized with cancer
    • Abstract: Hu, Chun-Lei; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Kai-tao; Yu, Hong-lan; Shi, Ying-ying; Yang, Jia-jun; Li, Wei; Jiang, Hai-ping; Li, Zeng-ning; Xu, Hong-Xia; Ba, Yi; Wang, Kun-Hua; Li, Su-Yi; Shi, Han-Ping
      Background and Objectives: Hand grip strength (HGS) has emerged as a predictor of the nutritional status. However, many factors may modify the malnutrition-HGS association. This study explored the nutritional assessment value and determinants of HGS in patients hospitalized with cancer.

      Methods and Study Design: In this multicenter, retrospective, observational study (11,314 patients), the Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to observe HGS and nutritional status sensitivity/specificity. Sex; age; height; weight; mid-upper arm circumference (MAMC); Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) score; Karnofsky score; physical function (PF) domain; cognitive function (CF) domain; global health and quality of life (QL) domain of EORTC QLQ-C30 (a quality of life instrument designed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer); and albumin, prealbumin, and hemoglobin levels were included in a Stepwise analysis model to identify the factors influencing HGS.

      Results: HGS showed a very low diagnostic value and accuracy for identifying severe malnourishment (area under the curve, 0.615-0.640; p˂0.01). HGS positively correlated with sex; height; weight; MAMC; Karnofsky score; QL, PF, and CF domains; and hemoglobin and prealbumin levels (Beta= 0.02-0.42, p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in
           chronic stable angina on serum biomarkers of oxidative stress,
           inflammation and lipid profile
    • Abstract: Javid, Ahmad Zare; Haybar, Habib; Dehghan, Parvin; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Mohaghegh, Seyede Marjan; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh
      Background and Objectives: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Chronic stable angina (CSA) is the primary sign of CAD. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a substantial role in patho-genesis and progression of CAD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of powdered Melissa officinalis (MO) on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid profile in patients with CSA.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was per-formed in 80 patients with CSA. The subjects were randomly assigned to obtaineither oral MO 3 g/d (n=40) or placebo (n=40) for eight weeks. Anthropometric indices, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid profile were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention.

      Results: The mean serum concentrations of triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), and high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) were lower in the intervention group compared with placebo (p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Effect of ascorbic acid rich, micro-nutrient fortified
           supplement on the iron bioavailability of ferric pyrophosphate from a milk
           based beverage in Indian school children
    • Abstract: Pauline, Maria; Verghese, Sejil T; Srinivasu, Bindu Y; Bose, Beena; Thomas, Tinku; Mandal, Amit K; Thankachan, Prashanth; Kurpad, Anura V
      Background and Objectives: Nutritional anemia is a significant public health issue with 50-80% prevalence in Indian children. Fortification of food, specifically milk, with iron is a potential approach to increase dietary iron intake. Ferric pyrophosphate [Fe4(P2O7)3] is organoleptically neutral and is less soluble in acid medium and, further, has low bioavailability in milk. However, since ascorbic acid is a potent enhancer of iron absorption, the coadministration of ascorbic acid with Fe4(P2O7)3 might enhance the absorption of iron. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from a Fe4(P2O7)3 and an ascorbic acid fortified milk beverage with respect to milk fortified with Fe4(P2O7)3 alone.

      Methods and Study Design: A double-blind, two-way crossover, randomized study was conducted in 25 mildly anemic children. The test group received milk fortified with beverage powder containing 7 mg isotopically labeled iron (57Fe/58Fe) as Fe4(P2O7)3, equimolar proportions of ascorbic acid and 200 mg of calcium whereas control group received milk fortified with energy, calcium and iron equivalent beverage powder. Fractional iron absorption was measured by erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes of iron (57Fe/58Fe) in both the groups.

      Results: The fractional iron absorption from the control drink was 0.80% (95% CI: 0.57, 1.12). Fortifying the milk with an equimolar amount of ascorbic acid increased the fractional iron absorption almost 2-fold to 1.58% (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22).

      Conclusions: The presence of ascorbic acid in an equimolar ratio with that of iron from Fe4(P2O7)3 salt in milk as a fortificant enhanced iron absorption when compared to milk fortified with only Fe4(P2O7)3.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Supplementation with 'trans' fatty acid at 1% energy
           did not increase serum cholesterol irrespective of the obesity-related
           genotypes in healthy adult Japanese
    • Abstract: Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Futatsuya, Chiaki; Miki, Akari; Tabuchi, Eiichi; Sugano, Michihiro
      Background and Objectives: The excessive intake of trans fatty acids increases serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and reduces high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. We studied the effects of 1% energy 'trans' fatty acid supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in healthy adult Japanese with different obesity-related gene polymorphisms.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial was conducted in 53 healthy adults. The volunteers consumed one cookie containing either 1% energy or
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Effect of a daily snack containing green leafy
           vegetables on women's fatty acid status: A randomized controlled trial in
           Mumbai, India
    • Abstract: Chopra, Harsha V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Sahariah, Sirazul A; Sane, Harshad N; Cox, Vanessa A; Tarwade, Dnyaneshwar V; Margetts, Barrie M; Potdar, Ramesh D; Fall, Caroline H D; Joshi, Sadhana R
      Background and Objectives: There are few data on the fatty acid status of non-pregnant Indian women. Our objective was to investigate the effect of a snack containing green leafy vegetables (GLVs) on women's erythrocyte long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status (LCPUFA).

      Methods and Study Design: Non-pregnant women (n=222) aged 14-35 years from Mumbai slums were randomized to consume a snack containing GLVs, fruit and milk (treatment) or a control snack containing foods of low micronutrient content such as potato and onion, daily under observation. One treatment snack contained a mean (SD) of 54.1 (33.7) mg alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and one control snack contained 4.1 (3.4) mg ALA. Blood was collected at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks of supplementation. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography and expressed as g/100g fatty acids. Plasma malondialdehyde, homocysteine, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. The effect of the treatment on 12 week LCPUFA was assessed using ANCOVA models.

      Results: Median (IQR) erythrocyte DHA in the treatment group increased from 1.50 (1.11, 2.03) at baseline to 1.86 (1.50, 2.43) (p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Comparison of effectiveness, safety, and costs of
           standardized and customized parenteral nutrition support among gastric
           cancer patients after gastrectomy: A retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yan Xia; Liu, Xin Yue; Li, Hai Long; Mei, Dan
      Background and Objectives: To compare the effectiveness, safety, and costs of commercial standardized multi-chamber bag and customized compounded total parenteral nutrition (TPN) among gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 64 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from 2014 to 2016 in a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. Patients were categorized into standardized (s-TPN) and customized TPN (c-TPN) groups based on their TPN order after gastrectomy. Patients were followed up until discharge. The effectiveness measures (body mass index (BMI) and albumin) and safety measures (liver and renal functions and electrolytes) were compared before TPN started and after TPN finished within and between the two groups. The length of hospital stay and costs were compared be-tween the two groups.

      Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in BMI preserva-tion, metabolic complications, the length of hospital stay and costs, except that both total bilirubin (Tbil) and di-rect bilirubin (Dbil) were significantly higher in the s-TPN group than c-TPN (p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Diets for South Asians with diabetes: Recommendations,
           adherence, and outcomes
    • Abstract: Kasturia, Shirin; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K MVenkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Shivashankar, Roopa; Garg, Vandana; Kapoor, Deksha; Mohanasundaram, Anitha; Mohan, Deepa; Kadir, Muhammad M; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mohan, Viswanathan; Jaacks, Lindsay M
      Background and Objectives: To determine how frequently diabetic diets are recommended to individuals with diabetes in South Asia, whether they are followed, and if they are associated with healthier dietary choices and clinical benefits.

      Methods and Study Design: Data are from the Centre for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia Cohort Study. Participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes (n=1849) were divided into four groups based on whether they reported being prescribed and/or were following a diabetic diet. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between these groups and outcomes.

      Results: 53% of participants with self-reported diabetes reported not being prescribed or following a diabetic diet. Among those prescribed and following a diet, mean whole grain consumption was 1.18 times/day and refined grain consumption was 0.75 times/day compared to 0.88 times/day and 1.74 times/day, respectively, among those neither prescribed nor following a diet (both p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Adult serum 25(OH)D3 in Gansu province, northwest
           China: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Liu, Jing; Ma, Wenjuan; Wei, Lianhua; Yang, Yan; Yang, Ruifei; Shao, Feifei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Limin
      Background and Objectives: This analytical cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with metabolic risk factors in the adult population of Gansu Province, China.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 11,157 healthy participants (4,740 men and 6,417 women) were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics and personal habits. We detected 25-hydroxyvitamin D and associated metabolic parameters through electrochemiluminescence immunoassays.

      Results: The prevalence of severe deficiency (=30 ng/mL) among the participants was 17.3%, 64.6%, 11.8%, and 6.3%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in women than in men (82.5% vs 81.1%, p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Processed and ultraprocessed food consumption pattern
           in the Jakarta Individual Food Consumption Survey 2014
    • Abstract: Setyowati, Dyah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Giriwono, Puspo Edi
      Background and Objectives: Dietary patterns are undergoing a major shift worldwide. This study analysed the consumption of processed and ultraprocessed foods in Jakarta and its contribution to the energy and nutrient intake based on the Individual Food Consumption Survey 2014.

      Methods and Study Design: Food consumption data were based on 24-hour dietary recall. Foods were grouped into four food groups: nonprocessed foods, processed ingredients, processed foods, and ultraprocessed foods and subsequently categorised according to the Indonesian Food Category System. Energy and nutrient intake were calculated using Nutrisurvey 2007 software.

      Results: Nonprocessed food, processed ingredient, processed food, and ultraprocessed food consumption contributed to 57.2%, 21.6%, 1.7%, and 19.5% of total weight consumption, respectively. Ultraprocessed foods contributed to 15.7%, 16.7%, 14.2%, 12.6%, 18.4%, and 31.3% of daily energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, sodium, and sucrose intake, respectively, and the respective contributions of nonprocessed foods were 52.2%, 58.7%, 65.8%, 32.6%, 7.9%, and 11.1%; of processed ingredients were 30.0%, 22.7%, 16.4%, 53.6%, 68.9%, and 57.6%; and of processed foods were 2.1%, 2.0%, 3.6%, 1.2%, 4.8%, and 0%. Linear regression analysis between the amount of food consumption and nutrient intake showed that at the same weight consumption, processed ingredients provided a higher intake of energy, fat, sodium, and sucrose than the other food groups.

      Conclusions: Processed and ultraprocessed foods still have a lower contribution to energy and nutrient intake in Jakarta than nonprocessed foods and processed ingredients.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Maternal Iodine dietary supplements and neonatal
           thyroid stimulating hormone in Gippsland, Australia
    • Abstract: Mitchell, Eleanor Katherine Louise; Martin, Julie Christine; D’Amore, Angelo; Francis, Ivan; Savige, Gayle S
      Background and Objectives: Pregnant women are at particular risk of iodine deficiency due to their higher iodine requirements. Iodine is known to be essential for normal growth and brain development, therefore neonatal outcomes in mildly iodine deficient areas, such as Gippsland, are a critical consideration. This study aimed to investigate whether iodine supplementation prevented iodine insufficiency as determined by neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening criteria.

      Methods and Study Design: Gippsland-based women aged >=18 years, in their third trimester of pregnancy, provided self-reported information regarding their iodine supplement use and consent to access their offspring's neonatal TSH screening data. 126 women consented to participate, with 111 women completing all components of this study.

      Results: Only 18.9% of participants followed the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommendation of 150 μg/day iodine supplement, with 42.3% of participants not taking any supplements, or taking supplements with no iodine or insufficient iodine. The remaining women (38.7%) were taking supplements with doses of iodine much higher (200-300 mug) than the NHMRC recommended dose or were taking multiple supplements containing iodine. When correlating iodine intake to their neonates' TSH, no correlation was found. When iodine supplementation usage was categorised as below, equal to, or above NHMRC recommendations there was no significant difference in neonatal TSH.

      Conclusion: This study found that iodine supplementation appeared to prevent maternal iodine insufficiently when measured against neonatal TSH screening criteria.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Iodine deficiency in women of childbearing age: Not
           bread alone'
    • Abstract: Burns, Kharis; Yap, Constance; Mina, Ashraf; Gunton, Jenny E
      Background and Objectives: Iodine deficiency remains a public health concern, particularly in pregnant women and those planning pregnancy because of the risk of impaired fetal neurological development. Following implementation of strategies to improve iodine intake in Australia, there has been minimal investigation into current iodine status. We aimed to characterise iodine status in a population of women of childbearing-age in Australia.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in 97 women of childbearing-age attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary hospital in Sydney. Pregnant and postmenopausal women were excluded. Iodine intake was surveyed via questionnaire. Spot urinary iodine (UI) was concurrently measured. The relationships between UI, dietary intake and use of iodine-containing multivitamins/medications were examined.

      Results: Median UI was 117 ug/L. Forty women (41%) were iodine deficient (UI
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Combined dietary-exercise intervention for gestational
           weight gain and birthweight: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Morison, Paul N; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Lopez-Corrales, Manuel; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo
      Background and Objectives: Excessive gestational weight gain has been associated with higher risk for large for gestational age newborns. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess whether an intensive diet and exercise intervention has an effect in reducing gestational weight gain and large for gestational age newborns.

      Methods and Study Design: The search was conducted on PubMed and Cochrane database. Through PRISMA flow diagram, clinical trials which met the inclusion criteria were selected. Risk of bias, sensitivity analysis, and quality of evidence assessment were conducted using adequate statistical tests, and the quality of evidence was performed by GRADE method. A random-effect model was used to estimate the statistical significance of the meta- analysis.

      Results: Ten clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Using the random-effect model and a sensitivity analysis, it was found that an intensive patient-centered intervention reduced gestational weight gain when compared with standard prenatal care (Z=6.21 (p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The role of familial and sibling factors on abdominal
           adiposity: A study of south Indian urban children
    • Abstract: Kuriyan, Rebecca; Rodgers, Natasha; Thomas, Tinku; Aravind, Jini; Subramanian, SV; Kurpad, Anura V
      Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is increasing in urban India. This study aimed to examine the associations of younger siblings abdominal adiposity with individual, familial and environmental factors, in urban school aged siblings.

      Methods and Study Design: Weight, height and waist circumference of 2906 siblings aged 3-16 years were measured along with details on demographics, diet, lifestyle, behavior and reported parental anthropometrics. Abdominal adiposity was classified as waist circumference above the age and sex specific 75th percentile value. The associations of various factors with abdominal adiposity in the younger siblings were examined through logistic regression analyses.

      Results: Sibling, familial factors and environmental factors had significant associations with abdominal adiposity. The odds of a younger sibling having abdominal adiposity was greatest (OR=3.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.27 to 4.42), when the older sibling had abdominal adiposity, followed by the odds ratio of both parents being overweight (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.99) compared to neither being overweight. The influence of abdominal adiposity of the older sibling was greater when the siblings were of the same sex (OR=3.55, 95% CI: 2.24 to 5.65) than when they were of different sex (OR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.46); the odds ratio being highest when both siblings were males.

      Conclusions: The younger sibling's abdominal adiposity is associated with that of his/her sibling and parental obesity, in addition to other known risk factors in urban south Indian families. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity need to also consider the sibling effect along with the other known factors.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The different effects of prenatal nutrient
           supplementation on neonatal birth weights between urban and rural areas of
           northwest China: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Zhang, Ruo; Li, Chao; Mi, Baibing; Li, Shanshan; Qu, Pengfei; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Danmeng; Bai, Ruhai; Yan, Hong
      Background and Objectives: The results of prenatal nutrient supplementation on birth weight are inconsistent in different areas. This study aimed to investigate whether the effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid and folic acid supplementation on neonatal birth weights differed between urban and rural areas of Northwest China.

      Methods and Study Design: A stratified multistage random sampling method was used to recruit women between the ages of 15 and 49 and their offspring born between 2010 and 2013 from 10 urban areas and 20 rural areas of the Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. Information regarding socio-demographics and prenatal nutrient supplementation status was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and the neonatal birth weights were obtained from the birth certificates. Multilevel models were established separately for the urban and rural areas to assess the effects of prenatal nutrient supplementation on neonatal birth weights.

      Results: The association between prenatal nutrient supplementation and neonatal birth weight was not statistically significant in urban areas. However, in rural areas, prenatal iron plus folic acid and folic acid supplementation increased the mean birth weights by 45.3 g (9.4 to 81.1 g, p=0.014) and 30.9 g (15.6 to 46.1 g, p
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Weight and height faltering in the indigenous children
           (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia during the first 2 years of life
    • Abstract: Yen, Wong Chee; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Adznam, Siti Nur Asyura; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Chin, Yit Siew
      Background and Objectives: Information on the growth status of indigenous children is useful for developing intervention strategies, but the data are limited. This study determined the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five indigenous children (Orang Asli) and tracked the growth status of 'Orang Asli' children aged 0-3 years.

      Methods and Study Design: This study had two phases: a cross-sectional growth study of under-five Orang Asli children (N=304; Phase 1) and a 2-year prospective cohort growth study of 'Orang Asli' children aged 0-3 years (N=214; Phase 2) in the Temerloh district of Pahang, Malaysia. Weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight for- length/height, and body mass index-for-age were determined.

      Results: The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness in under-five 'Orang Asli' children (Phase 1) were 64%, 49%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. In the cohort of 214 children (Phase 2), weight-for-age was initially documented and maintained closely at -1.50 standard deviations (SD) in the first 6 months, but it declined to approximately -2.00 SD at 15 months and remained close to -2.00 SD thereafter. Length/height-for-age declined rapidly to approximately -2.50 SD at 18 months and fluctuated between -2.30 and -2.50 SD thereafter. Weight-for-length/height increased sharply to -0.40 SD at 2-3 months, declined gradually to less than -1.00 SD at 12 months, and plateaued between -1.00 and -1.30 SD thereafter.

      Conclusions: Undernutrition is prevalent among 'Orang Asli' children, with length rather than weight faltering being more pronounced in the first 2 years of life. Identifying the causes of early growth retardation in this population is required to inform future preventive strategies.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Vitamin A nutrition among East Timor refugee children
    • Abstract: Correia, Marcelino; Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Verma, Nitin
      Background and Objectives: Children age 6 to 72 months, living in refugee camps are at increased risk of developing vitamin A deficiency (VAD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Due to poverty, often this population group has limited access to foods containing vitamin A from animal-based food sources and do not commonly consume available foods containing beta-carotene. To date, there is a paucity of data on vitamin A intake in young refugee children. To determine vitamin A intake in children ages 6 to 72 months at refugee camps in East Timor.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out among children ages 6 to 72 months at refugee camps near Dili, East Timor. A detailed vitamin A intake questionnaire was ascertained from the primary caretaker, and the criteria and indicator cut off values suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) were used to classify the populations' vitamin A risk.

      Results: Although animal sources of vitamin A were limited due to costs, all 89 children commonly consumed fruit containing vitamin A sources more than 3 times a week. Most children (69.7%) had been breast fed regularly, while 30.3% combined with bottle milk. 80.9% of children received vitamin A supplementation.

      Conclusion: Children in East Timor refugee camps have adequate vitamin A intake.

      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 10:44:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue Supplement 1 - Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) as
           determinant and environment as modulator of infant mortality and
           morbidity: The Tanjungsari Cohort Study in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Alisjahbana, Bachti; Rivami, Dwi Savitri; Octavia, Lestari; Susilawati, Nopi; Pangaribuan, Mathilda; Alisjahbana, Anna; Diana, Aly
      Background and Objectives: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is related to mortality and morbidity. However, defining IUGR by suitable field methods remains a challenge. A maternal-child Risk-Approach- Strategy (during 1988-1989) and follow-on Tanjungsari Cohort Study (TCS) (1989-1990), aimed to generate a practical classification of IUGR and explore its usage in predicting growth, mortality and morbidity of infants in the cohort.

      Study Design: Some 3892 singleton live-birth infants were followed. IUGR was defined by birth weight (BW) and length (BL) classified as: acute, chronic, non-IUGR or 'probably preterm'. Growth, mortality, and survival curve were calculated to prove that the classification identified the most vulnerable infants. Fever >3 days and diarrhoea were assessed based on IUGR classification, sex, exclusive breastfeeding, and environmental factors.

      Results: IUGR infant weight and length did not catch-up with the non-IUGR in the first year. Infant mortality rate was 44.7 per 1000 where some 61% died within 90 days. Using age specific mortality by BW, 23.6% of all deaths occurred when it was
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 22:51:15 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue Supplement 1 - Maternal contributors to intergenerational
           nutrition, health, and well-being: Revisiting the Tanjungsari Cohort Study
           for effective policy and action in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Lukito, Widjaja; Wibowo, Lindawati; Wahlqvist, Mark L
      Perinatal and maternal mortalities in Java became of concern in the 1980s. Since some 90% of births took place at home, the Tanjungsari (TS) district of West Java was identfied as a locality where community-based risk management strategy might reduce this health burden. In 1987, traditional birth attendants (TBA) were trained to identify risk factors for unfavourable birth outcomes.From January 1st 1988 to December 1989 , some 4,000 pregnant women in TS were followed and assigned either a trained or untrained TBA. In the first year, early neonatal, and maternal mortality rates (MMR) (32.9 per 1000 and 170 per 100,000 deliveries respectively) were reduced, but not sustained in the second year. Nationally, MMR was 446 in 2009 and 126 in 2015). Although possible to improve health worker performance, and community engagement, the most likely explanation for benefit attrition is that people and material resources 'downstream' of the TBA services were inadequate. Three decades later, Indonesian neonatal and maternal mortality rates of 14 per 1000 and 126 per 100,000 live births in 2015 (globally 16.2 in 2009 and 216 in 2015) according to UNICEF, still demanded improvement, despite more hospital-based births.The original 1988 cohort of women , their children and grandchildren, can now be interrogated for medium to long term health outcomes of nutritional, such as birth weight and growth, and other risk factors.The evolving TS cohort health and nutrition intermediates and endpoints are instructive. Maternal and early life factors predict adult energy metabolism and cognitive function.

      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 22:51:15 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue Supplement 1 - Maternal and environmental risk for
           faltered growth in the first 5 years for Tanjungsari children in West
           Java, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Sofiatin, Yulia; Pusparani, Asterlila; Judistiani, Tina Dewi; Rahmalia, Annisa; Diana, Aly; Alisjahbana, Anna
      Background and Objectives: Low birth weight leads to growth faltering, attributable inter alia to malnutrition and maternal health and literacy. Risk for growth faltering in rural children under five is studied.

      Study Design: The Risk Approach Strategy in Tanjungsari, West Java has been analysed for all pregnancies during 1988-1989 and 4,698 singleton infants born between 1 January 1988 and 31 April 1990. Weight and body length/height measurements were repeated over 60 months, and plotted against WHO standards. Weight-for-age and height-forage z-scores were calculated using 2006 WHO growth as reference. The correlation between shortness (so-called stunting) and its presumptive risk factors was determined. A subset underwent DNA analysis for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) polymorphism.

      Results: Weight and body length/height follow-ups were followed-up for 3795 infants; 14.2% of the cohort had low birth weight (
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 22:51:15 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue Supplement 1 - Determinants of adolescent shortness in
           Tanjungsari, West Java, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Sasongko, Elsa Pudji Sasongko; Ariyanto, Eko Fuji; Indraswari, Noormarina; Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Alisjahbana, Anna
      Background and Objectives: Health status during adolescence may predetermine that during adulthood. Being short because of nutritional and health adversity, where stunting is indicative, is a global health concern, possibly in adolescence. This study assessed the prevalence of shortness (defined by HAZ
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 22:51:15 GMT
       
  • Volume 28 Issue Supplement 1 - Optimisation of birth weight and growth in
           the first 2 years favours an adult body composition which supports more
           physiological resting metabolic rates and cognitive function: Tanjungsari
           Cohort Study (TCS)
    • Abstract: Nugraha, Gaga Irawan; Ong, Paulus Anam; Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Karyadi, Sri Hartini KS; Alisjahbana, Anna
      Background and Objectives: Resting metabolic rate and cognitive function may be associated with several factors, such as birth weight, growth, and fat-free mass in adulthood. The Tanjungsari Cohort Study (TCS) of 1988, to do with a maternal-child Risk Approach Strategy (RAS), provided the opportunity to determine the associations between birth weight, growth at 2 years, and body composition with adult resting metabolic rate and cognitive function.

      Methods and Study Design: In 2009 some 197 and, in 2017,144 of these representative participants from the TCS were assessed for energy intake, anthropometry, body composition, indirect calorimetry, and cognitive function in relation to low (ALBW, n=66) or normal (ANBW, n=78) birth weight. Associations were adjusted for basic demographic data.

      Results: Resting metabolic rate was positively associated with birth weight, body weight at 2 years of age, body mass index and fat free mass in adult life. Time to finish the Trail Making Test-A (TMT-A), a test of attention span, was significantly longer in the ALBW than the ANBW group (41.4+-12.8 vs 37.8+-15.6, p=0.005). In the ALBW group, weight catch-up improved TMT-A and logical memory test scores (29.5 vs 34.9.41, 'p'=0.004; and 39.3 vs 29.4, 'p'=0.04, respectively).

      Conclusions: Low birth weight was associated with poorer attention span in adult life; body weight gain at 2 years of age with better attention and memory function in adult life; a greater body mass index in adult life with better memory in adult life.

      PubDate: Mon, 18 Feb 2019 22:51:15 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Association between "solute carrier family 30 member
           8" (SLC30A8) gene polymorphism and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes
           mellitus in Chinese Han and minority populations: An updated meta-analysis
           
    • Abstract: Wang, Yan; Duan, Leizhen; Yu, Songcheng; Liu, Xinxin; Han, Han; Wang, Jun; Li, Wenjie
      Background and Objectives: In China, some studies have been reported that solute carrier family 30 member 8 (SLC30A8) gene polymorphism might increase the risk of T2DM, but some are not. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically investigate the association between the rs13266634 polymorphism of the SLC30A8 gene and T2DM in Chinese Han and ethnic minority populations.

      Methods and Study Design: All published electronic articles were retrieved from Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang database, VIP database and Google scholar. Pooled OR and 95% CI were calculated using random- or fixed-effects models.

      Results: Twenty-five articles involving 62,285 subjects were included in this metaanalysis. Considering the total population, significant associations between the rs13266634 polymorphism and T2DM were observed under the allele model (C vs T: OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.18-1.29), the additive models ( CC vs TT: OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.32-1.56; CC vs CT: OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.02-1.15; CT vs TT: OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.15- 1.37), the dominant model (CC vs CT+TT: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.17-1.32) and the recessive model (CC+CT vs TT: OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.16-1.35). Based on subgroup analysis, besides the CC vs CT model, these associations were stronger in the ethnic minority groups than in the Han population. Moreover, no association was observed under the CC vs CT model (OR=1.26, 95% CI=0.95-1.66, p=0.105) in ethnic minority groups.

      Conclusions: Chinese C allele carriers could have an increased risk of T2DM. Well-designed future studies should be conducted with a larger sample size to better understand this association in ethnic minority groups.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Subclinical thyroid disease and single nucleotide
           polymorphisms in reproductive-age women in areas of Shanxi Province,
           China, where iodine exposure is excessive
    • Abstract: Su, Chang; Yu, Tianlong; Zhao, Rencheng; Wang, Yunan; Jia, Haihan; Jing, Miao; Liu, Peng
      Background and Objectives: When iodine intake is in excess, a susceptible population that has a genetic predisposition will have an increased risk of hypothyroidism or autoimmune thyroiditis. This study evaluated the vulnerability to iodine excess and subclinical thyroid disease through screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in reproductive-age women to provide evidence to be used for the prevention of subclinical thyroid disease.

      Methods and Study Design: In Shanxi province, four areas where a range of iodine exposures from low to high were chosen in each region, 60 women were anticipated to enrol, including 20 pregnant women, 20 lactating women, and 20 non-pregnant, non-lactating women. Genotyping was performed using whole-blood samples, and the genotypes of 21 SNPs were determined and compared among areas with different water iodine and between controls and patients with subclinical thyroid disease.

      Results: In total, 241 participants were enrolled. Among the 21 candidate SNPs, no difference was found among areas with various water iodine, whereas, TG (rs2252696), TSHR (rs4903957), CTLA-4 (rs231775), CAPZB (rs1472565), PDE4D (rs27178), and HLA (rs2517532) were significantly associated with various subclinical thyroid diseases; in particular, the PDE4D (rs27178), ad hoc TT allele, was associated with all examined subclinical thyroid diseases.

      Conclusions: Vulnerability to subclinical thyroid diseases is influenced by the presence of gene polymorphisms. There is a need for screening of suspected genes to effectively prevent and reduce the occurrence of thyroid diseases. People with the TT allele in PDE4D (rs27178) should be made aware of an increased risk of subclinical thyroid disease.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Availability and price of healthier food choices and
           association with obesity prevalence in New Zealand Maori
    • Abstract: Jani, Rati; Rush, Elaine; Crook, Nic; Simmons, David
      Background and Objectives: Examine availability and price of healthier foods-vs-regular counterparts and their association with obesity.

      /Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional survey of weight and height among Maori in 2 urban and 96 rural areas in the Waikato/Lakes Districts-NZ (year 2004-06) was undertaken. Concurrently, availability of 11 'healthier' food in fast-food-outlets was examined by location (urban vs rural) and median income (high-low). In supermarkets, five-specific 'regular' foods were scored against 'healthier' counterparts (white-vs-wholemeal bread, with-skin-vs-skinless chicken, regular-vs-trim meat, standard-vs-trim milk, sugars weetened- beverages vs-water) for in-store availability and price according to the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

      Results: Overall, 3,817 Maori (BMI: women: 32.9+-7.8 kg/m2; men: 33.1+-6.7 kg/m2) were included with 451 food-outlets in two urban-clusters and 698 food-outlets in 96 rural-clusters. Fast-foods: The availability of healthier food choices was higher for 8/11 items in rural and low-income areas than urban and high-income areas. Multivariate analysis considered location and income as cofactors. No association between number of fast-food-outlets/cluster and healthier foods/cluster with obesity prevalence (General/Maori BMI cutoffs) was observed. Supermarkets: Water was cheaper than sugar-sweetened-beverages and negatively associated with obesity prevalence (General r=-0.53, p=0.03; Maori r=-0.53, p=0.03); high availability scores for trim milk compared to standard milk correlated with higher obesity prevalence (General r=0.49, p=0.04; Maori r=0.57, p=0.01).

      Conclusions: Bottled water vs sugar-sweetened-beverages prices were inversely associated with obesity. This supports the argument to regulate the availability and price of sugar-sweetened-beverages in NZ. The positive association of the availability of trim milk with the prevalence of obesity warrants investigation into individual's dietary and food-purchase behaviour.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Dietary factors and risk of gout and hyperuricemia: A
           meta-analysis and systematic review
    • Abstract: Li, Rongrong; Yu, Kang; Li, Chunwei
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the associations of dietary factors and the risk of gout and hyperuricemia.

      Methods and Study Design: PubMed and Embase databases were searched from inception to June 2017 for eligible studies. Nineteen prospective cohort or cross-sectional studies with adequate sample sizes are included, all involving red meat, seafoods, alcohol, fructose, dairy products, soy foods, high-purine vegetables and coffee.

      Results: Meta-analysis revealed several dietary associations with gout risk: red meat: OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.16-1.44); seafoods: OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.01-1.68); alcohol: OR 2.58 (95% CI 1.81-3.66); fructose: OR 2.14 (95% CI 1.65- 2.78); dairy products: OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.44-0.70); soy foods: OR 0.85 (95% CI 0.76-0.96); high-purine vegetables: OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.75-0.98); coffee: OR 0.47 (95% CI 0.37-0.59).Dietary association with hyperuricemia risk (red meat: OR 1.24 (95% CI 1.04-1.48); seafoods: OR 1.47 (95% CI 1.16-1.86); alcohol: OR 2.06 (95% CI 1.60-2.67); fructose: OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.66-2.07); dairy products: OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.37-0.66); soy foods: OR 0.70 (95% CI 0.56-0.88); high-purine vegetables ingestion: OR 1.10 (95% CI 0.88-1.39), P=0.39; coffee:OR0.76 in men (95% CI 0.55-1.06), OR 1.58 in women (95% CI 1.16-2.16).

      Conclusion: The risk of hyperuricemia and gout is positively correlated with the intake of red meat, seafoods, alcohol or fructose, and negatively with dairy products or soy foods. High-purine vegetables showed no association with hyperuricemia, but negative association with gout. Coffee intake is negatively associated with gout risk, whereas it may be associated with increased hyperuricemia risk in women but decreased risk in men.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Association of dietary patterns and dietary diversity
           with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adults in South Asia: The
           CARRS study
    • Abstract: Kapoor, Deksha; Iqbal, Romaina; Singh, Kalpana; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Shivashankar, Roopa; Sudha, Vasudevan; Anjana, RM; Kadir, Masood; Mohan, Viswanathan; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M V; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Merchant, Anwar T
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the association of dietary patterns and dietary diversity with cardiometabolic disease risk factors among South Asians.

      Methods and Study Design: In a population based study conducted in 2010-11, we recruited 16,287 adults aged >20 years residing in Delhi, Chennai, and Karachi. Diet was assessed using an interviewer-administered 26-item food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis identified three dietary patterns: Prudent, Indian, and Non-Vegetarian. We also computed a dietary diversity score. Multinomial and binary logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted prevalence (95% confidence intervals) of cardio-metabolic disease risk factors across quartiles of dietary pattern and dietary diversity scores.

      Results: The adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was lower among participants in the highest versus lowest quartile of the Prudent Pattern (4.7% [3.8-5.6] versus 10.3% [8.5-12.0]), and the Indian Pattern (4.8% [3.7-5.9] versus 8.7% [6.7-10.6] in highest versus lowest quartile, respectively). Participants following the Indian Pattern also had lower adjusted prevalence of diagnosed hypertension (7.0% [5.4-8.5] versus 10.6% [8.6-12.5] in highest versus lowest quartile, respectively). Participants in the highest versus lowest quartile of the dietary diversity score had a lower adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes (4.1% [3.0-5.2] versus 8.2% [7.1-9.3]), diagnosed hypertension (6.7% [5.3-8.1] versus 10.3% [9.1-11.5]), and undiagnosed hypertension (14.2% [12.0-16.4] versus 18.5% [16.9-20.1]).

      Conclusions: High dietary diversity appears to be protective against cardio-metabolic disease risk factors in this urban cohort of South Asian adults. Further investigation to understand the underlying mechanism of this observation is warranted.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Dietary and nutrient status of children with
           attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder: A case-control study
    • Abstract: Chou, Wen-Jiun; Lee, Ming-Fen; Hou, Mei-Lin; Hsiao, Lien-Shu; Lee, Min-Jing; Chou, Miao-Chun; Wang, Liang-Jen
      Background and Objectives: Nutritional and dietary habits may affect children's behaviors and learning. The etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, may be associated with unhealthy diets or nutrients deficiencies. The purpose of this study was to examine whether children with ADHD exhibited different dietary habits or nutrient profiles from healthy control subjects.

      Methods and Study Design: We recruited 42 patients with ADHD (mean age: 8.1 years) and 36 healthy children as the control group (mean age: 9.8 years). We adopted the ADHD Rating Scale and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Version IV Scale to interview both the ADHD patients and the control subjects and then evaluated participants' dietary intake with a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were utilized to produce a composite dietary/nutrient score, while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was adopted to differentiate between the two participant groups.

      Results: Compared to the control children, children with ADHD demonstrated a higher intake proportion of refined grains (p=0.026) and a lower proportion of dairy (p=0.013), calcium (p=0.043), and vitamin B-2 (p=0.024). We observed that the composite score of dietary and nutrient could significantly distinguish patients with ADHD from healthy controls (p
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - The relationship between dietary inflammatory index
           (DII) and muscle mass and strength in Chinese children aged 6-9 years
    • Abstract: Amakye, William Kwame; Zhang, Zheqing; Wei, Yuanhuan; Shivappa, Nitin; Hebert, James R; Wang, Jue; Su, Yixiang; Mao, Limei
      Background and Objectives: The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a measure of the overall inflammatory potential of a person's diet. However, there have been no studies looking at the effect of DII on measures of muscle mass and strength. We aimed to examine the association between DII and skeletal muscle mass and strength in Chinese children.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 466 children aged 6-9 years completed the study. Total body skeletal muscle mass (TSM), appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were determined using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. TSM/Height , TSM/Weight, ASM/Height and ASM/Weight were calculated. The residual method was applied to compute ALM index (ALMI) adjusted for height and body fat. Hand grip strength was measured using hand dynamometer. DII scores were calculated from a 79-item food frequency questionnaire.

      Results: Fully adjusted linear regression models showed a statistically significant negative relationship between DII and ASM, ASM/Height , ASM/Weight, ALMI, TSM, TSM/Height , and TSM/Weight (p: 0.019-0.014). The analysis of covariance indicated that the percentage differences in the extreme quartiles (Q4 vs Q1) of DII for the above-mentioned measures ranged from -1.04% to - 4.36% (p-trend:
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Weight status and food habits of preschool children in
           Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: NOPLAS project
    • Abstract: Garemo, Malin; Elamin, Amal; Gardner, Andrew
      Background and Objectives: Eating habits established during childhood affect health in later life. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and adults; however, data on the health of preschool children are scarce. This study assessed the weight status and dietary habits of Emirati and non-Emirati children attending nurseries in Abu Dhabi, UAE.

      Methods and Study Design: Weight and height were measured in children aged 18 months-4 years. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were calculated based on WHO protocols. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding demographics and food frequency.

      Results: A total of 203 children participated. Abnormal anthropometric status (z scores of 2) for WAZ was indicated in 12.8% of Emirati children versus 1.4% of non-Emirati children (p=0.008) and for BAZ in 19.9% of Emirati children versus 8.4% of non-Emirati children (p
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Longitudinal study of breastfeeding and growth in 0-6
           month infants
    • Abstract: Jia, NI; Gu, Guixiong; Zhao, Lu; He, Shousen; Xiong, Fei; Chai, Yuli; Quan, Li; Hou, Haiou; Dai, Yaohua
      Background and Objectives: To explore advantages and challenges for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), compared to non-exclusive breastfeeding (nEBF).

      Methods and Study Design: Mothers from 7 cities in China were visited at 3, 10, 60, 120, and 180 days postpartum. Data about feeding practices, infant growth, and the macronutrient contents of human milk (HM) were collected.

      Results: 130 lactating mothers attended 5 visits. 59 mothers (45.4%) exclusively breastfed infants for 0-4 month. Frequencies of breastfeeding per day were higher in the EBF group than the nEBF group at day 3, 10, 120 and 180, and were less than 8 times per day in the nEBF group. For Weight-for-age z scores, there were no differences between the two groups. Length-for-age z score was greater in the nEBF group at day 180 (0.74+-1.05 vs 0.33+-1.28). Weight-for-length z scores were greater in the EBF group at day 120 and 180 (day 120: 0.88+-1.08 vs 0.36+-1.1, day 180: 1.1+-0.94 vs 0.54+-1.07). The average protein and lactose contents of HM in the nEBF group were higher than in the EBF group at day 10.

      Conclusions: For nEBF infants, intake of formula replaced intake of breastmilk, due to lack of breastfeeding frequency, which did not bring weight gain for nEBF infants. During the introduction of complementary foods, EBF infants needed complementary nutrients to support growth. Therefore, lactating mothers may need to provide appropriate complementary feeding and maternal leave extension to attend to their infant's nutritional requirements. The criteria for linear growth may also need to be more commensurate with breastfeeding and relevant to later health outcomes.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Soy product and isoflavone intake associations with
           allergic diseases in Japanese workers: Rhinitis, dermatitis and asthma
    • Abstract: Nakamoto, Mariko; Shuto, Emi; Nakamoto, Akiko; Hata, Akiko; Aki, Nanako; Shikama, Yosuke; Bando, Yukiko; Ichihara, Takako; Minagawa, Takako; Tamura, Ayako; Kuwamura, Yumi; Funaki, Makoto; Sakai, Tohru
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the associations of intake of soy products and isoflavones with allergic diseases.

      Methods and Study Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1437 participants (aged 20-64 years) who were living in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan during the period 2010-2011. We obtained anthropometric data and information on life style characteristics including dietary intake and current medical histories of allergic diseases using a structural self-administered questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of soy products and isoflavones with allergic diseases after controlling for age, family history of allergic diseases, smoking, drinking, physical activity, energy intake, BMI and dietary factors.

      Results: Intake of soy products showed significant inverse dose-response relationships with allergic rhinitis. The third quartile for soy products had an adjusted OR of 0.56 (95% CI: 0.35-0.91) compared to the reference group (first quartile), though intake of soy products showed no dose-response relationship with atopic dermatitis. Intake of soy isoflavones showed a significant inverse dose-response relationship with atopic dermatitis, though the association between intake of soy isoflavones and atopic dermatitis was U-shaped after adjustments for potential confounders. On the other hand, the associations between intake of soy isoflavones and other allergic diseases were not significant.

      Conclusions: The results indicate that higher intake of soy products is associated with reduced risk of allergic rhinitis in Japanese workers. Furthermore, moderate intake amounts of soy products and soy isoflavones are associated with inverse risk of atopic dermatitis.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Association between vitamin C intake and risk of
           hyperuricemia in US adults
    • Abstract: Sun, Yongye; Sun, Jianping; Wang, Jianxun; Gao, Tianlin; Zhang, Huaqi; Ma, Aiguo
      Background and Objectives: The relationship between vitamin C intake and hyperuricemia among the general US adult population has seldom been reported; thus, the present study examined the associations of total vitamin C (dietary vitamin C plus supplementary vitamin C) and dietary vitamin C intake with the risk of hyperuricemia.

      Methods and Study Design: Pooled data from three 2-year cycles (2007-2012) of the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in the present study. Dietary intake data were extracted from two 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Logistic regression models were used to determine the associations between vitamin C intake and hyperuricemia risk.

      Results: A total of 14885 adults aged 20 years or older (7269 men and 7616 women) were registered in the present study. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 19.1%. Based on the lowest quartile of dietary vitamin C intake, multivariate adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of hyperuricemia for quartiles 2-4 were 0.84 (0.74-0.95), 0.83 (0.73-0.94), and 0.72 (0.63-0.82), and those for total vitamin C intake were 0.87 (0.77-0.99), 0.85 (0.75-0.96), and 0.66 (0.58-0.76). Inverse associations between vitamin C intake and hyperuricemia were discovered in both men and women, even with or without covariate adjustments.

      Conclusions: Total vitamin C and dietary vitamin C intake are inversely associated with hyperuricemia in the general US adult population.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - The association between blood concentration of
           25-hydroxyvitamin D and sarcopenia: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Luo, Jing; Quan, Zhenyu; Lin, Song; Cui, Lianhua
      Background and Objectives: Associations between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and sarcopenia remain controversial; thus, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between blood 25(OH)D concentration and sarcopenia.

      Design: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for relevant published observational studies that investigated blood 25(OH)D concentration and sarcopenia up to June 2017. We then investigated data from these studies that compared blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the sarcopenia and healthy control groups. A random-effect model was used to calculate the pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentration with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

      Results: Twelve studies (eight cross-sectional, two matched case-control, and two prospective cohort studies) with a total of 22,590 individuals were included. Sarcopenic individuals had lower blood 25(OH)D concentrations than healthy controls (WMD= -2.14, 95% CI: -2.81 - -1.48; I2=74.6%). Subgroup analysis showed that the methods of assessing both blood 25(OH)D concentrations and sarcopenia might be sources of heterogeneity, and further showed that studies excluding obese individuals and different sarcopenia assessment criteria enhanced the relationship. Sensitivity analysis by one-study-removed confirmed the robustness of these results.

      Conclusions: Our study shows that sarcopenic adults have lower blood 25(OH)D concentrations. Further high-quality large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Oral administration of probiotic 'Lactobacillus casei
           Shirota' relieves pain after single rib fracture: A randomized
           double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial
    • Abstract: Lei, Min; Guo, Chunhua; Wang, Yong; Hua, Limei; Xue, Sujuan; Yu, Dan; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Dawei
      Background and Objectives: Probiotic treatment has proven to increase the density of bone mass, prevent against bone loss, and improve bone formation. We aimed to assess the effect of oral administration of the probiotic 'Lactobacillus casei Shirota' (LcS) on pain relief in patients with single rib fracture.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 283 eligible patients who had a single rib fracture were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive skimmed milk containing either a commercial probiotic LcS or placebo every day through oral administration for 1 month after the fracture. The pain relief effect was assessed during activities that elicited pain; meanwhile, sleep quality and sustained maximal inspiration (SMI) lung volumes were monitored.

      Results: Patients in the LcS group had more effective pain relief than those in the placebo group during deep breathing, coughing and turning over the body. Between the two groups of patients, increase in SMI lung volume was larger in LcS group patients than that of patients in the placebo group. Sleep quality did not show significant improvements after 1 month LcS treatment.

      Conclusions: In patients with a single rib fracture, oral administration of the probiotic LcS could exhibit alleviating effects on pain intensity.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Effect of a cereal and milk meal with or without
           fruits and nuts on the postprandial glycemic response in Indian men
    • Abstract: Bandyopadhyay, Sulagna; Sinha, Srishti; Selvam, Sumithra; Kurpad, Anura V; Kuriyan, Rebecca
      Background and Objectives: Some cereals, consumed at breakfast, have shown lower glycemic responses. Limited data exist in the Indian context, where the effect could be modified due to genetic or racial differences. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cereal and milk, with or without fruits/nuts, on the glycemic response in healthy Indian men.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized cross-over study was carried out on 16 men (18 - 45 years), with 3 interventions providing equal amounts of glycemic carbohydrate: a glucose drink (Reference), cereal and milk (CM), and cereal, milk, fruits and nuts (CMO), on separate days. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, C-peptide, ghrelin, energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and appetite/satiety were measured repeatedly over 3 hours post meal.

      Results: A significant time effect and time x meal interaction between the meals, higher for the Reference meal, was observed for plasma glucose (p
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Acute effect of soy and soy products on serum uric
           acid concentration among healthy Chinese men
    • Abstract: Zhang, Min; Lin, Ling; Liu, Huaqing
      Background and Objectives: Soy products are essential to the daily life of the Chinese population. However, the association between soy products and serum uric acid remains unclear. Better understanding of their relationship could provide food choice information for patients with gout. This study assessed the acute effects of soy and soy products on serum uric acid.

      Methods and Study Design: Sixty healthy adult male volunteers were recruited and randomly assigned to six groups. Ten participants in each group randomly ingested one of six foods: water, soy, and four different soy products. A blood test was conducted after 3 h to examine uric acid concentration.

      Results: The serum uric acid concentration significantly increased by 21.4+-23.4 mumol/L at 1 h and 16.3+-19.4 mumol/L at 2 h following ingestion of whole soybeans. These changes also applied to the soy powder group. The serum uric acid concentration rapidly increased by 38.1+-20.5 mumol/L at 1 h, 34.4+-18.2 mumol/L at 2 h, and 24.1+-24.2 mumol/L at 3 h after the ingestion of soybean milk. The maximum concentration of serum uric acid was observed at 1 h after intake of soybeans and soy products, and then gradually decreased during the subsequent 2-h period. No significant uric acid changes from ingesting bean curd cake and dried bean curd stick were detected.

      Conclusions: Ingesting different soy products resulted in different concentrations of serum uric acid, with soybeans, soybean milk, and soy powder considerably increasing serum uric acid.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Combined patient-generated subjective global
           assessment and body composition facilitates nutritional support in
           inflammatory bowel disease: An ambulatory study in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Bian, Dongsheng; Shi, Yongmei; Jiang, Yongmei; Zhong, Jie; Sun, Jing; Gu, Yubei
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is commonly diagnosed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, only few clinical studies have adequately explored the importance of body composition in the nutritional assessment of Chinese patients with IBD.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 78 IBD patients were enrolled, and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) was used to assess malnutrition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to analyze the body composition of IBD patients and their fat free mass indexes (FFMI) were also calculated. FFMI values
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Peripherally inserted central catheter-related
           complications in infants with intestinal failure
    • Abstract: Huang, Jianhu; Yu, Qun; Wen, Jie; Yan, Weihui; Lu, Lina; Tao, Yijing; Cai, Wei; Wang, Ying
      Background and Objectives: For delivery of parenteral nutrition (PN), long-term central access is often required in infants with intestinal failure (IF). Compared to central venous catheters (CVCs), peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are less invasive, as they are smaller, and they can even be placed without general anesthesia. In this study, we report the complications of long-term use of PICCs, and compare our results with previously published research.

      Methods and Study Design: We reviewed the infants in the Xin Hua Hospital to determine the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) as well as other complication rates.

      Results: A total of 43 infants diagnosed with intestinal failure and receiving PN through a PICC met the inclusion criteria. There were 66 PICCs accounting for 2563 catheter days, and a total of 29 complications were been recorded. The overall incidence of complications was 11.31 per 1000 catheter days, and the incidence of CRBSI was 5.85 per 1000 catheter days. Gram-positive bacterial species were the most common organisms growing in blood cultures. As for the risk factors, we find that low weight when PICC was inserted was associated with an increased risk of complications as well as low mean weight during the PICC dwelling time.

      Conclusions: We did not find an increased incidence rate of CRBSI in using PICC as an alternative to CVC. Also, as PICCs offer an advantage over CVCs in placing and nursing, we recommended PICCs as the first choice in patients with IF.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Nutrition support in hospitalized cancer patients with
           malnutrition in China
    • Abstract: Li, Zijian; Chen, Wei; Li, Hailong; Zhao, BinChinese Oncology Nutrition Survey Group
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition has adverse impacts on survival of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of malnutrition, and the nutrition support status in hospitalized patients with cancer in China.

      Methods and Study Design: A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 tertiary public hospital wards in 14 Chinese cities. Malnutrition was defined as weight loss (WL) >5% over the past 6 months or body mass index (BMI) 2%. The nutrition risk index (NRI) and performance status (PS) were evaluated.

      Results: 1138 hospitalized cancer patients (93.4% of the initial sample, 662 men, 60.6 14.5 years) were enrolled. Overall, 41.3% of patients were malnourished. The percentage of nutritional disorders as determined by the NRI was 51.4%. PS was 0 in 50.3%, 1 in 15.4%, 2 in 13.9%, and 3 or 4 in 20.4%. Compared with patients with PS of 0-1, patients with PS of 3-4 had a relative risk of malnutrition of 1.275 (95% CI 0.250-0.488, p
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Phosphate binders, appetite and nutritional status in
           maintenance hemodialysis patients
    • Abstract: Beberashvili, Ilia; Baskin, Olga; Azar, Ada; Katkov, Anna; Feldman, Leonid; Gorelik, Oleg; Stav, Kobi; Efrati, Shai
      Background and Objectives: The potential side effects of common phosphate binders are gastrointestinal in practice. We hypothesized that regular use of phosphate binders may be associated with decreased appetite, dietary intake and consequently, poor nutritional status.

      Methods and Study Design: This was cross-sectional study of 78 patients (mean age 67.5+-13.0, 34.6% women) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment. Participants were divided into three equal groups - sevelamer (n=25), lanthanum (n=24) and the control group (n=29). Eating motivation was assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS) and by a self-reported appetite assessment which was graded on a 5-point Likert scale. Main outcome measure was differences in VAS scores for appetite, dietary intake and nutritional status (malnutrition-inflammation score [MIS]) in the study groups.

      Results: Appetite, dietary intake, biochemical nutritional markers, anthropometric measures and MIS were similar in the three groups. A statistically significant difference was observed in sensation of fullness between the groups: multivariable adjusted ORs in the sevelamer carbonate group was 4.90 (95% CI: 1.12 to 21.43), p=0.04 and in the lanthanum carbonate group was 5.18 (95% CI: 1.15 to 23.30), p=0.03 versus the control group. However, no linear association was observed between MIS scores and VAS scores for appetite in any study group.

      Conclusions: Regular use of these phosphate binders was not associated with anorexia, decreased dietary intake and nutritional status in the study population. Therefore, there is no preference in the choice of phosphate binders in MHD patients with hyperphosphatemia, even those who are at nutritional risk.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - A comparison of two malnutrition screening tools in
           acute medical inpatients and validation of a screening tool among adult
           Indigenous Australian patients
    • Abstract: Morris, Natasha F; Stewart, Simon; Riley, Malcom D; Maguire, Graeme P
      Background and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify and validate a screening tool to detect malnutrition among Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian patients.

      Methods and Study Design: This study included medical patients admitted into three regional hospitals in Australia. A literature review was undertaken of current screening tools before the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) and the newly developed Adult Nutrition Tool (ANT) were used to validate a screening tool for use among participants against the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tool. The sensitivity and specificity of both the MST and ANT were determined for all study participants as well as according to participants' Indigenous status.

      Results: A total of 608 participants were enrolled into the study, of whom 271 (44.6%) were Indigenous. The area under the curve (AUC) when utilising ANT was higher in all participants compared to the MST (0.90, 95% CI 0.88-0.92 versus 0.81, 95% CI 0.77-0.84, p
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - The association between lifestyle and maternal vitamin
           D during pregnancy in West Sumatra, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Aji, Arif Sabta; Yerizel, Eti; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawaty
      Background and Objectives: An adequate level of maternal vitamin D is essential for maternal and fetal health during pregnancy. We examined the relationship between lifestyle, maternal vitamin D intake and the vitamin D status of pregnant women.

      Methods and Study designs: The sample of the cross-sectional study was 203 third trimester pregnant women in September-November 2016 in four different districts of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Questionnaire was used to assess lifestyles, dietary intake, anthropometry, maternal characteristics, demography and socioeconomic data. The Vitamin D serum level was measured by the ELISA method and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared tests, Pearson's correlation and logistic regression.

      Results: 160 blood serum samples of pregnant women were collected. The means of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and maternal vitamin D intake were 29.06+-11.39 ng/mL and 7.92+-5.26 μg/day respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency- insufficiency was 61.25%, and more than 85% of the women had inadequate vitamin D intake. We found that living in mountainous areas (p=0.03) and low physical activity (p=0.02) were significantly associated with maternal vitamin D levels as a prediction factor. In addition, younger who had lower pre-pregnancy weight had a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency.

      Conclusions: Low levels of vitamin D were common among pregnant women in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Additional intake of vitamin D from supplements may be important to meet the recommended dietary level for pregnant women.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - The development of a whole-body potassium counter for
           the measurement of body cell mass in adult humans
    • Abstract: Naqvi, Saba; Bhat, Kishor G; Preston, Thomas; Devi, Sarita; Joseph, Jayakumar; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Kurpad, Anura V; Kuriyan, Rebecca
      Background and Objectives: Total body potassium (TBK), has a natural radioactive isotope, which can be measured to derive body cell mass (BCM), making it useful in clinical conditions, early growth and pregnancy. The objective was to build a whole-body potassium counter (WBKC), to accurately measure TBK in the body.

      Methods and Study Design: A WBKC was designed and constructed using a shadow shield. A cellular four compartment (4C) model of fat free mass (FFM), using estimates of TBK along with total body water (TBW), was compared with a molecular 4C model of the body in twenty healthy adults (10 men and 10 women). The molecular 4C model used measurements of TBW, bone mineral content (BMC), and body volume from deuterium dilution (DD), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) respectively.

      Results: The accuracy and precision of the WBKC were 2.8% and 1.9% with TBK phantoms. The mean estimate of FFM by the molecular 4C model was 40.4+-6.8 kg, while it was 41.2+-7.3 kg using the cellular 4C model.

      Conclusions: A WBKC constructed from base principles, was relatively low cost, efficient, safe and noninvasive, but requires some design considerations. Its measurement of FFM compared well with the molecular 4C model. Once constructed, it offers a relatively costless, accurate and repeatable method to measure body composition in conditions with uncertain hydration status, at all life stages.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Malnutrition prevalence in adrenal insufficiency among
           hospitalized elderly patients: Limitations of the body mass index in the
           assessment of malnutrition
    • Abstract: Lee, Shin Young; Lee, Dong Hwa; Jeon, Hyun Jeong
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate malnutrition prevalence and usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in the assessment of malnutrition in hospitalized elderly patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI).

      Methods and Study Design: 318 hospitalized AI patients were diagnosed by a rapid ACTH stimulation test with a history of steroid treatment and compared with 374 control patients. Nutrition was assessed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-SF) and BMI.

      Results: There was no difference in nutritional screening between the AI and control groups. Nutritional assessments indicated that 31.2% of all elderly patients suffered from malnutrition and 33.8% of patients were at risk of malnutrition. Less than half of the patients (34.9%) were identified as well nourished. In this study, 33.6% vs 29.1% of patients were malnourished in the AI and control group, respectively. Overall, prevalence of malnutrition was higher in the AI group than the control group. In the AI group, patients with low basal cortisol had a higher incidence of malnutrition than those with high basal cortisol. The BMI of patients in the AI group was higher than in the control group. According to BMI criteria, 64.3% of malnourished patients were overweight or obese in the AI group.

      Conclusions: Elderly AI patients are prone to develop malnutrition despite being overweight or obese. Therefore, more extensive nutritional assessment of elderly patients with AI is required regardless of BMI.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Energy requirements for ICU burn patients in whom the
           
    • Abstract: Chan, Lin-Chien; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Ou, Yun-Ning; Cheng, Hsiang-Ling; Wang, Chih-Hsin
      Background and Objectives: Energy requirement estimations are crucial for major burn patients' nutrition management. To find a practical equation for patients with burns over >50% of their total body surface area (TBSA) in an intensive care unit (ICU).

      Methods and Study Design: We conducted a six-week follow-up study of 21 ICU burn patients aged 17-28 years (second- and third-degree burns, TBSA: 50-90%) who were prescribed enteral nutritional support. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) was calculated by dividing the actual energy intake by the estimated energy requirement. Linear regression was used to evaluate the stability of each equation and the wound healing rate over time.

      Results: All included patients survived. On the fifth day, among the seven equations used, the ECRs of those dependent on the basal metabolic rate and body weight, namely, 35 kcal/kg BW, BMR 1.5, and the Toronto formula, reached 74%, 71% and 69%, respectively. The ECRs for the abovementioned formulae achieved nutritional support goal sufficiency (0.9-1.1) from the third week. Additionally, with every 1% increase in the Energy Consumption Increase Rate per week, the wound healing rate increased from 0.35% to 0.80% per week. Both the 28 and 35 kcal/kg BW formulas had the smallest regression coefficients (0.46) over 6 weeks.

      Conclusion: The 35 kcal/kg BW equation was suitable for young patients with burns over >50%TBSA in the ICU because it could be applied without equivocation, in time, and with acceptable wound healing rates. Additionally, it was well tolerated and contributed to stable management with feeding simplicity.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 6 - Tackling undernutrition in the Asian healthcare
           setting: A Southeast Asian expert consensus
    • Abstract: Ng, Doris Hui Lan; Albay, Albert; Chew, Samuel Teong Huang; Glencorse, Carole; Pisprasert, Veeradej; Setiati, Siti; Tan, Maw Pin; Claytor, Ling Hui; Inciong, Jesus Fernando; Thu, Nguyen Viet Quynh
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is under-recognized and under-treated in Asia due to resource constraints, lack of awareness and knowledge among healthcare professionals and patients, and lack of standardized procedures for malnutrition management. While international guidelines for the management of malnutrition are available, they may not be easily applicable to the patient population and healthcare settings within Southeast Asia. This paper provides consensus recommendations, developed by the Regional Nutrition Working Group, to foster evidence-based nutritional care in Southeast Asia to improve patient outcomes.

      Methods and Study Design: The group convened and discussed evidence-based recommendations and clinical experiences in the management of malnutrition in hospitalized and community-dwelling adults, and the relevance of oral nutritional supplements in clinical practice. Supported by a literature search from January 2007 - September 2017, consensus statements on key aspects of malnutrition management were developed.

      Results: Malnutrition management should be considered as an integral part of patient care and managed by a multidisciplinary team. Hospitalized patients and outpatients should be screened for risk of malnutrition with validated tools. Nutrition intervention, including oral, enteral, or parenteral nutrition, should be accessible and individualized to all patients who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Education on nutrition care is imperative for healthcare professionals, patients and caregivers.

      Conclusion: These consensus recommendations provide practical guidance to improve nutrition practice within healthcare in Southeast Asia. With collaborative efforts from the clinical community, professional societies and policy makers, this regional effort may also facilitate change in the nutrition practice at the institutional and national level.

      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 14:56:48 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Dietary soybean isoflavones in Alzheimer's disease
           prevention
    • Abstract: Lu, Yanhui; An, Yu; Lv, Chenyan; Ma, Weiwei; Xi, Yuandi; Xiao, Rong
      Soybean isoflavone (SIF) is a type of polyphenol present extensively in legumes. Because of its unique chemical construction and the physiological activity of the phenolic hydroxyl group, SIF exhibits strong antioxidant activity in antioxidant and nonantioxidant enzyme systems. Genistein is the major isoflavone in soy foods, accounting for more than 50% of the isoflavone content. The health effects of soybean dietary isoflavones on humans have gained increased attention. Recent studies have suggested that SIF may alleviate neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the comprehensive research on AD, effective treatments for AD are yet to be established. The early diagnosis and prevention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have become crucial for delaying AD development. Several dietary polyphenols have exerted cognitive effects on AD, and the appropriate intake of dietary SIF helps reduce the risk of AD. This study reviews the possible mechanisms of AD pathogenesis and their relationships with SIF intake; the results provide useful insights for AD prevention in the future.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Nutritional outcomes with radiotherapy for head and
           neck cancer: A before and after comparison of 'best practice guidelines'
           implementation
    • Abstract: Jeffery, Emily; Young, Pascale; Sherriff, Jill
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is prevalent amongst people with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy and can result in reduced tolerance to treatment and increased hospital admissions. Current best practice guidelines recommend weekly dietetic review during radiotherapy and fortnightly review for six weeks following radiotherapy to minimize weight loss. The primary aim of this study was to compare percent weight loss during radiotherapy before and after the implementation of weekly dietetic review. In the post-guideline implementation group we aimed to investigate factors associated with greater weight loss and describe weight changes 4-8 weeks post radiotherapy.

      Methods and Study Design: Adults with head and neck cancer who received dietetic input and curative intent radiotherapy were included. Data were collected via retrospective chart audit of records from the Nutrition and Dietetics department.

      Results: The analysis involved 142 people, 66% (n=94) of whom received dietetic input in the post-guideline implementation period. Mean weight loss was not different between the pre- and post-guideline implementation groups (-5.9 6.34% vs -6.6+-5.29%; p=0.477). In the post-guideline implementation group, advanced tumor stage and concurrent chemoradiation were associated with greater percent weight loss (p=0.006 and p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Serum vitamin D decreases during chemotherapy: An
           Australian prospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Isenring, Elisabeth A; Teleni, Laisa; Woodman, Richard J; Kimlin, Michael G; Walpole, Euan; Karapetis, Christos S; Shawgi, Shawgi; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Marshall, Skye; Koczwara, Bogda
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin D plays an important role in bone and muscle function, and cell proliferation. The impact of chemotherapy and associated behavioural changes such as fatigue and sun avoidance on vitamin D (25(OH) D) is unknown. This study aims to evaluate variations in serum vitamin D during chemotherapy and the predictive value of latitude, season and pre-existing vitamin D deficiency.

      Methods and Study Design: A 12-week prospective cohort study was conducted in chemotherapy-na ve patients in two Australian locations with different sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Fasting leads to fasting: Examining the relationships
           between perioperative fasting times and fasting for symptoms in patients
           undergoing elective abdominal surgery
    • Abstract: Tsang, Erica; Lambert, Eva; Carey, Sharon
      Background and Objectives: A growing body of evidence indicates traditional perioperative care practices of extended fasting and delayed feeding are outdated and detrimental to patient prognosis. This study aimed to explore associations between perioperative fasting, progression to solids and fasting for symptoms; assessing whether excessive pre-operative fasting results in further fasting post-operatively.

      Methods and Study Design: Two hundred patients who underwent elective surgery from March 2015 to June 2015 in upper gastrointestinal, colorectal and urological departments of a major teaching hospital were included in the study. A retrospective medical record audit was conducted to determine patient demographics, clinical data, perioperative fasting times and diet progression.

      Results: Preoperative fasting significantly correlated with time taken to progress to solids (rs(198)=0.180, p=0.011), but not with postoperative fasting. Patients who experienced subsequent fasting episodes for symptom management had a significantly longer postoperative fasting time (Med=25.5 hours +/- 19.7) than those who did not (Med=6.2 hours +/- 38.7, p=0.025). Significant differences in fasting times and diet progression were found based on Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) status, magnitude of surgery, surgical department, and morning versus afternoon operating lists.

      Conclusions: Associations between extended perioperative fasting times, diet progression, and fasting for symptoms exist, such that the adverse effects of suboptimal nutritional status on recovery may be traced back to before the patient even arrives for surgery. Challenges of reducing fasting times may be overcome with repeated training of clinicians with best practice guidelines, and improving postoperative adherence to ERAS protocols.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Safety and benefit of pre-operative oral carbohydrate
           in infants: A multi-center study in China
    • Abstract: Jiang, Weiwei; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Fengli; Huang, Shungen; Yuan, Jie; Shi, Yingzuo; Chen, Huan; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Changgui; Li, Wei; Geng, Qiming; Xu, Xiaoqun; Tang, Weibing
      Background and Objectives: Pre-operative oral carbohydrate administration (POCA) is an important aspect of enhanced recovery after surgery and has many advantages. The objective of this study was to explore the safety and effect of pre-operative oral carbohydrate administration in infants.

      Methods and Study Design: This was a prospective, multi-center, randomized study that randomly assigned 1200 infants into four groups. In the control group (group A), the infants were strictly restricted to 6-h preoperative fasting before anesthesia. In the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) groups (groups B, C, and D), the infants were orally administered a 10% carbohydrate solution (10% glucose water; 5, 10, and 15 mL/kg, respectively) 2 h before anesthesia. Blood glucose, gastric residual volumes, crying ratios, and the length of hospital stay were observed.

      Results: The blood glucose was significantly higher in groups B, C, and D than group A at the time of anesthesia. The gastric residual volume revealed virtually no residue in groups A, B, and C, but 15 infants in group D had a gastric residual volume. The crying ratio was significantly higher in group A. The length of hospital stay was not significantly different between the groups.

      Conclusions: POCA is well-tolerated in infants at a dose of 10 mL/kg.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Prevalence of undernutrition in Japanese pediatric
           patients on admission: Comparison of tertiary, acute-care, and
           rehabilitation hospitals
    • Abstract: Maegawa, Yukiko; Konishi, Yuma; Kubota, Masaru; Kawate, Yuka; Wakazono, Yoshihiro; Umeda, Katsutsugu; Kawaguchi, Chiharu
      Background and Objectives: There exist many studies in Western countries dealing with pediatric nutritional assessment on admission, but those in Asian countries are comparatively limited. This study aimed at clarifying the prevalence of undernutrition in 3 Japanese pediatric hospitals, especially focusing on their different characteristics.

      Methods and Study Design: Study participants included 313 patients aged 1-17 years admitted to a tertiary hospital (175 patients), an acute-care hospital (99 patients), or a rehabilitation hospital (39 patients). On admission, body height, weight, and serum albumin were measured. BMI was calculated by dividing the weight (kg) by the square of height (m). Patients exhibited undernutrition on account of BMI z-score
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Prevalence and associated risk factors of malnutrition
           among hospitalized adults in a multisite study in Ho Chi Minh city Viet
           Nam
    • Abstract: Cuong, Tran Quoc; Banks, Merrilyn; Hannan-Jones, Mary; Diep, Do Thi Ngoc; Gallegos, Danielle
      Background and Objectives: This study aims to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of malnutrition in adults in acute care settings.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study among 883 participants from 6 representative general public hospitals was conducted during April and May 2016. Participants were considered malnourished if they were classified using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) as malnourished (B or C) or with BMI < 18.5kg/m2. Demographic and socio-economic status characteristics were measured using interviewer- administered questionnaires. Sampling weights for the number of participants in each hospital were calculated to account for the difference in the stratified cluster sampling design. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of malnutrition with potential risk factors.

      Results: The prevalence of underweight (BMI
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Prognostic nutritional index relevance in
           chemoradiotherapy for advanced oral cavity, oropharyngeal and
           hypopharyngeal cancer
    • Abstract: Chang, Pei-Hung; Hsieh, Jason Chia-Hsun; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Yang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Jen-Seng; Lai, Chien-Hong; Wu, Tsung-Han; Huang, Yen-Min; Chang, Yueh-Shih; Chou, Wen-Chi; Wang, Cheng-Hsu
      Background and Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on treatment-related toxicities and tolerance in patients with advanced head and neck cancers who were undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).

      Methods and Study Design: We retrospectively analyzed and compared the clinical characteristic, toxicities and survival of 143 patients with stage III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer who were treated with CCRT according to their PNI between 2007 and 2010.

      Results: Low PNI was correlated with T classification and advanced tumor stage. Patients with low PNI were less likely to tolerate CCRT, required tube feeding support more frequently and had higher percentages of grade 3/4 hematological toxicities, sepsis and toxic death.

      Conclusions: Pretreatment PNI predicts treatment-tolerance and toxicity in patients with advanced head and neck cancer undergoing CCRT.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - HDL subfraction changes with a low-fat, plant-based
           Complete Health Improvement Program (CHIP)
    • Abstract: Kent, Lillian M; Grant, Ross S; Watts, Greg; Morton, Darren P; Rankin, Paul M; Ward, Ewan J
      Background and Objectives: Low HDL concentrations are considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Interventions promoting a low-fat, plant-based eating pattern appear to reduce CVD risk while paradoxically also reducing HDL concentrations. Recent studies show HDL to comprise a range of subfractions, but the role these play in ameliorating the risk of CVD is unclear. The purpose of this study was to characterise changes in HDL subfractions in participants where HDL decreased following the CHIP intervention which promotes a low-fat, plant-based diet, with physical activity.

      Methods and Study Design: Individuals (n=22; mean age=55.4+-16.3 years; 45.5% men, 54.5% women) participating in a CHIP intervention were assessed at baseline and 30 days for changes in BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, (including large-, intermediate- and small-HDL subfractions) and fasting glucose.

      Results: HDL significantly decreased (10.6%, p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Prolonged effectiveness of 12-month exercise-plus-diet
           intervention in Japanese adults at risk of impaired glucose or lipid
           metabolism
    • Abstract: Nishida, Tomoko; Shimaoka, Kiyoshi; Tsuzuku, Shigeki; Igura, Kazumasa; Sakakibara, Hisataka
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the prolonged effects of a 12-month exercise-plus-diet intervention in Japanese adults at risk of impaired glucose or lipid metabolism.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 180 participants were randomly divided into an intervention group (n=94), and a control group (n=86). An exerciseplus- diet intervention was conducted on the intervention group for 12 months. The effects were evaluated by questionnaire, physical examinations, and blood tests at baseline, 3 months, 12 months (the end of intervention), and 24 months (one year after the end of intervention). The control group took only the same examinations as the intervention group.

      Results: At the end of the 12-month intervention, body weight, waist circumference, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol were improved in the intervention group compared to the control group (all p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Dietary education with customised dishware and food
           supplements can reduce frailty and improve mental well-being in elderly
           people: A single-blind randomized controlled study
    • Abstract: Wu, Szu-Yun; Hsu, Li-Lin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Hsieh, Tsung-Jen; Su, Shin-Chang; Peng, Ya-Wen; Guo, Tsam-Ming; Kang, Yaw-Wen; Pan, Wen-Harn
      Background and Objectives: The elderly population is increasing rapidly worldwide, and frailty is a common geriatric syndrome. Comprehensive dietary management strategies may have beneficial effects on frailty prevention and reversal. This 3-month single-blind, paralleled, randomized controlled trial compared the effects of micronutrients and/or protein supplements, and a personalised diet on frailty status in elderly individuals.

      Methods and Study Design: Between 2014 and 2015, 40 prefrail or frail subjects aged >=65 years were recruited at Miaoli General Hospital, Taiwan. Of these, 37 completed the study, and 36 were included in the analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) the control (2) multiple micronutrient supplements, (3) multiple micronutrients plus isolated soy protein supplement, and (4) individualised nutrition education with customised dishware and food supplements (mixed nuts and skimmed milk powder). Dietary intake, protein biomarkers, frailty score, and geriatric depression score were assessed.

      Results: Individualised nutrition education with customised dishware and food supplements significantly increased the participants' intake of vegetables, dairy, and nuts, in addition to increasing the concentration of urinary urea nitrogen. It yielded a significant reduction in frailty score (p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Pro- and prebiotic effects on oxidative stress and
           inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    • Abstract: Javadi, Leila; Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Safaiyan, Abdolrasoul; Ghavami, Mostafa; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem
      Background and Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Probiotics and prebiotics are considered anti-inflammatory and antioxidative factors. In this study, we evaluated the effects of probiotic and/or prebiotic on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with NAFLD.

      Methods and Study Design: Seventy-five NAFLD subjects were divided into four groups. The first group received a pro-biotic capsule of 'Bifidobacterium longum' (B.L) and 'Lactobacillus acidophilus' (L.A) (2 107 CFU/day), the second group received prebiotic (10g/day inulin), the third group received pro-biotic and prebiotic, and the fourth group received placebo, for three months. Anthropometric, inflammatory and oxidative/ anti-oxidative indices were measured in all patients before and after the intervention.

      Results: We showed that consumption of pro- and/or prebiotic compared to placebo is able to significantly decrease body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and increase serum levels of total antioxidant capacity in patients with NAFLD (p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - The influence of diet and behaviour on metabolic
           syndrome and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to different
           definitions in west China
    • Abstract: Xu, Xinyin; Wu, Xianping; Deng, Ying; Ji, Kui; Li, Yichong; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Xiaofang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Yi, Guanghui; Chen, Jinyao; Zhang, Lishi
      Background and Objectives: This study investigated the updated prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults in West China and the influence of diet and behaviour on metabolic syndrome.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2013-2014, and multi-stage stratified clustering sampling was applied in 12 counties of Sichuan province. Data regarding metabolic syndrome and style risk factors were collected through interviewer-administered questionnaires, and physical measurements were recorded following a standardized protocol. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association between metabolic syndrome and its risk factors.

      Results: A total of 7,131 adults participated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 16.9% and 23.8% according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria and the consensus definition, respectively. The International Diabetes Federation criteria failed to identify 28.8% of the participants identified by the consensus definition. The odds ratios (ORs) of suffering from Metabolic syndrome in people eating pork every week compared with at lower frequencies, people eating more than 100 g of red meat/day, people with more sedentary behaviour per day, and people consuming at least 20 cigarettes/day were 1.76 (1.09-2.84), 1.28 (1.01- 1.62), 1.03 (0.99-1.07), and 1.46 (1.12-1.92), respectively, according to the consensus definition, and 1.51 (1.09- 2.10), 1.4 (1.14-1.72), 1.07 (1.02-1.13), and 1.5 (1.16-1.94), respectively, based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria.

      Conclusions: The International Diabetes Federation criteria were less sensitive in identifying metabolic syndrome than the consensus definition. More sedentary behaviour, smoking >=20 cigarettes per day, and a higher frequency of pork intake increased the risk of metabolic syndrome in this study.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Dietary pattern and its association with blood
           pressure and blood lipid profiles among Japanese adults in the 2012 Japan
           National Health and Nutrition Survey
    • Abstract: Htun, Nay Chi; Suga, Hitomi; Imai, Shino; Shimizu, Wakana; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Takimoto, Hidemi
      Background and Objectives: Little is known about the association between dietary patterns and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese adults based on nationally representative data. This study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns and hypertension or blood lipid profiles among Japanese people.

      Methods and Study Design: De-identified Japan National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2012 data with a total of 8721 subjects (3524 men and 5197 women) aged 40-74 years were used. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis (PCA). Generalized linear models and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and blood pressure or lipid profiles.

      Results: We identified four dietary patterns: (a) traditional Japanese, (b) bread-dairy, (c) meat-fat, and (d) noodle patterns. Among these, the traditional Japanese pattern was significantly related to lower blood pressure, lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in men and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in women. Bread-dairy pattern was associated with high total cholesterol in women and higher LDL cholesterol in both men and women. Noodle pattern was associated with higher total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in men. No significant association was observed between meat-fat pattern and blood pressure or lipid profiles.

      Conclusions: Our study showed that the traditional Japanese pattern with high intake of miso, soy-sauce, vegetables, beans, potatoes and mushroom conferred benefits on blood pressure. Our findings have indicated clearly that it is possible to provide useful information on healthy dietary pattern for health promotion from the one-day dietary records of the NHNS.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Association between bone mineral density, muscle
           volume, walking ability, and geriatric nutritional risk index in
           hemodialysis patients
    • Abstract: Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Oku, Manei; Arishima, Yoshiya; Ikeda, Toru; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Minami, Masato; Ido, Akio; Komiya, Setsuro; Setoguchi, Takao
      Background and Objectives: Hemodialysis patients are at risk for bone loss and sarcopenia, characterized by reduced muscle mass and limited mobility/function. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia both increase the risk of hospitalization and death in affected individuals. Malnutrition also occurs as a complication of hemodialysis and has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis and sarcopenia. In this study, we examined the relationship between osteoporosis, muscle volume, walking ability, and malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

      Methods and Study Design: Forty-five hemodialysis patients were evaluated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle volume were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle volume and strength were evaluated using lean mass index (LMI), handgrip strength, and walking ability. The time required for a patient to walk 10 meters was measured to evaluate walking ability. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was used to assess malnutrition.

      Results: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, lower LMI, and higher total type I procollagen N-terminal propeptide were correlated with lower BMD of lumbar spine. Higher age and lower LMI were correlated with lower BMD of the femoral neck. Female sex and lower GNRI were correlated with lower LMI. Longer duration of hemodialysis was correlated with lower walking ability.

      Conclusions: Our findings suggest that muscle preservation is required to maintain both lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD. Similarly, nutritional management is necessary to maintain BMD via preservation of muscle volume. Complementary nutritional therapies are needed to improve osteoporosis and sarcopenia in high-risk hemodialysis patients.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Untargeted metabolomics approach (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)
           explores the biomarkers of serum and urine in overweight/obese young men
    • Abstract: Yu, Hai-Tao; Fu, Xiao-Yi; Xu, Bin; Zuo, Li-li; Ma, Hong-Bo; Wang, Shu-Ran
      Background and Objectives: Obesity is linked to metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the metabolic disorders of uncomplicated obesity to identify early alterations in biological systems.

      Methods and Study Design: Metabolic differences between overweight/obese (n=36) and normal-weight (n=35) young Chinese men without known metabolic disorders were assessed. Metabolic profiling of the serum and urine was performed using ultra-performance liquidchromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was undertaken to reveal and classify the differences between the two groups.

      Results: Compared to normal-weight men, obese men had higher levels of the serum metabolites phenylalanine, Phe-Phe, and L-tryptophan, whereas those of p-cresol sulfate and p-cresol were less in obesity. Urinary metabolites phenylacetamide, L-glutamine, phenylacetylglutamine, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol, and p-cresol sulfate were greater in obese men.

      Conclusions: These findings indicate that disorders involving aromatic amino acids and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) have microbiomic involvement in the uncomplicated phase of obesity.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Effect of increasing protein content at the evening
           meal followed by exercise on overnight nocturnal total energy expenditure,
           fat and carbohydrate oxidation in healthy young Indian men
    • Abstract: Babu, Rose; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Thomas, Tinku; Sambashivaiah, Sucharita; Kurpad, Anura V
      Background and Objectives: Indians are more prone to develop diabetes at a younger age, with normal BMI, and this might partly be due to their higher body fat content. Increase in fat mass in the body might be because of the reduction in fat oxidizing capability. Given the fact that Indians consume high carbohydrate diets, effective fat oxidation is likely to be delayed. Simple preventive weight loss strategies like exercise or change in diet regimen are needed to reduce their body fat. This study investigated the effect of exercise with a high protein dinner on overnight thermogenesis and fat oxidation.

      Methods and Study Design: Nine healthy normal subjects aged 18 - 30 years participated in randomised cross over study. They underwent 6 sessions of overnight whole body indirect calorimetry on separate nights with the following experimental conditions: (i) standard (habitual) meal (ii) standard meal with exercise (iii) 20% protein meal (iv) 20% protein meal with exercise (v) 50% protein meal and (vi) 50% protein meal with exercise. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were measured overnight, from which energy expenditure, non-protein respiratory quotient (RQ), and fat oxidation were estimated.

      Results: The estimated marginal means of fat oxidation and energy expenditure were significantly different for protocols with exercise compared to those without exercise (p=0.02). There was no acute effect of protein on nocturnal fat or carbohydrate oxidation, with or without exercise.

      Conclusions: Post-dinner exercise increase nocturnal fat oxidation and energy expenditure in young active Indian men.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Several problem nutrients are identified in the
           complementary diet of 6 to 11 month old breastfed children in Western
           Guatemala
    • Abstract: Vossenaar, Marieke; van Beusekom, Ilse; Alvey, Jeniece; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W
      Background and Objectives: The failure of infants in developing countries to meet nutrient intake recommendations is well documented. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy and identify problem nutrients of the diets of Guatemalan infants with continued breastfeeding.

      Methods and Study Design: A single previous-day dietary recall was collected from a convenience sample of 94 mothers of infants aged 6-11 mo attending a public health clinic in the urban area of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Energy and nutrient content of complementary feeding (CF) and breastmilk, modelled by subtracting estimated energy intakes from CF from energy requirements, were calculated and nutrient adequacy of the diet was assessed. Nutrient densities and critical nutrient densities of CF were computed to identify "problem nutrients" and main food sources of these nutrients.

      Results: Complementary diets were adequate for protein, but likely to be inadequate for pantothenic acid and vitamins C, A, D, E, and K, as well as calcium, iron and zinc. In the worst-case scenario, i.e. for small girls with limited energy allowances, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6 and magnesium were identified as "problem nutrients" as well. Formula milk, cow milk and Incaparina were main food sources of "problem nutrients".

      Conclusions: The intake of micronutrients during the first six months of the recommend CF period in Guatemala has a number of notable inadequacies, but the gaps are narrower than traditionally reported for this age group in low-income settings.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - A dietary and nutritional status survey among young
           children in five big cities of China
    • Abstract: Li, Tao; Bindels, Jacques G; Zhang, Shuaiming; Tan, Zangwen; Jia, NI; Liu, Aihua; Zhu, Zonghan; Dai, Yaohua
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the dietary patterns and nutritional status of young children living in urban environments in China.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 750 children aged 6 - 35 months living in 5 large cities in China. The survey methodology included a physical examination, blood hemoglobin measurements and a 24 hour dietary recall questionnaire.

      Results: The educational level of participant mothers was high (79% had attended college or university or higher), which may not be fully representative across all areas of urban China. Overall anthropometric nutritional status indicators were within acceptable ranges based on national recommendations, and there was no evidence of severe micronutrient deficiencies. However, we identified three significant nutritional issues that warrant attention: 1.) Later than optimal introduction and low-intake of animal-based iron-containing foods into the diet, and a need for greater inclusion of vitamin B-1 rich foods among 12-35 month old children. 2.) Presence of significant rates of anemia in 6-11 and 12-23 month old children. 3.) An increased risk of overweight/obesity.

      Conclusions: Since food availability and affordability are no longer major issues in the well developed parts of urban China, achieving further improvements in the diet and nutrition of young children in these environments is likely require more specific education to parents and other significant carers such as grandparents. The relatively high educational level and socio-economic status of the population group is likely to facilitate the uptake of such measures in this population group.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Analysis of dietary trends in Chinese adolescents from
           1991 to 2011
    • Abstract: Yu, Alice Yunzi L; Lopez-Olmedo, Nancy; Popkin, Barry M
      Background and Objectives: To examine temporal trends in dietary energy, fat, carbohydrate, protein, sodium and potassium intake of Chinese adolescents aged 12 - 17 years by sex and urbanicity, using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

      Methods and Study Design: Individual level, consecutive 3 - day 24-hour recalls were analyzed from survey years 1991 (n=504), 2000 (n=665), and 2011 (n=267) from nine provinces representing a range of geography, economic development, and health indicators in China. Linear multivariable regression models were conducted to predict mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, sodium, and potassium. Models were adjusted for age, per capita income, parental education, region, and family size.

      Results: From 1991 to 2011, total energy consumption decreased among both sexes and all urbanicity groups (p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Dietary patterns among Japanese adults: findings from
           the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012
    • Abstract: Okada, Emiko; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Takimoto, Hidemi; Takabayashi, Saeka; Kishi, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nakamura, Koshi; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Mieko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tamakoshi, Akiko
      Background and Objectives: Recent studies have analyzed dietary patterns to assess overall dietary habits, but there have been no studies of dietary patterns among the contemporary Japanese population nationwide. The objective of this study was to identify dietary patterns based on consumption of food items among Japanese adults, and to examine whether these dietary patterns were associated with nutrient intake, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle factors.

      Methods and Study Design: The study population included 25,754 Japanese adults aged 20 years and older registered in the nationwide National Health and Nutrition Survey database in 2012. Dietary patterns were analyzed by factor analysis of 29 food items from the dietary intake survey and household-based semiweighed dietary records.

      Results: Five dietary patterns were identified: high-bread and low-rice, high-meat and low-fish, vegetable, wheat-based food, and noodle and alcohol patterns. The lowest quartile of factor scores for high-meat and low-fish, wheat-based food, and noodle and alcohol patterns had higher nutrient intakes, and the highest quartile of factor scores for the vegetable pattern had a higher nutrient intake overall (all p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Association between metabolic syndrome and coffee
           consumption in the Korean population by gender: A cross-sectional study in
           Korea
    • Abstract: Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Park, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyoeun
      Background and Objectives: We conducted this cross-sectional study to identify the association between coffee consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Korean population.

      Methods and Study Design: Subjects aged 30-79 years in the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2010 and 2011 were included (n=8,246). The self-reported frequency of coffee consumption was classified as non-drinker, =3 cups/day.

      Results: The MetS prevalence was 33.6% in men (n=1,149) and 26.1% in women (n=1,388). Among women, the level of coffee consumption was inversely associated with MetS and each component (p for trend 0.002 for abdominal obesity and =3 cups, and the dose-response inverse association remained significant (p for trend 0.008). In men, there were no significant associations between coffee consumption and MetS.

      Conclusion: In conclusion, coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of MetS among Korean women. There was a dose-response inverse relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of MetS in Korean women.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Acne vulgaris and its association with dietary intake:
           A Malaysian perspective
    • Abstract: Suppiah, Thiribura Sundra Sumathi; Sundram, Thavin Kumar Mathana; Tan, Eugenie Sin Sing; Lee, Chew Kek; Bustami, Normina Ahmad; Tan, Chung Keat
      Background and Objectives: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition among adolescents and young adults. Its relationship with the dietary intake is highly debatable and equivocal. This study aimed to identify the association between acne vulgaris and dietary intake among Malaysians.

      Methods and Study Design: A case-control study was conducted involving 57 acne vulgaris patients and 57 age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched controls. All participants were aged 14 and above. The Comprehensive Acne Severity Scale (CASS) was used to categorise patients (grades 2 to 5) and controls (grades 0 to 1). Information such as the demographics, family history, smoking habits and dietary intake were collected using a self-administered questionnaire.

      Results: In the patient arm, the gender ratio of male to female was 1.5:1. 43 patients (75.4%) had a family history of acne vulgaris. No significant association was found for acne in patients with a history of smoking. Milk consumption was significantly higher in patients (63.2%, n=36) versus controls (43.9%, n=25), (OR=2.19, p
      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Fast food consumption alongside socioeconomic status,
           stress, exercise, and sleep duration are associated with menstrual
           irregularities in Korean adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition
           Examination Survey 2009-2013
    • Abstract: Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Lee, Bo-Ra; Park, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Yeon-Suk
      Background and Objectives: Menstrual irregularities in adolescents are a concern because they are considered a subjective indicator of poor physical and reproductive health. Menstrual regularity is associated with many genetic and mental health factors, and lifestyle changes can markedly influence an individual's level of menstrual regularity. Therefore, we investigated associations between lifestyle factors and menstrual irregularities in Korean adolescents by analysing data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 to 2013.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 463 female adolescents aged 15-18 years participated in this study; they were divided into two groups based on their menstrual regularity. We assessed the between-group differences in relation to lifestyle-related factors, fast food consumption, and diet quality.

      Results: The frequencies of consumption of soda, coffee, and fried foods were significantly higher in the irregular menstruation group. However, the nutritional quality index was not significantly different between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that younger age at menarche (odds ratio [OR]=0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.54-0.88), higher family income (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15-0.91), lack of exercise (OR=10.42, 95% CI=2.73-39.8), and high stress levels (OR=4.18, 95% CI=1.02-17.12) were associated with menstrual irregularity, whereas sufficient sleep (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.39-0.60) and low frequency of eating out accounted for menstrual regularity.

      Conclusions: Lifestyle factors and stress levels influence menstrual regularity in Korean adolescents. Appropriate and accessible education on lifestyle management is required.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 5 - Results of a long-term follow-up evaluation of an
           Australian adult nutrition education program
    • Abstract: Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Biagioni, Nicole; Pratt, Iain S; Moore, Sarah
      Background and Objectives: To assess persistence of improvements in nutrition-related attitudes and behaviours 2-4 years after attending an adult nutrition education program (FOODcents).

      Methods and Study Design: A link to an online survey was sent to 407 past FOODcents participants. The survey replicated items included in previous FOODcents evaluation surveys. In total, 87 responses were received (response rate 21%). Analyses were conducted on matched responses across 3 time points: pre, post, and follow-up.

      Results: Improvements since baseline were maintained in confidence to buy healthy foods on a budget and a range of dietary behaviours (e.g., increased consumption of vegetables, legumes, and wholegrain products; greater use of the nutrition information available on food packages; and decreased consumption of soft drinks). There were two primary areas in which improvements were not maintained over time: reported intake of fruit and frequency of consumption of fast food.

      Conclusions: The results suggest that adult nutrition education can be effective in encouraging individuals to alter their food shopping processes and modify their diets. The tendency for some behavioural outcomes to be worse at follow-up than at baseline indicates that marketplace factors such as food promotion and availability may be influencing these specific dietary behaviours. This rare longitudinal study of the effects of adult nutrition education shows that this form of intervention has the potential to produce lasting improvements in attitudes and behaviours. However, such programs cannot be expected to produce large and lasting effects without support from population-level nutrition policies and programs that address macro-environmental factors that influence dietary behaviours.

      PubDate: Fri, 5 Oct 2018 12:53:35 GMT
       
 
 
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