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Publisher: RMIT Publishing   (Total: 403 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 403 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Accounting, Accountability & Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian J. of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 5)
AlterNative: An Intl. J. of Indigenous Peoples     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Anglican Historical Society J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 11)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 27)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Art Monthly Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.672, h-index: 51)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.1, h-index: 8)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
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Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 3)
Australasian J. of Human Security, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
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Australasian Law Management J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
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Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 6)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.491, h-index: 15)
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Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 31)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.252, h-index: 24)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.159, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 26)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.17, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.401, h-index: 18)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 9)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 4)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 20)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 8)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 9)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
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Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.31, h-index: 19)
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Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.143, h-index: 10)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 27)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription  
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.737, h-index: 24)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 7)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 6)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 8)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription  
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription  
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gestalt J. of Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Great Circle: J. of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Grief Matters : The Australian J. of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
He Puna Korero: J. of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription  
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Journal Cover Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  [SJR: 0.672]   [H-I: 51]   [8 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [403 journals]
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Combined associations of physical activity and dietary
           intake with health status among survivors of the Great East Japan
           Earthquake
    • Abstract: Nozue, Miho; Nishi, Nobuo; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Miyoshi, Miki; Yonekura, Yuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Akira
      Background and Objectives: Each of the effects of physical activity and dietary intake on health is well known, but combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake on health has not been reported yet. Physical activity and dietary intake are key factors for maintaining health of survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. This study aimed to examine combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake with survivors' health status.

      Methods and Study Design: We used data from 6668 participants of a cross-sectional survey taken 3 years (2013) after the disaster. To evaluate combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake, answers to questions regarding these two variables were categorized into four groups: poor physical activity and poor dietary intake (Group 1), poor physical activity and good dietary intake (Group 2), good physical activity and poor dietary intake (Group 3), and good physical activity and good dietary intake (Group 4). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed by sex, with good self-rated health and good mental health as dependent variables, and age, place of residence, living conditions and physical activity/dietary intake group (with Group 1 as the reference category) as independent variables.

      Results: Good self-rated health was associated with age in both sexes, and Groups 3 (male: odds ratios (ORs) 1.84 (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) 1.32-2.57), female: OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.32-2.51)) and 4 (male: OR 1.96 (95% CI 1.39-2.76), female: OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.42-2.64)). Good mental health was associated with Groups 3 (OR 1.48 (95% CI 1.10-1.97)) and 4 (OR 1.86 (95% CI 1.37-1.97)) for male respondents; and living place (other than temporary housing) (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.26-1.68)) was associated with Group 4 (OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.09-1.85)) for female respondents.

      Conclusions: Good physical activity alone or combined with good dietary intake was associated with good self-rated health and good mental health. Further interventions regarding physical activity and dietary intake are needed to improve the health status of survivors.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Relationship between dietary patterns and
           brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity among middle-aged adults in Japan
    • Abstract: Moyama, Shota; Minami, Kazuhiro; Yano, Mihiro; Okumura, Masumi; Hayashi, Susumu; Takayama, Hiroshi; Yorimoto, Akira
      Background and Objectives: Arterial stiffness is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is considered to be affected by dietary intake. However, few studies have examined the relationship between major dietary patterns and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) among Japanese middle-aged subjects. We studied whether major dietary patterns were associated with baPWV in this population.

      Methods and Study Design: Between 2009 and 2012, 70 Japanese middle-aged subjects (39 men and 31 women) with no history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer were studied. Dietary intake was documented using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were generated using factor analysis. Correlational analyses were performed between baPWV and identified dietary patterns and between baPWV and individual risk factors (total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non- HDL-C, LDL/HDL ratio, and augmentation index).

      Results: Two dietary patterns were identified: a rice-rich pattern (high in rice, breads, oils and fats, meats, and confectionery) and a vegetable-rich pattern (high in vegetables, fruit, fish, and seaweed). The rice-rich pattern was not associated with baPWVor other risk factors. A significant inverse correlation was found between baPWV and the vegetable-rich dietary pattern (p
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Effect modification of green tea on the association
           between rice intake and the risk of diabetes mellitus: A prospective study
           in Japanese men and women
    • Abstract: Hirata, Akie; Ohnaka, Keizo; Tashiro, Naotaka; Wang, Zhenjie; Kohno, Michiko; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kono, Suminori; Takayanagi, Ryoichi
      Background and Objectives: Recent observational studies have suggested a positive association of white rice and protective associations of green tea and coffee with the risk of diabetes. However, none have examined the interaction between these dietary factors on the risk of diabetes. We prospectively investigated the effect modification of green tea and coffee on the association between rice and incident diabetes in elderly Japanese men and women.

      Methods and Study Design: Among subjects who participated in the baseline survey (2004-2007), 11717 (91 %) subjects responded to the follow-up survey (2010-2012). By using multiple logistic regression analysis, ORs of incident diabetes were calculated according to categories of cereal food, green tea, and coffee intakes, examining also the effect modification of green tea and coffee.

      Results: 464 new cases of diabetes were identified. Women, but not men, showed a positive association of rice intake (trend p=0.008) and an inverse association of green tea intake (trend p=0.02) with incident diabetes. Coffee showed no association with incident diabetes either in men or women. In the analysis stratified by green tea intake, the association between rice and diabetes disappeared among women with an intake of >=7 cups/d of green tea (interaction p=0.08).

      Conclusions: Rice intake was associated with an increased risk of diabetes only in women, and women with a higher intake of green tea had a lower risk of diabetes. A high intake of green tea may be protective against increased risk of diabetes with a higher intake of rice in women.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Adolescent women as a key target population for
           community nutrition education programs in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Savage, Amy; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Worsley, Anthony
      Background and Objectives: Adolescence is a critical life-stage that sets the foundation for health in adulthood. Adolescent women are a unique population and should be targeted as such for nutrition promotion activities. Using Indonesia as a case study, this qualitative study aimed to identify existing nutrition promotion programs aimed at adolescent girls, how best to target this population and effective recommendations to inform nutrition education program design for this important group.

      Methods and Study Design: Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were conducted with ten key informants working in public health in Indonesia. Interview transcripts were analysed and coded to identify key themes.

      Results: No existing nutrition education programs targeting adolescent women in Indonesia were identified. Several strategies apply to nutrition programs for adolescent girls: 1) nutrition promotion messages that are relevant to the lifestyles and interests of adolescent women; 2) technology-based interventions show promise, however, they need to be appropriately targeted to sub-groups; 3) school remains an important setting; and 4) early marriage is an important issue affecting nutritional status and engagement of adolescent girls. The informants recommended that: 1) more research is needed about the underlying motivations for behaviour change among adolescent women and ways to effectively implement the identified engagement strategies; 2) adolescent girls should be included in program design to improve its suitability and uptake; and 3) government budget and policy support is crucial to success.

      Conclusions: Adolescent women are an important population group and more research is required to identify the optimal forms of engagement to improve nutrition programs for them.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Opportunities and barriers to public health nutrition
           education in Vietnamese universities
    • Abstract: Pham, Quynh TH; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie
      Background and Objectives: A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community. However, little is known about university nutrition education in LMICs. The present study aimed to investigate professional development opportunities and barriers for university nutrition lecturers to teach public health nutrition (PHN).

      Methods and Study Design: An online survey was conducted among 242 Vietnamese health and education professionals and university nutrition lecturers across Vietnam. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Comparisons of between the groups' responses were examined via SPSS Crosstabs. The structures of the perceived barriers and desired PHN training topics were examined via factor analyses. Multiple linear regression examined the influences on lecturers' learning interests in nutrition areas.

      Results: The lecturers' learning interests spanned four areas: basic nutrition, basic food, food policy and 'new' trends (e.g. food policy, marketing). Major impediments to nutrition teaching in universities divided into two groups: resource limitations and professional constraints (e.g. lack of relevant training opportunities). The lecturers' perceptions of professional constraints influenced their interest in learning about 'new' trends.

      Conclusions: The results highlighted the need and opportunities to enhance PHN professional development for nutrition lecturers in Vietnam.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - The impact of urbanization on the community food
           environment in China
    • Abstract: Wu, Yang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Su, Chang; Du, Shufa; Wang, Youfa
      Background and Objectives: Research on how urbanization has influenced the food environment in China is limited. The study aimed to examine the impact of urbanization on the food environment in China.

      Methods and Study Design: Longitudinal data collected during 1989-2009 from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used, which covered 9 provinces in China. Urbanicity index (0-10) was assessed using an urbanicity scale. Final analyses included 216 communities. Random-effect models were used in analyses.

      Results: Urbanization (higher urbanicity index) increased the odds of having fast food restaurants (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 2.18-3.54) and other indoor restaurants (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 2.28-3.76) within the community, the odds of having supermarkets (OR=2.43, 95% CI: 2.04-2.89) and free markets (OR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.77-3.70) within 30 minutes' bus ride from the community. Food prices for apples (beta=0.06, 95% CI: 0.04-0.08) and lean pork (beta =0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03) increased with urbanicity, while prices for other food did not. Urbanicity was positively associated with community norms for fast food consumption (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.22-1.33), fast food preferences (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.12) and nutrition knowledge (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03).

      Conclusions: Urbanization is associated with food environment in China. The findings provide insight for future economic development and public health efforts related to urbanization.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Home availability of fruit and vegetables and
           obesogenic foods as an indicator of nutrient intake in 50 year olds from
           Canterbury, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Grant, Emily; Gearry, Richard Blair; Wilson, Renee; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Marie Louise
      Background and Objectives: The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between home availability of 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Obesogenic Foods' and intake of selected nutrients, adjusting for Body Mass Index and demographic factors. Men and women (n=216) aged 50 were randomly selected from Canterbury District Health Board area electoral rolls.

      Results: Women with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were significantly more likely to have a high intake of saturated fat (OR 5.8, CI: 1.67, 19.6) and high sugar intake (OR 3.1, CI: 1.23, 7.58). Men with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were less likely to have high folate (OR 0.14, CI: 0.05, 0.40) and fibre intake (OR 0.21, CI: 0.07, 0.60). Men and women with a higher 'Fruit and Vegetables' score were more likely to have high vitamin C intake (OR 5.6 and 4.5 respectively).

      Conclusions: Home Food Inventory scores are associated with selected nutrient intakes, particularly in women, suggesting that they are useful for identifying those groups with less favourable nutrient intakes. Future research should investigate whether these scores can predict health outcomes.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - The association of dietary patterns and the incidence
           of insulin resistance after a 3-year follow-up: Tehran Lipid and glucose
           study
    • Abstract: Doostvandi, Tayebeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Tahmasebinejad, Zhaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) among an urban Iranian population.

      Methods and Study design: In this longitudinal study, 802 adult men and women were studied within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of followup. The usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and major dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of IR across tertiles of dietary patterns with adjustment for potential confounding variables.

      Results: Mean age of participants was 39.0 11.2 years and 45.5% were men. Three major dietary patterns including the Western, traditional and healthy were extracted, which explained 25.3% of total variance in food intake. The healthy dietary pattern, loaded heavily on intake of vegetable oils, fresh and dried fruits, low-fat dairy, nuts and seeds, was accompanied with a reduced risk of insulin resistance by 51% (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.30-0.81), and 81% (OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.10-0.36), in the second and third tertile, respectively (p trend=0.001). In the presence of all dietary pattern scores in the logistic regression model, a 45% reduced risk of IR was observed per 1 unit increase in healthy dietary pattern score. Conclusion: These findings confirmed the protective effect of a plant-based, low-fat dietary pattern against the development of insulin resistance as a main risk factor of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders.Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) among an urban Iranian population. Methods and Study design: In this longitudinal study, 802 adult men and women were studied within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of followup. The usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and major dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of IR across tertiles of dietary patterns with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results: Mean age of participants was 39.0 11.2 years and 45.5% were men. Three major dietary patterns including the Western, traditional and healthy were extracted, which explained 25.3% of total variance in food intake. The healthy dietary pattern, loaded heavily on intake of vegetable oils, fresh and dried fruits, low-fat dairy, nuts and seeds, was accompanied with a reduced risk of insulin resistance by 51% (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.30-0.81), and 81% (OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.10-0.36), in the second and third tertile, respectively (p trend=0.001). In the presence of all dietary pattern scores in the logistic regression model, a 45% reduced risk of IR was observed per 1 unit increase in healthy dietary pattern score.

      Conclusion: These findings confirmed the protective effect of a plant-based, low-fat dietary pattern against the development of insulin resistance as a main risk factor of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Dietary patterns and their associations with energy,
           nutrient intake and socioeconomic factors in rural lactating mothers in
           Tibet
    • Abstract: Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong
      Background and Objectives: There is very limited published data on Tibetan dietary patterns and its association with nutrient intakes and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the dietary patterns and the associations with nutrient intakes in rural Tibetan pregnant, lactating mothers.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary patterns and nutrient intakes were identified via a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We identified dietary patterns using principle component analysis (PCA) of intakes of 17 food groups and specific Tibetan foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for the analysis. We identified two dietary patterns: "Varied pattern" and "Staple pattern".

      Result: The "Varied pattern" was characterized by a high intake of vegetables, fruits and soy foods which showed significant positive associations with vitamins. Vitamin C (Ptrend
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Growth patterns during the first 12 months of life:
           Post-hoc analysis for South Australian aboriginal and caucasian infants in
           a randomised controlled trial of formula feeding
    • Abstract: Hawke, Karen; Louise, Jennie; Collins, Carmel; Zhou, Shao J; Brown, Alex; Gibson, Robert; Makrides, Maria
      Background and Objectives: To compare growth characteristics of Aboriginal and Caucasian formula-fed in-fants in the first 12 months of life.

      Methods and Study Design: We conducted post-hoc data analysis of infants who were part of a previous randomised controlled trial comparing infants randomly assigned to cow or goat milk-based infant formulae. Weight, height, and body composition were assessed at serial time points between study entry ( 1-2 weeks of age) and 12 months. There was no growth difference between the randomised groups so the two groups were combined and the data were used to conduct a non-randomised comparison of the growth between Aboriginal (n=11) and Caucasian formula-fed (n=169) infants.

      Results: Aboriginal formula-fed infants had significantly higher mean z-scores for weight (0.65 difference, [95% CI 0.11, 1.18], p=0.018) and weight-for-length (0.82 difference [95% CI 0.20, 1.44], p=0.010) at 2 months, and all time points onward compared with Caucasian formula-fed infants. Mean length z-scores and the overall growth trajectory across time did not differ between Aboriginal and Caucasian formula-fed infants. Concordant with the weight and weight-for-length z-scores, Aboriginal infants had increased fat mass at 2 months (292 g difference [95% CI 56, 528], p=0.015), and all time points onward compared to Caucasian infants. There was no difference in fat free mass.

      Conclusions: Though there was only a small number of Aboriginal infants for comparison, our data indicate Aboriginal formu-la-fed infants were heavier and had a larger increase in fat mass over time compared with Caucasian formula-fed infants. Further studies using a larger cohort are needed to substantiate these findings.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Effect of glucomannan on functional constipation in
           children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled
           trials
    • Abstract: Han, Yong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xiang-Qun; Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Lv, Lu-Xian
      Background and Objectives: Constipation, a common complaint in children, considerably affects the quality of life. This systematic review assessed the treatment effects of glucomannan on children with constipation by summarising evidence from previous randomised controlled trials (RCTs).

      Methods and Study Design: A comprehensive electronic literature search was conducted for identifying eligible RCTs that evaluated the effectiveness of glucomannan. The results were reported as mean differences (MDs), standardised mean differences (SMDs), and risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The primary outcome was the defecation frequency per week; the secondary outcomes were stool consistency and the rate of successful treatment. A metaanalysis was conducted using the random effects model.

      Results: Three RCTs evaluating 122 participants were identified. Glucomannan use was associated with an increased frequency of defecation (3 trials; MD=1.40; 95% CI: 0.36-2.44, p=0.008); however, there were no significant differences in the outcomes of stool consistency (3 trials; SMD=0.48; 95% CI: -0.44 to 1.40, p=0.300) or the rate of successful treatment (2 trials; RR=1.36; 95% CI: 0.48-3.81, p=0.110).

      Conclusions: Glucomannan moderately increases the defecation frequency of children with constipation but is not associated with a reduction in stool consistency or overall improvement in the rate of successful treatment. However, these results should be cautiously interpreted because of the small sample size and the risk of products containing glucomannan need to be considered. Additional large-scale and well-designed RCTs are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of glucomannan.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - The presence and accuracy of nutritional labelling of
           pre-packaged foods in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Kong, Kaimeng; Liu, Fu; Tao, Yexuan
      Background and Objectives: The Chinese government officially enacted the Regulation on the Management of Food Nutrition Labelling in 2007 and the General Rules for Nutrition Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods in 2011. Our investigation examined the presence and accuracy of nutrition labelling of pre-packaged foods in Shanghai and provides baseline data for future studies.

      Methods and Study Design: Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods were recorded by photograph, transcription, or purchase in four supermarkets in Shanghai. We compared the observed labelling rate with results from a survey conducted in 2008. To assess labelling accuracy, we sent randomly selected foods to an analytical laboratory to test food energy and nutrient content.

      Results: The overall labelling rate was 54.8%, representing a great improvement over the rate measured prior to implementation of the Regulation (35.4%). The labelling rate for energy content and core nutrients were all above 98%, whereas the rates for saturated fat, trans-fatty acids, and iron were 11.5%, 7.0%, and 10.7%, respectively. Pre-packaged foods manufactured by domestic Chinese companies were labelled less frequently (45.8%) than foods manufactured by companies from Taiwan/Hong Kong (67.0%) or overseas (65.7%). The accuracy of carbohydrate content on labels was as high as 100%, while the accuracy of protein and fat content were 94.4% and 96.0%, respectively.

      Conclusion: Pre-packaged food manufacturers and government agencies should collaborate to improve the management of nutrition labelling. Mandatory regulations may be the best way to ensure that nutrition labelling facilitates informed consumer decision-making.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Association between maternal vitamin D status during
           pregnancy and offspring cognitive function during childhood and
           adolescence
    • Abstract: Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thajna, Kotrangada P; Hegde, Bhavya G; Gale, Catharine R; Fall, Caroline HD
      Background and Objectives: Animal studies have demonstrated poor cognitive outcomes in offspring in relation to maternal vitamin D deficiency before and/or during pregnancy. Human studies linking maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy with offspring cognitive function are limited. We aimed to test the hypothesis that lower maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy is associated with poor offspring cognitive ability in an Indian population.

      Methods and Study Design: Cognitive function was assessed in children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort during childhood (age 9-10 years; n=468) and adolescence (age 13-14 years; n=472) using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring learning, long-term retrieval/ storage, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, visuo-spatial ability, and attention and concentration. Maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured at 30+-2 weeks of gestation.

      Results: During pregnancy 320 (68%) women had 'vitamin D deficiency' (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and
           the risk of metabolic syndrome and its disorders in Korean women according
           to menopausal status
    • Abstract: Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Mi Kyung
      Background and Objectives: The association between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been elucidated fully, particularly by menopausal status.

      Method and Study Design: The study population was 2,999 women aged 40-64 years participating in the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The definition of MetS and its components was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) for Koreans. Dietary data were assessed by a 24-hour recall.

      Results: Fruit intake was inversely related only to the risk of high blood pressure (BP), but not MetS. Total vegetable consumption was inversely associated with the MetS risk, and when combined with fruits, the inverse association was observed even in its features of high triglycerides (TG) and low HDLcholesterol as well as MetS. Assessing women by menopausal status revealed that the inverse association with the MetS risk was found only in postmenopausal women having greater total vegetables and total FV intake (aOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.29-0.75, p-trend=0.003 and aOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.35-0.85, p-trend=0.007, respectively). Analysis regarding MetS features showed that while the inverse association of total vegetables or total FV intake was observed with high TG risk in postmenopausal women, fruits intake was inversely associated with high BP risk in premenopausal women (aOR=0.54, 95% CI=0.37-0.79, p-trend=0.004).

      Conclusion: Results suggest that while fruit intake was inversely associated with high BP in premenopausal women, greater dietary intake of vegetables and total FV may protect against the risk of MetS, particularly in postmenopausal women.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Pre-pregnancy body mass index as a predictor of low
           birth weight infants in Japan
    • Abstract: Murai, Utako; Nomura, Kyoko; Kido, Michiko; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiro; Rahman, Mahbubur
      Background and Objectives: The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Japan has doubled in the last several decades. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on LBW infants of Japanese women.

      Methods and Study Design: This retrospective study was conducted using data on 1,336 mothers (mean age, 34.0 years) whose pre-pregnancy BMI was less than 23 kg/m2 and their singleton infants were born at full term between January and December in 2011. The outcome of interest was LBW infants (less than 2,500 g). The main exposure variables were pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. The effects of these two variables on LBW were determined after adjusting for confounder variables such as maternal age, smoking, drinking, parity, gestational week at birth and infant gender.

      Results: The proportion of LBW infants was 4.2% in total, 6.1% among underweight mothers (
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Inequality in malnutrition by maternal education
           
    • Abstract: Hong, Seo Ah; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri
      Background and Objectives: As tackling socioeconomic inequality in child malnutrition still remains one of the greatest challenges in developing countries, we examined maternal educational differences in malnutrition and the magnitude of its inequality among 4,198 children from the Prospective Cohort study of Thai Children (PCTC).

      Methods and Study Design: Prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting from birth to 24 months was calculated using the new WHO growth chart. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was used to examine the magnitude and trend of inequality in malnutrition between maternal educational levels.

      Results: The low education group had lower weight and height in most ages than the high education group. Faltering in height was observed in all education levels, but was most remarkable in the low education group. On the other hand, while upward trends for weight-for-age and weight-for-height across ages were observed in the high education group, a marked decline between 6 to 12 months was observed in the low education group. An increasing trend in inequality in The RII revealed an increasing trend in inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting by maternal education levels was observed during infancy with an almost monotonic increase until 24 months, although the inequality in wasting decreased after 18 months of age.

      Conclusion: Inequality in malnutrition remarkably increased during infancy, and for stunting and underweight it remained until 24 months. These findings shed light on the extent of malnutrition inequality during the first 2 years of life and they suggest sustainable efforts must be established at the national level to tackle the malnutrition inequality in infancy.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Dietary choice and health behaviors in eastern Chinese
           women: A descriptive, population-based survey and review of public health
           data
    • Abstract: Wang, Feng; Wang, Fei; Yu, Lixiang; Yu, Zhigang
      Background and Objectives: Urbanization in China has increased the prevalence of high-fat and low-fiber diets, and of adverse health behaviors associated with an increased risk of diet-related, non-communicable diseases (DR-NCDs) in eastern Chinese women. This study aimed to characterize the dietary intake and health behaviors in eastern Chinese women.

      Methods and Study Design: Retrospective data of 122,058 women aged 25 to 70 who completed a multi-staged, stratified, cluster sampling epidemiological survey in eastern China in 2008, including self-report of diet and lifestyle information (sleep, physical activity, work, etc.). The survey included food groups (on a 4-point scale from daily to rarely) and health behaviors.

      Results: Of 122,058 surveyed women, 2008 (1.6%) smoked tobacco, 4326 (3.5%) consumed alcohol, 10,274 (8.4%) reported insomnia, and 38,305 (31.4%) exercised regularly. Consumption was most commonly reported as daily for vegetables/fruits (68.1%); 3-4/week for garlic (31.7%); 1-2/week for bean products (39.4%), red meat (40.8%), corn (36.6%), and carrots (41.9%); and rarely for milk products (46.4%), fried food (42.1%) and charcuterie (55.8%).

      Conclusions: This study suggests some overall positive lower rates of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and insomnia than reported previously, but physical exercise was also decreased. Dietary habits were relatively healthy.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Seasonal vitamin D and bone metabolism in women of
           reproductive age in urban Beijing
    • Abstract: Yang, Liying; Zhang, Wei
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and bone metabolism in healthy women of reproductive age.

      Methods and Study Design: This study included 100 healthy female residents of Beijing (23-30 years old), who underwent bone ultrasonography as well as testing to evaluate serum25-hydroxy-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, bone alkaline phosphatase, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase.

      Results: Mean 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in the winter (22.3+-3.55 nmol/L) was significantly lower than that in the summer (46.2+-16.3 nmol/L). In the winter, a negative correlation was observed between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and parathyroid hormone(r=0.300, p=0.002) and bone alkaline phosphatase (r=0.274, p=0.016). In the summer, a negative correlation was observed between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (r=0.386, p
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Maintenance vitamin D3 dosage requirements in Chinese
           women with post menopausal osteoporosis living in the tropics
    • Abstract: Venugopal, Yogeswari; Hatta, Sharifah F Wan Muhamad; Musa, Nurbazlin; Abdul Rahman, Siti; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Paramasivam, Sharmila Sunita; Lim, Lee Ling; Ibrahim, Luqman; Choong, Karen; Tan, Alexander TB; Chinna, Karuthan; Chan, Siew Pheng; Vethakkan, Shireene R
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics.

      Methods and Study Design: 90 Chinese Malaysian PMO women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2 degrees30'N) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels >=50 nmol/L were recruited. Prior vitamin D supplements were discontinued and subjects randomized to oral cholecalciferol 25,000 IU/4-weekly (Group-A) or 50,000 IU/4-weekly (Group- B) for 16 weeks, administered under direct observation. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, serum/urinary calcium were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks.

      Results: Baseline characteristics, including osteoporosis severity, sun exposure ( 3 hours/week), and serum 25(OH)D did not differ between treatment arms. After 16 weeks, 91% of women sufficient at baseline, remained sufficient on 25,000 IU/4-weekly compared with 97% on 50,000 IU/4-weekly with mean serum 25(OH)D 108.1+-20.4 and 114.7+-18.4 SD nmol/L respectively (p=0.273). At trial's end, 39% and 80% of insufficient women at baseline attained sufficiency in Group A and Group B (p=0.057). Neither dose was associated with hyperparathyroidism or toxicity.

      Conclusions: Despite pretrial vitamin D supplementation and adequate sun exposure, 25.6% Chinese Malaysian PMO women were vitamin D insufficient indicating sunshine alone cannot ensure sufficiency in the tropics. Both 900 IU/day and 1800 IU/day cholecalciferol can safely maintain vitamin D sufficiency in >90% of Chinese Malaysian PMO women. Higher doses are required with baseline concentration
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Eating glutinous brown rice for one day improves
           glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes assessed by
           continuous glucose monitoring
    • Abstract: Terashima, Yuko; Nagai, Yoshio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akio; Tanaka, Yasushi
      Background and Objectives: We investigated whether intake of non-glutinous brown rice (BR) or glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day had an influence on the daily glucose profile measured by continuous glucose moni-toring (CGM) when compared with intake of non-glutinous white rice (WR).

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 37 inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited for a 3-day randomized triple cross-over trial in which they ate WR, BR, or GBR for 1 day each. One of the three types of rice was eaten at breakfast, lunch, and dinner on the first day, before switching to the other types on the second and third days. Each meal had the same energy content and the same side dishes. The main outcome measures were the blood glucose profile determined by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the profile of serum C-peptide (CPR) for 3 hours after breakfast. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the palatability of each type of rice.

      Results: According to the CGM data, the mean 24-hour glucose concentration was lowest with GBR (p
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Causes of interruptions in postoperative enteral
           nutrition in children with congenital heart disease
    • Abstract: Qi, Jirong; Li, Zhuo; Cun, Yueshuang; Li, Xiaonan
      Background and Objectives: Perioperative nutritional support has become a hot topic in the clinical management of congenital heart disease (CHD). Postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) offers many benefits, such as protection of the intestinal mucosa, reduced risk of infection, and low clinical costs. Interruptions in EN frequently influence nutritional support and clinical outcomes. We, therefore, aimed to determine the causes of interruptions in postoperative EN in CHD patients and discuss clinical counter measures.

      Methods and Study Design: We analyzed the data of 360 CHD patients to determine the causes of interruptions in postoperative EN and develop possible clinical strategies to prevent such interruptions.

      Results: Of the 360 patients (aged from 1 month to 6 years), 198 patients had at least one EN interruption. The total number of interruptions was 498 (average, 2.52 interruptions/ patient). Non-gastrointestinal factors (airway management, fluid overload, invasive procedure, increased intracranial pressure, feeding tube block, and clinical deterioration) accounted for 67.8% (338/498) of all interruptions and gastrointestinal factors (vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea, constipation, and large gastric residual volume) accounted for 32.2% (160/498). The total number of interruptions and the number of interruptions due to gastrointestinal factors were significantly higher in younger patients (aged from 1-12 months) than in older patients (aged from 1-6 years).

      Conclusions: Non-gastrointestinal factors were the main causes of interruptions in postoperative EN in CHD patients. Younger patients had a greater number of interruptions as a whole, and more interruptions caused by gastrointestinal factors. Gastrointestinal factors can be reduced by tube feeding and use of gastrointestinal motility drugs.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Effect of lutein supplementation on visual function in
           nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy
    • Abstract: Zhang, Ping-Chuan; Wu, Chang-Rui; Wang, Zhi-Lun; Wang, Li-Yuan; Han, Yue; Sun, Shu-Liu; Li, Qing-Shan; Ma, Le
      Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with lutein improved visual function in patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).

      Methods and Study Design: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 31 patients with NPDR were assigned randomly to 10 mg/d of lutein or identical placebo for 36 weeks. Visual performance indices, including visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS) and glare sensitivity (GS) at four different spatial frequencies, were measured at baseline, week 18 and 36.

      Results: At 36 weeks, a slight improvement in VA was found in the lutein group. A significant association was observed between the changes in VA and the corresponding baseline values in treatment group (r=-0.53; p=0.04). At 36 weeks, the lutein treatment group increased CS at four spatial frequencies, and the improvement achieved statistical significance at 3 cycles/degree (p=0.02). The changes in CS at 3 cycles/degree for the lutein group was marginally significantly greater than those for the placebo group (p=0.09). There was also a slight increase in GS in the lutein group up to week 36, however, no significant changes were found over time in any cycles/degree.

      Conclusions: In patients with NPDR, supplementation with lutein resulted in potential improvements in CS at low spatial frequency. Further studies are required to determine the possibility that such intervention could be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent vision loss in diabetic patients.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Validity and practicability of smartphone-based
           photographic food records for estimating energy and nutrient intake
    • Abstract: Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan
      Background and Objectives: Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students.

      Methods and Study Design: The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake.

      Results: The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%.

      Conclusions: The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Development of the revised Japanese maternal
           breastfeeding evaluation scale, short version
    • Abstract: Hongo, Hiroko; Green, Joseph; Nanishi, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine
      Background and Objectives: The Japanese Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale (JMBFES) was developed in 2013 based on the original Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale (MBFES). Mothers' abilities to incorporate breastfeeding into their daily life may influence their decision to continue or discontinue to breastfeed, but that version of the JMBFES had no questions to measure this important aspect of breastfeeding. Therefore, we sought to improve the JMBFES by incorporating questions measuring "lifestyle compatibility-incompatibility," and we conducted psychometric testing of the improved version.

      Methods and Study Design: In this longitudinal study, the revised JMBFES was developed, and its reliability and validity was tested among 215 Japanese mothers. In the first survey, which was done three months after delivery, infant-feeding status and the prenatal intention regarding breastfeeding were measured. In the second survey, which was done two months later, the JMBFES questions were asked along with questions regarding infant-feeding status. We identified items that could be deleted while maintaining high reliability. Using regression models, we examined associations of JMBFES scores with breastfeeding intention and breastfeeding outcomes.

      Results: All three subscales in the revised JMBFES had acceptable reliability (alpha >=0.78). The two "lifestyle compatibility-incompatibility" items (one new item and the one that had been deleted previously) belonged to the "potentially negative aspects" subscale. Scores on that subscale were not associated with breastfeeding intention. However, in both surveys, the mothers who were using formula reported more potential difficulties (p
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Theanine: The unique amino acid in the tea plant as an
           oral hepatoprotective agent
    • Abstract: Wang, Dongxu; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Taotao; Qian, Frank; Wang, Yijun
      For thousands of years, humans have consumed tea made from leaves of Camellia sinensis, first as a medicinal herb and then as a widely popular beverage. In the past 10 years, theanine, a tea-derived, unique, nonproteinic amino acid, has been extensively studied for its health benefits. Recently, multiple lines of evidence have proven its beneficial effects on hepatic and immune functions. One possible mechanism for its biological activity involves the downregulation of the inflammatory response through the induction of nitric oxide production and glutathione synthesis. In this review, we summarize published results describing the potential mechanisms for these beneficial health effects and provide new insight into how theanine can be therapeutic for liver injury and chronic liver disease.

      PubDate: Fri, 28 Apr 2017 22:27:38 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Thiamin and folic acid deficiency accompanied by
           resistant electrolyte imbalance in the re-feeding syndrome in an elderly
           patient
    • Abstract: Serin, Sibel Ocak; Karaoren, Gulsah; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Unal, Ethem; Ahci, Seda; Karakoc, Eda; Ucak, Sema
      Introduction: Re-feeding Syndrome (RS) is a deadly complication, which can be encountered during "refeeding" of malnourished patients. In these patients, thiamin deficiency may develop and "risk awareness" is the most significant factor in the management of these patients. In this case report, the treatment is presented of an elderly patient who was diagnosed with RS and followed-up in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to resistant fluidelectrolyte imbalance. Case: An 87-year-old elderly woman was admitted to the hospital due to aspiration pneumonia. On day 4, during parenteral nutrition (30 kcal/kg/day), severe electrolyte imbalance developed. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was stopped, and enteral feeding together with potassium (90 mmol/day, i.v.) were started. During follow-up, plasma potassium values remained less than 3 mmol/L. Despite replacement therapy, hypoalbuminemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia persisted. Considering the parenteral nutrition (30 kcal/kg/day) during the hospitalization period, a diagnosis of RS was made. On day 10, thiamin (200 mg/day, i.v.) and folic acid (5 mg/day) were added, and the patient subsequently responded to electrolyte replacement treatment. The patient was discharged on day26 with a home-care plan. Conclusion: In patients with malnutrition, thiamin replacement should be given before starting nutrition to prevent RS. Energy intake should be 10kcal/kg/day at the start, and be gradually increased between days 4-10. Hemodynamic-laboratory parameters should be closely monitored. All these measures may be life-saving for patients at high risk.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnant women during
           preterm labor
    • Abstract: Bhupornvivat, Nalina; Phupong, Vorapong
      Background and Objectives: Pregnancy complications hypothesized to be related to vitamin D include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, preterm delivery, Cesarean section and infectious disease. There have been a few studies which have demonstrated maternal serum vitamin D to be associated with preterm labor. The objective was to evaluate the serum vitamin D concentrations in Thai pregnant women with and without preterm labor and to find the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in both groups. Methods and Study Design: Blood samples were collected from pregnant women with and without preterm labor (matched for gestational age). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence method. Results: A total of 60 pregnant women were included into the study, 30 patients in the preterm labor group and another 30 patients in the control group. The serum 25-OHD concentration was 21.0?7.5 ng/mL and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 48.3% in total group of pregnant women. The serum 25- OHD concentrations were not different between the preterm labor and the control groups (20.9+-8.4 vs 21.2+-6.7 ng/mL, p=0.91). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were not different between the preterm labor and the control groups (53.3% vs 43.3%, p=0.44 and 83.3% vs 90%, p=0.45, respectively). Conclusion: The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were not different between the preterm labor and the control groups. The serum 25-OHD could not predict preterm labor in this Thai population.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with
           excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia
    • Abstract: Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li
      Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. Methods and Study Design: We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (p
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Diet quality and eating behavioural patterns in
           preschool children in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Yip, Pui-Sze; Chan, Vivian Wai-Yen; Lee, Queenie Kwan-Yee; Lee, Hang-Mei
      Background and Objectives: To assess the diet quality and eating behaviour of preschool children, investigate parents' feeding practices, and obtain information on the kindergarten nutrition environment of Hong Kong children aged 30-60 months. Methods and Study Design: Dietary information was obtained using multiple 24-hour recalls. Questionnaires were developed to obtain information on children' seating behaviour, parents' feeding practices and preschool nutrition environment. Results: A total of 302 children and 23 local kindergartens from three regions of Hong Kong were surveyed. The results showed consumption of vegetable and fruit were adequate; however, consumption of grain and meat were excessive, while milk and dairy intakes were inadequate. On average, the children consumed 1,280 kcal per day, or 92% of the Chinese Nutrition Society's energy recommendation. For macronutrients, the mean percentages of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat were 55%, 17% and 28%, respectively, which are within the United States Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The mean intakes of carbohydrate and protein were 175 g and 53.4 g, respectively. For micronutrients, the mean intakes of vitamin D, calcium, iron and zinc were significantly lower than the reference nutrient intake or adequate intake (p
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Meal services after the Great East Japan Earthquake at
           nursery schools in a tsunami-affected town: Focus group observations
    • Abstract: Amitani, Yukiko; Sudo, Noriko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Ishikawa, Fumiko; Sako, Kazuko
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to collect information on experiences in the Great East Japan Earthquake (hereafter, 3.11), current preparedness, and barriers to building up stockpiles in nursery schools in affected areas. Based on the needs heard from the staff, we decided what contents should be included in our manual developed with the Japan Dietetic Association. Methods and Study Design: A group interview was held in September 2012. We interviewed a principal, nurses, and registered dietitians working for a public and a private nursery school in Town A. We also invited an administrative dietitian who was an employee of Town A. Results: One of the barriers to building up stockpiles was that they did not have any idea of what and how many items they should store. To deal with this situation, we developed a formula that could be used to calculate the quantity of stockpiles for their facilities in a newly developed feeding manual. In terms of current preparedness, the registered dietitians were not prepared for alternative menus in emergencies or how to manage garbage when the garbage collection was disrupted by disasters. The manual recommends to obtain the services of at least two food service personnel and spare space for storing filled garbage bags until garbage collection resumes. Conclusion: Some improvements in stocks were found in both of the public and private nursery schools. To improve the situation further, more financial support and detailed guidelines should be provided by the local government and authoritative organizations. Our manual should be a great asset for all nursery schools to improve their stockpiles.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Information exposure and growth monitoring favour
           child nutrition in rural Indonesia
    • Abstract: Sahanggamu, Paulus D; Purnomosari, Lupi; Dillon, Drupadi
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is a health problem among under-five children in Indonesia. The mothers' knowledge on nutrition and health in addition to growth monitoring program are essential components that may influence nutritional status of children under-five. The objective was to observe the importance of maternal information exposure along with growth monitoring program to the nutritional status of children in rural areas. Methods and Study Design: A cross sectional study of 233 randomly selected mothers of under-five children from different geographical rural settings in Indonesia were interviewed and observed as to their exposure to nutrition and health information, growth monitoring program and nutritional status of the children. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 50.5%, 18.0%, and 28.4%, respectively. The mean of height-for-age z score was similar across villages, however, the mean of weight-for-age (p=0.039) and weightfor- height (p=0.047) were significantly lower in Kenduren compared with Karangrejo village. The possession of a growth monitoring card in Kenduren was significantly lower compared with Karangrejo (p
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Household dietary diversity and child stunting in East
           Java, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Mahmudiono, Trias; Sumarmi, Sri; Rosenkranz, Richard R
      Background and Objectives: More than one-quarter of under-five children in the developing world are stunted, and those with poor nutrient intake are at risk of irreversible cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting in an Indonesian context. Methods and Study Design: Dietary diversity was assessed using a maternal-reported checklist of 12 food groups, summed as a Household Dietary Diversity Score. Stunting was defined as =-2.0 height-for-age z-score by WHO-Anthro 2005. Trained interviewers administered the household dietary diversity questionnaire to 768 households with children aged
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Associations between socio-demographic characteristics
           and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children
           in Selangor, Malaysia
    • Abstract: Chong, Lin Siew; Chin, Yit Siew; Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
      Background and Objectives: To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children. Methods and Study Design: Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors. The Pubertal Development Scale and the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) were used to assess pubertal status and disordered eating, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of disordered eating. Results: The prevalence of disordered eating was 30.8% (32.8% in boys and 29.7% in girls). However, the sex difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant. Age, ethnicity and pubertal status were significantly associated with disordered eating in univariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, being either in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=8.64) and older age group (adjusted OR=2.03) were risk factors of disordered eating. However, among girls, being a Malay (adjusted OR=3.79) or Indian (adjusted OR=5.04) in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=2.34) and older age group (adjusted OR=1.53) were risk factors of disordered eating. Conclusion: This study found one in three children had disordered eating. Since ethnicity and pubertal status were identified as risk factors, ethnicity-specific intervention programs on the prevention of disordered eating among children should take into consideration their pubertal status.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Serum uric acid levels in non-alcoholic steatosis
           patients: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Huang, Fan; Liu, Anding; Fang, Haoshu; Geng, Xiaoping
      Background and Objectives: Experimental and observational studies suggest a role for increased uric acid in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to systematically review the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and NAFLD. Method and Study Design: We used PubMed, and the EMBASE database to identify all applicable studies through November 2015. We used the weighted mean difference (WMD) to demonstrate the differences between the control and NAFLD groups in continuous data. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data using the Mantel-Haenszel method. A total of 16 observational studies were identified and used for the analysis of continuous data, and 4 studies were analyzed for dichotomous data. Results: The WMD was 52.3 (95% CI: 39.0, 65.5, p
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Positive association between metabolic syndrome and
           serum uric acid in Wuhan
    • Abstract: Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The objective was to determine whether serum uric acid concentrations were associated with metabolic syndrome in a population from Wuhan. Methods and Study Design: 5,628 subjects (2,838 men, 2,790 women) aged 18-80 years were recruited in Wuhan, China. Biochemical parameters of venous blood were measured by standard methods and metabolic syndrome was defined by Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression. Results: 8.2% of the included subjects were confirmed as having metabolic syndrome and 14.4% were confirmed as having hyperuricemia. After multivariable adjustment, logistic regression showed the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentration was 2.84 (95% CI: 2.09-3.86) compared with those in the lowest quartile and no gender difference was found. For each component of metabolic syndrome, subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentrations had increased multivariable odds ratios for high BMI (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.71-3.98), for hypertension (OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.93-3.86), for dyslipidemia (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.98-3.14), but not for hyperglycemia (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.87-1.67). Conclusions: Odd ratio of metabolic syndrome was significantly positively associated with serum uric acid concentration among the present sample of 5,628 subjects in Wuhan.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - How do health behaviours relate to dietary practice
           patterns among Japanese adults?
    • Abstract: Mishra, Gita D; Lee, Jung Su; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi
      Background and Objectives: To identify dietary practice patterns for Japanese adults and investigate the links between health behaviours and these patterns. Methods and Study Design: A random sample, stratified according to area, sex, and age, of 4570 adults aged 20-80 years completed a survey conducted in 2011 in a city, in Yamagata Prefecture, Northeast Japan. Results: Cluster analysis of 16 dietary practice items revealed four patterns labelled as: low fat, sugar, or salt; emphasis on nutrition; regular breakfast and staples; and meals not snacks. Findings from multiple linear regression analyses showed that those not engaged in habitual physical exercise had lower scores on low fat, sugar, or salt (beta coefficient -0.22: 95% confidence intervals -0.30, -0.14); emphasis on nutrition (-0.17: -0.25, -0.09); meals not snacks; (-0.38: -0.46, -0.3) that other participants. Current smokers had lower scores than never smokers on low fat, sugar, or salt (-0.23: -0.32, -0.14); emphasis on nutrition (-0.28: -0.37, -0.19); regular breakfast and staples (-0.42: -0.51, -0.33) patterns. Compared with nondrinkers, those who had reduced their consumption of alcohol had higher scores on low fat, sugar, or salt (0.19: 0.09, 0.29) and emphasis on nutrition (0.17: 0.07, 0.27). These relationships were adjusted for other dietary practice patterns, sociodemographic factors, body mass index, and the presence of major illness or pain. Conclusions: Findings support an integrated and targeted approach as part of public health policy by considering links between dietary practices and other health behaviours, such as habitual exercise and smoking behaviour that may facilitate changes in dietary practices.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Where is Nepal in the nutrition transition?
    • Abstract: Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Marais, Debbi; Newlands, David
      Background and Objective: Nutrition transition is rapid in developing countries, but Nepalese transition is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe nutrition transition in Nepal over the past 40 years by identifying the shifts in the Nepalese diets and nutritional status and the underlying shifts associated with this. Methods and Study Design: Popkin's framework was used to identify shifts in Nepalese diet and the inter-relationship of diet with epidemiological, demographic and economic shifts. The current study used quantitative methodology including secondary data analysis based on food balance sheets, economic surveys and the government databases. Results: The Nepalese diet is shifting away from agricultural staple based foods to modern processed foods with higher total energy, total fat, and sugar. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases are increasing. Urbanisation is rapid and nutrition transition already advanced in urban area. The Nepalese economic structure has also changed shifting away from agricultural food supply system towards modern processing based food supply system. These changes in the Nepalese diet are triggered by income and urbanisation. The trade liberalisation has made processed foods, edible oil and sugar easily available at supermarkets and fast food outlets. Conclusion: It is clear that Nepal has now entered into the fourth stage of nutrition transition according to Popkin's framework. As a result, overweight, obesity and the prevalence of many non-communicable diseases are all rapidly growing. A further study is recommended to identify whether urban versus rural, rich versus poor and educated versus uneducated families are experiencing the transition in similar way.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic
           responses to 'Hibiscus sabdariffa' L. and 'Gynostemma pentaphyllum' Makino
           tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects
    • Abstract: Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn
      Background and Objectives: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms. Methods and Study Design: Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined, and APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results: E4 (p=0.008) and homozygous B1B1 (p=0.010) carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C concentrations after HS consumption; in addition, B2 carriers who consumed HS showed significantly decreased triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p=0.039). Regarding GP consumption, non-E4 carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C (p=0.009) and FBG (p=0.042) concentrations. Furthermore, B2 carriers had significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.045), HDL-C (p=0.004), and FBG (p=0.026) concentrations. Conclusions: HS consumption may have beneficial effects with respect to TG concentrations in the B2 carriers, but it may adversely affect HDL-C concentrations in homozygous B1B1 and E4 carriers. In contrast, GP consumption may have favorable effects on TC and FBG concentrations but not on HDL-C concentrations for B2 and/or non-E4 carriers.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Taking action against malnutrition in Asian healthcare
           settings: An initiative of a Northeast Asia study group
    • Abstract: Higashiguchi, Takashi; Arai, Hidenori; Claytor, Ling Hui; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Kotani, Joji; Lee, Shyh-Dye; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Nogami, Tetsushi; Peng, Nanhai
      Malnutrition is common in Asia, especially among people who are critically ill and/or older. Study results from China, Japan, and Taiwan show that malnutrition or risk of malnutrition is found in up to 30% of communitydwelling people and as much as 50% of patients admitted to hospitals-with prevalence even higher among those older than 70 years. In Asia, malnutrition takes substantial tolls on health, physical function, and wellbeing of people affected, and it adds huge financial burdens to healthcare systems. Attention to nutrition, including protein intake, can help prevent or delay disease- and age-related disabilities and can speed recovery from illness or surgery. Despite compelling evidence and professional guidelines on appropriate nutrition care in hospital and community settings, patients' malnutrition is often overlooked and under-treated in Asian healthcare, as it is worldwide. Since the problem of malnutrition continues to grow as many Asian populations become increasingly "gray", it is important to take action now. A medical education (feedM.E.) Global Study Group developed a strategy to facilitate best-practice hospital nutrition care: screen-intervene-supervene. As members of a newly formed feedM.E. Northeast Asia Study Group, we endorse this care strategy, guiding clinicians to screen each patient's nutritional status upon hospital admission or at initiation of care, intervene promptly when nutrition care is needed, and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans, including post-discharge. To encourage best-practice nutrition in Asian patient care settings, our paper includes a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway (NCP) in multiple languages.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Total diet score as a valid method of measuring diet
           quality among older adults
    • Abstract: Russell, Joanna C; Flood, Victoria M; Sadeghpour, Ali; Gopinath, Bamini; Mitchell, Paul
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of a diet quality measurement tool, the Total Diet Score (TDS) using two validation methods; firstly the TDS calculated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was compared to the TDS calculated from weighed food records (WFRs); secondly the TDS was compared to a number of dietary biomarkers. Methods and Study Design: Data were collected from a population based cohort study located in the Blue Mountains region of Sydney, Australia. To compare dietary assessment tools, a sub sample of 75 subjects (aged 63 to 83 years) completed the FFQ and three, four-day WFRs at baseline. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2897 subjects at the first follow up in 1997-1999. TDS scores were calculated from both WFRs and FFQs. Methods to compare FFQ TDS scores to WFR TDS scores included paired t-tests, Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots, joint classification quartiles and weighted kappa scores. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between TDS and biomarkers. Results: No significant mean difference was found between FFQ TDS and WFRs TDS (p=0.63) with a significant positive correlation seen between the two methods (r=0.75, p
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic
           syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults
    • Abstract: Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung
      Background and Objectives: There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults. Methods and Study Design: Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892). Results: Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of =7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets. Conclusions: This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Serum zinc evolution in dysphagic patients that
           underwent endoscopic gastrostomy for long term enteral feeding
    • Abstract: Santos, Carla Adriana; Fonseca, Jorge; Lopes, Maria Teresa Martins; Guerreiro, Antonio Sousa
      Background and Objectives: Patients undergoing endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) present with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) but little is known about zinc status. Our aim was to evaluate serum zinc, its relationship with serum proteins and with the nature of the underlying disorder, during the first 3 months of PEG feeding. Methods and Study Design: Prospective observational study during a 3-month period after gastrostomy. Data was collected at initial PEG procedure (T0), after 4 (T1) and 12 weeks (T3). Initial evaluation included: age, gender, disorder causing dysphagia, Neurological Dysphagia (ND) or Head and Neck Cancer (HNC), NRS-2002, BMI, albumin, transferrin, zinc. At T1 and T3, a blood sample was collected for zinc, albumin, transferrin. Serum zinc evaluation was performed with ICP-AES - Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Patients were fed with homemade meals. Results: A total of 146 patients (89 males), 21-95 years were studied: HNC-56, ND-90 and low BMI in 78. Initial low zinc in 122; low albumin in 77, low transferrin in 94; low values for both proteins in 66. Regarding the serum protein evolution, their levels increase T0-T3, most patients reaching normal values. zinc has a slower evolution, most patients still displaying low zinc at T3. Significant differences between the 3 moments for zinc (p=0.011), albumin (p
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - The influence of protein provision in the early phase
           of intensive care on clinical outcomes for critically ill patients on
           mechanical ventilation
    • Abstract: Song, Joo Han; Lee, Ho Sun; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jie Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo
      Background and Objectives: Mechanically ventilated patients often face progressive and rapid losses of body mass and muscle because of hypermetabolism and increased protein catabolism. To investigate the impact of adequate nutritional provision during the early phase of intensive care unit (ICU) admission on the clinical outcomes in patients with medical illnesses receiving mechanical ventilation support. Methods and Study Design: Two hundred and eleven mechanically ventilated patients admitted to a 30-bed medical ICU were included. Three groups, based on nutrition intake, were examined: adequate protein intake (aPI), n=34; insufficient protein intake/ adequate energy intake (iPI/aEI), n=25; insufficient protein and energy intake (iPI/iEI), n=152. Results: Patients' mean age was 65 14 years; body mass index, 22 4; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 24 7. The aPI group had significantly lower rates of in-ICU (14.7%) and in-hospital (23.5%) mortality than patients with insufficient protein intake: in-ICU mortality, iPI/aEI, 36%; iPI/iEI, 44.1% (p=0.006); in-hospital mortality, iPI/aEI, 56.0%; iPI/iEI, 52.0% (p=0.008). In the multivariate analysis, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 60-day survival were 2.59 (1.02-6.59; p=0.046) and 2.88 (1.33-6.26; p=0.008) for the iPI/aEI and iPI/iEI groups, respectively. Conclusions: Despite possible selection bias owing to the retrospective nature of the study, achievement of >90% of target protein intake was associated with improved ICU outcomes in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, based on real-world clinical circumstances.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Is low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D a possible link
           between pulmonary tuberculosis and type 2 diabetes?
    • Abstract: Wang, Qiuzhen; Ma, Aiguo; Han, Xiuxia; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhao, Shanliang; Liang, Hui; Cai, Jing; Kok, Frans J; Schouten, Evert G
      Background and Objectives: Although vitamin D is implicated in the generation of anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin, which plays a key role against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes (DM), its role in the co-existence of these two diseases (PTB-DM) is still uncertain. This study explored the association of vitamin D status with prevalent PTB, PTB-DM and DM. Methods and Study Design: We randomly selected 130 PTB patients, 90 PTB-DM, 91 DM and 134 controls. Serum 25(OH)D was determined. A structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were administered. Results: Serum 25(OH)D in PTB and PTB-DM were 12.2+-2.2 ng/mL and 12.9+-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, which were lower than those in DM and control groups. Odds ratios of PTB and PTB-DM comparing extreme quartiles of 25(OH)D (lower than 8.6 ng/mL versus >=26.6 ng/mL) were 3.26 and 2.27, respectively. These associations remained after adjustment for possible risk factors [OR (95% CI)=4.73 (2.04-10.9) and 2.50 (1.04-6.02), respectively]. A synergistic interaction was observed between low 25(OH)D and underweight in respect to prevalent PTB-DM [OR=24.6 vs 2.50 for lowest quartile of 25(OH) D and 4.59 for underweight]. Conclusions: Odds ratios of low serum 25(OH)D for PTB and PTB-DM were greater than 1.0, and were even much greater when combined with underweight. However, since the association of serum 25(OH)D with PTB was stronger than with PTB-DM, we could not draw the conclusion that vitamin D is a link between PTB and DM.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Health insurance or subsidy has universal advantage
           for management of hospital malnutrition unrelated to GDP
    • Abstract: Klek, Stanislaw; Chourdakis, Michael; Abosaleh, Dima Abdulqudos; Baik, Hyun Wook; Baptista, Gertrudis; Barazzoni, Rocco; Fukushima, Ryoji; Hartono, Josef; Jayawardena, Ranil; Garcia, Rafael Jimenez; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nyulasi, Ibolya; Parallada, Gabriela; Francisco, Eliza Mei Perez; Panisic-Sekeljic, Marina; Perman, Mario; Prins, Arina; del Rio Requejo, Isabel Martinez; Reddy, Ravinder; Singer, Pierre; Sioson, Marianna; Ukleja, Andrew; Vartanian, Carla; Fuentes, Nicolas Velasco; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Zoungrana, Steve Leonce; Galas, Aleksander
      Background and Objectives: Protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition are global public health problems which, when not prevented and severe, require medical management by clinicians with nutrition expertise, preferably as a collectively skilled team, especially when disease-related. This study aimed to investigate barriers and facilitators of clinical nutrition services (CNS), especially the use of oral, enteral (EN) and parenteral (PN) nutrition in institutional and home settings. Methods and Study Design: An international survey was performed between January and December 2014 in twenty-six countries from all continents. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to 28 representatives of clinical nutrition (PEN) societies, 27 of whom responded. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding a country's economy, reimbursement for CNS, education about and the use of EN and PN. Results: The prevalence of malnutrition was not related to gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita (p=0.186). EN and PN were used in all countries surveyed (100%), but to different extents. Reimbursement of neither EN nor PN use depended on GDP, but was associated with increased use of EN and PN in hospitals (p=0.035), although not evident for home or chronic care facilities. The size of GDP did not affect the use of EN (p=0.256), but it mattered for PN (p=0.019). Conclusions: A worldwide survey by nutrition support societies did not find a link between national economic performance and the implementation of medical nutrition services. Reimbursement for CNS, available through health insurance systems, is a factor in effective nutrition management.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Association between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and
           dairy intake and a reduction in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in
           Qingdao, China
    • Abstract: Liang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanlei; Xue, Aili; Sun, Jianping; Song, Xin; Xue, Bai; Ji, Fuling; Gao, Weiguo; He, Liang; Pang, Zengchang; Qiao, Qing; Ning, Feng
      Background and Objectives: Fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this relationship is unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and type 2 diabetes prevalence in a Chinese population. Methods and Study Design: A total of 4,343 individuals aged 35-74 years participated in a population-based cross-sectional study in Qingdao, China. The frequency and quantity of fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake were determined using a standard food frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was classified according to the WHO/IDF 2006 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate odds ratio (OR) for type 2 diabetes in relation to fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake in a multivariable model. Results: The multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) for the presence of type 2 diabetes were 0.68 (0.46-0.98), 0.50 (0.37-0.68), and 0.91 (0.66-1.25), respectively, for the highest versus the lowest groups regarding total fruit and vegetable, fruit or vegetable intake in women. The ORs for type 2 diabetes prevalence regarding the quantity of fruit and vegetable, fruit, and yogurt intake were 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.71 (0.61-0.82), and 0.56 (0.32-0.98) in women, but not in men. Seafood consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk in men, but not in women; the corresponding figures were 0.58 (0.35-0.96) and 0.92 (0.63-1.36), respectively. Conclusions: Fruit, vegetable, and yogurt intake in women and seafood intake in men were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes prevalence in this Chinese population. These findings require confirmation in a prospective study.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Identification of dietary patterns and their
           relationships with general and oral health in the very old
    • Abstract: Osawa, Yusuke; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Michiyo; Hirata, Takumi; Kawasaki, Midori; Abe, Yukiko; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi
      Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian populations aged =85 years and their associated factors. Thus, we aimed to (1) identify these dietary patterns and (2) clarify the relationships between the dietary pattern and health outcomes in a community-dwelling very old population. The Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health study is an observational cohort study comprising 512 Japanese subjects (women, n=288; men, n=224; age, 87.8+-2.2 years). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Barthel index, Mini-Mental State Examination, and oral health status [maximum occlusal force (MOF), denture use, and dentulous / edentulous state] were also measured. Two dietary patterns were identified. The first factor component "traditional Japanese" was characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, seaweed, legumes, and fish. The second factor component "noodles and confectioneries" was characterized by a high consumption of noodles, confectioneries, and non-alcoholic beverages. Multivariable analysis showed that the "traditional Japanese" dietary pattern was inversely associated with dentulous state (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34-0.82), the lowest tertile of MOF (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.99), and denture use (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.26- 4.63) even after adjustment for potential confounders. Furthermore, the "noodles and confectioneries" dietary pattern was inversely associated with the lowest tertile of MOF (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40-0.94). However, there were no significant associations between these dietary patterns and disability or cognitive function. We identified two dietary patterns in the very old population, which were associated with oral health status.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of
           lung cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Zhu, Yong-Jian; Bo, Ya-Cong; Liu, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Chun-Guang
      Background and Objectives: Several epidemiological studies investigating the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of lung cancer have demonstrated inconsistent results. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to summarise evidence of the association of dietary vitamin E intake with the risk of lung cancer. Methods and Study Design: In this meta-analysis, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1955 to April 2015. If p50%, a random effect model was used to estimate overall relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Otherwise, a fixed effect model was applied. Publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot and Egger's test. The doseresponse relationship was assessed using the method of restricted cubic splines with 4 knots at percentiles 5, 35, 65, and 95 of the distribution. Results: The pooled RR of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary vitamin E intake was 0.84 (95% CI=0.76-0.93). With every 2 mg/d increase in dietary vitamin E intake, the risk of lung cancer statistically decreased by 5% (RR=0.95, 95% CI =0.91-0.99, plinearity=0.0237). Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that higher dietary vitamin E intake exerts a protective effect against lung cancer.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - 'Her shape' intervention programme for obese women
           with high breast adiposity
    • Abstract: Juliana, Norsham; Shahar, Suzana; Sahar, Mohd Azmani; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Md Noah, Rahim
      Background and Objectives: Nutrition and physical activity interventions is beneficial in reversing obesity. However far too little attention has been paid to the effect of these interventions on breast tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of a home-based dietary and physical activity intervention (the Her Shape Program) on metabolic parameters, blood biomarkers and adiposity at the breast. Methods and Study Design: A randomized controlled study was conducted on obese women with high breast adiposity (
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to
           improve micronutrient intake in Asia: A review of simulation, nutrient
           retention and sensory studies
    • Abstract: Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten AG; Pachon, Helena
      Background and Objectives: Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles. Methods and Study Design: A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour. Results: Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics. Conclusions: The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

      PubDate: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 22:54:09 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Relationship of aging and nutritional status to innate
           immunity in tube-fed bedridden patients
    • Abstract: Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Tashiro, Tomoe; Yamamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Katayose, Kozo; Kohga, Shin; Takase, Mitsunori; Imawari, Michio
      Background and Objectives: Aging and malnutrition are known to influence immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of aging and malnutrition to innate immune functions in tube-fed bedridden patients. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 71 tube-fed bedridden patients aged 50-95 years (mean age+-SD, 80.2+-8.5 years) with serum albumin concentrations between 2.5 and 3.5 g/dL. We evaluated associations of age and nutritional variables with natural-killer cell activity, neutrophilphagocytic activity, and neutrophil-sterilizing activity. Nutritional variables included body mass index, weightadjusted energy intake, total lymphocyte count, and serum concentrations of albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and zinc. Results: Natural-killer cell activity, neutrophil-phagocytic activity, and neutrophil-sterilizing activity were normal or increased in 67 (94%), 63 (89%), and 69 (97%) patients, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis with a backward elimination method showed that natural-killer cell activity correlated negatively with aging and lymphocyte counts (p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - The impact of implementation of an enteral feeding
           
    • Abstract: Kim, Seoung-Hyun; Park, Chi-Min; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Choi, Mingew; Lee, Dae-Sang; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rha, Miyong; Yu, Soyoung; Lee, Seonhye; Kim, Eunmee; Cho, YoungYun
      Background and Objectives: The optimal delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) may improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients; thus, optimal EN protocols should be developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an EN protocol on the improvement of EN practices and on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. Methods and Study Design: This was a retrospective study with prospectively collected data. Multidisciplinary working group developed an evidence-based EN protocol based on an extensive review of literature and existing guidelines. Subjects included patients consecutively admitted to the ICU who received EN for more than 24 hours. EN practices and clinical outcomes were compared before and after implementation of the protocol. Results: A total of 270 patients were included, 134 patients before implementation and 136 after implementation of the protocol. EN was initiated earlier (35.8 vs 87.1 hours, p=0.001) and more patients received EN within 24 hours (59.6% vs 41.0%, p=0.002) after implementation of the protocol. The interval between starting EN and reaching the caloric goal was not different, but more patients reached the caloric goal after implementation (52.2% vs 38.3%, p=0.037). The post-implementation group was given more prokinetics and less parenteral nutrition. The incidences of diarrhea and gastrointestinal bleeding significantly decreased following implementation of the protocol. There was no difference in clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality and length of hospital and ICU stay. Conclusion: The implementation of the EN protocol significantly improved the practices of EN and decreased complications in critically ill patients. Clinical outcomes were not different before and after implementation.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Nasoenteric tube versus jejunostomy for enteral
           nutrition feeding following major upper gastrointestinal operations: A
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Wang, Lidong; Tian, Zhong; Liu, Yuan
      Background and Objectives: Following major upper gastrointestinal surgical procedures, early enteral nutrition to the jejunum is strongly recommended, either through a nasoenteric tube or a percutaneous transperitoneal jejunal feeding tube (jejunostomy). However, to date there has been no consensus as to the best enteral feeding strategy. Our aim was to determine the safest and most efficacious early enteral nutrition supplement strategy following major upper gastrointestinal operations. Methods and Study Design: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for comparison of trials. The primary outcome analyzed was length of postoperative hospital stay, and secondary outcomes were: duration of enteral nutrition, time to resumption of normal oral intake, and tube dislodgement, tube leakage and tube obstruction complications. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: A total of 5 studies were included with 420 patients in all. The length of hospital stay, duration of enteral nutrition and the time to resumption of normal oral intake were all significantly shorter in the nasoenteric group (p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Initial energy supplementation in critically ill
           patients receiving enteral nutrition: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Abstract: Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Xia, Xianfeng; Wang, Xinying
      Background and Objectives: Here we systematically reviewed and quantitatively analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the important initial outcomes of critically ill adults receiving low- and highenergy enteral nutrition. Methods and Study Design: RCTs comparing low- and high-energy supplementation in critically ill adults receiving enteral nutrition admitted to the intensive care unit for an expected stay of >48 h were included. s submitted to major scientific meetings were included and the primary endpoint was mortality. The risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the effect measures. Results: Eleven RCTs (3,212 patients) were included. The groups did not differ significantly in mortality (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.11; p=0.47), infections morbidity (RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.95-1.26; p=0.23), pneumonia morbidity (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.88-1.23; p=0.68), hospital length of stay (WMD -0.27; 95% CI -3.21 to 3.76; p=0.88), intensive care unit length of stay (WMD -0.32; 95% CI, -1.81 to 1.16; p=0.46), mechanical ventilation days (WMD -0.30; 95% CI-1.42 to 0.82; p=0.60). The incidence of gastrointestinal intolerance was significantly lower in the low-energy group (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - The geriatric nutritional risk index may predict
           healthcare costs and health transitions during hemodialysis in China
    • Abstract: Dou, Yanna; Wang, Pei; Yuan, Fangfang; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Liu, Zhangsuo
      Background and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the relationship between the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) at baseline and healthcare costs of three-month as well as the risk of quality-of-life score at the 6-month follow-up for Chinese hemodialysis patients. Methods and Study Design: One hundred patients who had been on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. The general characteristics, laboratory test results and GNRI of the patients at baseline were recorded. The healthcare costs and quality-of-life scores were determined at the follow-up examination. Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to their median GNRI at baseline: a lower GNRI group (GNRI 86.4). The patients in the lower GNRI group exhibited reduced hemoglobin (74.7+-13.1 g/dL vs 82.3+-15.2 g/dL, p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Peripherally inserted central venous
           catheter-associated complications exert negative effects on body weight
           gain in neonatal intensive care units
    • Abstract: Wen, Jie; Yu, Qun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Niannian; Huang, Shourong; Cai, Wei
      Background and Objectives: The placement of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is an essential procedure in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of PICC complications in NICU, and further identify the effects of PICC complications on body weight gain in premature infants. Methods and Study Design: A total of 304 premature infants who had a PICC inserted in NICU were enrolled in this study. The weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at the time of PICC insertion and removal were calculated, and changes of WAZ in different groups were compared using a t-test. Risk factors for PICC complications were assessed using the chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Thirty (9.97%) PICCs were removed due to complications. Of them, 14 PICCs were removed because of non-infectious complications and 16 PICCs were removed for central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that premature infants with birth weight >1,500 g were less likely to have PICC complications than infants with birth weight
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Characteristics of food group intake by household
           income in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan
    • Abstract: Nishi, Nobuo; Horikawa, Chika; Murayama, Nobuko
      This study examines the relationship between of food group intake and household income in a representative Japanese population. A total of 11,015 subjects (5,127 men and 5,888 women) aged 20 to 79 years, in 5,475 households who were part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 were analyzed. Dietary intake was recorded for one day in November for those aged one year and older, from 300 randomly selected survey districts. Household income per year was recorded in the questionnaire in three categories: low (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Iron release from the Lucky Iron fish: Safety
           considerations
    • Abstract: Armstrong, Gavin R; Dewey, Cate E; Summerlee, Alastair JS
      Background and Objectives: The principal objective was to explore in greater detail safety issues with regard to the use of the Lucky Iron Fish (fish) as a treatment for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in women in rural Cambodia. Methods and Study Design: Experiments were done to determine: (1) purity of the iron in the fish by mass spectroscopy; (2) release of iron and contaminants released during boiling in water using inductive-ly-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; (3) the impact of cooking time, acidity and number of fish in acidified water and two types of Khmer soups; and (4) drinkability of the water after boiling with different num-bers of fish. Results: The fish is composed primarily of ferrous iron with less than 12% non-ferrous iron. Con-taminants were either not detectable or levels were below the acceptable standards set by the World Health Or-ganization. The length of time boiling the fish and the acidity of the water increased iron release but even with 5 fish boiled for 60 minutes, iron levels only approached levels where side effects are observed. Boiling one fish in water did not affect the perception of colour, smell or taste of the water but boiling in water with two or more fish resulted in the water being unpalatable which further limits the potential for iron toxicity from using the fish. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Lucky Iron Fish may be a safe treatment for iron deficiency.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Positive association between the metabolic syndrome
           and white blood cell counts in Chinese
    • Abstract: Yang, Hong; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The aim was to investigate the association between peripheral circulating white blood cell count (WBC) and the metabolic syndrome among populations in central China. Methods and Study Design: In the present study, 5,278 subjects (2,412 women, 2,866 men) aged 18-75 years were recruited through a health check program in Wuhan, China. Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured by standard methods and the metabolic syndrome diagnosed as defined by the Chinese Diabetes Society criteria for Chinese. Results: Both WBC counts and prevalence of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in men than in women (p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Associations between depression and unhealthy
           behaviours related to metabolic syndrome: A cross sectional study
    • Abstract: Ohmori, Yumi; Ito, Hiroto; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijo; Miyachi, Motohiko
      Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents. Methods and Study Design: Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia. We defined 'pre- and metabolic syndrome' as the presence of one or more of the three criteria in addition to abdominal obesity. Results: There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of pre- and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the depression group than that in the non-depression group (17.5% vs 9.5%, p=0.046), whereas no such significant association was observed in men. Logistic regression analysis showed that depression was associated with unhealthy behavioural factors differently in men and women. Conclusions: This study revealed that depression was associated with several unhealthy behavioural factors in both men and women, but depression was associated with pre- and metabolic syndrome only in women. These findings suggest that depression may be a warning sign of metabolic syndrome in women with unhealthy behavioural factors. Psychological factors should be considered in addition to the assessment of physical status.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Dietary intake, physical activity, and time management
           are associated with constipation in preschool children in Japan
    • Abstract: Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi
      Background and Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study. Methods and Study Design: Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Children having three or fewer bowel movements per week were considered constipated. Dietary intake data was collected using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children, and information about general lifestyle was collected using a 4-page questionnaire designed for this study. Multivariateadjusted odds ratios for constipation were calculated by logistic regression. Results: Higher dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, p for trend: 0.005), but higher carbohydrate intake was marginally associated with a higher prevalence of constipation. Intake of potatoes, pulses, vegetables, and fruits intake decreased constipation prevalence, whereas higher rice intake was significantly and independently associated with higher prevalence of constipation. Regarding lifestyle factors, high physical activity and sufficient preparation time for breakfast and dinner for guardians were significantly associated with lower prevalence. Prevalence tended to be negatively associated with a higher educational background of the mother. Conclusions: Several lifestyle factors were associated with a lower prevalence of constipation among Japanese preschool children, including dietary fiber intake.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Identifying acceptability and price points for
           purchasing micronutrient powders for children 2 to 5 years old in Nepal
    • Abstract: Gunnala, Rajni; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giriraj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena
      Background and Objective: Little is known about purchasing micronutrient powders (MNP) for children 2-5 years. We describe acceptability for purchasing and price points for MNP for children 2-5 years among caregivers living in districts where free MNP are distributed for children 6-23 months. Methods and Study Design: Crosssectional surveys conducted 3 months after MNP program implementation in 2 districts; 15 months after implementation in 2 different districts. Chi square tests and logistic regression describe associations among sociodemographics and program exposure factors and acceptability of purchasing MNP among 1,261 mothers of children 6-23 months who had heard of MNP. Results: Overall, 77.5% and 86.1% of mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP in the 3 and 15 month surveys, respectively. Positive pricing attitude (PPA) about paying 150 Nepali rupees for 60 sachets of MNP was reported by 66.3% and 73.4% of mothers. Acceptability for purchasing MNP in both time periods increased with higher wealth quintile and higher maternal education; PPA increased with higher maternal education. Controlling for socio-demographics, program exposure factors associated with acceptability for purchasing MNP included: lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake and health worker counselling (3 month surveys); knowledge of benefits of MNP intake and lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake (15 month surveys). Conclusions: Mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP and PPA for older children in Nepal. Differences in acceptability were found across socio-demographics and program exposures. Use of these results and further exploration into actual purchasing behaviour can inform future MNP distribution methods in Nepal.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Nutrient intake and dietary patterns in children 2.5-5
           years of age with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height
    • Abstract: Volger, Sheri; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Ling M; Zhao, Dongmei; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Feng; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Hays, Nicholas P; Yao, Manjiang
      Background and Objectives: Picky eating behaviours are common in young children and may adversely affect dietary intake. This study examined the adequacy of dietary patterns and nutrient intake in preschool-aged children in China and Hong Kong with picky eating behaviours and weight-for-height in the lowest quartile of the WHO Growth Standards. Methods and Study Design: Dietary intake was assessed using baseline 3-day food records from a multicenter, randomized trial in Chinese children (N=151) ages 2.5-5 years characterized as picky eaters by their parents and with weight-for-height 16% of daily energy was derived from foods in the sweets/beverages/snack and the fats/oils groups. Almost 75% of the children met the recommended daily servings of meat/meat substitutes and nearly half met the recommendation for daily servings of fruit. Fewer met the recommendations for daily servings of vegetables (14.7%), milk/milk products (6.3%), and grains and cereals (6.3%). Conclusions: Young children with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height had suboptimal dietary patterns and were at risk for significant dietary and nutrient insufficiencies.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Local food supplementation and psychosocial
           stimulation improve linear growth and cognitive development among
           Indonesian infants aged 6 to 9 months
    • Abstract: Helmizar, Helmizar; Jalal, Fasli; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Achadi, Endang L
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of culturally-relevant food supplementation and psychoso-cial stimulation on infant growth and development. Methods and Study Design: A community-based random-ized controlled trial was conducted in 40 clusters from 5 selected villages in Tanah Datar District of West Su-matera, Indonesia. We assessed 355 infants aged 6 to 9 months at the beginning of the study. The infants were di-vided into 4 groups: 1) Food Supplementation (FS); 2) Psychosocial Stimulation (PS); 3) Food Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation (FS+PS); and 4) Control Group (CG). The formula food supplement was comprised of a variety of local food sources (local MP-ASI) and adjusted for the local habits. The quality of psychosocial stimulation was assessed with the Infant HOME inventory method. Progress at 6 months was assessed by anthro-pometry and the Bayley scores of cognition, language and motor function. Results: There were improvements in linear growth, cognitive and motor development of children in the FS (p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk
           of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Mao, Qi-qi; Lin, Yi-wei; Chen, Hong; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xu, Xin; Xie, Li-Ping
      Background and Objectives: The association between fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk is conflicting and poorly explored. The aim of study was to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Methods and Study Design: Systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to April 2015 were conducted to identify relevant studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects models to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed for studies reporting categorical risk estimates for at least 3 exposure levels. Results: One cohort and thirteen case-control studies were identified. The overall analysis revealed a strong inverse association between risk of pancreatic cancer and high fiber intake (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.61). No publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dose-response analyses showed that the summary OR for an increment of 10 g daily intake of fiber was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92). Conclusion: A high intake of dietary fiber was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Further well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm the inverse association and to identify the dietary fiber types involved.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Does vitamin D affect muscle strength and
           architecture' An isokinetic and ultrasonographic study
    • Abstract: Kara, Murat; Ekiz, Timur; Kara, Ozgur; Tiftik, Tulay; Malas, Fevziye Unsal; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Ozgirgin, Nese
      Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the association between 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and muscle strength/architecture. Methods and study Design: Thirty patients (27 women, 3 men) were allocated into Group I (n=15, mean age; 44.4+-9.4 years) and Group II (n=15, mean age; 39.0+-9.9 years) according to the median of 25(OH)D (< 13.7 ng/mL vs >13.7 ng/mL, respectively). Peak torque/body weight of the knee flexor/extensor muscles at 60 degrees/sec and 180 degrees/sec and those of ankle flexor/ extensor muscles at 30 degrees/sec and 90 degrees/sec were evaluated by using a Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer. A 7-12 MHz linear array probe was used to evaluate thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA) and fascicle length (FL) of medial gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles. Results: Mean of 25(OH)D was 9.4+-2.5 ng/mL and 20.7+-8.3 ng/mL in Groups I and II, respectively. Although all isokinetic strength parameters were lower in Group I, significant differences were found in knee flexion at 180 degrees/sec (p=0.007), knee extension at 30 degrees/sec (p=0.038) and 180 degrees/sec (p=0.001), and ankle extension at 30 degrees/sec (p=0.002) and 90 degrees/sec (p=0.007). On the other hand, no significant difference was found between the groups regarding MT, PA and FL values (all p > 0.05). Conclusion: In light of our results, we can argue that 25(OH)D is associated with muscle strength but not with muscle architecture. Further studies concerning the long-term follow-up effects of 25(OH)D treatment on muscle strength are awaited.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Increased dietary zinc and vitamin B-2 is associated
           with increased alanine aminotransferase in Taiwanese adolescents
    • Abstract: Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chien, Yi-Wen; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su
      Background and Objectives: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is generally used for evaluating liver function, and its concentrations are closely associated with sex and nutritional status. This study investigates the relationships between dietary components and serum ALT activity in Taiwanese adolescents. Methods and Study Design: Data were collected from 1,941 adolescents aged 13-18 years who participated in the fourth National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010-2011, adolescents). Results: The mean age was 15.3+-0.1 y (15.3+-0.1 y for boys and 15.2+-0.1 y for girls). Mean serum ALT was 14.8+-13.3 U/L (17.7+-16.3 U/L for boys and 12.1+-8.7 U/L for girls; p11 U/L for boys and >9 U/L for girls) than those of the reference (presented as zinc T1 and vitamin B-1 T1). Conclusions: Increased dietary zinc and vitamin B-2 intake is associated with higher serum ALT in adolescents.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Recovery of lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS)
           from the intestine of healthy Vietnamese adults after intake of fermented
           milk
    • Abstract: Truong, Mai Tuyet; Duong, Van Hop; Trinh, Trinh Thi Van; Nguyen, Thi Lam
      To demonstrate the gastrointestinal survival of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) in healthy Vietnamese adults, a fermented milk drink containing LcS was administered daily for 14 days. Twenty-six healthy Vietnamese adults took part in the study. Each participant consumed 65 mL of a fermented milk drink containing LcS daily for 14 days. The drink contained a dose of 108 CFU/mL LcS. Fecal samples were collected before, during and after consuming the fermented milk drink. LcS was confirmed by culture and ELISA. After 7 and 14 days of ingesting fermented milk drink, LcS was recovered from fecal samples at average of 5.0 107 CFU/g feces (n=26) and 5.4 107 CFU/g feces (n=26), respectively. LcS persisted in 8 voluteers until day 42 (after 14 days stopping fermented milk drink) at 0.0033 107 CFU/g feces (n=8). We confirmed survival of LcS after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of Vietnamese adults.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - The effects of tomato juice on male infertility
    • Abstract: Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Methods and Study Design: Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Black tea consumption improves postprandial glycemic
           control in normal and pre-diabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled crossover study
    • Abstract: Butacnum, Arisa; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Bumrungpert, Akkarach
      Background and Objectives: Postprandial glycemic control is important for prevention of diabetes. Black tea consumption may improve postprandial glycemic control. The major bioactive compounds are polyphenols, black tea polymerized polyphenol (BTPP).This study examined the effect of black tea consumption on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response following sucrose loading in normal and pre-diabetes subjects. Methods and Study Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Twenty-four subjects, male and female aged 20-60 years, normal and pre-diabetic, randomly ingested a sucrose solution with a low dose (110 mg BTPP), a high dose (220 mg BTPP) of black tea drink or a placebo drink (0 mg BTPP). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min from commencement of drink ingestion to measure blood glucose and insulin levels. Results: The drink containing low dose and high dose BTPP significantly decreased incremental blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) after sucrose intake compared with placebo in the normal (T0-60 min 3,232+-356 vs 3,295+-312 vs 3,652+-454 mg.min/dL; p=0.016) and pre-diabetic subjects (T0-60 min 2,554+-395 vs 2,472+-280 vs 2,888+-502 mg.min/dL; p=0.048). There was no statistically significant difference of changes in insulin levels between the placebo and black tea groups (p > 0.05). No significant differences in adverse effects were observed with the placebo, low dose and high dose of BTPP groups. Conclusion: Black tea consumption can decrease postprandial blood glucose after sucrose intake.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Nutrition assessment and its relationship with
           performance and Glasgow prognostic scores in Vietnamese patients with
           esophageal cancer
    • Abstract: Quyen, Tran Chau; Angkatavanich, Jongjit; Thuan, Tran Van; Xuan, Vo Van; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tu, Do Anh
      Background and Objectives: To determine the nutritional status of patients with esophageal cancer, and to investigate its relationship with performance status and prognosis. Methods and Study Design: This clinical, cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2014 to February 2015 at National Cancer Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Stage III/IV esophageal cancer patients were assessed for their nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and SGA scores, BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC), energy and protein intakes, weight changes, Karnofsky and Eastern cooperative oncology group performance scores (KPS/ECOG), and Glasgow prognostic score (GPS). Results: Sixty-four male patients were enrolled. The mean standard deviation of PG-SGA score was 9.88 4.41. SGA revealed 44% as class B and 6.2% as class C. The BMI revealed 43.8% of patients were underweight. MAC measurement revealed 29.7% of undernourished patients. Patients with an energy intake
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - A prospective study of nutritional supplementation for
           preventing oral mucositis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Okada, Takuya; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Ryotokuji, Tairo; Miyawaki, Yutaka; Hoshino, Akihiro; Tokairin, Yutaka; Kawada, Kenro; Nagai, Kagami; Kawano, Tatsuyuki
      Background and Objectives: Patients undergoing chemotherapy often develop distressing adverse effects such as oral mucositis and diarrhea. Nutritional support with elemental diet is effective against various gastrointestinal complications and may exert protective effects against adverse effects induced by chemotherapy. To evaluate the influence of elemental diet on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and diarrhea, we conducted a randomized control trial in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods and Study Design: Twenty esophageal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil plus cisplatin were assigned randomly to one of the following two groups: (1) receiving elemental diet with Elental (one pack per day) for 14 days and (2) not receiving Elental during chemotherapy. The severity of oral mucositis and diarrhea was graded using clinical examination by doctors and a standard questionnaireon days 1-14. Results: Based on the analysis of the standard questionnaire, the distribution of the maximum severity of oral mucositis showed a statistically significant reduction in the Elental group (p=0.020), while clinical examination showed insignificant reduction but shift toward lower grade. In the Elental group, the incidence of oral mucositis (grade >=2) reduced consistently and the median grade was lower at all-time points. Regarding diarrhea, no difference was observed between the two groups based on the analysis of the standard questionnaire and clinical examination results. Conclusions: This study illustrates the effectiveness of oral elemental diet in preventing oral mucositis during chemotherapy. This is a preliminary report and further study with larger patients groups should be devoted to optimization of efficacy.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - A rapid assessment and response approach for socially
           marketed nutrition commodities in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang
      Background: The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Objectives: Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. Methods and Study Design: A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Results: Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Conclusion: Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Do demographic characteristics influence the eating
           competence of elderly Taiwanese'
    • Abstract: Lee, Kuei-I; Lin, Wan-Teng; Chiang, Wen-Dee
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the association between demographic characteristics and eating competence (EC), "the behaviour and attitudinal conceptualization of eating", among elderly Taiwanese. Methods and Study Design: Random questionnaire survey. Overall, 564 questionnaires were analyzed, and independent t-tests, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, were used to compare the differences in the EC scores when stratified by various demographic variables. Results: The mean score of both EC and non-EC (NEC) for all respondents was 29.3. Younger respondents (65-70 years old) reported significantly higher EC scores than did older respondents (71-76 years old) (p
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Adults and children prefer a plate food guide relative
           to a pyramid
    • Abstract: Talati, Zenobia; Pettigrew, Simone; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S
      Background and Objectives: This study explored attitudes toward two food guides currently being widely used in Australia: the Healthy Eating Pyramid and the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Plate. Methods and Study Design: Ten focus groups were conducted with adults (aged 18+ years) and children (aged 10-17 years) across various locations in Perth, Western Australia. The discussions focused on liked and disliked aspects of each food guide and the implications for participants' perceptions of their relative usefulness. Results: When asked to state their preference, a large majority of participants nominated the plate as their preferred nutrition guide. The style of presentation used for the plate was reportedly clearer and more aesthetically pleasing. The plate was also perceived to be more complex while the pyramid was considered by adults to be more child-friendly. Conclusions: This study provides information on consumers' reactions to different food guides and the implications for perceived relevance and utility.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Comparison of the nutrient-based standards for school
           lunches among South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan
    • Abstract: Kim, Meeyoung; Abe, Satoko; Zhang, Chengyu; Kim, SoYoung; Choi, Jiyu; Hernandez, Emely; Nozue, Miho; Yoon, Jihyun
      Nutritional standards are important guidelines for providing students with nutritionally-balanced school meals. This study compared nutrient-based school lunch standards regulated by South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. The data were collected from relevant literature and websites of each country during September 2014. The number of classification groups of target students was 8, 5, and 5 for South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, respectively. Gender was considered across all age groups in South Korea but only for high school students in Taiwan. Gender was not considered in Japan. Along with energy, the number of nutrients included in the standards for South Korea, Japan and Taiwan was 9, 12, and 4, respectively. The standards for all three countries included protein and fat among macronutrients. The standards for South Korea and Japan included vitamin A, B-1, B-2, and C, while the standards for Taiwan did not include any vitamins. Calcium was the only mineral commonly included in the three standards. The proportions of recommended daily intakes as reference values for each nutrient differed among the countries. Japan differentiated the proportions among 33%, 40%, or 50%, reflecting the target students' intake status of the respective nutrients. Taiwan differentiated either two-fifths or one-third of the recommended daily intakes. South Korea applied the proportion of recommended daily intake as one-third for all selected nutrients. This study could be valuable information for countries in developing nutrient-based standards for school lunches and for South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan in the process of reforming nutrient-based standards.

      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 02:33:07 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Estimating dietary micronutrient supply and the
           prevalence of inadequate intakes from national food balance sheets in the
           South Asia region
    • Abstract: Mark, Henry E; Houghton, Lisa A; Gibson, Rosalind S; Monterrosa, Eva; Kraemer, Klaus
      Micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health concern worldwide with many South Asian countries suffering a significant proportion of the global burden. A lack of nationally representative data on micronutrient deficiencies hampers sustained action to address the problem. Using data on the national food supply produced by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, and international food composition tables, the present study estimated the prevalence of inadequacy of seven micronutrients (vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, zinc and calcium) in seven South Asian countries - Bangladesh, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The estimated average requirement cut-point method was employed to determine the likelihood of inadequate micronutrient intakes. We report multiple micronutrient inadequacies in the food supply in the region, especially in the low and lower-middle income countries. Of the seven micronutrients investigated, calcium had the highest risk levels of inadequacy. Folate, riboflavin, vitamin B-12 and zinc were also deemed to be at high risk of inadequacy, although results differed markedly between countries. Various strategies to combat micronutrient deficiencies are currently underway in these countries. In order to facilitate the implementation of these efforts, the collection of nationally representative nutritional assessment survey data are urgently required to ascertain the true burden of micronutrient malnutrition.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Mediterranean diet adherence and risk of multiple
           sclerosis: A case-control study
    • Abstract: Sedaghat, Fatemeh; Jessri, Mahsa; Behrooz, Maryam; Mirghotbi, Mostafa; Rashidkhani, Bahram
      Background and Objectives: We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study to examine the association between Mediterranean diet (MD) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Iran. Methods and Study Design: A total of 70 patients with MS and 142 controls underwent face-to-face interviews in the major neurological clinics of Tehran, Iran. Adherence to a MD was assessed using the 9-unit dietary score, to evaluate the level of conformity of the individual's diet to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Higher consumption of fruits (OR=0.28, 95% CI: 0.12-0.63, p-value: 0.002) and vegetables (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.10-0.53, p-value: 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced MS risk. In both age adjusted and multivariate adjusted model, the OR of MS decreased significantly in the third as compared to the first tertile of MD score (age adjusted OR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.67; p-trend: 0.01, Multivariate adjusted OR: 0.23, 95% CI: 0.06-0.89, p-trend: 0.04). Conclusions: Our study suggests that a high quality diet assessed by MD may decrease the risk of MS.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Personal behaviors including food consumption and
           mineral supplement use among Japanese adults: A secondary analysis from
           the national health and nutrition survey, 2003-2010
    • Abstract: Sato, Yoko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Takimoto, Hidemi; Nishi, Nobuo; Umegaki, Keizo
      Background and Objectives: A daily mineral supplement is useful for those who are at risk of a deficiency. Some Western reports suggest that mineral supplement users have healthy behaviors and are not mineral-deficient. It is unknown whether the same phenomenon is observed in Japan where there is a different dietary culture. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of personal behaviors including food consumption nationwide among mineral supplement users from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan 2003-2010. Methods and Study Design: Data were obtained from 16,275 adults aged 20-59 years who completed sociodemographic, health status, and 1-day household dietary assessments. Supplement users were compared with non-users. Logistic regression models were utilized to identify the characteristics of food consumption and calcium and iron supplement use, using the medium intake group as a reference. Results: Overall, 2.1% and 1.4% of adults reported using calcium supplements and iron supplements, respectively. Calcium supplement users were more likely to be physically active, non-smokers, and eat less fat compared with non-users. Furthermore, they were more likely than non-users to consume a higher intake of calcium from foods such as tea, vegetables, seaweeds, and fruits. Iron supplement users were more likely than non-users to be non-smokers. These individuals tended to have a high intake of seaweeds and fruits. Conclusions: Japanese adults who had healthier behaviors were more likely to use mineral supplements, especially calcium. Mineral supplement users tended to choose healthy foods such as seaweeds and fruits, without considering their overall mineral consumption.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Fast foods - are they a risk factor for functional
           gastrointestinal disorders'
    • Abstract: Shau, Jian-Ping; Chen, Po-Hon; Chan, Chan-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Wu, Tzee-Chung; James, Frank E; Pan, Wen-Han
      Background and Objectives: Fast-food consumption has greatly increased in Taiwan. Frequent fast food intake is associated with both allergy and obesity. The aim of this study was to describe fast food habit changes, and to assess the relationship between fast food intake and the risk of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) among Taiwanese adolescents. Methods and Study Design: This analysis used data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) of high school students conducted in 2011. A total of 2,042 adolescents (12- 19 years) completed the questionnaire. The survey included the Rome III criteria for FGIDs, translated into Chinese for adolescents. Respondents with previously diagnosed chronic organic gastrointestinal diseases were excluded from the study. Results: In total, 2,034 children were enrolled. 545 subjects (26.8%) had history of at least one FGID. 88.1% of the subjects reported fast foods consumption. A significantly higher prevalence of FGIDs was noted in adolescents with a history of fast foods consumption, compared with those reported not to have ingested fast foods in the past 30 days (27.6% vs 20.6%, p=0.024). An increased risk of FGIDs in children and adolescents was associated with fast food intake (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.78-1.83). Conclusions: FGIDs were common among Taiwanese adolescents. Fast-food consumption may contribute to a positive association with the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Lower fiber intake and more frozen desserts in the diet may be complicit in FGIDs. The findings have public health relevance in regard to the global increase in fast food consumption.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Association between salt and hypertension in rural and
           urban populations of low to middle income countries: A systematic review
           and meta-analysis of population based studies
    • Abstract: Subasinghe, Asvini K; Arabshahi, Simin; Busingye, Doreen; Evans, Roger G; Walker, Karen Z; Riddell, Michaela A; Thrift, Amanda G
      Background and Objectives: The prevalence of hypertension, the greatest contributor to mortality globally, is increasing in low-and-middle income countries (LMICs). In urban regions of LMICs, excessive salt intake is associated with increased risk of hypertension. We aimed to determine whether this is the case in rural regions as well. Methods and Study Design: We performed a meta-analysis of studies in rural and urban areas of LMICs in which the association of salt and hypertension were assessed using multivariable models. Results: We identified 18 studies with a total of 134,916 participants. The prevalence of high salt intake ranged from 21.3% to 89.5% in rural and urban populations. When salt was analysed as a continuous variable, a greater impact of salt on hypertension was found in urban (n=4) (pooled effect size (ES) 1.42, 95% CI 1.19, 1.69) than in rural populations (n=4) (pooled ES 1.07, 95% CI 1.04, 1.10, p for difference
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Dietary diversity no longer offsets the mortality risk
           of hyperhomocysteinaemia in older adults with diabetes: A prospective
           cohort study
    • Abstract: Wahlqvist, Mark L; Xiu, Lili; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Li, Duo
      Background and Objective: The increased mortality risk of hyperhomocysteinaemia in diabetes may be mitigated by dietary quality. Methods and Study Design: The Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan of 1999-2000 for elders formed this prospective cohort. Baseline health status, diet and anthropometry were documented and plasma homocysteine and biomarkers for B vitamins measured. Participants without diabetes (n=985) were referent for those who had diabetes or developed diabetes until 2006 (n=427). The effect of homocysteine on mortality risk during 1999-2008 was evaluated. Results: Men, smokers and those with poorer physical function had higher homocysteine, but less so with diabetes. Diabetes incidence was unrelated to homocysteine. In hyperhomocysteinaemia (=15 vs 4) and lower homocysteine (
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Food cravings, food addiction, and a
           dopamine-resistant (DRD2 A1) receptor polymorphism in Asian American
           college students
    • Abstract: Yeh, Joanna; Trang, Amy; Henning, Susanne M; Wilhalme, Holly; Carpenter, Catherine; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping
      Background and Objectives: In an era where obesity remains an important public health concern, food addiction has emerged as a possible contributor to obesity. The DRD2 gene is the most studied polymorphism. The aim of this study was to investigate a relationship between food addiction questionnaires, body composition measurements, and a dopamine- resistant receptor polymorphism (DRD2 A1) among Asian Americans. Methods and Study Design: A total of 84 Asian American college students were recruited. Participants underwent body composition measurement via bioelectrical impedance, answered questionnaires (Food Craving Inventory and Power of Food Scale), and had blood drawn for genotyping (PCR). Results: There was no difference in body composition (BMI, percent body fat) between the A1 (A1A1 or A1A2) and A2 (A2A2) groups. There were statistically significant differences in food cravings of carbohydrates and fast food on the Food Craving Inventory between the A1 and A2 groups (p=0.03), but not for sugar or fat. Among Asian college females, there was also a difference on the Power of Food questionnaire (p=0.04), which was not seen among men. 13 out of 55 women also had >30% body fat at a BMI of 21.4 to 28.5 kg/m2. Conclusion: Greater carbohydrate and fast food craving was associated with the DRD2 A1 versus A2 allele among Asian Americans. Further studies examining the ability of dopamine agonists to affect food craving and to reduce body fat in Asian American are warranted. More studies in food addiction among obese Asian Americans are needed with careful definition of obesity, specifically for Asian women.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Is jejunostomy output nutrient or waste in short bowel
           syndrome': Experience from six cases
    • Abstract: Liu, Ming-Yi; Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Yang, Hui-Lan; Chang, Sue-Joan
      Background and Objectives: Certain patients who undergo proximal jejunum resection are unable to undergo primary anastomosis and require exteriorization of the proximal jejunum. These patients usually have major problems with short bowel due to the high output of the stoma. The output of a proximal jejunostomy contains abundant amounts of enzymes and electrolytes. Therefore, it is a feasible approach to re-infuse jejunostomy output to regain homeostasis. To evaluate the effects of proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion into the distal small bowel for patients with short bowel syndrome, and to determine whether reinfusion could avoid long-term parenteral nutrition (PN). Methods and Study Design: PN was initiated immediately after surgery. When patients started enteral nutrition, we started the proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion protocol. Proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion was performed by the patients, and continued by them after discharge. When proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion could be performed stably, PN was stopped. Results: The median length of the proximal jejunum was 20 cm and of the distal small bowel was 77.5 cm in patients who could stably receive proximal jejunostomy output reinfusion alone. Three patients did not require home PN; they only required PN during hospitalization. Four patients successfully underwent stoma takedown with intestinal anastomosis after 6-7 months without any nutritional or metabolic complications. Conclusion: Short bowel syndrome patients with an adequate length of small bowel and functional colon could avoid long-term PN by receiving reinfusion of proximal jejunostomy output into the distal small bowel.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Open-labelled observations of language dysfunction in
           old ischemic stroke patients with aphasia when given plant and
           marine-based nutrient supplements for 12 weeks
    • Abstract: Lin, Guan-Yu; Chan, Hsiu-Yu; Cheng, Chun-An; Lin, Lan-Ping; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Hsiao, Pei-Min; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Chih; Lee, Jiunn-Tay
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to explore the effect of functional foods on aphasia related to a previous ischemic stroke. When stroke-related neurological deficits result in physical dependency and poor selfcare that persists longer than 6 months, full recovery is almost impossible and the patient often requires long-term care. The functional foods, EASE123 and BioBalance#6, include numerous plant and marine-based nutrient supplements that could prove beneficial for such patients. Methods and Study Design: This open-labelled study included 10 patients diagnosed with prior ischemic stroke and aphasia lasting longer than 6 months. Each patient was administered 6 tablets of EASE123 at 10:30 AM and at 90 minutes before sleeping, and 3 tablets of BioBalance# 6 at 2:30 PM. After a treatment period of 12 weeks, the patients were followed during a 4-week withdrawal period. Functional improvement was assessed by scores and subscores on the Concise Chinese Aphasia Test (CCAT) at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16. Results: Average total CCAT scores and matching ability improved significantly at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Nutritional risk, malnutrition and nutritional support
           among hospitalized patients in orthopedics/spinal surgery of a Hohhot
           teaching hospital
    • Abstract: Wang, Nannan; Dong, Yalin; Huo, Ting; Shao, Yanqing; Xing, Wenhua; Li, Shuwen
      The evolution of nutritional status (the prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity) and the nutritional support of the hospitalized patients from admission to discharge or over a two-week period in orthopedics/ spinal surgery of a teaching hospital in Hohhot were investigated. 432 patients from two wards of the orthopedics/spinal surgery from Jan to Dec 2013, the traditional spinal surgery and the minimally invasive spinal surgery, were selected and detected in this study. The Nutritional Risk Score 2002 (NRS 2002) was used to determine the patients' nutritional status within 48h after admission and during their hospitalization. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk, malnutrition, overweight and obesity at admission was 11.6%, 12.7%, 35.9% and 7.41%, respectively. Overall, there were 88.0% of the patients who were at nutritional risk received nutritional support, while 14.1% of non-risk patients received a redundant nutritional support. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk changed from 11.6% at admission to 19.4% upon discharge (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Nutrition status and small intestinal bacterial
           overgrowth in patients with virus - related cirrhosis
    • Abstract: Yao, Jia; Chang, Le; Yuan, Lili; Duan, Zhongping
      Malnutrition and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is frequently present in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the direct relationship between SIBO and nutrition status in the LC patients has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association between nutrition status, evaluated by the subjective global assessment (SGA) and SIBO in patients with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) related cirrhosis. A total of 120 patients with HBV or HCV-related cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was determined according to SGA and anthropometry. All patients and healthy controls underwent a glucose hydrogen breath test for SIBO. The prevalence of malnutrition for the patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis ranged 19.4%-60% in China. The highest prevalence of malnutrition was detected by SGA, the lowest by triceps skinfold thickness. The frequency of SIBO was significantly higher in the malnourished (SGA-B/C) than in the well-nourished (SGA-A) patients with HBV or HCV related cirrhosis [41/72 (56.9%) vs 12/48 (25.0%) (p=0.001)]. Univariate analysis showed that SIBO, ascites, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class were associated with malnutrition. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SIBO [odds ratio (OR) 8.10; p=0.002] and ascites (OR 4.56; p=0.022) were independently associated with the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in the same subjects. SIBO is independently related to the occurrence of malnutrition (SGA-B/C) in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis. We deduce that SIBO may play an important role in nutrition status in patients with HBV or HCV cirrhosis.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Prevalence of protein-energy wasting (PEW) and
           evaluation of diagnostic criteria in Japanese maintenance hemodialysis
           patients
    • Abstract: Yasui, Sonoko; Shirai, Yumiko; Tanimura, Mayu; Matsuura, Sayaka; Saito, Yu; Miyata, Kazuaki; Ishikawa, Eiji; Miki, Chikao; Hamada, Yasuhiro
      Background and Objectives: The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) has recently recommended the use of the term "protein-energy wasting" (PEW). PEW is a state of malnutrition with decreased body stores of protein and energy fuel in hemodialysis patients and is known as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. We examined the prevalence of PEW and the characteristics of PEW patients in a hemodialysis center in Japan. Methods and Study Design: Fifty-nine outpatients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at Iga City General Hospital were evaluated. We observed their biochemical data, body composition, dietary intake, and the number of steps prospectively. PEW was defined according to ISRNM criteria. Results: Nine patients (15% of total) were diagnosed as having PEW. Among indicators of PEW criteria, the relevance ratios of "reduced muscle mass" and "unintentional low dietary energy intake" were significantly higher in PEW than in non-PEW. The number of steps was lower, and serum levels of glucose and C-reactive protein were higher in PEW. Conclusion: About 15% of Japanese hemodialysis patients are estimated to have PEW. Our results suggested that major contributing factors to PEW were reduced muscle mass, unintentional low dietary energy intake, lower amount of exercise, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Short-term consequences of continuous renal
           replacement therapy on body composition and metabolic status in sepsis
    • Abstract: Wu, Chao; Wang, Xinying; Yu, Wenkui; Li, Pei; Liu, Sitong; Li, Jieshou; Li, Ning
      Background and Objectives: Fluid overload and hypermetabolism frequently occur in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. These abnormalities correlate with inflammatory mediators released under stressful conditions. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an extracorporeal life support technology that persistently and stably eliminates overhydration and cytokines. This study investigated the short-term consequence of CRRT on body composition and pattern of energy expenditure. Methods and Study Design: We prospectively observed 27 sepsis patients in our ICU treated with CRRT. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and indirect calorimetry were determined at admission and before and after CRRT. All parameters considered to affect body composition and metabolic state with short-term CRRT were recorded. We used correlation analysis to evaluate the relationship between the change of nutritional state and other parameters. Results: Patients had a decreased total body water load and an improved metabolic pattern, but the nutritional parameters had no significant change between pre- and post-CRRT. Furthermore, we observed the percentage variation of resting energy expenditure (REE) was positively correlated with intracellular water change (r=0.547, p=0.003) and CRRT duration (r=0.515, p=0.006). A negative correlation was found between the percentage variation of REE and dialysate temperature (r=-0.668, p=0.001). Conclusion: These results suggest that short-term CRRT reduces systemic volume in sepsis patients with overhydration and hypermetabolism, but has no significant impact on acute nutritional status. Meanwhile, CRRT may exert its optimum efficiency when accompanied by other medical practices and support methods.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Relationship between bone mineral density and alcohol
           consumption in Korean men: The fourth Korea national health and nutrition
           examination survey (KNHANES), 2008-2009
    • Abstract: Hyeon, Jung Hyeon; Gwak, Jong Seop; Hong, Sung Woo; Kwon, Hyuktae; Oh, Seung-Won; Lee, Cheol Min
      Background and Objectives: Drinking is a risk factor of osteoporosis, but controversy surrounds the relationship between alcohol consumption and bone mineral density (BMD). We performed an analysis of the association between alcohol consumption and BMD. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed including 2421 men, aged 40-93 years, who participated in the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-2009. Alcohol intake was determined by self-administered questionnaires, and BMD was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to determine the relationship between alcohol intake and BMD, and ANCOVA was performed after adjusting for age, body mass index, education, household income, smoking status, calcium intake, physical activity, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Results: BMD increased significantly in the lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck with increased alcohol intake (p for trend=0.028,
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Association between perceived stress, alcohol
           consumption levels and obesity in Koreans
    • Abstract: Yoon, Seung-Jin; Kim, Hae-Joon; Doo, Miae
      Background and Objectives: Coping with stress often leads to unhealthy behaviors that can have an impact on the development of obesity. Therefore, this study is investigate the effect of perceived stress level on alcohol consumption habits, as well as the effect of the interaction between alcohol consumption habits and stress level on obesity in Koreans. Methods and Study Design: We analyzed perceived stress, alcohol consumption habits (alcohol consumption status, quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test) and the anthropometrics of 6,229 subjects from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The gender-based differences of the effect of the perceived level of stress on alcohol consumption habits and anthropometric measurements, as well as the interaction of the perceived level of stress and alcohol consumption habits on prevalence or ORs of obesity were analyzed. Results: The subjects with high perceived stress showed higher proportions for unhealthy alcohol consumption habits than those with low perceived stress [ORs (95% CIs)=1.35 (1.19-1.54), 1.95 (1.68-2.26), and 1.87 (1.60-2.19) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Men showed significant interactions between the perceived stress and all alcohol consumption habits with respect to obesity [ORs (95% CIs)=1.28 (1.06-1.55), 1.81 (1.52-2.16), and 1.40 (1.17-1.68) for alcohol consumption status, alcohol consumption quantity, and alcohol use disorders identification test, respectively]. Among women, interactions between the perceived stress and alcohol consumption status [ORs (95% CIs)=0.70 (0.60-0.83)] and alcohol consumption quantity [ORs (95% CIs)=0.93 (0.54-1.36)] in relation to obesity were found to be significant. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the perceived stress influenced alcohol consumption habits that may have impacted obesity.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and
           function among elderly men and women in Shanghai, China: A cross sectional
           study
    • Abstract: Bai, Hui-Jing; Sun, Jian-Qin; Chen, Min; Xu, Dan-Feng; Xie, Hua; Yu, Zhuo-Wei; Bao, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Jie; Pan, Yi-Ru; Lu, Da-Jiang; Cheng, Sulin
      Objective: To investigate the relationship of muscle mass and muscle function with age. Methods and Study Design: The study including 415 participants (aged 60-99 years). Upper (UMM) and lower (LMM) limbs muscle mass and whole body fat free mass (FFM) were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index (ASM/height2) was calculated. Muscle function was assessed by measuring hand grip strength (HGS) and gait speed. Results: Using ASM index cutoff values we found that higher prevalence of sarcopenia in women than in men (33.5% vs 23.6%, p=0.025). In the upper limb, HGS (beta=-0.809) declined more rapidly with age than did UMM (beta=-0.592) in men, but not in women (beta=-0.389 and beta=-0.486 respectively). In the lower limb, gait speed declined more rapidly than LMM in both men (beta=-0.683 vs beta=-0.442) and women (beta=-1.00 vs beta=-0.461). The variance of UMM explained 28-29% of the variance of HGS, and LMM explained 7-8% of the variance of gait speed in women and men respectively. In addition to the common predictors (BMI and age), the specific predictors were smoking, exercise and education for FFM and ASM, and smoking, drinking and exercise for HGS (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - The relationship between obesity indices and serum
           vitamin D levels in Chinese adults from urban settings
    • Abstract: Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Furong; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Chenggang; Yu, Chunxiao; Zhao, Jiajun; Gao, Ling; Xu, Jin
      Background and Objectives: With an increased incidence of obesity in China, this study sought to investigate the correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and adiposity phenotypes in Chinese adults from urban settings. Methods and Study Design: A total of 1277 subjects aged 20-82 years old were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistry panels were measured. Statistical analysis using partial correlation, multivariable regression and covariance were performed to assess the impact of obesity parameters on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Results: After adjustment for age and gender, serum25- hydroxyvitamin D levels were found to be inversely related to body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, body fat, body fat percentage and waist fat to hip fat ratio. In multivariable regression analysis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, body fat, body fat percentage and waist fat/hip fat ratio (p < 0.05), while there was no correlation with body mass index (p > 0.05). After inclusion of body fat, body fat percentage and waist fat to hip fat ratio in one model, only waist fat to hip fat ratio remained significantly associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (p < 0.05). The covariance analysis results showed that abdominal obesity subjects had lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels compared to the counterpart group, as defined by waist circumference or waist/hip ratio (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results affirm the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and abdominal obesity, suggesting that adiposity phenotypes were strongly linked to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Factors associated with total mercury concentrations
           in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk among pregnant women in
           Busan, Korea
    • Abstract: Song, Yoojun; Lee, Chae-Kwan; Kim, Kun-Hyung; Lee, Jong-Tae; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Se-Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Lee, Sangyoon
      This study investigated the concentration of total mercury (THg) in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk, and its association with dietary factors. A total of 127 pregnant women in Busan, Korea were recruited. Maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk were collected at 36 weeks of gestation, at delivery, and at one week after birth, respectively. Information about dietary habits and other factors were obtained from each subject. The mean THg concentrations in maternal blood, cord blood, and breast milk were 3.12+-1.36 mug/L, 5.46+-2.41 mug/L, and 0.91+-2.08 mug/L, respectively. Positive correlations were found between log-transformed THg concentrations in maternal blood and cord blood (r=0.829, p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Micronutrient powder use and infant and young child
           feeding practices in an integrated program
    • Abstract: Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena D
      Integrated infant and young child feeding (IYCF)/micronutrient powder (MNP) programs are increasingly used to address poor IYCF practices and micronutrient deficiencies in low-income settings; however, little is known about how MNP use may affect IYCF practices. We describe how MNP use was associated with IYCF practices in a pilot program in select districts of Nepal where free MNP for children 6-23 months were added to an existing IYCF platform. Representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted in pilot districts with mothers of eligible children at 3 months (plains ecozone, n=1054) or 15 months (hill ecozone, rural only, n=654) after implementation of an integrated MNP/IYCF program. We used logistic regression to assess how IYCF practices varied by MNP use (none, 1-30, 30-60 sachets). At both time points, consuming 30-60 MNP sachets vs. none was associated with achieving minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet. In the 3 month survey consuming 30- 60 MNP sachets vs none was also associated with achieving minimum meal frequency and continued breastfeeding at 2 years. In this setting, addition of MNP to an existing platform of IYCF messaging did not appear detrimental to IYCF practices.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - The effect of socio-demographic variables and dairy
           use on the intake of essential macro- and micronutrients in
           0.5-12-year-old Indonesian children
    • Abstract: Widodo, Yekti; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Sumedi, Edith; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul
      Background and Objectives: To study the associations between nutrient intake, dairy intake and socioeconomic variables. Methods and Study Design: Food consumption data using 24 h recall were collected in 3600 children, aged 0.5 to 12 years old in addition to frequency of dairy use and anthropometric and sociodemographic variables. Results: Overall height for age Z-score (HAZ) and body mass index for age Z-score (BAZ) values (mean+-SE) were -1.40+-0.03 and -0.48+-0.03 respectively, associated with a high prevalence of stunting and thinness in the population. The overall percentage of children not using any dairy products was 71%, and this percentage increased steadily with age. The overall energy intake from dairy was 99+-3 kcal/capita/day and the overall energy intake from dairy in dairy users was 291+-7 kcal/day. Dairy use did not differ between boys and girls, but was higher in urban areas, higher if the education of the mother was higher and higher if the mother had a permanent job and if the wealth status of the family was in the upper levels. Nutrient intake after the age of 3 years was inadequate for energy and all nutrients except for protein. The achievement of Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for all nutrients was higher in dairy users compared to non-dairy users, also after correcting for the confounding effect of the higher energy intake (from dairy) and socio-demographic variables. The contribution increased with increasing frequency of dairy use. Conclusion: Adequate dairy intake can substantially add to the achievement of RDA in Indonesian children.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency among patients
           with thyroid dysfunction
    • Abstract: Collins, Aryn B; Pawlak, Roman
      Due to the non-specificity of symptoms and possibly severe consequences of untreated vitamin B-12 deficiency, screening is important for at-risk patients to ensure the prompt delivery of treatment. In this review, studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction are evaluated to determine whether regular vitamin B-12 screening is necessary. A literature search was conducted using multiple electronic databases. Only original studies assessing the prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in thyroid dysfunction that reported their findings as percentages of the sample were eligible for inclusion. From a total of 7091 manuscripts generated, 6 were included in this review. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism was reported as 10, 18.6, and 40.5% in three separate studies. The prevalence of deficiency in autoimmune thyroid disease was reported as 6.3, 28, and 55.5% in three studies. The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency in hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease are reflective of the nutrition status of the population. Autoimmune thyroid disease is also associated with the autoimmune disorders pernicious anemia and atrophic gastritis which may lead to malabsorption of vitamin B-12. Vitamin B-12 screening is recommended upon initial diagnosis with autoimmune thyroid disease and then periodically thereafter. There is not enough evidence to recommend regular screening for patients with hypothyroidism unless the underlying cause is autoimmune thyroid disease.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: A review
    • Abstract: Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline
      The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Beta-carotene losses due to handling and cooking in
           Kenyan leafy vegetables connote no comparative nutritional superiority
           over kales
    • Abstract: Oiye, Shadrack O; Oniang'o, Ruth K; Shiundu, Kennedy
      African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are known to be high in beta-carotene content and are preferred over kales due to this nutritional superiority. Ten different vegetables were collected from farm and market locations and analyzed for beta-carotene content. Cooked vegetables (in single or in combination) as well as solar dried samples were prepared by the community members in the study area in the usual way and without any instruction or conditions given. beta-carotene content was analyzed using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results provided new representative beta-carotene content of the fresh, marketed, cooked and dried vegetables without controlling or simulating the household handling or processing methods in a laboratory. While edible portions of kales are relatively inferior as a beta-carotene source as compare to ALVs when in raw form, this is not the case at market place where kales exhibit comparable level of the beta-carotene. As much as 280 muRE/100 g (a dietarily significant amount) can be lost through beta-carotene oxidation before farm-fresh ALVs are sold in the market place with the losses severe in some ALVs and only subtle and relatively lower in kales. Post - cooking, kales had statistically comparable beta-carotene content to ALVs save for when compared with purple amaranths and blacknight shade. Due to losses experienced in ALVs, kales are not comparatively inferior vegetables in terms of beta-carotene content. Measures to prevent beta-carotene losses in ALVs between the farm and market, during cooking and drying should be instituted in order to benefit from their high beta-carotene content.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Issue 2 - Nutritional risk screening in patients with chronic
           kidney disease
    • Abstract: Tan, Rongshao; Long, Jianting; Fang, Shi; Mai, Haiyan; Lu, Wei; Liu, Yan; Wei, Jianrui; Yan, Feng
      Knowledge concerning nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited. Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002) has been used to evaluate the nutritional aspects of patients according to the recommendation of European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Here we aim to assess the prevalence and characteristics of nutritional risk in CKD patients by using NRS-2002. NRS-2002 scores of 292 CDK patients were recorded in first 24 hours subsequent to their admission to hospital. All patients have never been on dialysis. BMI, weight and various biochemical parameters were also characterized for these patients. Possible correlations between these parameters and NRS-2002 score were investigated. The overall prevalence of nutritional risk was 44.9% (53.6% in CKD stage 4-5 patients and 38.3% in stage 1-3 patients). Statistically significant differences were found in serum Albumin, Haemoglobin B, and lymphocyte counts between patients with or without increased nutritional risk. Under the situation that attending physicians were completely unaware of NRS-2002 scores, only 35.1% of the patients at risk received nutritional support. The nutritional risk status was associated with CKD stages but independent from primary diagnosis type. More attention should be paid to the nutritional status in CKD patients (including early stage patients). We recommended using NRS-2002 for nutritional risk assessment among non-dialysis CKD patients in routine clinical practice.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Jun 2016 20:58:43 GMT
       
 
 
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