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Publisher: RMIT Publishing   (Total: 400 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 400 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Accounting, Accountability & Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.102, h-index: 8)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian J. of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, h-index: 5)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anglican Historical Society J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 11)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 27)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Art Monthly Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.672, h-index: 51)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 8)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Drama Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 3)
Australasian J. of Human Security, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian J. of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Law Management J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 6)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Bookseller & Publisher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 31)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.252, h-index: 24)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.159, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 26)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.17, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.401, h-index: 18)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 9)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 4)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 20)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 8)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 9)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
BOCSAR NSW Alcohol Studies Bulletins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bookseller + Publisher Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.31, h-index: 19)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.143, h-index: 10)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 27)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.737, h-index: 24)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 7)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 6)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 8)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gestalt J. of Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Government News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Great Circle: J. of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Grief Matters : The Australian J. of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
He Puna Korero: J. of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion J. of Australia : Official J. of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.606, h-index: 19)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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History of Economics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Idiom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  [SJR: 0.672]   [H-I: 51]   [10 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [400 journals]
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and kidney
           disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: A repeated-measure study in
           taiwan
    • Abstract: Chung, Hsin-Fang; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Long, Kurt Z; Huang, Ya-Fang; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Meng-Chuan
      Background and Objectives: Western dietary patterns have been linked with kidney disease. This study investigated the association between Chinese dietary patterns and kidney disease in a Taiwanese population with type 2 diabetes and evaluated dietary fatty acid patterns, a kidney-related dietary biomarker.

      Methods and Study Design: We recruited 838 patients with type 2 diabetes and used their dietary and renal data obtained from three repeated measures in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Diet was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires, and factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Albuminuria was defined by having an albumin-to-creatinine ratio >=30 mg/g and kidney dysfunction by estimated glomerular filtration rate
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Regular egg consumption at breakfast by Japanese woman
           university students improves daily nutrient intakes: Open-labeled
           observations
    • Abstract: Taguchi, Chie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Usuda, Mika; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo
      Background and Objectives: Eggs, an important source of high-quality protein, contain a variety of key nutrients and antioxidants. Here we conducted an intervention study to evaluate whether the additional consumption of one egg per day would affect the daily nutritional intakes and blood antioxidant status in Japanese woman university students.

      Methods and Study Design: For 4 weeks, the 14 subjects were provided a nutritious breakfast including one boiled egg, and they were asked to keep a daily dietary record.

      Results: The subjects' daily energy intake during the intervention did not differ compared to the baseline, whereas the protein energy ratio and cholesterol intake were significantly increased. The subjects' consumption of confectionery during the intervention was significantly decreased compared to the pre-trial period. The total score of adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines for a healthy diet during the intervention was higher than that at baseline. The analysis of fasting blood samples showed that the subjects' serum lipids levels were not altered, whereas their malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) levels and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL were significantly reduced after the intervention. More importantly, serum folic acid levels were significantly increased.

      Conclusions: Our results suggest that regular egg consumption at breakfast can help improve the daily nutritional status and dietary habits and also ameliorate certain indices of antioxidant status in young women.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The effects of green kiwifruit combined with
           isoflavones on equol production, bone turnover and gut microflora in
           healthy postmenopausal women
    • Abstract: Kruger, Marlena C; Middlemiss, Catherine; Katsumata, Shinichi; Tousen, Yuko; Ishimi, Yoshiko
      Background and Objectives: Isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) interventions in postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent skeletal benefits, partly due to population heterogeneity in daidzein metabolism to equol by enteric bacteria. This study assessed changes in microflora and bone turnover in response to isoflavone and ki-wifruit supplementation in New Zealand postmenopausal women.

      Methods and Study Design: Healthy women 1-10 years post-menopause were randomly allocated to group A (n=16) or B (n=17) for a 16-week crossover trial. Two consecutive 6-week treatment periods had a 2-week lead-in period at intervention commencement and a 2-week washout period between treatments. Treatments prescribed either (1) daily isoflavone supplementation (50 mg/day aglycone daidzein and genistein) alone, or (2) with two green kiwifruit. At treatment baseline and end-point (four time points) the serum bone markers C Telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx), undercarboxylated os-teocalcin (unOC), and serum and urinary daidzein and equol, were measured. Changes in gut microflora were monitored in a subgroup of the women.

      Results: Equol producers made up 30% of this study population (equol producers n=10; non-equol producers n=23) with serum equol rising significantly in equol producers. Serum ucOC decreased by 15.5% (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces
           blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Mashhadi, Nafiseh Sokri; Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Mohammadiasl, Javad; Zarei, Mehdi; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein
      Background and Objectives: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 8 weeks to investigate the potential effects of astaxanthin (AST) supplementation on the adiponectin concentration, lipid peroxidation, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and anthropometric indices in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

      Methods and Study Design: We enrolled 44 participants with type 2 diabetes who met our inclusion criteria. Eight milligrams of AST supplementation or a placebo were randomly administered once daily for 8 weeks to these participants.

      Results: The 8-week administration of AST supplementation increased the serum adiponectin concentration and reduced visceral body fat mass (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Effects of grass jelly on glycemic control:
           Hydrocolloids may inhibit gut carbohydrase
    • Abstract: Lim, Joseph; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the hydrocolloid properties of grass jelly on reducing glycaemic response, (2) the impact of phenolic compounds in Mesona chinensis L. on glycaemic response. Methods and Study Design: A total of 15 healthy Chinese men were recruited to this study. On each visit, subjects consumed one of the following three treatments, i.e. glucose solution (T1), grass jelly (Mesona chinensis L.) solution with glucose (T2) or grass jelly gel with glucose (T3). Capillary blood glucose and venous plasma insulin were analysed over a period of 180 min. Results: The incremental area under the curve for capillary glucose and venous plasma insulin for glucose group, grass jelly solution group and grass jelly gel was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). In a previous study the co-ingestion of grass jelly with complex carbohydrate was found to reduce glycaemic response. The key difference between the two studies was the use of monosaccharide glucose in the present study, compared to complex carbohydrates in the other. The present study suggests that the glycaemic lowering effect of grass jelly may be dependent on the inhibition of carbohydrase enzymes. Conclusions: The co-ingestion of Mesona chinensis L. appears to reduce glycaemic response of only complex carbohydrates through the inhibition of carbohydrase. This conclusion was arrived at by the lack of any effect of Mesona chinensis L. on the monosaccharide glucose.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Consumption and sources of added sugar in Thailand: A
           review
    • Abstract: Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia V
      Background and Objectives: The present review examined the best available evidence regarding consumption levels and sources of added sugar in different population groups in Thailand.

      Methods and Study Design: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, food consumption surveys, government reports, published and unpublished studies.

      Results: A total of 24 references were obtained, comprising 8 nationally representative reports and 16 individual studies. Results were inconsistent. The National Statistical Office reported an available supply of 83 g sugar per capita per day in 2010. The 2009 Food Consumption Survey of Thai Population showed median intake of sugar and sweeteners for all age groups ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 g per day among males and from 2.0 to 15.7 g per day among females (below the Thai recommendation of 40 to 55 g/day). Studies on children suggested intake levels between 25 to 50 g/day, while studies on adults were inconsistent. Frequently consumed sources were table sugar, sweetened beverages, and sweet snacks (traditional desserts, baked products, crispy snacks).

      Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists regarding intake levels and sources of added sugar in Thailand. Limitations were the use of food frequency questionnaires or a single 24-h recall to assess intake, and outdated studies with small sample sizes. An updated nationally representative survey using improved methods is needed to determine the levels and sources of sugar intake in different population groups. These include biomarkers to establish levels of consumption and multiple 24-h recalls (at least two) to identify food sources that contribute significantly to excess sugar intake.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Childhood overweight and obesity amongst primary
           school children in hai phong City, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Ngan, Hoang Thi Duc; Tuyen, Le Danh; van Phu, Pham; Nambiar, Smita
      Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is a rising health concern in Vietnam, however, research in this area is not extensive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and to study associations between weight status and selected lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity levels, among children aged 6-10 years in Hai Phong City, Vietnam.

      Methods and Study Design: Two hundred and seventy-six children from an urban and a rural primary school participated in this cross-sectional study. Data on weight, height and waist circumference were used to calculate BMI, and waist-height ratio to determine the proportion of children who were overweight, obese and had high central adiposity. Information on diet, physical activity and socioeconomic status of families was collected using questionnaires.

      Results: Prevalences of overweight, obesity and high abdominal adiposity were 11.2%, 10.1% and 19.9%, respectively. Children who completed >=60 minutes of physical activity daily were 50% and 80% less likely to be overweight and have high abdominal adiposity, respectively. Computer usage increased the odds of overweight and high abdominal adiposity by 4.5 and 3.9 times, respectively. Mothers with higher education and income levels increased the risk of their children being overweight (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Breast milk and infant iodine status during the first
           12 weeks of lactation in Tianjin City, china
    • Abstract: Wang, Wei; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Wen; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Zhao, Zhuo; Lan, Shuhai; Zhang, Wanqi
      Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the iodine status of breast milk and breast-fed infants during the first 12 weeks postpartum in Tianjin, China.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 175 pregnant women were recruited before delivery. Their breastmilk and 24-h urine samples were collected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum; spot urine samples were simultaneously collected from their infants. The iodine content of the samples was measured.

      Results: The mean breast milk iodine concentrations (BMICs) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks were 221.7+-103.5 mug/L, 175.2+-76.2 mug/L, and 148.1+-66.2 mug/L, respectively. Significant differences existed between the mean BMICs of the three sampling times (F=12.449, p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor
           between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin
    • Abstract: Gustuti, Rina; Indrawati, Lipoeto Nur; Machmud, Rizanda
      Background and Objectives: Maternal iron deficiency in late pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period has an indirect impact to decrease neurotrophin concentration in the fetal hippocampus, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It plays an important role in the development of learning, memory, and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in BDNF between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin.

      Methods and Study Design: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 20 term pregnant women with normal ferritin (>=12 ng/mL) and 20 term pregnant women with low ferritin (
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and
           associated risk factors in pregnant Chinese women: A cross-sectional study
           in Huangdao, Qingdao, china
    • Abstract: Wu, Li; Han, Lei; Zhan, Ying; Cui, Lianhua; Chen, Wei'ai; Ma, Li; Lv, Jing; Pan, Rongfang; Zhao, Didi; Xiao, Ziyi
      Background and Objectives: This study explored the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women and identified risk factors for GDM after the implementation of the universal two-child policy.

      Methods and Study Design: On the basis of income and population, we randomly selected three hospitals through stratified and cluster sampling. From January 1 to July 31, 2016, 4959 women who had been registered within 12 weeks of gestation received a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria were used for the diagnosis of GDM.

      Results: The OGTT was positive in 1080 (21.8%; 1080/4959) women, who were then diagnosed as having GDM on the basis of their results. GDM was positively associated with the following factors: advanced maternal age (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary glycemic load and metabolic status in newly
           diagnosed type 2 diabetes in southeastern china
    • Abstract: Lin, Xiuhong; Chen, Chaogang; Lin, Diaozhu; Xu, Mingtong; Yuan, Zhimin; He, Fengyi; Yan, Li
      Background and Objectives: Large-scale epidemiological investigations worldwide have shown that dietary glycemic load is associated with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids in Chinese diabetic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine these correlations in southeastern China.

      Methods and Study Design: 201 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 126 participants with normal blood glucose were enrolled at the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangdong Province. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic load were assessed based on 3-day dietary records. Using glycemic load as the dependent variable, a correlation analysis and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids.

      Results: The mean glycemic load in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Critical examination of evidence for the nutritional
           status of children in Papua new guinea - a systematic review
    • Abstract: McGlynn, Peter J; Renzaho, Andre MN; Pham, Minh D; Toole, Mike; Fisher, Jane; Luchters, Stanley
      Background and Objectives: Undernutrition remains a significant cause of childhood illness, poor growth, development, and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Studies on child nutritional outcomes in PNG vary by design, measurement protocols and quality. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the prevalence of child undernutrition across different study populations, geographical locations and time periods.

      Methods and Study Design: Six electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for articles describing the nutritional status by wasting, stunting and underweight, of PNG children under five years of age, published between 1990 and April 2015. Prevalence data using different scales of measurement and reference populations were standardized according to WHO protocols.

      Results: The search yielded 566 articles, of which, 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of child undernutrition varied from 1% to 76% for wasting (median 11%), 5% to 92% for stunting (median 51%), and 14% to 59% for underweight (median 32%). Wide variations exist according to the index used for measurement, the population characteristics and the geographical region in which they live. Prevalence estimates increase significantly when data using different scales of measurement and population references are standardized to the WHO protocols.

      Conclusions: Child undernutrition in PNG is regionally variable due to a complex interplay of poverty, disease, food-security, cultural, environmental and sociopolitical issues requiring a complex mix of solutions by governments, health systems and local communities. Area- specific surveys using multiple measures are necessary to inform local solutions for this important problem.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in
           Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: The burden and national response
    • Abstract: Nguyen, Tuan T; Hoang, Minh V
      Background and Objectives: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.

      Methods and Study Design: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam.

      Results: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 mil-lion years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus were major contributors to the NCD burden. Adults had an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity (2.3% in 1993 to 15% in 2015) and hypertension (15% in 2002 to 20% in 2015). Among 25-64 years old in 2015, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4.1% and the elevated blood cholesterol was 32%. Vietnamese had a low physical activity level, a high consumption of salt, instant noodles and sweetened non-alcoholic beverages as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables and sea-food. The alcohol consumption and smoking prevalence were high in men. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was high in men, women and youths at home, work, and public places. In Vietnam, policies for NCD prevention and control need to be combined with strengthened law enforcement and increased program coverage. There were increased food production and improved dietary intake (e.g., energy intake and protein-rich foods thanked to appropriate economic, agriculture, and nutrition strategies.

      Conclusions: NCDs and their risk factors are emerging problems in Vietnam, which need both disease-specific and sensitive strategies in health and related sectors.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Development and validation of a pediatric nutritional
           screening score (PNSS) for hospitalized children
    • Abstract: Lu, Lina; Mao, Xiaomeng; Sheng, Jinye; Huang, Jianhu; Wang, Ying; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei
      Background and Objectives: There is no evidence on the most effective nutritional screening tool for hospitalized children. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a pediatric nutritional screening tool to assess undernutrition risk upon hospital admission. Methods and Study Design: The study had a two-phase prospective observational design. A novel pediatric nutritional screening score (PNSS) was developed and sensitivity, specificity, and reliability were evaluated by comparing with a complete dietetic assessment. Length of hospital stay, weight loss, disease complications, and nutritional support were recorded. Results: PNSS consisted of three elements: disease with malnutrition risks, changes in food intake, and anthropometric measurements, with a score of 0-2 for each element. The optimal cut-off score to identify patients (n=96) at risk of undernutrition was two. The agreement between PNSS and the complete dietetic assessment was moderate (k=0.435, 95% CI=0.373- 0.498). Sensitivity and specificity values of PNSS were 82% (95% CI=76%-87%) and 71% (95% CI=67%-74%), respectively. Inter-rater agreement had a ' value of 0.596 (95% CI=0.529-0.664, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Consumption and sources of added sugar in Indonesia: A
           review
    • Abstract: Imanningsih, Nelis; Jahari, Abas B; Permaesih, Ir Dewi; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia
      Background and Objectives: The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia.

      Methods and Study Design: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports.

      Results: A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia's national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake. Published studies suggested higher levels of intake. Studies used expenditure surveys or a single day of recall to determine dietary intake. None made use of biomarkers to determine the level of sugar intake. The 2014 Total Diet Study estimated that 11.8% of the population consumed >50 grams sugar per day. Common food sources were table sugar, wheat products, milk products, sweetened drinks, condiments, candies and chocolate products.

      Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the levels and sources of added sugar intake of different population groups in Indonesia. A nationwide survey using multiple (at least two) 24-hour recalls to allow estimation of usual intake and to identify food sources, and the use of biomarkers to validate intake will provide more accurate information on which to base policy decisions.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Prevalence, cause and diagnosis of lactose intolerance
           in children aged 1-5 years: A systematic review of 1995-2015 literature
    • Abstract: Harvey, Louise; Ludwig, Thomas; Hou, Alice Qian; Hock, Quak Seng; Tan, Michelle LN; Osatakul, Seksit; Bindels, Jacques; Muhardi, Leilani
      Background and Objectives: To assess the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis of primary and secondary lactose intolerance (LI), including age of onset, among children 1-5 years of age. Suspected/perceived lactose intolerance can lead to dietary restrictions which may increase risk of future health issues.

      Methods and Study Design: MEDLINE, CAB , and Embase were searched for articles published from January 1995-June 2015 related to lactose intolerance in young children.
      Authors independently screened titles/abstracts, full text articles, for eligibility against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies.

      Results: The search identified 579 articles; 20 studies, the majority of which were crosssectional, were included in the qualitative synthesis. Few studies reported prevalence of primary LI in children aged 1-5 years; those that did reported a range between 0-17.9%. Prevalence of secondary LI was 0-19%. Hydrogen breath test was the most common method used to diagnose LI. None of the included studies reported age of onset of primary LI.

      Conclusions: There is limited recent evidence on the prevalence of LI in this age group. The low number of studies and wide range of methodologies used to diagnose LI means that comparison and interpretation, particularly of geographical trends, is compromised. Current understanding appears to rely on data generated in the 1960/70s, with varied qualities of evidence. New, high quality studies are necessary to understand the true prevalence of LI. This review is registered with the International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO).

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Salivary cariogenic bacteria counts are associated
           with obesity in student women at a Malaysian university
    • Abstract: Yeo, Wey-Zheng; Lim, Sheng-Pei; Say, Yee-How
      Background and Objectives: The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables.

      Methods and Study Design: Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture.

      Results: We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Chronic low grade inflammation measured by dietary
           inflammatory index and its association with obesity among school teachers
           in Yangon, Myanmar
    • Abstract: San, Khin Mittar Moe; Fahmida, Umi; Wijaksono, Fiastuti; Lin, Htin; Zaw, Ko Ko; Htet, Min Kyaw
      Background and Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the association between obesity and chronic low grade inflammation (CLGI) measured by Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) as a proxy indicator of CLGI among obese and non-obese teachers. Methods and Study Design: We conducted a cross sectional study among 128 non-obese (BMI =25) female teachers aged 25-60 years from six urban schools in Yangon, Myanmar between January and March 2015. Usual dietary intake was collected by 3-day nonconsecutive estimated 24 hour's dietary records and semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires. Adapted DII was calculated by standardized methods using literature-derived population-based dietary inflammatory weights of 31 food parameters. C-reactive protein (CRP) was analysed by a sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Mean DII between obese and non-obese was compared by independent t test. The association between obesity indices and high DII (DII >=1.1) and high CRP (>3 mg/L) were investigated by logistic regression. Results: Obese teachers had lower intakes of anti-inflammatory nutrients (vitamin B-6, vitamin A and zinc)/food (onion) compared with non-obese teachers (p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Development and evaluation of nutritional, sensory and
           glycemic properties of finger millet ('Eleusine coracana' L.) based food
           products
    • Abstract: Shobana, Shanmugam; Selvi, Ravi Poovizhi; Kavitha, Vasudevan; Gayathri, Nagamuthu; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Parthasarthy, Vijayalakshmi; Balasubramaniam, KKandappa Gounder; Vaidya, Ruchi; Sudha, Vasudevan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Henry, CJK; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Mohan, Viswanathan
      Background and Objectives: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) (FM) is rich in dietary fibre and is therefore expected to elicit a lower glycemic response compared to other grains. However, there is little data on the glycemic properties of FM-based products. We evaluated the nutritional, sensory and glycemic properties of decorticated millet with lower polish (DFM-LDP), flakes (FMF), vermicelli (FMV) and extruded snack (FMES) (both FMV and FMES with 7-8% added soluble fibre). Methods and Study Design: The nutrient contents of the FM products were evaluated by standard AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists) methods. Sensory evaluation was conducted monadically using a 9-point hedonic scale using untrained panel members. GI testing was conducted using a standardized validated protocol. The study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down by the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation.

      Results: The products had dietary fibre (DF) content between 5.8-15.6 g%. FMES was unique in having a very low fat content (0.17%). Evaluation of sensory perception revealed moderate acceptance of millet based products. The glycemic indices (GI) (mean+-SEM) of the products were 84.7+-7.7%, 82.3+-6.4%, 65.5+-5.1% and 65.0+-6.6% for DFM-LDP, FMF, FMV and FMES respectively. Conclusions: DFM-LDP and FMF (purely finger millet based products) elicited higher glycemic responses. Comparatively, FMV and FMES (with added functional ingredients) exhibited medium GI values and, are healthier dietary options. It is possible to prepare FM products with lower GI by utilizing functional ingredients.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - The geriatric nutritional risk index predicts
           mortality in nonagenarians and centenarians receiving home care
    • Abstract: Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong
      Background and Objectives: The increasing prevalence of malnutrition in old people is related to the risk of illness and death. A number of screening tools to detect malnutrition have been used in the elderly to assess nutritional status and predict prognosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) to assess nutritional status and predict mortality in very old home-care people by using a cross-sectional study of Chinese older people aged 90-105 years. Methods and Study Design: The present study was based on a 4-year follow-up of mortality data from a previous cross-sectional study. The study was conducted with a very elderly population with a mean age of 93.5+-3.2 years (n=716; 230 men and 486 women). In 2005, trained researchers performed face-to-face interviews and physical and geriatric assessments to obtain information on sociodemographic factors, self-reported medical diseases, geriatric-specific conditions, anthropometric factors, biochemical data, and the GNRI score. In 2009, vital status were requested from the local government. Results: After 4 years of follow-up, 371 participants died (125 men and 246 women, 51.8%). The median follow-up time was significantly worse in the nutritional risk group (GNRI
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Relative validity of an indirect calorimetry device
           for measuring resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient
    • Abstract: Wang, Xi; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Zenghui; Cao, Guangbei; Hu, Fusong; Sun, Yining; Ma, Zuchang; Zhou, Duoqi; Su, Benyue
      Background and Objectives: Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) are important for optimal nutritional care. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and repeatability of an indirect calorimetry device (IIM-IC-100) in the measurement of REE and RQ in healthy Chinese adults. Methods and Study Design: A total of 38 healthy adults (19 male and 19 female) aged 18-52 years (25+-6 years) were enrolled in this study. REE and RQ were measured by IIM-IC-100 and by VO2000, alternately and in duplicate. Results: There was a highly significant correlation between IIM-IC-100 REE and VO2000 REE (r=0.906, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Effects of parenteral Omega-3 fatty acid
           supplementation in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer on immune
           function and length of hospital stay: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Bai, Hao; Li, Zhaoping; Meng, Yan; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Huanhuan; Shen, Deqiang; Chen, Liyong
      Background and Objectives: Omega-3 fatty acids are widely used in nutritional support. However, whether parenteral supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids is effective for gastrointestinal cancer patients remains uncertain. This study assessed the effects of this form of parenteral nutrition on immune function and clinical outcomes in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients.

      Methods and Study Design: We searched Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the reference lists of selected studies to identify randomized controlled trials that compared Omega-3 fatty acids with a control, and that included immune indices, infectious complications, or length of hospital stay in the final outcomes. The odds ratio and weighted mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and the I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity.

      Results: Seven trials with a total of 457 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Five pooled trials with 373 participants indicated that the incidence of infectious complications was significantly different between the intervention and control groups (odds ratio: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.74, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Common food antimicrobials: Effects on cellular
           inflammation and oxidative damage and their estimated occurrence in
           Singapore
    • Abstract: Loong, Claudine; Tsen, Shin Yih; Ho, Xing Lin; Raman, Muhammed Faiz B; Loke, Wai Mun
      Background and Objectives: The prevalence and potential health effects of common food antimicrobials in pro-cessed foods and beverages are relatively unknown in Singapore. The occurrence of chemical antimicrobials in processed foods and beverages and their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro were examined.

      Methods and Study Design: The occurrence of antimicrobials in 1605 processed food and 359 beverage items were examined by surveying the ingredients on the product labels. Human neutrophils were exposed to physio-logically relevant concentrations of common antimicrobials. Established markers of inflammation, l Leukotriene B4 and oxidative stress, F2-isoprostanes were measured using stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

      Results: Antimicrobials were added to 23.2% of the processed foods and beverages. Sorbic, benzo-ic, lactic, propionic and acetic acids accounted for 84.8% of the added antimicrobials in the processed foods and beverages. 92.5% of the bread contained propionic acid. Lactic acid was the most common antimicrobial (44.4%) in cheeses. Sorbic acid was added to 63.2% of the margarines selected. Sauces (31.5%), energy drinks (50.0%), soft drinks (70.7%) and fruit cordials (66.6%) contained added benzoic acid. Benzoic and propionic acids at phys-iologically relevant concentrations augmented leukotriene B4formation (benzoicacid, EC50 = 100 mug L-1and pro-pionic acid, >200 mug L-1). Lactic and sorbic acids dose-dependently inhibited the F2-isoprostanes production (IC50 values 100 mug L-1) and myeloperoxidase activity (IC50values 100 mug L-1).

      Conclusions: Our results demon-strate that Singapore consumers are significantly exposed to food antimicrobials, and these molecules, in physio-logically relevant concentrations, exert significant and differential effects in vitro.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or
           bitter taste acuity and food selection in Japanese women university
           students
    • Abstract: Kubota, Masaru; Toda, Chikako; Nagai-Moriyama, Ayako
      Background and Objectives: Although there are many studies on the umami receptor and its signaling pathway, literature on the effect of umami taste acuity on dietary choices in healthy subjects is limited. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity, food preference and intake.

      Methods and Study Design: Forty-two healthy Japanese female university students were enrolled. The acuity for umami, sweet, and bitter tastes was evaluated using the filter-paper disc method. The study population was divided into 32 umami normal tasters and 10 hypo-tasters based on the taste acuity at the posterior part of the tongue using monosodium glutamate.

      Results: Umami hypo-tasters exhibited a significantly lower sensitivity to sweet tastes than normal tasters. However, the sensitivity to bitter taste was comparable between the two groups. Food preference was examined by the food preference checklist consisted of 81 food items. Among them, umami tasters preferred shellfish, tomato, carrot, milk, low fat milk, cheese, dried shiitake, and kombu significantly more than umami hypo-tasters did. A self-reported food frequency questionnaire revealed no significant differences in the intake of calories and three macronutrients between the two groups; however, umami tasters were found to eat more seaweeds and less sugar than umami hypo-tasters.

      Conclusions: These data together may indicate the possibility that umami taste acuity has an effect on a dietary life. Therefore, training umami taste acuity from early childhood is important for a healthy diet later in life.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with
           vasovagal syncope
    • Abstract: Pektas, Ayhan; Koken, Resit; Koca, Halit Bugra
      Background and Objectives: The present study aims to determine the serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Methods and Study Design: This is a prospective review of 160 children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Subgroup analysis was done based on the results of head up tilt test. Results: Head up tilt test gave positive results in 80 children and yielded negative results in the remaining 80 children. The tilt test positive children had significantly lower thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations (p=0.06), total iron binding capacity (p=0.04) and serum vitamin B-12 (p=0.01). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly higher in the tilt positive group (80% vs 52.5%, p=0.001). Out of 80 children with positive tilt test, 8 children (10%) showed cardioinhibitory response, 22 children (27.5%) demonstrated a vasodepressor response, 24 children (30%) displayed mixed response and 26 children (32.5%) had the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly lower in the mixed response group than in the vasodepressor group (6.2 0.8 mm/h vs 14.3 2.5 mm/h, p=0.001). Serum vitamin B-12 was significantly lower in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) group than in the vasodepressor group (240.8 38.2 pg/mL vs 392.7 27.1 pg/mL, p=0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly higher in the POTS group than in the vasodepressor group (92.3% vs 45.5%, p=0.001). Conclusions: Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes reduction in myelinization, deceleration in nerve conduction and elevation in serum concentrations of noradrenaline. These factors may contribute to the impairment of autonomic functions which are involved in the pathogenesis of vasovagal syncope.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation in different
           healthcare settings: A questionnaire survey of health professionals
    • Abstract: Nakahara, Saori; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Keisuke; Nishioka, Shinta; Kokura, Yoji
      Background and Objectives: The rates of sarcopenia and cachexia evaluations by different occupational groups at different settings are unclear. The objectives are to evaluate and compare the relative use of sarcopenia and cachexia evaluations among dietitians and associated healthcare professionals in a diverse range of settings.

      Methods and Study Design: Participants were 4,621 members from the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition. Settings included acute general wards, convalescent rehabilitation wards, long-term care wards, homecare service, and other settings. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate assessments for sarcopenia and cachexia among dietitians and other professionals. Multiple comparisons based on Bonferroni method and logistic regression analysis were used.

      Results: 718 (15.5%) answered the questionnaire. Data from 683 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Muscle strength, muscle mass, physical function, and cachexia were assessed by 53.4%, 51.1%, 53.4%, and 17.4% of dietitians. At convalescent rehabilitation wards, these rates were 81.8%, 62.0%, 82.5%, and 14.0%. The use of muscle strength and physical function evaluations was significantly lower among dietitians than among physical therapists and occupational therapists. The use of muscle mass and cachexia evaluations was not significantly different among the occupations. The use of muscle mass and strength evaluations was significantly higher in convalescent rehabilitation wards than in acute general wards, long-term care wards and facilities, and other settings, but not in homecare services. Cachexia evaluations were not significantly different between all settings.

      Conclusions: Raising the awareness of cachexia and sarcopenia among dietitians is a key issue, which should be addressed.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - International hospital accreditation and clinical
           nutrition service in acute care hospitals in South Korea: Results of a
           nationwide cross-sectional survey
    • Abstract: Um, Mi Hyang; Lyu, Eun Soon; Lee, Song Mi; Park, Yoo Kyoung
      Background and Objectives: Beginning in 2007, 29 hospitals in South Korea have received accreditation from Joint Commission International (JCI). The present study aimed to identify differences in clinical nutrition service provisions between JCI accredited acute care hospitals and non-accredited acute care hospitals. A survey questionnaire was sent to all 43 acute care hospitals in South Korea.

      Methods: A total of 35 sets of clinical nutrition service surveys, 234 sets of clinical dietitian job satisfaction surveys, and five-day daily work logs from 129 clinical dietitians were received. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t-test to analyze differences between acute care hospitals based on JCI accreditation.

      Study Design: Nationwide cross-sectional survey.

      Results: JCI accredited acute care hospitals (N=8) showed a higher, but not significantly higher, nutritional intervention rate of 12.7% among malnourished patients, compared with 7.0% in non-JCI accredited acute care hospitals (N=27). Analysis of work hours of clinical dietitians indicated time spent on direct care was higher (p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Postprandial long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
           response to krill oil and fish oil consumption in healthy women: A
           randomised controlled, single-dose, crossover study
    • Abstract: Sung, Hyunsin; Sinclair, Andrew J; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q
      Background and Objectives: Krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) are good sources of health-benefiting long chain n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA and DHA. There are conflicting outcomes on the bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA from KO compared with FO. This study investigated the postprandial incorporation of LC n- 3 PUFA into plasma lipids following consumption of 5 capsules of KO or FO in comparison with olive oil (OO) control in healthy women.

      Methods and Study Design: 10 women (aged 18-45 years) consumed a high-fat (15 g) breakfast, supplemented with 5 g of KO, FO, or OO in a random order with a minimum seven-day washout period between the supplementations. The LC n-3 PUFA content in KO was 907 mg compared with 1441 mg in FO. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and for the next 5 hours after test meal consumption on an hourly basis.

      Results: Significant increases in plasma EPA concentrations were observed starting at 2 h after KO and FO consumption (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in either DHA or DPA between the three groups. The increases in plasma EPA concentrations were similar between the KO and FO groups (p > 0.05).

      Conclusions: The lower dose (31%) of EPA from KO led to a similar plasma EPA concentration as in the FO group, suggesting that EPA from KO may be more efficiently incorporated into plasma. This may be related to the high content of phospholipids and free fatty acids in KO.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Benefit of oral nutritional supplements for children
           with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during remissioninduction chemotherapy:
           A quasi-experimental study
    • Abstract: Liang, Rui; Chen, Gai-Yun; Fu, San-Xian; Zhong, Jie; Ma, Yan
      Background and Objectives: To determine the effect of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) on children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy.

      Methods and Study Design: We included 127 paediatric patients who were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and undergoing remission- induction chemotherapy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Children from two paediatric wards who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. One ward was randomly chosen as the intervention group and the other ward as the control group. Children in the two groups were matched for age and sex. The ONS group was administered Peptamen (n=60) and the control group was administered a low-fat diet (n=67).

      Results: The baseline information before treatment was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). In the control group, weight loss at the end of chemotherapy was significantly higher than that of ONS group (p < 0.05). The hemoglobin level and the concentrations of total protein, albumin, and pre-albumin were significantly higher in the ONS group than in the control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The incidences of hypoalbuminaemia, gastrointestinal complications, and infection were lower in the ONS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The ONS group also used lower amount of albumin infusion, fewer blood-product infusion, and had lower hospital costs than the control group.

      Conclusions: During remission-induction chemotherapy, oral nutritional supplements can improve the nutritional status of children, reduce the incidence of complications, and decrease the costs of hospitalization.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy on
           perioperative glucose metabolism during oral- maxillofacial surgery:
           Randomised clinical trial
    • Abstract: Esaki, Kanako; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Sakamoto, Eiji; Yokoyama, Takeshi
      Background and Objectives: Preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy has been suggested to attenuate postoperative insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage given preoperatively on intraoperative glucose metabolism.

      Methods and Study Design: This study was a randomised, open-label, placebo-controlled trial. Patients undergoing oral-maxillofacial surgery were divided into two groups. In the glucose group, patients took glucose (50 g/278 mL, p.o.) 2 h before anaesthesia induction after overnight fasting; control-group patients took mineral water. Primary outcome was blood concentrations of ketone bodies (KBs); secondary outcomes were blood concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin and glucose. Concentrations were measured 2 h before anaesthesia (T0), induction of anaesthesia (T1), and 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), and 5h after anaesthesia start (T4).

      Results: In the control group (n=11), KBs increased continuously from anaesthesia induction. In the glucose group (n=12), KBs were maintained at low concentrations for 3h after beverage consumption but increased remarkably at T3. At T1 and T2, concentrations of KBs in the glucose group were significantly lower than those in the control group (T1, p=0.010; T2, p=0.028). In the glucose group, glucose concentrations decreased significantly at T2 temporarily, but in the control group, glucose concentrations were stable during this study (T2, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Home enteral nutrition after minimally invasive
           esophagectomy can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of
           malnutrition
    • Abstract: Wu, Zixiang; Wu, Ming; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Tianwei; Wang, Lian; Pan, Saibo; Chen, Gang
      Background and Objectives: The potential benefits of home enteral nutrition (HEN) and the effects of HEN on quality of life (QOL) after esophagectomy remain unclear. The aim was to investigate the effect of 3 months HEN on health related QOL and nutritional status of esophageal cancer patients who were preoperatively malnourished.

      Methods and Study Design: 142 malnourished (PG-SGA stage B or C) patients with esophageal cancer were assigned to receive Ivor Lewis minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE group) with laparoscopic jejunal feeding tube placement or open esophagectomy (OE group) with nasojejunal feeding tube placement. After discharge, patients in the MIE group received HEN with 500-1000 kcal/d for 3 months, while the OE group patients did not receive HEN, as nasojejunal feeding tubes had been removed. QLQ-C30 and PG-SGA questionnaires were used to evaluate the QOL and the risk of malnutrition.

      Results: 67 patients were enrolled in the MIE group and 75 patients were enrolled in the OE group. Symptoms related to fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and appetite loss were significantly decreased in the patients treated with 3 months HEN. Similarly, patients treated with 3 months HEN had a lower risk of malnutrition than patients did not receive HEN (PG-SGA score, 5.7 vs 7.9, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Dietary patterns change over two years in early
           adolescent girls in Hawai'i
    • Abstract: Mosley, Michelle Ann; Banna, Jinan C; Lim, Eunjung; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Novotny, Rachel
      Background and Objectives: In investigating diet-disease relationships, examination of dietary patterns allows for conclusions to be drawn based on overall intake. This study characterized dietary patterns of early adolescent girls over a two-year period and examined the relationship between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI).

      Methods and Study Design: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using longitudinal data from food records of early adolescent girls (n=148) 9 to 14 years in Hawai'i from the Female Adolescent Maturation (FAM) study. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis (PCA). Pearson's correlations between BMI percentile and z-score and dietary pattern factor scores at Times 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2002-2003) were calculated. For each dietary pattern, participants were divided into low, intermediate, and high scorers. Mean BMI percentiles and z-scores were compared between groups using analysis of covariance.

      Results: At Time 1, three patterns were identified, characterized by: (1) whole grains, nuts and seeds, added sugar; (2) non-whole grain, tomatoes, discretionary fat; and (3) deep yellow vegetables, other starchy vegetables, cooked dry beans/peas. At Time 2, three different dietary patterns emerged: (1) non-whole grains, meat, discretionary fat; (2) other vegetables, fish, eggs; and (3) whole grain, tomatoes, other vegetables. BMI percentile and z-score differed between high and low scorers on Time 1-Pattern 1 and Time 2-Pattern 3.

      Conclusion: Results revealed changes in dietary patterns over time and an association between intake and BMI. Findings demonstrate the importance of frequent nutrition assessment to monitor changes in intake that may be improved to prevent obesity.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in
           young adults in Hong Kong: Associations and implications
    • Abstract: Wang, Erica Wei-lan; Pang, Marco Yiu-Chung; Siu, Parco Ming-Fai; Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk; Woo, Jean; Collins, Andrew R; Benzie, Iris FF
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is reportedly common, but we lack data from young adults. Such data are of interest because epidemiological data support vitamin D as a possible risk modulator for diabetes and cardiovascular ('cardiometabolic') disease. Our objectives were to assess vitamin D status (as plasma 25(OH)D concentration) and investigate associations between this and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in a group of still-healthy young adults in Hong Kong.

      Methods and Study Design: In this observational study, fasting venous blood was collected from 196 (63 males, 133 females), young (18-26 years) non-smoking, nonobese, consenting adults in good general health. Plasma 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS. A panel of established cardiometabolic risk factors (HbA1c, plasma glucose, lipid profile, hsCRP) and blood pressure were also measured.

      Results: Mean (SD) plasma 25(OH)D concentration was 42.1 (13.0), with range 15.7-86.8 nmol/L; 141/196 subjects (72%) had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Fruit and vegetable intake of Korean children and
           adolescents according to cooking location and daily meal: Study based on
           
    • Abstract: Kwon, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yangsuk
      Background and Objectives: This study analyzed the intake of fruits and vegetables by cooking location and daily meals for Korean children and adolescents.

      Methods and Study Design: For this study, 2,538 Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary intake survey (24-hour recall methods), were sampled.

      Results: The total unsalted fruit and vegetable intake for all subjects was 300 g (aged 7-12 years, 280 g; aged 13-18 years, 316 g). Regarding meal serving location, the combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake was 159 g at home, 206 g at commercial locations, and 104 g at institutions. The combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake in snack form was 128 g, which was higher than that during daily meals. In total, 24.9% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake ('400 g), according to the guidelines created by the World Health Organization/World Cancer Research Fund. Logistic regression analysis results revealed that the fruit and vegetable intake of girls was 1.4 times higher than that of boys, and the number of people who ate more than 400 g of fruits and vegetables was 1.7 times higher in the group with higher education.

      Conclusions: Based on the above results, in-depth measures to continuously increase intake of fruits and vegetables in children and adolescents are needed. This study can be used as basic data for the development of educational programs for dietary improvements.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Association of energy intake and physical activity
           with overweight among Indonesian children 6-12 years of age
    • Abstract: Harahap, Heryudarini; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul
      Background and Objectives: Indonesia is currently facing double burden malnutrition in children. As overweight and obesity are due to a disturbed energy balance, this study aimed to assess the association of total energy intake and physical activity with the prevalence of overweight among Indonesian children.

      Methods and Study Design: The data used for this analysis were from 1143 children, 6-12 years old, that participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS). Physical activity (PA) was measured using pedometers for 2 consecutive days and was categorized low, moderate and high. Child nutritional status was categorized based on body mass index for age z-scores (BAZ) into normal weight (-2 SD 100% RDA had higher risk (ODDs 4.2, 95% CI 1.9, 9.3) of being overweight than children with high PA and energy intakes =100% RDA.

      Conclusions: Low physical activity independently or moderate physical activity and high energy intake are risk factors for Indonesian children to get overweight. Program intervention such as increasing physical activity at school and home is needed to reduce overweight among children.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Comparisons of proteomic profiles of whey protein
           between donor human milk collected earlier than 3 months and 6 months
           after delivery
    • Abstract: Hahn, Won-Ho; Song, Joon-Hwan; Seo, Jong-Bok; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Song, Seunghyun; Lee, Joohyun; Kang, Nam Mi
      Background and Objectives: Human milk has nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages for prema-ture infants. However, proteomic information of low abundant protein of donor milk is insufficient. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the proteome of low abundant protein of donor milk obtained at different postpartum ages other than the colostrum.

      Methods and Study Design: Donor breast milk from 12 healthy mothers was collected 15 days, 2 months and 6 months after delivery and stored by medically approved methods. The whey milk proteomes were analyzed by mass spectrometry and classified using bioinformatics analysis.

      Re-sults: Human milk obtained 15 days and 2 months after delivery showed more abundant expression of whey pro-teins related to the generation of precursor metabolites and energy, metabolism, and catalytic activity, compared with milk collected at 3 months. Immune and transport-related proteins were abundant at all time points. Proteins involved in cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and the carbohydrate metabolism network was more abundant in whey milk collected at 15 day and 2 months using a network analysis.

      Conclusions: We report pro-teomic information for human donor whey protein. As significant changes were found in whey proteome collect-ed earlier than 2 months and 6 months after delivery, selecting human donor milk earlier than 2 months might be more helpful for early postnatal recipients.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Prevalence and determinants of iron deficiency anemia
           among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Habib, Muhammad Atif; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ali, Noshad; Nausheen, Sidrah; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Black, Kirsten I
      Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in women of reproductive age is a recognized public health concern that impairs health and well-being in women and is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. In Pakistan there is a dearth of up-to-date information on the prevalence and predictors of IDA. This study sought to investigate IDA in Pakistani women.

      Methods and Study Design: Secondary analysis was performed using the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011- 2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic, reproductive and nutritional data on women. We also collected anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyse the data.

      Results: A total of 7491 non-pregnant women aged between 15-49 years were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 18.1%. In the multivariate regression analysis; not using iron folic acid supplementation during the last pregnancy adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) 1.31 (1.05, 1.64), a history of four or more pregnancies AOR (95% CI) 1.30 (1.04, 1.60), birth interval of
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Exercise induced dehydration status and skinfold
           compressibility in athletes: An intervention study
    • Abstract: Araujo, Daniela; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Carvalho, Pedro; Amaral, Teresa F
      Background and Objectives: Skinfold thickness assessment is a widely recognized technique for the estimation of body adiposity and fat free mass. This method assumes that skinfolds' compressibility is constant but there are some factors that could influence its compressibility. This study aims to evaluate whether the skinfolds' compressibility is influenced by hydration status.

      Methods and Study Design: An intervention study was conducted in a sample of 22 adult male amateur soccer players, who took part in a 90min simulated soccer match. Before and after the intervention skinfolds thicknesses were measured in eight anatomical sites. An electronic caliper, Lipotool, was used to collect and record 120 values during 2s of evaluation. To analyze skinfolds' compressibility, two methods were used: identification of lowest skinfold thickness measurement (SL) and SH = 110% x SL, and the parameter TAU (t) determination. Baseline hydration status was evaluated by total body water (TBW) through multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Dehydration was assessed by the difference of body weight before and after the intervention.

      Results: The intervention resulted in a loss of 2.11% of participants' baseline weight. The skinfolds thicknesses, assessed by SL and SH, were significantly higher after exercise for all skinfolds except for skinfolds at iliac crest and abdominal. This intervention did not affect skinfolds' compressibility when assessed by t. However, an association between dehydration and medial-calf skinfold' compressibility was found (r=0.48, p=0.042).

      Conclusions: Although an increase in the skinfolds thickness after the intervention was found, skinfolds' compressibility did not change.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Platelet-related cytokines among normal body mass
           index, overweight, and obese Malaysians
    • Abstract: Riyahi, Nasrin; Mohd Tohit, Eusni Rahayu; Thambiah, Subashini C; Ibrahim, Zuriati
      Background and Objectives: Recent studies have reported that obesity is associated with platelet activation and systemic inflammation. Malaysia has the highest prevalence of obesity, hence, this research is performed to evaluate the development of low-grade inflammation and platelet activation, measured using soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-sel), and to determine their association with obesity. In addition, we assessed the mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet count (PLT), which are novel parameters consistently associated with obesity.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 112 healthy men and women from 3 main ethnic group (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) who were aged 18-60 years. The participants were categorized into normal body mass index (BMI), overweight and obese groups according to WHO criteria for BMI in Asian populations (18.5 kg/m2 < BMI < 35 kg/m2). Waist circumference (WC) was also measured and included in the analysis.

      Results: MPV, sCD40L, and sP-sel differed significantly among the normal BMI, over-weight, and obese groups (p < 0.05). Contrastingly, the PLT did not vary significantly among the 3 groups. In addition, sP-sel levels correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.36, p=0.001) and WC (r=0.25, p=0.007) and MPV correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.2, p=0.001) and WC (r=0.2, p=0.003).

      Conclusions: Higher MPV and sP-sel levels in the obese participants than in the overweight and normal BMI participants indicated potentially high-er activation of platelets in people with obesity. Moreover, we observed higher sCD40L levels in obese partici-pants than in the overweight and normal BMI participants, suggesting a proinflammatory state in obese individuals.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Low maternal folate concentrations and maternal MTHFR
           C677T polymorphism are associated with an increased risk for neural tube
           defects in offspring: A case-control study among Pakistani case and
           control mothers
    • Abstract: Nauman, Nuzhat; Jalali, Samina; Shami, Sajjad; Rafiq, Shireen; Grosse, Greta; Hilger, Alina C; Zhang, Rhong; Mansoor, Saira; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko
      Background and Objectives: There is considerable evidence that periconceptional maternal folate deficiency and coding variants in maternal genes coding for critical enzymes in the folate pathway are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. In a case-control study we investigated C677T polymorphism in the 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in case and control mothers of Pakistani origin, and compared these with the respective maternal folate concentrations measured at the time of delivery.

      Methods and Study Design: A case-control study was conducted among 109 case and 100 control mothers identified through the Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate concentrations and MTHFRC677T polymorphism were compared between case and control mothers.

      Results: Mean RBC folate and serum folate concentrations were significantly lower in cases compared with control mothers (p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Premorbid dietary intake of protein is associated with
           early outcomes but not with severity of ischemic stroke
    • Abstract: Dai, Minhui; Tian, Ling; Zi, Wenjie; Cai, Biyang; Xiao, Lulu; Liu, Keting; Zhou, Shuyu; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhu, Wusheng; Yang, Fang; Liu, Xinfeng; Xu, Gelin
      Background and Objectives: Dietary protein intake has been associated with reduced risk of stroke. This study aimed to examine the relationship between premorbid dietary intake of protein and both stroke severity and neurological outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

      Methods and Study Design: Consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in Jinling Hospital were screened for eligibility of participation. A validated foodfrequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed to collect necessary data for calculating pre-stroke dietary intakes. Stroke severity was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline. Neurological outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after stroke onset. Multivariable logistical regression was applied to analyze the impacts of dietary protein intake on stroke severity or neurological outcomes.

      Results: Of the 201 enrolled patients, 110 (54.7%) were classified as minor (NIHSS =6). After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable logistic regression did not detect significant association between total (odds ratio (OR)=0.98, p=0.15), animal (OR=1.01, p=0.87) or plant protein intake (OR=0.96, p=0.07) and stroke severity. According to the 90-day mRS, 127 patients (63.2%) were determined with good (mRS
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Thiamin and folic acid deficiency accompanied by
           resistant electrolyte imbalance in the re-feeding syndrome in an elderly
           patient
    • Abstract: Serin, Sibel Ocak; Karaoren, Gulsah; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Unal, Ethem; Ahci, Seda; Karakoc, Eda; Ucak, Sema
      Introduction: Re-feeding Syndrome (RS) is a deadly complication, which can be encountered during "refeeding" of malnourished patients. In these patients, thiamin deficiency may develop and "risk awareness" is the most significant factor in the management of these patients. In this case report, the treatment is presented of an elderly patient who was diagnosed with RS and followed-up in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to resistant fluidelectrolyte imbalance.

      Case: An 87-year-old elderly woman was admitted to the hospital due to aspiration pneumonia. On day 4, during parenteral nutrition (30 kcal/kg/day), severe electrolyte imbalance developed. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was stopped, and enteral feeding together with potassium (90 mmol/day, i.v.) were started. During follow-up, plasma potassium values remained less than 3 mmol/L. Despite replacement therapy, hypoalbuminemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia persisted. Considering the parenteral nutrition (30 kcal/kg/day) during the hospitalization period, a diagnosis of RS was made. On day 10, thiamin (200 mg/day, i.v.) and folic acid (5 mg/day) were added, and the patient subsequently responded to electrolyte replacement treatment. The patient was discharged on day26 with a home-care plan.

      Conclusion: In patients with malnutrition, thiamin replacement should be given before starting nutrition to prevent RS. Energy intake should be 10kcal/kg/day at the start, and be gradually increased between days 4-10. Hemodynamic-laboratory parameters should be closely monitored. All these measures may be life-saving for patients at high risk.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnant women during
           preterm labor
    • Abstract: Bhupornvivat, Nalina; Phupong, Vorapong
      Background and Objectives: Pregnancy complications hypothesized to be related to vitamin D include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birth weight, preterm delivery, Cesarean section and infectious disease. There have been a few studies which have demonstrated maternal serum vitamin D to be associated with preterm labor. The objective was to evaluate the serum vitamin D concentrations in Thai pregnant women with and without preterm labor and to find the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in both groups.

      Methods and Study Design: Blood samples were collected from pregnant women with and without preterm labor (matched for gestational age). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence method.

      Results: A total of 60 pregnant women were included into the study, 30 patients in the preterm labor group and another 30 patients in the control group. The serum 25-OHD concentration was 21.0'7.5 ng/mL and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 48.3% in total group of pregnant women. The serum 25- OHD concentrations were not different between the preterm labor and the control groups (20.9+-8.4 vs 21.2+-6.7 ng/mL, p=0.91). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were not different between the preterm labor and the control groups (53.3% vs 43.3%, p=0.44 and 83.3% vs 90%, p=0.45, respectively).

      Conclusion: The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were not different between the preterm labor and the control groups. The serum 25-OHD could not predict preterm labor in this Thai population.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with
           excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia
    • Abstract: Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li
      Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum.

      Methods and Study Design: We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

      Results: No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Diet quality and eating behavioural patterns in
           preschool children in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Yip, Pui-Sze; Chan, Vivian Wai-Yen; Lee, Queenie Kwan-Yee; Lee, Hang-Mei
      Background and Objectives: To assess the diet quality and eating behaviour of preschool children, investigate parents' feeding practices, and obtain information on the kindergarten nutrition environment of Hong Kong children aged 30-60 months.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary information was obtained using multiple 24-hour recalls. Questionnaires were developed to obtain information on children' seating behaviour, parents' feeding practices and preschool nutrition environment.

      Results: A total of 302 children and 23 local kindergartens from three regions of Hong Kong were surveyed. The results showed consumption of vegetable and fruit were adequate; however, consumption of grain and meat were excessive, while milk and dairy intakes were inadequate. On average, the children consumed 1,280 kcal per day, or 92% of the Chinese Nutrition Society's energy recommendation. For macronutrients, the mean percentages of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat were 55%, 17% and 28%, respectively, which are within the United States Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The mean intakes of carbohydrate and protein were 175 g and 53.4 g, respectively. For micronutrients, the mean intakes of vitamin D, calcium, iron and zinc were significantly lower than the reference nutrient intake or adequate intake (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Meal services after the Great East Japan Earthquake at
           nursery schools in a tsunami-affected town: Focus group observations
    • Abstract: Amitani, Yukiko; Sudo, Noriko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Ishikawa, Fumiko; Sako, Kazuko
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to collect information on experiences in the Great East Japan Earthquake (hereafter, 3.11), current preparedness, and barriers to building up stockpiles in nursery schools in affected areas. Based on the needs heard from the staff, we decided what contents should be included in our manual developed with the Japan Dietetic Association.

      Methods and Study Design: A group interview was held in September 2012. We interviewed a principal, nurses, and registered dietitians working for a public and a private nursery school in Town A. We also invited an administrative dietitian who was an employee of Town A.

      Results: One of the barriers to building up stockpiles was that they did not have any idea of what and how many items they should store. To deal with this situation, we developed a formula that could be used to calculate the quantity of stockpiles for their facilities in a newly developed feeding manual. In terms of current preparedness, the registered dietitians were not prepared for alternative menus in emergencies or how to manage garbage when the garbage collection was disrupted by disasters. The manual recommends to obtain the services of at least two food service personnel and spare space for storing filled garbage bags until garbage collection resumes.

      Conclusion: Some improvements in stocks were found in both of the public and private nursery schools. To improve the situation further, more financial support and detailed guidelines should be provided by the local government and authoritative organizations. Our manual should be a great asset for all nursery schools to improve their stockpiles.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Information exposure and growth monitoring favour
           child nutrition in rural Indonesia
    • Abstract: Sahanggamu, Paulus D; Purnomosari, Lupi; Dillon, Drupadi
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is a health problem among under-five children in Indonesia. The mothers' knowledge on nutrition and health in addition to growth monitoring program are essential components that may influence nutritional status of children under-five. The objective was to observe the importance of maternal information exposure along with growth monitoring program to the nutritional status of children in rural areas.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross sectional study of 233 randomly selected mothers of under-five children from different geographical rural settings in Indonesia were interviewed and observed as to their exposure to nutrition and health information, growth monitoring program and nutritional status of the children.

      Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 50.5%, 18.0%, and 28.4%, respectively. The mean of height-for-age z score was similar across villages, however, the mean of weight-for-age (p=0.039) and weightfor- height (p=0.047) were significantly lower in Kenduren compared with Karangrejo village. The possession of a growth monitoring card in Kenduren was significantly lower compared with Karangrejo (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Household dietary diversity and child stunting in East
           Java, Indonesia
    • Abstract: Mahmudiono, Trias; Sumarmi, Sri; Rosenkranz, Richard R
      Background and Objectives: More than one-quarter of under-five children in the developing world are stunted, and those with poor nutrient intake are at risk of irreversible cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between dietary diversity and child stunting in an Indonesian context.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary diversity was assessed using a maternal-reported checklist of 12 food groups, summed as a Household Dietary Diversity Score. Stunting was defined as =-2.0 height-for-age z-score by WHO-Anthro 2005. Trained interviewers administered the household dietary diversity questionnaire to 768 households with children aged
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Associations between socio-demographic characteristics
           and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children
           in Selangor, Malaysia
    • Abstract: Chong, Lin Siew; Chin, Yit Siew; Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
      Background and Objectives: To determine the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and pubertal status with disordered eating among primary school children.

      Methods and Study Design: Using a stratified multi-stage sampling, a total of 816 children (282 boys and 534 girls) aged 10 to 11 years from 12 selected primary schools in the state of Selangor, participated in this study. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status and disordered eating behaviors. The Pubertal Development Scale and the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) were used to assess pubertal status and disordered eating, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of disordered eating.

      Results: The prevalence of disordered eating was 30.8% (32.8% in boys and 29.7% in girls). However, the sex difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant. Age, ethnicity and pubertal status were significantly associated with disordered eating in univariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that among boys, being either in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=8.64) and older age group (adjusted OR=2.03) were risk factors of disordered eating. However, among girls, being a Malay (adjusted OR=3.79) or Indian (adjusted OR=5.04) in an advanced or post-pubertal stage (adjusted OR=2.34) and older age group (adjusted OR=1.53) were risk factors of disordered eating.

      Conclusion: This study found one in three children had disordered eating. Since ethnicity and pubertal status were identified as risk factors, ethnicity-specific intervention programs on the prevention of disordered eating among children should take into consideration their pubertal status.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Serum uric acid levels in non-alcoholic steatosis
           patients: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Huang, Fan; Liu, Anding; Fang, Haoshu; Geng, Xiaoping
      Background and Objectives: Experimental and observational studies suggest a role for increased uric acid in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to systematically review the association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and NAFLD.

      Method and Study Design: We used PubMed, and the EMBASE database to identify all applicable studies through November 2015. We used the weighted mean difference (WMD) to demonstrate the differences between the control and NAFLD groups in continuous data. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data using the Mantel-Haenszel method. A total of 16 observational studies were identified and used for the analysis of continuous data, and 4 studies were analyzed for dichotomous data.

      Results: The WMD was 52.3 (95% CI: 39.0, 65.5, p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Positive association between metabolic syndrome and
           serum uric acid in Wuhan
    • Abstract: Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The objective was to determine whether serum uric acid concentrations were associated with metabolic syndrome in a population from Wuhan.

      Methods and Study Design: 5,628 subjects (2,838 men, 2,790 women) aged 18-80 years were recruited in Wuhan, China. Biochemical parameters of venous blood were measured by standard methods and metabolic syndrome was defined by Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression.

      Results: 8.2% of the included subjects were confirmed as having metabolic syndrome and 14.4% were confirmed as having hyperuricemia. After multivariable adjustment, logistic regression showed the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentration was 2.84 (95% CI: 2.09-3.86) compared with those in the lowest quartile and no gender difference was found. For each component of metabolic syndrome, subjects in the highest quartile of serum uric acid concentrations had increased multivariable odds ratios for high BMI (OR: 3.29, 95% CI: 2.71-3.98), for hypertension (OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 2.93-3.86), for dyslipidemia (OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.98-3.14), but not for hyperglycemia (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.87-1.67).

      Conclusions: Odd ratio of metabolic syndrome was significantly positively associated with serum uric acid concentration among the present sample of 5,628 subjects in Wuhan.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - How do health behaviours relate to dietary practice
           patterns among Japanese adults'
    • Abstract: Mishra, Gita D; Lee, Jung Su; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi
      Background and Objectives: To identify dietary practice patterns for Japanese adults and investigate the links between health behaviours and these patterns.

      Methods and Study Design: A random sample, stratified according to area, sex, and age, of 4570 adults aged 20-80 years completed a survey conducted in 2011 in a city, in Yamagata Prefecture, Northeast Japan.

      Results: Cluster analysis of 16 dietary practice items revealed four patterns labelled as: low fat, sugar, or salt; emphasis on nutrition; regular breakfast and staples; and meals not snacks. Findings from multiple linear regression analyses showed that those not engaged in habitual physical exercise had lower scores on low fat, sugar, or salt (beta coefficient -0.22: 95% confidence intervals -0.30, -0.14); emphasis on nutrition (-0.17: -0.25, -0.09); meals not snacks; (-0.38: -0.46, -0.3) that other participants. Current smokers had lower scores than never smokers on low fat, sugar, or salt (-0.23: -0.32, -0.14); emphasis on nutrition (-0.28: -0.37, -0.19); regular breakfast and staples (-0.42: -0.51, -0.33) patterns. Compared with nondrinkers, those who had reduced their consumption of alcohol had higher scores on low fat, sugar, or salt (0.19: 0.09, 0.29) and emphasis on nutrition (0.17: 0.07, 0.27). These relationships were adjusted for other dietary practice patterns, sociodemographic factors, body mass index, and the presence of major illness or pain.

      Conclusions: Findings support an integrated and targeted approach as part of public health policy by considering links between dietary practices and other health behaviours, such as habitual exercise and smoking behaviour that may facilitate changes in dietary practices.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Where is Nepal in the nutrition transition'
    • Abstract: Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Marais, Debbi; Newlands, David
      Background and Objective: Nutrition transition is rapid in developing countries, but Nepalese transition is relatively unknown. This study aimed to describe nutrition transition in Nepal over the past 40 years by identifying the shifts in the Nepalese diets and nutritional status and the underlying shifts associated with this.

      Methods and Study Design: Popkin's framework was used to identify shifts in Nepalese diet and the inter-relationship of diet with epidemiological, demographic and economic shifts. The current study used quantitative methodology including secondary data analysis based on food balance sheets, economic surveys and the government databases.

      Results: The Nepalese diet is shifting away from agricultural staple based foods to modern processed foods with higher total energy, total fat, and sugar. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases are increasing. Urbanisation is rapid and nutrition transition already advanced in urban area. The Nepalese economic structure has also changed shifting away from agricultural food supply system towards modern processing based food supply system. These changes in the Nepalese diet are triggered by income and urbanisation. The trade liberalisation has made processed foods, edible oil and sugar easily available at supermarkets and fast food outlets.

      Conclusion: It is clear that Nepal has now entered into the fourth stage of nutrition transition according to Popkin's framework. As a result, overweight, obesity and the prevalence of many non-communicable diseases are all rapidly growing. A further study is recommended to identify whether urban versus rural, rich versus poor and educated versus uneducated families are experiencing the transition in similar way.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic
           responses to 'Hibiscus sabdariffa' L. and 'Gynostemma pentaphyllum' Makino
           tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects
    • Abstract: Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn
      Background and Objectives: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms.

      Methods and Study Design: Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined, and APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

      Results: E4 (p=0.008) and homozygous B1B1 (p=0.010) carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C concentrations after HS consumption; in addition, B2 carriers who consumed HS showed significantly decreased triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p=0.039). Regarding GP consumption, non-E4 carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C (p=0.009) and FBG (p=0.042) concentrations. Furthermore, B2 carriers had significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.045), HDL-C (p=0.004), and FBG (p=0.026) concentrations.

      Conclusions: HS consumption may have beneficial effects with respect to TG concentrations in the B2 carriers, but it may adversely affect HDL-C concentrations in homozygous B1B1 and E4 carriers. In contrast, GP consumption may have favorable effects on TC and FBG concentrations but not on HDL-C concentrations for B2 and/or non-E4 carriers.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Taking action against malnutrition in Asian healthcare
           settings: An initiative of a Northeast Asia study group
    • Abstract: Higashiguchi, Takashi; Arai, Hidenori; Claytor, Ling Hui; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Kotani, Joji; Lee, Shyh-Dye; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Nogami, Tetsushi; Peng, Nanhai
      Malnutrition is common in Asia, especially among people who are critically ill and/or older. Study results from China, Japan, and Taiwan show that malnutrition or risk of malnutrition is found in up to 30% of community-dwelling people and as much as 50% of patients admitted to hospitals-with prevalence even higher among those older than 70 years. In Asia, malnutrition takes substantial tolls on health, physical function, and wellbeing of people affected, and it adds huge financial burdens to healthcare systems. Attention to nutrition, including protein intake, can help prevent or delay disease- and age-related disabilities and can speed recovery from illness or surgery. Despite compelling evidence and professional guidelines on appropriate nutrition care in hospital and community settings, patients' malnutrition is often overlooked and under-treated in Asian healthcare, as it is worldwide.

      Since the problem of malnutrition continues to grow as many Asian populations become increasingly "gray", it is important to take action now. A medical education (feedM.E.) Global Study Group developed a strategy to facilitate best-practice hospital nutrition care: screen-intervene-supervene. As members of a newly formed feedM.E. Northeast Asia Study Group, we endorse this care strategy, guiding clinicians to screen each patient's nutritional status upon hospital admission or at initiation of care, intervene promptly when nutrition care is needed, and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans, including post-discharge. To encourage best-practice nutrition in Asian patient care settings, our paper includes a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway (NCP) in multiple languages.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Total diet score as a valid method of measuring diet
           quality among older adults
    • Abstract: Russell, Joanna C; Flood, Victoria M; Sadeghpour, Ali; Gopinath, Bamini; Mitchell, Paul
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the accuracy of a diet quality measurement tool, the Total Diet Score (TDS) using two validation methods; firstly the TDS calculated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was compared to the TDS calculated from weighed food records (WFRs); secondly the TDS was compared to a number of dietary biomarkers.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were collected from a population based cohort study located in the Blue Mountains region of Sydney, Australia. To compare dietary assessment tools, a sub sample of 75 subjects (aged 63 to 83 years) completed the FFQ and three, four-day WFRs at baseline. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2897 subjects at the first follow up in 1997-1999. TDS scores were calculated from both WFRs and FFQs. Methods to compare FFQ TDS scores to WFR TDS scores included paired t-tests, Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots, joint classification quartiles and weighted kappa scores. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between TDS and biomarkers.

      Results: No significant mean difference was found between FFQ TDS and WFRs TDS (p=0.63) with a significant positive correlation seen between the two methods (r=0.75, p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic
           syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults
    • Abstract: Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung
      Background and Objectives: There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892).

      Results: Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of =7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets.

      Conclusions: This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Serum zinc evolution in dysphagic patients that
           underwent endoscopic gastrostomy for long term enteral feeding
    • Abstract: Santos, Carla Adriana; Fonseca, Jorge; Lopes, Maria Teresa Martins; Guerreiro, Antonio Sousa
      Background and Objectives: Patients undergoing endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) present with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) but little is known about zinc status. Our aim was to evaluate serum zinc, its relationship with serum proteins and with the nature of the underlying disorder, during the first 3 months of PEG feeding.

      Methods and Study Design: Prospective observational study during a 3-month period after gastrostomy. Data was collected at initial PEG procedure (T0), after 4 (T1) and 12 weeks (T3). Initial evaluation included: age, gender, disorder causing dysphagia, Neurological Dysphagia (ND) or Head and Neck Cancer (HNC), NRS-2002, BMI, albumin, transferrin, zinc. At T1 and T3, a blood sample was collected for zinc, albumin, transferrin. Serum zinc evaluation was performed with ICP-AES - Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Patients were fed with homemade meals.

      Results: A total of 146 patients (89 males), 21-95 years were studied: HNC-56, ND-90 and low BMI in 78. Initial low zinc in 122; low albumin in 77, low transferrin in 94; low values for both proteins in 66. Regarding the serum protein evolution, their levels increase T0-T3, most patients reaching normal values. zinc has a slower evolution, most patients still displaying low zinc at T3. Significant differences between the 3 moments for zinc (p=0.011), albumin (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - The influence of protein provision in the early phase
           of intensive care on clinical outcomes for critically ill patients on
           mechanical ventilation
    • Abstract: Song, Joo Han; Lee, Ho Sun; Kim, Song Yee; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jie Ye; Kang, Young Ae; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Chung, Kyung Soo
      Background and Objectives: Mechanically ventilated patients often face progressive and rapid losses of body mass and muscle because of hypermetabolism and increased protein catabolism. To investigate the impact of adequate nutritional provision during the early phase of intensive care unit (ICU) admission on the clinical outcomes in patients with medical illnesses receiving mechanical ventilation support.

      Methods and Study Design: Two hundred and eleven mechanically ventilated patients admitted to a 30-bed medical ICU were included. Three groups, based on nutrition intake, were examined: adequate protein intake (aPI), n=34; insufficient protein intake/ adequate energy intake (iPI/aEI), n=25; insufficient protein and energy intake (iPI/iEI), n=152.

      Results: Patients' mean age was 65 14 years; body mass index, 22+-4; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 24+-7. The aPI group had significantly lower rates of in-ICU (14.7%) and in-hospital (23.5%) mortality than patients with insufficient protein intake: in-ICU mortality, iPI/aEI, 36%; iPI/iEI, 44.1% (p=0.006); in-hospital mortality, iPI/aEI, 56.0%; iPI/iEI, 52.0% (p=0.008). In the multivariate analysis, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 60-day survival were 2.59 (1.02-6.59; p=0.046) and 2.88 (1.33-6.26; p=0.008) for the iPI/aEI and iPI/iEI groups, respectively.

      Conclusions: Despite possible selection bias owing to the retrospective nature of the study, achievement of >90% of target protein intake was associated with improved ICU outcomes in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, based on real-world clinical circumstances.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Is low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D a possible link
           between pulmonary tuberculosis and type 2 diabetes'
    • Abstract: Wang, Qiuzhen; Ma, Aiguo; Han, Xiuxia; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhao, Shanliang; Liang, Hui; Cai, Jing; Kok, Frans J; Schouten, Evert G
      Background and Objectives: Although vitamin D is implicated in the generation of anti-microbial peptide cathelicidin, which plays a key role against pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes (DM), its role in the co-existence of these two diseases (PTB-DM) is still uncertain. This study explored the association of vitamin D status with prevalent PTB, PTB-DM and DM.

      Methods and Study Design: We randomly selected 130 PTB patients, 90 PTB-DM, 91 DM and 134 controls. Serum 25(OH)D was determined. A structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were administered.

      Results: Serum 25(OH)D in PTB and PTB-DM were 12.2+-2.2 ng/mL and 12.9+-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, which were lower than those in DM and control groups. Odds ratios of PTB and PTB-DM comparing extreme quartiles of 25(OH)D (lower than 8.6 ng/mL versus >=26.6 ng/mL) were 3.26 and 2.27, respectively. These associations remained after adjustment for possible risk factors [OR (95% CI)=4.73 (2.04-10.9) and 2.50 (1.04-6.02), respectively]. A synergistic interaction was observed between low 25(OH)D and underweight in respect to prevalent PTB-DM [OR=24.6 vs 2.50 for lowest quartile of 25(OH) D and 4.59 for underweight].

      Conclusions: Odds ratios of low serum 25(OH)D for PTB and PTB-DM were greater than 1.0, and were even much greater when combined with underweight. However, since the association of serum 25(OH)D with PTB was stronger than with PTB-DM, we could not draw the conclusion that vitamin D is a link between PTB and DM.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Health insurance or subsidy has universal advantage
           for management of hospital malnutrition unrelated to GDP
    • Abstract: Klek, Stanislaw; Chourdakis, Michael; Abosaleh, Dima Abdulqudos; Baik, Hyun Wook; Baptista, Gertrudis; Barazzoni, Rocco; Fukushima, Ryoji; Hartono, Josef; Jayawardena, Ranil; Garcia, Rafael Jimenez; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nyulasi, Ibolya; Parallada, Gabriela; Francisco, Eliza Mei Perez; Panisic-Sekeljic, Marina; Perman, Mario; Prins, Arina; del Rio Requejo, Isabel Martinez; Reddy, Ravinder; Singer, Pierre; Sioson, Marianna; Ukleja, Andrew; Vartanian, Carla; Fuentes, Nicolas Velasco; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky; Zoungrana, Steve Leonce; Galas, Aleksander
      Background and Objectives: Protein-energy and micronutrient malnutrition are global public health problems which, when not prevented and severe, require medical management by clinicians with nutrition expertise, preferably as a collectively skilled team, especially when disease-related. This study aimed to investigate barriers and facilitators of clinical nutrition services (CNS), especially the use of oral, enteral (EN) and parenteral (PN) nutrition in institutional and home settings.

      Methods and Study Design: An international survey was performed between January and December 2014 in twenty-six countries from all continents. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to 28 representatives of clinical nutrition (PEN) societies, 27 of whom responded. The questionnaire comprised questions regarding a country's economy, reimbursement for CNS, education about and the use of EN and PN.

      Results: The prevalence of malnutrition was not related to gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita (p=0.186). EN and PN were used in all countries surveyed (100%), but to different extents. Reimbursement of neither EN nor PN use depended on GDP, but was associated with increased use of EN and PN in hospitals (p=0.035), although not evident for home or chronic care facilities. The size of GDP did not affect the use of EN (p=0.256), but it mattered for PN (p=0.019).

      Conclusions: A worldwide survey by nutrition support societies did not find a link between national economic performance and the implementation of medical nutrition services. Reimbursement for CNS, available through health insurance systems, is a factor in effective nutrition management.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Association between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and
           dairy intake and a reduction in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in
           Qingdao, China
    • Abstract: Liang, Jiwei; Zhang, Yanlei; Xue, Aili; Sun, Jianping; Song, Xin; Xue, Bai; Ji, Fuling; Gao, Weiguo; He, Liang; Pang, Zengchang; Qiao, Qing; Ning, Feng
      Background and Objectives: Fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes, but this relationship is unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake and type 2 diabetes prevalence in a Chinese population.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 4,343 individuals aged 35-74 years participated in a population-based cross-sectional study in Qingdao, China. The frequency and quantity of fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake were determined using a standard food frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was classified according to the WHO/IDF 2006 criteria. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate odds ratio (OR) for type 2 diabetes in relation to fruit, vegetable, seafood, and dairy intake in a multivariable model.

      Results: The multivariate-adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval) for the presence of type 2 diabetes were 0.68 (0.46-0.98), 0.50 (0.37-0.68), and 0.91 (0.66-1.25), respectively, for the highest versus the lowest groups regarding total fruit and vegetable, fruit or vegetable intake in women. The ORs for type 2 diabetes prevalence regarding the quantity of fruit and vegetable, fruit, and yogurt intake were 0.88 (0.78-0.99), 0.71 (0.61-0.82), and 0.56 (0.32-0.98) in women, but not in men. Seafood consumption was inversely associated with diabetes risk in men, but not in women; the corresponding figures were 0.58 (0.35-0.96) and 0.92 (0.63-1.36), respectively.

      Conclusions: Fruit, vegetable, and yogurt intake in women and seafood intake in men were inversely associated with type 2 diabetes prevalence in this Chinese population. These findings require confirmation in a prospective study.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Identification of dietary patterns and their
           relationships with general and oral health in the very old
    • Abstract: Osawa, Yusuke; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Michiyo; Hirata, Takumi; Kawasaki, Midori; Abe, Yukiko; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirose, Nobuyoshi
      Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian populations aged >=85 years and their associated factors. Thus, we aimed to (1) identify these dietary patterns and (2) clarify the relationships between the dietary pattern and health outcomes in a community-dwelling very old population. The Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health study is an observational cohort study comprising 512 Japanese subjects (women, n=288; men, n=224; age, 87.8+-2.2 years). Dietary patterns were assessed by principal component analysis using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Barthel index, Mini-Mental State Examination, and oral health status [maximum occlusal force (MOF), denture use, and dentulous / edentulous state] were also measured.

      Two dietary patterns were identified. The first factor component "traditional Japanese" was characterized by a high consumption of vegetables, seaweed, legumes, and fish. The second factor component "noodles and confectioneries" was characterized by a high consumption of noodles, confectioneries, and non-alcoholic beverages. Multivariable analysis showed that the "traditional Japanese" dietary pattern was inversely associated with dentulous state (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34-0.82), the lowest tertile of MOF (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.99), and denture use (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.26- 4.63) even after adjustment for potential confounders. Furthermore, the "noodles and confectioneries" dietary pattern was inversely associated with the lowest tertile of MOF (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40-0.94). However, there were no significant associations between these dietary patterns and disability or cognitive function. We identified two dietary patterns in the very old population, which were associated with oral health status.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of
           lung cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Zhu, Yong-Jian; Bo, Ya-Cong; Liu, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Chun-Guang
      Background and Objectives: Several epidemiological studies investigating the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of lung cancer have demonstrated inconsistent results. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to summarise evidence of the association of dietary vitamin E intake with the risk of lung cancer.

      Methods and Study Design: In this meta-analysis, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1955 to April 2015. If p50%, a random effect model was used to estimate overall relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Otherwise, a fixed effect model was applied. Publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot and Egger's test. The doseresponse relationship was assessed using the method of restricted cubic splines with 4 knots at percentiles 5, 35, 65, and 95 of the distribution.

      Results: The pooled RR of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary vitamin E intake was 0.84 (95% CI=0.76-0.93). With every 2 mg/d increase in dietary vitamin E intake, the risk of lung cancer statistically decreased by 5% (RR=0.95, 95% CI =0.91-0.99, plinearity=0.0237).

      Conclusions: Our analysis suggests that higher dietary vitamin E intake exerts a protective effect against lung cancer.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - 'Her shape' intervention programme for obese women
           with high breast adiposity
    • Abstract: Juliana, Norsham; Shahar, Suzana; Sahar, Mohd Azmani; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Md Noah, Rahim
      Background and Objectives: Nutrition and physical activity interventions is beneficial in reversing obesity. However far too little attention has been paid to the effect of these interventions on breast tissues. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the effect of a home-based dietary and physical activity intervention (the Her Shape Program) on metabolic parameters, blood biomarkers and adiposity at the breast.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized controlled study was conducted on obese women with high breast adiposity (
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 2 - Instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour to
           improve micronutrient intake in Asia: A review of simulation, nutrient
           retention and sensory studies
    • Abstract: Bronder, Kayla L; Zimmerman, Sarah L; van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Codling, Karen; Johns, Kirsten AG; Pachon, Helena
      Background and Objectives: Consumption of foods made with wheat flour, particularly instant noodles, is increasing in Asia. Given this trend, fortifying wheat flour with vitamins and minerals may improve micronutrient intake in the region. The objective of this review was to understand what is known about fortifying wheat flour used to make instant noodles.

      Methods and Study Design: A literature review of seven databases was performed using the search terms "noodle" and ("Asian" or "instant"). Grey literature was requested through a food fortification listserv. Articles were title screened first for relevance and duplicity, with exclusion criteria applied during the second round of abstract-level screening. This review considered studies examining simulation, retention, sensory, bioavailability, efficacy, and effectiveness of instant noodles made with fortified wheat flour.

      Results: Fourteen relevant documents were reviewed for simulation (n=1), retention (n=11), and sensory studies (n=3). The documents revealed that instant noodles produced from fortified wheat flour have potential to improve nutrient intakes, have high retention of most nutrients, and provoke no or minimal changes in sensory characteristics.

      Conclusions: The available literature indicates that using fortified wheat flour for instant noodle production results in retention of the added nutrients, except thiamin, with no significant sensory change to the final product. Given the rising consumption of instant noodles, production of this item with fortified wheat flour has potential to improve nutrient intakes in Asia. This review provides a resource for the design of a wheat flour fortification program in countries where a large proportion of wheat flour is consumed as instant noodles.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Relationship of aging and nutritional status to innate
           immunity in tube-fed bedridden patients
    • Abstract: Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Tashiro, Tomoe; Yamamura, Takuya; Takahashi, Seiichiro; Katayose, Kozo; Kohga, Shin; Takase, Mitsunori; Imawari, Michio
      Background and Objectives: Aging and malnutrition are known to influence immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of aging and malnutrition to innate immune functions in tube-fed bedridden patients.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 71 tube-fed bedridden patients aged 50-95 years (mean age+-SD, 80.2+-8.5 years) with serum albumin concentrations between 2.5 and 3.5 g/dL. We evaluated associations of age and nutritional variables with natural-killer cell activity, neutrophilphagocytic activity, and neutrophil-sterilizing activity. Nutritional variables included body mass index, weightadjusted energy intake, total lymphocyte count, and serum concentrations of albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and zinc.

      Results: Natural-killer cell activity, neutrophil-phagocytic activity, and neutrophil-sterilizing activity were normal or increased in 67 (94%), 63 (89%), and 69 (97%) patients, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis with a backward elimination method showed that natural-killer cell activity correlated negatively with aging and lymphocyte counts (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - The impact of implementation of an enteral feeding
           
    • Abstract: Kim, Seoung-Hyun; Park, Chi-Min; Seo, Jeong-Meen; Choi, Mingew; Lee, Dae-Sang; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rha, Miyong; Yu, Soyoung; Lee, Seonhye; Kim, Eunmee; Cho, YoungYun
      Background and Objectives: The optimal delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) may improve clinical outcomes in critically ill patients; thus, optimal EN protocols should be developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing an EN protocol on the improvement of EN practices and on the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients.

      Methods and Study Design: This was a retrospective study with prospectively collected data. Multidisciplinary working group developed an evidence-based EN protocol based on an extensive review of literature and existing guidelines. Subjects included patients consecutively admitted to the ICU who received EN for more than 24 hours. EN practices and clinical outcomes were compared before and after implementation of the protocol.

      Results: A total of 270 patients were included, 134 patients before implementation and 136 after implementation of the protocol. EN was initiated earlier (35.8 vs 87.1 hours, p=0.001) and more patients received EN within 24 hours (59.6% vs 41.0%, p=0.002) after implementation of the protocol. The interval between starting EN and reaching the caloric goal was not different, but more patients reached the caloric goal after implementation (52.2% vs 38.3%, p=0.037). The post-implementation group was given more prokinetics and less parenteral nutrition. The incidences of diarrhea and gastrointestinal bleeding significantly decreased following implementation of the protocol. There was no difference in clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality and length of hospital and ICU stay.

      Conclusion: The implementation of the EN protocol significantly improved the practices of EN and decreased complications in critically ill patients. Clinical outcomes were not different before and after implementation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Nasoenteric tube versus jejunostomy for enteral
           nutrition feeding following major upper gastrointestinal operations: A
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Wang, Lidong; Tian, Zhong; Liu, Yuan
      Background and Objectives: Following major upper gastrointestinal surgical procedures, early enteral nutrition to the jejunum is strongly recommended, either through a nasoenteric tube or a percutaneous transperitoneal jejunal feeding tube (jejunostomy). However, to date there has been no consensus as to the best enteral feeding strategy. Our aim was to determine the safest and most efficacious early enteral nutrition supplement strategy following major upper gastrointestinal operations.

      Methods and Study Design: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for comparison of trials. The primary outcome analyzed was length of postoperative hospital stay, and secondary outcomes were: duration of enteral nutrition, time to resumption of normal oral intake, and tube dislodgement, tube leakage and tube obstruction complications. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) and risk ratios (RRs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

      Results: A total of 5 studies were included with 420 patients in all. The length of hospital stay, duration of enteral nutrition and the time to resumption of normal oral intake were all significantly shorter in the nasoenteric group (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Initial energy supplementation in critically ill
           patients receiving enteral nutrition: a systematic review and
           meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    • Abstract: Tian, Feng; Gao, Xuejin; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Xia, Xianfeng; Wang, Xinying
      Background and Objectives: Here we systematically reviewed and quantitatively analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the important initial outcomes of critically ill adults receiving low- and highenergy enteral nutrition.

      Methods and Study Design: RCTs comparing low- and high-energy supplementation in critically ill adults receiving enteral nutrition admitted to the intensive care unit for an expected stay of >48 h were included. s submitted to major scientific meetings were included and the primary endpoint was mortality. The risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were the effect measures.

      Results: Eleven RCTs (3,212 patients) were included. The groups did not differ significantly in mortality (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.80-1.11; p=0.47), infections morbidity (RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.95-1.26; p=0.23), pneumonia morbidity (RR 1.04; 95% CI 0.88-1.23; p=0.68), hospital length of stay (WMD -0.27; 95% CI -3.21 to 3.76; p=0.88), intensive care unit length of stay (WMD -0.32; 95% CI, -1.81 to 1.16; p=0.46), mechanical ventilation days (WMD -0.30; 95% CI-1.42 to 0.82; p=0.60). The incidence of gastrointestinal intolerance was significantly lower in the low-energy group (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - The geriatric nutritional risk index may predict
           healthcare costs and health transitions during hemodialysis in China
    • Abstract: Dou, Yanna; Wang, Pei; Yuan, Fangfang; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Liu, Zhangsuo
      Background and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the relationship between the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) at baseline and healthcare costs of three-month as well as the risk of quality-of-life score at the 6-month follow-up for Chinese hemodialysis patients.

      Methods and Study Design: One hundred patients who had been on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. The general characteristics, laboratory test results and GNRI of the patients at baseline were recorded. The healthcare costs and quality-of-life scores were determined at the follow-up examination.

      Results: Patients were divided into two groups according to their median GNRI at baseline: a lower GNRI group (GNRI 86.4). The patients in the lower GNRI group exhibited reduced hemoglobin (74.7+-13.1 g/dL vs 82.3+-15.2 g/dL, p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Peripherally inserted central venous
           catheter-associated complications exert negative effects on body weight
           gain in neonatal intensive care units
    • Abstract: Wen, Jie; Yu, Qun; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Niannian; Huang, Shourong; Cai, Wei
      Background and Objectives: The placement of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is an essential procedure in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of PICC complications in NICU, and further identify the effects of PICC complications on body weight gain in premature infants.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 304 premature infants who had a PICC inserted in NICU were enrolled in this study. The weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) at the time of PICC insertion and removal were calculated, and changes of WAZ in different groups were compared using a t-test. Risk factors for PICC complications were assessed using the chi-squared test and multiple logistic regression analysis.

      Results: Thirty (9.97%) PICCs were removed due to complications. Of them, 14 PICCs were removed because of non-infectious complications and 16 PICCs were removed for central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that premature infants with birth weight >1,500 g were less likely to have PICC complications than infants with birth weight
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Characteristics of food group intake by household
           income in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan
    • Abstract: Nishi, Nobuo; Horikawa, Chika; Murayama, Nobuko
      This study examines the relationship between of food group intake and household income in a representative Japanese population. A total of 11,015 subjects (5,127 men and 5,888 women) aged 20 to 79 years, in 5,475 households who were part of the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, in 2010 and 2011 were analyzed. Dietary intake was recorded for one day in November for those aged one year and older, from 300 randomly selected survey districts. Household income per year was recorded in the questionnaire in three categories: low (
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Iron release from the Lucky Iron fish: Safety
           considerations
    • Abstract: Armstrong, Gavin R; Dewey, Cate E; Summerlee, Alastair JS
      Background and Objectives: The principal objective was to explore in greater detail safety issues with regard to the use of the Lucky Iron Fish (fish) as a treatment for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in women in rural Cambodia.

      Methods and Study Design: Experiments were done to determine: (1) purity of the iron in the fish by mass spectroscopy; (2) release of iron and contaminants released during boiling in water using inductive-ly-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; (3) the impact of cooking time, acidity and number of fish in acidified water and two types of Khmer soups; and (4) drinkability of the water after boiling with different numbers of fish.

      Results: The fish is composed primarily of ferrous iron with less than 12% non-ferrous iron. Contaminants were either not detectable or levels were below the acceptable standards set by the World Health Organization. The length of time boiling the fish and the acidity of the water increased iron release but even with 5 fish boiled for 60 minutes, iron levels only approached levels where side effects are observed. Boiling one fish in water did not affect the perception of colour, smell or taste of the water but boiling in water with two or more fish resulted in the water being unpalatable which further limits the potential for iron toxicity from using the fish.

      Conclusions: The results suggest that the Lucky Iron Fish may be a safe treatment for iron deficiency.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Positive association between the metabolic syndrome
           and white blood cell counts in Chinese
    • Abstract: Yang, Hong; Fu, Yuan-Qing; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Zeng, Wen; Fan, Zhi-Fen; Chen, Min; Wang, Ling; Li, Duo
      Background and Objectives: The aim was to investigate the association between peripheral circulating white blood cell count (WBC) and the metabolic syndrome among populations in central China.

      Methods and Study Design: In the present study, 5,278 subjects (2,412 women, 2,866 men) aged 18-75 years were recruited through a health check program in Wuhan, China. Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured by standard methods and the metabolic syndrome diagnosed as defined by the Chinese Diabetes Society criteria for Chinese.

      Results: Both WBC counts and prevalence of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in men than in women (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Associations between depression and unhealthy
           behaviours related to metabolic syndrome: A cross sectional study
    • Abstract: Ohmori, Yumi; Ito, Hiroto; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijo; Miyachi, Motohiko
      Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether depression was associated with metabolic syndrome and unhealthy behaviours in community residents.

      Methods and Study Design: Using the 2009-2010 baseline data of the Saku Cohort Study, 1,225 men and women who participated in a community health screening were included in the cross-sectional analyses. Depression was assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Consistent with the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine's definition, we defined metabolic syndrome as abdominal obesity plus two or more of the following: high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, and dyslipidaemia. We defined 'pre- and metabolic syndrome' as the presence of one or more of the three criteria in addition to abdominal obesity.

      Results: There was no significant association between depression and metabolic syndrome. In women, the prevalence of pre- and metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the depression group than that in the non-depression group (17.5% vs 9.5%, p=0.046), whereas no such significant association was observed in men. Logistic regression analysis showed that depression was associated with unhealthy behavioural factors differently in men and women.

      Conclusions: This study revealed that depression was associated with several unhealthy behavioural factors in both men and women, but depression was associated with pre- and metabolic syndrome only in women. These findings suggest that depression may be a warning sign of metabolic syndrome in women with unhealthy behavioural factors. Psychological factors should be considered in addition to the assessment of physical status.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Dietary intake, physical activity, and time management
           are associated with constipation in preschool children in Japan
    • Abstract: Asakura, Keiko; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi
      Background and Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint in children, which is not fatal but can affect quality of life. Several lifestyle-related risk factors for constipation have been reported, particularly dietary factors, but results have been inconsistent. Here, we examined the relationship of dietary and lifestyle factors with constipation in Japanese preschool children using data of a nationwide study.

      Methods and Study Design: Subjects were 5,309 children aged 5 to 6 years at 380 nursery schools in 44 of 47 prefectures in Japan. Children having three or fewer bowel movements per week were considered constipated. Dietary intake data was collected using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire for Japanese preschool children, and information about general lifestyle was collected using a 4-page questionnaire designed for this study. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for constipation were calculated by logistic regression.

      Results: Higher dietary fiber intake was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of constipation (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, p for trend: 0.005), but higher carbohydrate intake was marginally associated with a higher prevalence of constipation. Intake of potatoes, pulses, vegetables, and fruits intake decreased constipation prevalence, whereas higher rice intake was significantly and independently associated with higher prevalence of constipation. Regarding lifestyle factors, high physical activity and sufficient preparation time for breakfast and dinner for guardians were significantly associated with lower prevalence. Prevalence tended to be negatively associated with a higher educational background of the mother.

      Conclusions: Several lifestyle factors were associated with a lower prevalence of constipation among Japanese preschool children, including dietary fiber intake.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Identifying acceptability and price points for
           purchasing micronutrient powders for children 2 to 5 years old in Nepal
    • Abstract: Gunnala, Rajni; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giriraj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena
      Background and Objective: Little is known about purchasing micronutrient powders (MNP) for children 2-5 years. We describe acceptability for purchasing and price points for MNP for children 2-5 years among caregivers living in districts where free MNP are distributed for children 6-23 months.

      Methods and Study Design: Cross-sectional surveys conducted 3 months after MNP program implementation in 2 districts; 15 months after implementation in 2 different districts. Chi square tests and logistic regression describe associations among sociodemographics and program exposure factors and acceptability of purchasing MNP among 1,261 mothers of children 6-23 months who had heard of MNP.

      Results: Overall, 77.5% and 86.1% of mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP in the 3 and 15 month surveys, respectively. Positive pricing attitude (PPA) about paying 150 Nepali rupees for 60 sachets of MNP was reported by 66.3% and 73.4% of mothers. Acceptability for purchasing MNP in both time periods increased with higher wealth quintile and higher maternal education; PPA increased with higher maternal education. Controlling for socio-demographics, program exposure factors associated with acceptability for purchasing MNP included: lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake and health worker counselling (3 month surveys); knowledge of benefits of MNP intake and lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake (15 month surveys).

      Conclusions: Mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP and PPA for older children in Nepal. Differences in acceptability were found across socio-demographics and program exposures. Use of these results and further exploration into actual purchasing behaviour can inform future MNP distribution methods in Nepal.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Nutrient intake and dietary patterns in children 2.5-5
           years of age with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height
    • Abstract: Volger, Sheri; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Tong, Ling M; Zhao, Dongmei; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Feng; Ge, John; Ho, Wing Man; Hays, Nicholas P; Yao, Manjiang
      Background and Objectives: Picky eating behaviours are common in young children and may adversely affect dietary intake. This study examined the adequacy of dietary patterns and nutrient intake in preschool-aged children in China and Hong Kong with picky eating behaviours and weight-for-height in the lowest quartile of the WHO Growth Standards.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary intake was assessed using baseline 3-day food records from a multicenter, randomized trial in Chinese children (N=151) ages 2.5-5 years characterized as picky eaters by their parents and with weight-for-height 16% of daily energy was derived from foods in the sweets/beverages/snack and the fats/oils groups. Almost 75% of the children met the recommended daily servings of meat/meat substitutes and nearly half met the recommendation for daily servings of fruit. Fewer met the recommendations for daily servings of vegetables (14.7%), milk/milk products (6.3%), and grains and cereals (6.3%).

      Conclusions: Young children with picky eating behaviours and low weight-for-height had suboptimal dietary patterns and were at risk for significant dietary and nutrient insufficiencies.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Local food supplementation and psychosocial
           stimulation improve linear growth and cognitive development among
           Indonesian infants aged 6 to 9 months
    • Abstract: Helmizar, Helmizar; Jalal, Fasli; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Achadi, Endang L
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of culturally-relevant food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation on infant growth and development.

      Methods and Study Design: A community-based random-ized controlled trial was conducted in 40 clusters from 5 selected villages in Tanah Datar District of West Sumatera, Indonesia. We assessed 355 infants aged 6 to 9 months at the beginning of the study. The infants were divided into 4 groups: 1) Food Supplementation (FS); 2) Psychosocial Stimulation (PS); 3) Food Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation (FS+PS); and 4) Control Group (CG). The formula food supplement was comprised of a variety of local food sources (local MP-ASI) and adjusted for the local habits. The quality of psychosocial stimulation was assessed with the Infant HOME inventory method. Progress at 6 months was assessed by anthropometry and the Bayley scores of cognition, language and motor function.

      Results: There were improvements in linear growth, cognitive and motor development of children in the FS (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk
           of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Mao, Qi-qi; Lin, Yi-wei; Chen, Hong; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xu, Xin; Xie, Li-Ping
      Background and Objectives: The association between fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk is conflicting and poorly explored. The aim of study was to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

      Methods and Study Design: Systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to April 2015 were conducted to identify relevant studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects models to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed for studies reporting categorical risk estimates for at least 3 exposure levels.

      Results: One cohort and thirteen case-control studies were identified. The overall analysis revealed a strong inverse association between risk of pancreatic cancer and high fiber intake (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.61). No publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dose-response analyses showed that the summary OR for an increment of 10 g daily intake of fiber was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92).

      Conclusion: A high intake of dietary fiber was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Further well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm the inverse association and to identify the dietary fiber types involved.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Does vitamin D affect muscle strength and
           architecture' An isokinetic and ultrasonographic study
    • Abstract: Kara, Murat; Ekiz, Timur; Kara, Ozgur; Tiftik, Tulay; Malas, Fevziye Unsal; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Ozgirgin, Nese
      Background and Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore the association between 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and muscle strength/architecture.

      Methods and study Design: Thirty patients (27 women, 3 men) were allocated into Group I (n=15, mean age; 44.4+-9.4 years) and Group II (n=15, mean age; 39.0+-9.9 years) according to the median of 25(OH)D (< 13.7 ng/mL vs >13.7 ng/mL, respectively). Peak torque/body weight of the knee flexor/extensor muscles at 60 degrees/sec and 180 degrees/sec and those of ankle flexor/ extensor muscles at 30 degrees/sec and 90 degrees/sec were evaluated by using a Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer. A 7-12 MHz linear array probe was used to evaluate thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA) and fascicle length (FL) of medial gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles.

      Results: Mean of 25(OH)D was 9.4+-2.5 ng/mL and 20.7+-8.3 ng/mL in Groups I and II, respectively. Although all isokinetic strength parameters were lower in Group I, significant differences were found in knee flexion at 180 degrees/sec (p=0.007), knee extension at 30 degrees/sec (p=0.038) and 180 degrees/sec (p=0.001), and ankle extension at 30 degrees/sec (p=0.002) and 90 degrees/sec (p=0.007). On the other hand, no significant difference was found between the groups regarding MT, PA and FL values (all p > 0.05).

      Conclusion: In light of our results, we can argue that 25(OH)D is associated with muscle strength but not with muscle architecture. Further studies concerning the long-term follow-up effects of 25(OH)D treatment on muscle strength are awaited.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Increased dietary zinc and vitamin B-2 is associated
           with increased alanine aminotransferase in Taiwanese adolescents
    • Abstract: Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chien, Yi-Wen; Huang, Tzu-Chieh; Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su
      Background and Objectives: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is generally used for evaluating liver function, and its concentrations are closely associated with sex and nutritional status. This study investigates the relationships between dietary components and serum ALT activity in Taiwanese adolescents.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were collected from 1,941 adolescents aged 13-18 years who participated in the fourth National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (2010-2011, adolescents).

      Results: The mean age was 15.3+-0.1 y (15.3+-0.1 y for boys and 15.2+-0.1 y for girls). Mean serum ALT was 14.8+-13.3 U/L (17.7+-16.3 U/L for boys and 12.1+-8.7 U/L for girls; p11 U/L for boys and >9 U/L for girls) than those of the reference (presented as zinc T1 and vitamin B-1 T1).

      Conclusions: Increased dietary zinc and vitamin B-2 intake is associated with higher serum ALT in adolescents.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Recovery of lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS)
           from the intestine of healthy Vietnamese adults after intake of fermented
           milk
    • Abstract: Truong, Mai Tuyet; Duong, Van Hop; Trinh, Trinh Thi Van; Nguyen, Thi Lam
      To demonstrate the gastrointestinal survival of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) in healthy Vietnamese adults, a fermented milk drink containing LcS was administered daily for 14 days. Twenty-six healthy Vietnamese adults took part in the study. Each participant consumed 65 mL of a fermented milk drink containing LcS daily for 14 days. The drink contained a dose of 108 CFU/mL LcS. Fecal samples were collected before, during and after consuming the fermented milk drink. LcS was confirmed by culture and ELISA. After 7 and 14 days of ingesting fermented milk drink, LcS was recovered from fecal samples at average of 5.0 107 CFU/g feces (n=26) and 5.4 107 CFU/g feces (n=26), respectively. LcS persisted in 8 voluteers until day 42 (after 14 days stopping fermented milk drink) at 0.0033 107 CFU/g feces (n=8). We confirmed survival of LcS after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of Vietnamese adults.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - The effects of tomato juice on male infertility
    • Abstract: Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men.

      Methods and Study Design: Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Black tea consumption improves postprandial glycemic
           control in normal and pre-diabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind,
           placebo-controlled crossover study
    • Abstract: Butacnum, Arisa; Chongsuwat, Rewadee; Bumrungpert, Akkarach
      Background and Objectives: Postprandial glycemic control is important for prevention of diabetes. Black tea consumption may improve postprandial glycemic control. The major bioactive compounds are polyphenols, black tea polymerized polyphenol (BTPP).This study examined the effect of black tea consumption on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response following sucrose loading in normal and pre-diabetes subjects.

      Methods and Study Design: This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Twenty-four subjects, male and female aged 20-60 years, normal and pre-diabetic, randomly ingested a sucrose solution with a low dose (110 mg BTPP), a high dose (220 mg BTPP) of black tea drink or a placebo drink (0 mg BTPP). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min from commencement of drink ingestion to measure blood glucose and insulin levels.

      Results: The drink containing low dose and high dose BTPP significantly decreased incremental blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) after sucrose intake compared with placebo in the normal (T0-60 min 3,232+-356 vs 3,295+-312 vs 3,652+-454 mg.min/dL; p=0.016) and pre-diabetic subjects (T0-60 min 2,554+-395 vs 2,472+-280 vs 2,888+-502 mg.min/dL; p=0.048). There was no statistically significant difference of changes in insulin levels between the placebo and black tea groups (p > 0.05). No significant differences in adverse effects were observed with the placebo, low dose and high dose of BTPP groups.

      Conclusion: Black tea consumption can decrease postprandial blood glucose after sucrose intake.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Nutrition assessment and its relationship with
           performance and Glasgow prognostic scores in Vietnamese patients with
           esophageal cancer
    • Abstract: Quyen, Tran Chau; Angkatavanich, Jongjit; Thuan, Tran Van; Xuan, Vo Van; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tu, Do Anh
      Background and Objectives: To determine the nutritional status of patients with esophageal cancer, and to investigate its relationship with performance status and prognosis.

      Methods and Study Design: This clinical, cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2014 to February 2015 at National Cancer Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Stage III/IV esophageal cancer patients were assessed for their nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and SGA scores, BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC), energy and protein intakes, weight changes, Karnofsky and Eastern cooperative oncology group performance scores (KPS/ECOG), and Glasgow prognostic score (GPS).

      Results: Sixty-four male patients were enrolled. The mean standard deviation of PG-SGA score was 9.88 4.41. SGA revealed 44% as class B and 6.2% as class C. The BMI revealed 43.8% of patients were underweight. MAC measurement revealed 29.7% of undernourished patients. Patients with an energy intake
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - A prospective study of nutritional supplementation for
           preventing oral mucositis in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Okada, Takuya; Nakajima, Yasuaki; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Ryotokuji, Tairo; Miyawaki, Yutaka; Hoshino, Akihiro; Tokairin, Yutaka; Kawada, Kenro; Nagai, Kagami; Kawano, Tatsuyuki
      Background and Objectives: Patients undergoing chemotherapy often develop distressing adverse effects such as oral mucositis and diarrhea. Nutritional support with elemental diet is effective against various gastrointestinal complications and may exert protective effects against adverse effects induced by chemotherapy. To evaluate the influence of elemental diet on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis and diarrhea, we conducted a randomized control trial in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

      Methods and Study Design: Twenty esophageal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil plus cisplatin were assigned randomly to one of the following two groups: (1) receiving elemental diet with Elental (one pack per day) for 14 days and (2) not receiving Elental during chemotherapy. The severity of oral mucositis and diarrhea was graded using clinical examination by doctors and a standard questionnaireon days 1-14.

      Results: Based on the analysis of the standard questionnaire, the distribution of the maximum severity of oral mucositis showed a statistically significant reduction in the Elental group (p=0.020), while clinical examination showed insignificant reduction but shift toward lower grade. In the Elental group, the incidence of oral mucositis (grade >=2) reduced consistently and the median grade was lower at all-time points. Regarding diarrhea, no difference was observed between the two groups based on the analysis of the standard questionnaire and clinical examination results.

      Conclusions: This study illustrates the effectiveness of oral elemental diet in preventing oral mucositis during chemotherapy. This is a preliminary report and further study with larger patients groups should be devoted to optimization of efficacy.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - A rapid assessment and response approach for socially
           marketed nutrition commodities in Vietnam
    • Abstract: Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang
      Background: The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Objectives: Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

      Methods and Study Design: A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis.

      Results: Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process.

      Conclusion: Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Do demographic characteristics influence the eating
           competence of elderly Taiwanese'
    • Abstract: Lee, Kuei-I; Lin, Wan-Teng; Chiang, Wen-Dee
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the association between demographic characteristics and eating competence (EC), "the behaviour and attitudinal conceptualization of eating", among elderly Taiwanese.

      Methods and Study Design: Random questionnaire survey. Overall, 564 questionnaires were analyzed, and independent t-tests, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, were used to compare the differences in the EC scores when stratified by various demographic variables.

      Results: The mean score of both EC and non-EC (NEC) for all respondents was 29.3. Younger respondents (65-70 years old) reported significantly higher EC scores than did older respondents (71-76 years old) (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Adults and children prefer a plate food guide relative
           to a pyramid
    • Abstract: Talati, Zenobia; Pettigrew, Simone; Moore, Sarah; Pratt, Iain S
      Background and Objectives: This study explored attitudes toward two food guides currently being widely used in Australia: the Healthy Eating Pyramid and the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating Plate. Methods and Study Design: Ten focus groups were conducted with adults (aged 18+ years) and children (aged 10-17 years) across various locations in Perth, Western Australia. The discussions focused on liked and disliked aspects of each food guide and the implications for participants' perceptions of their relative usefulness. Results: When asked to state their preference, a large majority of participants nominated the plate as their preferred nutrition guide. The style of presentation used for the plate was reportedly clearer and more aesthetically pleasing. The plate was also perceived to be more complex while the pyramid was considered by adults to be more child-friendly. Conclusions: This study provides information on consumers' reactions to different food guides and the implications for perceived relevance and utility.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 1 - Comparison of the nutrient-based standards for school
           lunches among South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan
    • Abstract: Kim, Meeyoung; Abe, Satoko; Zhang, Chengyu; Kim, SoYoung; Choi, Jiyu; Hernandez, Emely; Nozue, Miho; Yoon, Jihyun
      Nutritional standards are important guidelines for providing students with nutritionally-balanced school meals. This study compared nutrient-based school lunch standards regulated by South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. The data were collected from relevant literature and websites of each country during September 2014. The number of classification groups of target students was 8, 5, and 5 for South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan, respectively. Gender was considered across all age groups in South Korea but only for high school students in Taiwan. Gender was not considered in Japan. Along with energy, the number of nutrients included in the standards for South Korea, Japan and Taiwan was 9, 12, and 4, respectively. The standards for all three countries included protein and fat among macronutrients. The standards for South Korea and Japan included vitamin A, B-1, B-2, and C, while the standards for Taiwan did not include any vitamins. Calcium was the only mineral commonly included in the three standards. The proportions of recommended daily intakes as reference values for each nutrient differed among the countries. Japan differentiated the proportions among 33%, 40%, or 50%, reflecting the target students' intake status of the respective nutrients. Taiwan differentiated either two-fifths or one-third of the recommended daily intakes. South Korea applied the proportion of recommended daily intake as one-third for all selected nutrients. This study could be valuable information for countries in developing nutrient-based standards for school lunches and for South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan in the process of reforming nutrient-based standards.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Combined associations of physical activity and dietary
           intake with health status among survivors of the Great East Japan
           Earthquake
    • Abstract: Nozue, Miho; Nishi, Nobuo; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Miyoshi, Miki; Yonekura, Yuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Ogawa, Akira
      Background and Objectives: Each of the effects of physical activity and dietary intake on health is well known, but combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake on health has not been reported yet. Physical activity and dietary intake are key factors for maintaining health of survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. This study aimed to examine combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake with survivors' health status.

      Methods and Study Design: We used data from 6668 participants of a cross-sectional survey taken 3 years (2013) after the disaster. To evaluate combined associations of physical activity and dietary intake, answers to questions regarding these two variables were categorized into four groups: poor physical activity and poor dietary intake (Group 1), poor physical activity and good dietary intake (Group 2), good physical activity and poor dietary intake (Group 3), and good physical activity and good dietary intake (Group 4). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed by sex, with good self-rated health and good mental health as dependent variables, and age, place of residence, living conditions and physical activity/dietary intake group (with Group 1 as the reference category) as independent variables.

      Results: Good self-rated health was associated with age in both sexes, and Groups 3 (male: odds ratios (ORs) 1.84 (95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) 1.32-2.57), female: OR 1.82 (95% CI 1.32-2.51)) and 4 (male: OR 1.96 (95% CI 1.39-2.76), female: OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.42-2.64)). Good mental health was associated with Groups 3 (OR 1.48 (95% CI 1.10-1.97)) and 4 (OR 1.86 (95% CI 1.37-1.97)) for male respondents; and living place (other than temporary housing) (OR 1.45 (95% CI 1.26-1.68)) was associated with Group 4 (OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.09-1.85)) for female respondents.

      Conclusions: Good physical activity alone or combined with good dietary intake was associated with good self-rated health and good mental health. Further interventions regarding physical activity and dietary intake are needed to improve the health status of survivors.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Relationship between dietary patterns and
           brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity among middle-aged adults in Japan
    • Abstract: Moyama, Shota; Minami, Kazuhiro; Yano, Mihiro; Okumura, Masumi; Hayashi, Susumu; Takayama, Hiroshi; Yorimoto, Akira
      Background and Objectives: Arterial stiffness is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is considered to be affected by dietary intake. However, few studies have examined the relationship between major dietary patterns and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) among Japanese middle-aged subjects. We studied whether major dietary patterns were associated with baPWV in this population.

      Methods and Study Design: Between 2009 and 2012, 70 Japanese middle-aged subjects (39 men and 31 women) with no history of stroke, coronary heart disease, or cancer were studied. Dietary intake was documented using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were generated using factor analysis. Correlational analyses were performed between baPWV and identified dietary patterns and between baPWV and individual risk factors (total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], non- HDL-C, LDL/HDL ratio, and augmentation index).

      Results: Two dietary patterns were identified: a rice-rich pattern (high in rice, breads, oils and fats, meats, and confectionery) and a vegetable-rich pattern (high in vegetables, fruit, fish, and seaweed). The rice-rich pattern was not associated with baPWVor other risk factors. A significant inverse correlation was found between baPWV and the vegetable-rich dietary pattern (p
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Effect modification of green tea on the association
           between rice intake and the risk of diabetes mellitus: A prospective study
           in Japanese men and women
    • Abstract: Hirata, Akie; Ohnaka, Keizo; Tashiro, Naotaka; Wang, Zhenjie; Kohno, Michiko; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kono, Suminori; Takayanagi, Ryoichi
      Background and Objectives: Recent observational studies have suggested a positive association of white rice and protective associations of green tea and coffee with the risk of diabetes. However, none have examined the interaction between these dietary factors on the risk of diabetes. We prospectively investigated the effect modification of green tea and coffee on the association between rice and incident diabetes in elderly Japanese men and women.

      Methods and Study Design: Among subjects who participated in the baseline survey (2004-2007), 11717 (91 %) subjects responded to the follow-up survey (2010-2012). By using multiple logistic regression analysis, ORs of incident diabetes were calculated according to categories of cereal food, green tea, and coffee intakes, examining also the effect modification of green tea and coffee.

      Results: 464 new cases of diabetes were identified. Women, but not men, showed a positive association of rice intake (trend p=0.008) and an inverse association of green tea intake (trend p=0.02) with incident diabetes. Coffee showed no association with incident diabetes either in men or women. In the analysis stratified by green tea intake, the association between rice and diabetes disappeared among women with an intake of >=7 cups/d of green tea (interaction p=0.08).

      Conclusions: Rice intake was associated with an increased risk of diabetes only in women, and women with a higher intake of green tea had a lower risk of diabetes. A high intake of green tea may be protective against increased risk of diabetes with a higher intake of rice in women.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Adolescent women as a key target population for
           community nutrition education programs in Indonesia
    • Abstract: Savage, Amy; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Worsley, Anthony
      Background and Objectives: Adolescence is a critical life-stage that sets the foundation for health in adulthood. Adolescent women are a unique population and should be targeted as such for nutrition promotion activities. Using Indonesia as a case study, this qualitative study aimed to identify existing nutrition promotion programs aimed at adolescent girls, how best to target this population and effective recommendations to inform nutrition education program design for this important group.

      Methods and Study Design: Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were conducted with ten key informants working in public health in Indonesia. Interview transcripts were analysed and coded to identify key themes.

      Results: No existing nutrition education programs targeting adolescent women in Indonesia were identified. Several strategies apply to nutrition programs for adolescent girls: 1) nutrition promotion messages that are relevant to the lifestyles and interests of adolescent women; 2) technology-based interventions show promise, however, they need to be appropriately targeted to sub-groups; 3) school remains an important setting; and 4) early marriage is an important issue affecting nutritional status and engagement of adolescent girls. The informants recommended that: 1) more research is needed about the underlying motivations for behaviour change among adolescent women and ways to effectively implement the identified engagement strategies; 2) adolescent girls should be included in program design to improve its suitability and uptake; and 3) government budget and policy support is crucial to success.

      Conclusions: Adolescent women are an important population group and more research is required to identify the optimal forms of engagement to improve nutrition programs for them.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Opportunities and barriers to public health nutrition
           education in Vietnamese universities
    • Abstract: Pham, Quynh TH; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie
      Background and Objectives: A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community. However, little is known about university nutrition education in LMICs. The present study aimed to investigate professional development opportunities and barriers for university nutrition lecturers to teach public health nutrition (PHN).

      Methods and Study Design: An online survey was conducted among 242 Vietnamese health and education professionals and university nutrition lecturers across Vietnam. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Comparisons of between the groups' responses were examined via SPSS Crosstabs. The structures of the perceived barriers and desired PHN training topics were examined via factor analyses. Multiple linear regression examined the influences on lecturers' learning interests in nutrition areas.

      Results: The lecturers' learning interests spanned four areas: basic nutrition, basic food, food policy and 'new' trends (e.g. food policy, marketing). Major impediments to nutrition teaching in universities divided into two groups: resource limitations and professional constraints (e.g. lack of relevant training opportunities). The lecturers' perceptions of professional constraints influenced their interest in learning about 'new' trends.

      Conclusions: The results highlighted the need and opportunities to enhance PHN professional development for nutrition lecturers in Vietnam.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - The impact of urbanization on the community food
           environment in China
    • Abstract: Wu, Yang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Su, Chang; Du, Shufa; Wang, Youfa
      Background and Objectives: Research on how urbanization has influenced the food environment in China is limited. The study aimed to examine the impact of urbanization on the food environment in China.

      Methods and Study Design: Longitudinal data collected during 1989-2009 from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used, which covered 9 provinces in China. Urbanicity index (0-10) was assessed using an urbanicity scale. Final analyses included 216 communities. Random-effect models were used in analyses.

      Results: Urbanization (higher urbanicity index) increased the odds of having fast food restaurants (OR=2.78, 95% CI: 2.18-3.54) and other indoor restaurants (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 2.28-3.76) within the community, the odds of having supermarkets (OR=2.43, 95% CI: 2.04-2.89) and free markets (OR=2.56, 95% CI: 1.77-3.70) within 30 minutes' bus ride from the community. Food prices for apples (beta=0.06, 95% CI: 0.04-0.08) and lean pork (beta =0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03) increased with urbanicity, while prices for other food did not. Urbanicity was positively associated with community norms for fast food consumption (RR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.22-1.33), fast food preferences (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.06-1.12) and nutrition knowledge (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03).

      Conclusions: Urbanization is associated with food environment in China. The findings provide insight for future economic development and public health efforts related to urbanization.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - Home availability of fruit and vegetables and
           obesogenic foods as an indicator of nutrient intake in 50 year olds from
           Canterbury, New Zealand
    • Abstract: Grant, Emily; Gearry, Richard Blair; Wilson, Renee; Pearson, John; Skidmore, Paula Marie Louise
      Background and Objectives: The home food environment is known to influence children's diet and selected health outcomes. However, similar research in adults is scarce. The home is arguably the most important food environment for New Zealand adults as the majority of food consumed is stored and prepared in the home. Therefore we investigated relationships between home food availability and nutrient intake in 50 year olds from Canterbury, New Zealand.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study where participants completed a home food inventory and a four-day estimated food diary. Regression analysis was used to investigate relationships between home availability of 'Fruit and Vegetables' and 'Obesogenic Foods' and intake of selected nutrients, adjusting for Body Mass Index and demographic factors. Men and women (n=216) aged 50 were randomly selected from Canterbury District Health Board area electoral rolls.

      Results: Women with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were significantly more likely to have a high intake of saturated fat (OR 5.8, CI: 1.67, 19.6) and high sugar intake (OR 3.1, CI: 1.23, 7.58). Men with a high 'Obesogenic Foods' score were less likely to have high folate (OR 0.14, CI: 0.05, 0.40) and fibre intake (OR 0.21, CI: 0.07, 0.60). Men and women with a higher 'Fruit and Vegetables' score were more likely to have high vitamin C intake (OR 5.6 and 4.5 respectively).

      Conclusions: Home Food Inventory scores are associated with selected nutrient intakes, particularly in women, suggesting that they are useful for identifying those groups with less favourable nutrient intakes. Future research should investigate whether these scores can predict health outcomes.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
  • Volume 26 Issue 3 - The association of dietary patterns and the incidence
           of insulin resistance after a 3-year follow-up: Tehran Lipid and glucose
           study
    • Abstract: Doostvandi, Tayebeh; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Tahmasebinejad, Zhaleh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major dietary patterns and the risk of insulin resistance (IR) among an urban Iranian population.

      Methods and Study design: In this longitudinal study, 802 adult men and women were studied within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Fasting serum insulin and glucose were measured at baseline and again after a 3-year of followup. The usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 168 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and major dietary patterns were obtained using principal component analysis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the occurrence of IR across tertiles of dietary patterns with adjustment for potential confounding variables.

      Results: Mean age of participants was 39.0+-11.2 years and 45.5% were men. Three major dietary patterns including the Western, traditional and healthy were extracted, which explained 25.3% of total variance in food intake. The healthy dietary pattern, loaded heavily on intake of vegetable oils, fresh and dried fruits, low-fat dairy, nuts and seeds, was accompanied with a reduced risk of insulin resistance by 51% (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.30-0.81), and 81% (OR=0.19, 95% CI=0.10-0.36), in the second and third tertile, respectively (p trend=0.001). In the presence of all dietary pattern scores in the logistic regression model, a 45% reduced risk of IR was observed per 1 unit increase in healthy dietary pattern score.

      Conclusion: These findings confirmed the protective effect of a plant-based, low-fat dietary pattern against the development of insulin resistance as a main risk factor of type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:35 GMT
       
 
 
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