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Publisher: RMIT Publishing   (Total: 399 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 399 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Accounting, Accountability & Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 0)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.122, CiteScore: 0)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian J. of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anglican Historical Society J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.168, CiteScore: 0)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Art Monthly Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Drama Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Human Security     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian J. of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian Law Management J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Bookseller & Publisher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.317, CiteScore: 1)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.399, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BOCSAR NSW Alcohol Studies Bulletins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bookseller + Publisher Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 1)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 0)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.228, CiteScore: 1)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gestalt J. of Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Government News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Great Circle: J. of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Grief Matters : The Australian J. of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
He Puna Korero: J. of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Inform     Full-text available via subscription  
Health Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Health Promotion J. of Australia : Official J. of Australian Association of Health Promotion Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
Heritage Matters : The Magazine for New Zealanders Restoring, Preserving and Enjoying Our Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Court Quarterly Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
History of Economics Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
HLA News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.438, CiteScore: 1)
Hong Kong J. of Emergency Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.19, CiteScore: 0)
Idiom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Impact     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
InCite     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
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Inside Film: If     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
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Interaction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Intl. Employment Relations Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Disability Management Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of e-Business Management     Full-text available via subscription  

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Journal Cover
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [399 journals]
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The double burden of malnutrition in Association of
           South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries: A comprehensive review of the
           literature
    • Abstract: Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison
      Background and Objectives: The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) - a combination of undernutrition and overnutrition - is a problem faced by many countries. This study aimed to comprehensively review the DBM in ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) countries, including levels (population [including country, city, or any community], household, or individual), types (the type of undernutrition and overweight), and prevalence.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were sourced from four electronic databases, Medline via OvidSP, Scopus, Global Health via OvidSP and Web of Science, from January 1990 until May 2017. We only included studies that reported prevalence of DBM, were published in English language peer-reviewed journals and were available in full text. Studies were formally assessed against a published critical appraisal tool to produce a robust narrative review.

      Results: We included 48 studies in the review from eight countries. No study was found from Singapore or Brunei Darussalam. Most studies were from Indonesia and there was only one study from Lao PDR. There were a range of criteria for anthropometry used in these studies, hence comparison is impossible. DBM happened at community, household, and individual levels, with different types of undernutrition (stunting/ underweight/wasting/thinness) in combination with overweight/obesity. At the household level, DBM ranged from 5.0% in Vietnam to 30.6% in Indonesia.

      Conclusions: ASEAN countries may need to strengthen surveillance using WHO standards to improve the comparability of data, further develop strategies to address under- or overweight issues and investigate potential "double-duty actions" as suggested by the World Health Organization.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Development of a screening tool to detect nutrition
           risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
    • Abstract: Haskey, Natasha; Pena-Sanchez, Juan Nicolas; Jones, Jennifer L; Fowler, Sharyle A
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is a known complication of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). We assessed a known screening tool, as well as developed and validated a novel screening tool, to detect nutrition risk in outpatients with IBD.

      Methods and Study Design: The Saskatchewan IBD-Nutrition Risk (SaskIBD-NR Tool) was developed and administered alongside the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Nutrition risk was confirmed by the IBD dietitian (RD) and gastroenterologist (GI). Agreement between screening tools and RD/GI assessment was computed using Cohen's kappa.

      Results: Of the 110 patients screened, 75 (68.2%) patients had Crohn's Disease and 35 (31.8%) ulcerative colitis. Mean BMI was 26.4 kg/m2 (SD=5.8). RD/GI assessment identified 23 patients (20.9%) at nutrition risk. The SaskIBD-NR tool classified 21 (19.1%) at some nutrition risk, while MUST classified 17 (15.5%). The SaskIBD-NR tool had significant agreement with the RD/GI assessment (k 0.83, p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Accuracy of basal metabolic rate estimated by
           predictive equations in Japanese with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Tabata, Shogo; Kinoshita, Norimitsu; Yamada, Satoru; Matsumoto, Hideo
      Background and Objectives: Estimation of energy demand using basal metabolic rate (BMR) is a rational approach for optimizing glycemic control and weight management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we assessed the accuracy of predictive equations in estimating BMR in Japanese patients with T2DM.

      Methods and Study Design: BMR was measured indirectly (BMRm) with a portable gas analyzer in the fasting state in 69 Japanese patients with T2DM. BMR was estimated using the Harris-Benedict equation (BMRhb) and Ganpule equation (BMRg). An original predictive equation (BMRdm) was formulated by stepwise multiple regression analysis using subject age, lean soft tissue mass, fat mass and bone mineral content. Mean differences and 95% limits of agreement between measured and three estimated BMRs were evaluated by Bland-Altman plots. In addition, subjects were divided into three BMI groups (normal, BMI =25; obese, BMI >=30), and the influence of BMI on the error size between measured and estimated BMRs was assessed.

      Results: Between BMRm and the three estimated BMRs (BMRhb, BMRg, and BMRdm), there were small systematic errors with large random errors (mean difference+-2SD ; -32+-365 kcal,26+-405 kcal, and -1.6+-349 kcal, respectively) and significant proportional errors (r=0.42, 0.44, and 0.30, respectively). BMI subgroup analysis revealed that the obese group showed larger random errors and significant proportional errors compared to the overweight and normal weight groups.

      Conclusion: Predictive equations provide unacceptably inaccurate estimates of BMR in Japanese patients with T2DM, particularly in obese individuals.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Risk factors for parenteral nutrition-dependence and
           mortality with the short bowel syndrome: A 10-year retrospective study in
           Thailand
    • Abstract: Lakananurak, Narisorn
      Background and Objectives: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a rare and life-threatening disease. Few studies have investigated risk factors for parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependence and death in SBS. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for PN-dependence and long-term mortality in SBS.

      Methods and Study Design: This retrospective study reviewed and evaluated children and adults who were diagnosed with SBS at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from October 2005 to January 2015. Age, causes of SBS, length of remnant bowel, type of anastomosis, types of nutrition support, SBS-associated complications, PN-dependence rate, duration of PN-dependence, mortality rate, and causes of death were evaluated.

      Results: Twenty-two adults and 19 children were reviewed. The median follow-up time was 48 months. At the end of follow-up, PNdependence rate was 51.2%. The residual colon ≥50% group had a significantly lower PN-dependence rate, with a hazard ratio of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.14-0.93; p=0.03). The most frequent cause of death was infection, with the highest percentage of mortality occurring within the first 2 years after surgery. The mortality rate was 53.8% and the residual colon >=50% group had a significantly lower mortality rate, with a hazard ratio of 0.36 (95% CI: 0.14- 0.88; p=0.03).

      Conclusions: PN-dependence and death occurred in about half of all patients. Residual colon >=50% was significantly associated with lower death rate and PN-dependence. The crucial role of colon in continuity as a protective factor should be investigated further in prospective studies.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Determinants and nutritional assessment value of hand
           grip strength in patients hospitalized with cancer
    • Abstract: Hu, Chun-Lei; Yu, Miao; Yuan, Kai-tao; Yu, Hong-lan; Shi, Ying-ying; Yang, Jia-jun; Li, Wei; Jiang, Hai-ping; Li, Zeng-ning; Xu, Hong-Xia; Ba, Yi; Wang, Kun-Hua; Li, Su-Yi; Shi, Han-Ping
      Background and Objectives: Hand grip strength (HGS) has emerged as a predictor of the nutritional status. However, many factors may modify the malnutrition-HGS association. This study explored the nutritional assessment value and determinants of HGS in patients hospitalized with cancer.

      Methods and Study Design: In this multicenter, retrospective, observational study (11,314 patients), the Receiver operator characteristic curve was used to observe HGS and nutritional status sensitivity/specificity. Sex; age; height; weight; mid-upper arm circumference (MAMC); Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) score; Karnofsky score; physical function (PF) domain; cognitive function (CF) domain; global health and quality of life (QL) domain of EORTC QLQ-C30 (a quality of life instrument designed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer); and albumin, prealbumin, and hemoglobin levels were included in a Stepwise analysis model to identify the factors influencing HGS.

      Results: HGS showed a very low diagnostic value and accuracy for identifying severe malnourishment (area under the curve, 0.615-0.640; p˂0.01). HGS positively correlated with sex; height; weight; MAMC; Karnofsky score; QL, PF, and CF domains; and hemoglobin and prealbumin levels (Beta= 0.02-0.42, p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in
           chronic stable angina on serum biomarkers of oxidative stress,
           inflammation and lipid profile
    • Abstract: Javid, Ahmad Zare; Haybar, Habib; Dehghan, Parvin; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Mohaghegh, Seyede Marjan; Ravanbakhsh, Maryam; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh
      Background and Objectives: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death worldwide. Chronic stable angina (CSA) is the primary sign of CAD. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a substantial role in patho-genesis and progression of CAD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral administration of powdered Melissa officinalis (MO) on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid profile in patients with CSA.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was per-formed in 80 patients with CSA. The subjects were randomly assigned to obtaineither oral MO 3 g/d (n=40) or placebo (n=40) for eight weeks. Anthropometric indices, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid profile were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention.

      Results: The mean serum concentrations of triglycerides, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA), and high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) were lower in the intervention group compared with placebo (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Effect of ascorbic acid rich, micro-nutrient fortified
           supplement on the iron bioavailability of ferric pyrophosphate from a milk
           based beverage in Indian school children
    • Abstract: Pauline, Maria; Verghese, Sejil T; Srinivasu, Bindu Y; Bose, Beena; Thomas, Tinku; Mandal, Amit K; Thankachan, Prashanth; Kurpad, Anura V
      Background and Objectives: Nutritional anemia is a significant public health issue with 50-80% prevalence in Indian children. Fortification of food, specifically milk, with iron is a potential approach to increase dietary iron intake. Ferric pyrophosphate [Fe4(P2O7)3] is organoleptically neutral and is less soluble in acid medium and, further, has low bioavailability in milk. However, since ascorbic acid is a potent enhancer of iron absorption, the coadministration of ascorbic acid with Fe4(P2O7)3 might enhance the absorption of iron. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from a Fe4(P2O7)3 and an ascorbic acid fortified milk beverage with respect to milk fortified with Fe4(P2O7)3 alone.

      Methods and Study Design: A double-blind, two-way crossover, randomized study was conducted in 25 mildly anemic children. The test group received milk fortified with beverage powder containing 7 mg isotopically labeled iron (57Fe/58Fe) as Fe4(P2O7)3, equimolar proportions of ascorbic acid and 200 mg of calcium whereas control group received milk fortified with energy, calcium and iron equivalent beverage powder. Fractional iron absorption was measured by erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes of iron (57Fe/58Fe) in both the groups.

      Results: The fractional iron absorption from the control drink was 0.80% (95% CI: 0.57, 1.12). Fortifying the milk with an equimolar amount of ascorbic acid increased the fractional iron absorption almost 2-fold to 1.58% (95% CI: 1.13, 2.22).

      Conclusions: The presence of ascorbic acid in an equimolar ratio with that of iron from Fe4(P2O7)3 salt in milk as a fortificant enhanced iron absorption when compared to milk fortified with only Fe4(P2O7)3.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Supplementation with 'trans' fatty acid at 1% energy
           did not increase serum cholesterol irrespective of the obesity-related
           genotypes in healthy adult Japanese
    • Abstract: Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Futatsuya, Chiaki; Miki, Akari; Tabuchi, Eiichi; Sugano, Michihiro
      Background and Objectives: The excessive intake of trans fatty acids increases serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and reduces high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. We studied the effects of 1% energy 'trans' fatty acid supplementation on serum lipid concentrations in healthy adult Japanese with different obesity-related gene polymorphisms.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial was conducted in 53 healthy adults. The volunteers consumed one cookie containing either 1% energy or
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Effect of a daily snack containing green leafy
           vegetables on women's fatty acid status: A randomized controlled trial in
           Mumbai, India
    • Abstract: Chopra, Harsha V; Kehoe, Sarah H; Sahariah, Sirazul A; Sane, Harshad N; Cox, Vanessa A; Tarwade, Dnyaneshwar V; Margetts, Barrie M; Potdar, Ramesh D; Fall, Caroline H D; Joshi, Sadhana R
      Background and Objectives: There are few data on the fatty acid status of non-pregnant Indian women. Our objective was to investigate the effect of a snack containing green leafy vegetables (GLVs) on women's erythrocyte long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status (LCPUFA).

      Methods and Study Design: Non-pregnant women (n=222) aged 14-35 years from Mumbai slums were randomized to consume a snack containing GLVs, fruit and milk (treatment) or a control snack containing foods of low micronutrient content such as potato and onion, daily under observation. One treatment snack contained a mean (SD) of 54.1 (33.7) mg alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and one control snack contained 4.1 (3.4) mg ALA. Blood was collected at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks of supplementation. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography and expressed as g/100g fatty acids. Plasma malondialdehyde, homocysteine, and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. The effect of the treatment on 12 week LCPUFA was assessed using ANCOVA models.

      Results: Median (IQR) erythrocyte DHA in the treatment group increased from 1.50 (1.11, 2.03) at baseline to 1.86 (1.50, 2.43) (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Comparison of effectiveness, safety, and costs of
           standardized and customized parenteral nutrition support among gastric
           cancer patients after gastrectomy: A retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yan Xia; Liu, Xin Yue; Li, Hai Long; Mei, Dan
      Background and Objectives: To compare the effectiveness, safety, and costs of commercial standardized multi-chamber bag and customized compounded total parenteral nutrition (TPN) among gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy.

      Methods and Study Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 64 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy from 2014 to 2016 in a tertiary teaching hospital in Beijing, China. Patients were categorized into standardized (s-TPN) and customized TPN (c-TPN) groups based on their TPN order after gastrectomy. Patients were followed up until discharge. The effectiveness measures (body mass index (BMI) and albumin) and safety measures (liver and renal functions and electrolytes) were compared before TPN started and after TPN finished within and between the two groups. The length of hospital stay and costs were compared be-tween the two groups.

      Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in BMI preserva-tion, metabolic complications, the length of hospital stay and costs, except that both total bilirubin (Tbil) and di-rect bilirubin (Dbil) were significantly higher in the s-TPN group than c-TPN (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Diets for South Asians with diabetes: Recommendations,
           adherence, and outcomes
    • Abstract: Kasturia, Shirin; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K MVenkat; Tandon, Nikhil; Shivashankar, Roopa; Garg, Vandana; Kapoor, Deksha; Mohanasundaram, Anitha; Mohan, Deepa; Kadir, Muhammad M; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Mohan, Viswanathan; Jaacks, Lindsay M
      Background and Objectives: To determine how frequently diabetic diets are recommended to individuals with diabetes in South Asia, whether they are followed, and if they are associated with healthier dietary choices and clinical benefits.

      Methods and Study Design: Data are from the Centre for cArdiometabolic Risk Reduction in South-Asia Cohort Study. Participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes (n=1849) were divided into four groups based on whether they reported being prescribed and/or were following a diabetic diet. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between these groups and outcomes.

      Results: 53% of participants with self-reported diabetes reported not being prescribed or following a diabetic diet. Among those prescribed and following a diet, mean whole grain consumption was 1.18 times/day and refined grain consumption was 0.75 times/day compared to 0.88 times/day and 1.74 times/day, respectively, among those neither prescribed nor following a diet (both p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Adult serum 25(OH)D3 in Gansu province, northwest
           China: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Liu, Jing; Ma, Wenjuan; Wei, Lianhua; Yang, Yan; Yang, Ruifei; Shao, Feifei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Limin
      Background and Objectives: This analytical cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with metabolic risk factors in the adult population of Gansu Province, China.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 11,157 healthy participants (4,740 men and 6,417 women) were enrolled. A questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics and personal habits. We detected 25-hydroxyvitamin D and associated metabolic parameters through electrochemiluminescence immunoassays.

      Results: The prevalence of severe deficiency (=30 ng/mL) among the participants was 17.3%, 64.6%, 11.8%, and 6.3%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in women than in men (82.5% vs 81.1%, p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Processed and ultraprocessed food consumption pattern
           in the Jakarta Individual Food Consumption Survey 2014
    • Abstract: Setyowati, Dyah; Andarwulan, Nuri; Giriwono, Puspo Edi
      Background and Objectives: Dietary patterns are undergoing a major shift worldwide. This study analysed the consumption of processed and ultraprocessed foods in Jakarta and its contribution to the energy and nutrient intake based on the Individual Food Consumption Survey 2014.

      Methods and Study Design: Food consumption data were based on 24-hour dietary recall. Foods were grouped into four food groups: nonprocessed foods, processed ingredients, processed foods, and ultraprocessed foods and subsequently categorised according to the Indonesian Food Category System. Energy and nutrient intake were calculated using Nutrisurvey 2007 software.

      Results: Nonprocessed food, processed ingredient, processed food, and ultraprocessed food consumption contributed to 57.2%, 21.6%, 1.7%, and 19.5% of total weight consumption, respectively. Ultraprocessed foods contributed to 15.7%, 16.7%, 14.2%, 12.6%, 18.4%, and 31.3% of daily energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, sodium, and sucrose intake, respectively, and the respective contributions of nonprocessed foods were 52.2%, 58.7%, 65.8%, 32.6%, 7.9%, and 11.1%; of processed ingredients were 30.0%, 22.7%, 16.4%, 53.6%, 68.9%, and 57.6%; and of processed foods were 2.1%, 2.0%, 3.6%, 1.2%, 4.8%, and 0%. Linear regression analysis between the amount of food consumption and nutrient intake showed that at the same weight consumption, processed ingredients provided a higher intake of energy, fat, sodium, and sucrose than the other food groups.

      Conclusions: Processed and ultraprocessed foods still have a lower contribution to energy and nutrient intake in Jakarta than nonprocessed foods and processed ingredients.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Maternal Iodine dietary supplements and neonatal
           thyroid stimulating hormone in Gippsland, Australia
    • Abstract: Mitchell, Eleanor Katherine Louise; Martin, Julie Christine; D’Amore, Angelo; Francis, Ivan; Savige, Gayle S
      Background and Objectives: Pregnant women are at particular risk of iodine deficiency due to their higher iodine requirements. Iodine is known to be essential for normal growth and brain development, therefore neonatal outcomes in mildly iodine deficient areas, such as Gippsland, are a critical consideration. This study aimed to investigate whether iodine supplementation prevented iodine insufficiency as determined by neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) screening criteria.

      Methods and Study Design: Gippsland-based women aged >=18 years, in their third trimester of pregnancy, provided self-reported information regarding their iodine supplement use and consent to access their offspring's neonatal TSH screening data. 126 women consented to participate, with 111 women completing all components of this study.

      Results: Only 18.9% of participants followed the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommendation of 150 μg/day iodine supplement, with 42.3% of participants not taking any supplements, or taking supplements with no iodine or insufficient iodine. The remaining women (38.7%) were taking supplements with doses of iodine much higher (200-300 mug) than the NHMRC recommended dose or were taking multiple supplements containing iodine. When correlating iodine intake to their neonates' TSH, no correlation was found. When iodine supplementation usage was categorised as below, equal to, or above NHMRC recommendations there was no significant difference in neonatal TSH.

      Conclusion: This study found that iodine supplementation appeared to prevent maternal iodine insufficiently when measured against neonatal TSH screening criteria.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Iodine deficiency in women of childbearing age: Not
           bread alone'
    • Abstract: Burns, Kharis; Yap, Constance; Mina, Ashraf; Gunton, Jenny E
      Background and Objectives: Iodine deficiency remains a public health concern, particularly in pregnant women and those planning pregnancy because of the risk of impaired fetal neurological development. Following implementation of strategies to improve iodine intake in Australia, there has been minimal investigation into current iodine status. We aimed to characterise iodine status in a population of women of childbearing-age in Australia.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in 97 women of childbearing-age attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary hospital in Sydney. Pregnant and postmenopausal women were excluded. Iodine intake was surveyed via questionnaire. Spot urinary iodine (UI) was concurrently measured. The relationships between UI, dietary intake and use of iodine-containing multivitamins/medications were examined.

      Results: Median UI was 117 ug/L. Forty women (41%) were iodine deficient (UI
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Combined dietary-exercise intervention for gestational
           weight gain and birthweight: A meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Morison, Paul N; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Lopez-Corrales, Manuel; Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo
      Background and Objectives: Excessive gestational weight gain has been associated with higher risk for large for gestational age newborns. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess whether an intensive diet and exercise intervention has an effect in reducing gestational weight gain and large for gestational age newborns.

      Methods and Study Design: The search was conducted on PubMed and Cochrane database. Through PRISMA flow diagram, clinical trials which met the inclusion criteria were selected. Risk of bias, sensitivity analysis, and quality of evidence assessment were conducted using adequate statistical tests, and the quality of evidence was performed by GRADE method. A random-effect model was used to estimate the statistical significance of the meta- analysis.

      Results: Ten clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Using the random-effect model and a sensitivity analysis, it was found that an intensive patient-centered intervention reduced gestational weight gain when compared with standard prenatal care (Z=6.21 (p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The role of familial and sibling factors on abdominal
           adiposity: A study of south Indian urban children
    • Abstract: Kuriyan, Rebecca; Rodgers, Natasha; Thomas, Tinku; Aravind, Jini; Subramanian, SV; Kurpad, Anura V
      Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is increasing in urban India. This study aimed to examine the associations of younger siblings abdominal adiposity with individual, familial and environmental factors, in urban school aged siblings.

      Methods and Study Design: Weight, height and waist circumference of 2906 siblings aged 3-16 years were measured along with details on demographics, diet, lifestyle, behavior and reported parental anthropometrics. Abdominal adiposity was classified as waist circumference above the age and sex specific 75th percentile value. The associations of various factors with abdominal adiposity in the younger siblings were examined through logistic regression analyses.

      Results: Sibling, familial factors and environmental factors had significant associations with abdominal adiposity. The odds of a younger sibling having abdominal adiposity was greatest (OR=3.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.27 to 4.42), when the older sibling had abdominal adiposity, followed by the odds ratio of both parents being overweight (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.33 to 1.99) compared to neither being overweight. The influence of abdominal adiposity of the older sibling was greater when the siblings were of the same sex (OR=3.55, 95% CI: 2.24 to 5.65) than when they were of different sex (OR=2.73, 95% CI: 1.67 to 4.46); the odds ratio being highest when both siblings were males.

      Conclusions: The younger sibling's abdominal adiposity is associated with that of his/her sibling and parental obesity, in addition to other known risk factors in urban south Indian families. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity need to also consider the sibling effect along with the other known factors.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The different effects of prenatal nutrient
           supplementation on neonatal birth weights between urban and rural areas of
           northwest China: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Zhang, Ruo; Li, Chao; Mi, Baibing; Li, Shanshan; Qu, Pengfei; Dang, Shaonong; Liu, Danmeng; Bai, Ruhai; Yan, Hong
      Background and Objectives: The results of prenatal nutrient supplementation on birth weight are inconsistent in different areas. This study aimed to investigate whether the effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid and folic acid supplementation on neonatal birth weights differed between urban and rural areas of Northwest China.

      Methods and Study Design: A stratified multistage random sampling method was used to recruit women between the ages of 15 and 49 and their offspring born between 2010 and 2013 from 10 urban areas and 20 rural areas of the Shaanxi Province of Northwest China. Information regarding socio-demographics and prenatal nutrient supplementation status was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and the neonatal birth weights were obtained from the birth certificates. Multilevel models were established separately for the urban and rural areas to assess the effects of prenatal nutrient supplementation on neonatal birth weights.

      Results: The association between prenatal nutrient supplementation and neonatal birth weight was not statistically significant in urban areas. However, in rural areas, prenatal iron plus folic acid and folic acid supplementation increased the mean birth weights by 45.3 g (9.4 to 81.1 g, p=0.014) and 30.9 g (15.6 to 46.1 g, p
      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Weight and height faltering in the indigenous children
           (Orang Asli) of Peninsular Malaysia during the first 2 years of life
    • Abstract: Yen, Wong Chee; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Adznam, Siti Nur Asyura; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Chin, Yit Siew
      Background and Objectives: Information on the growth status of indigenous children is useful for developing intervention strategies, but the data are limited. This study determined the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five indigenous children (Orang Asli) and tracked the growth status of 'Orang Asli' children aged 0-3 years.

      Methods and Study Design: This study had two phases: a cross-sectional growth study of under-five Orang Asli children (N=304; Phase 1) and a 2-year prospective cohort growth study of 'Orang Asli' children aged 0-3 years (N=214; Phase 2) in the Temerloh district of Pahang, Malaysia. Weight-for-age, length/height-for-age, weight for- length/height, and body mass index-for-age were determined.

      Results: The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, wasting, and thinness in under-five 'Orang Asli' children (Phase 1) were 64%, 49%, 14%, and 12%, respectively. In the cohort of 214 children (Phase 2), weight-for-age was initially documented and maintained closely at -1.50 standard deviations (SD) in the first 6 months, but it declined to approximately -2.00 SD at 15 months and remained close to -2.00 SD thereafter. Length/height-for-age declined rapidly to approximately -2.50 SD at 18 months and fluctuated between -2.30 and -2.50 SD thereafter. Weight-for-length/height increased sharply to -0.40 SD at 2-3 months, declined gradually to less than -1.00 SD at 12 months, and plateaued between -1.00 and -1.30 SD thereafter.

      Conclusions: Undernutrition is prevalent among 'Orang Asli' children, with length rather than weight faltering being more pronounced in the first 2 years of life. Identifying the causes of early growth retardation in this population is required to inform future preventive strategies.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Vitamin A nutrition among East Timor refugee children
    • Abstract: Correia, Marcelino; Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Verma, Nitin
      Background and Objectives: Children age 6 to 72 months, living in refugee camps are at increased risk of developing vitamin A deficiency (VAD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Due to poverty, often this population group has limited access to foods containing vitamin A from animal-based food sources and do not commonly consume available foods containing beta-carotene. To date, there is a paucity of data on vitamin A intake in young refugee children. To determine vitamin A intake in children ages 6 to 72 months at refugee camps in East Timor.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out among children ages 6 to 72 months at refugee camps near Dili, East Timor. A detailed vitamin A intake questionnaire was ascertained from the primary caretaker, and the criteria and indicator cut off values suggested by World Health Organization (WHO) were used to classify the populations' vitamin A risk.

      Results: Although animal sources of vitamin A were limited due to costs, all 89 children commonly consumed fruit containing vitamin A sources more than 3 times a week. Most children (69.7%) had been breast fed regularly, while 30.3% combined with bottle milk. 80.9% of children received vitamin A supplementation.

      Conclusion: Children in East Timor refugee camps have adequate vitamin A intake.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Comparative validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire
           (MyUM Adolescent FFQ) to estimate the habitual dietary intake of
           adolescents in Malaysia
    • Abstract: Mohamed, Khairunnisa; Tin, Tin Su; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul
      Background and Objectives: The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a dietary tool used to assess the habitual intake of the population. The goal of this study is to examine the reproducibility and validity of the FFQ that was developed for a multi-ethnic population in Malaysia.

      Methods and study design: Collective food data from MyHeARTs 2012 database were used to construct the MyUM Adolescent FFQ. Seventy-eight participants be-tween 13 and 15 years old in 2014 were selected through convenient sampling for test - retest study. They completed the MyUM Adolescent FFQ twice, with an interval period of one week. One hundred and fifty-six MyHeARTs study participants who were 15 years old in 2014 were randomly selected for this comparative validity study. They completed a 7-day diet history (7DDH) and subsequently completed the self-administered MyUM Adolescent FFQ.

      Results: Pearson's correlations between the FFQ and 7DDH for all macronutrients were statistically significant. Energy-adjusted correlations for protein, carbohydrate, and fat were 0.54, 0.63 and 0.49 respectively. Most of the micronutrients and minerals, were statistically correlated ranging from 0.31 to 0.49 after energy adjustment. Cross-classification analyses revealed that more than 70 percent of adolescents were classified into either the same or adjacent quartile of nutrient intake when comparing data of 7DDH and FFQ. No serious systematic bias was evident in the Bland-Altman plots.

      Conclusion: The 200-item FFQ developed for Malaysian adolescents has moderate to good comparative validity for assessment of macronutrient and micronutrient intake.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - New Chinese dietary guidelines: Healthy eating
           patterns and food-based dietary recommendations
    • Abstract: Yang, Yue Xin; Wang, Xiao Li; Leong, Pooi Mun; Zhang, Huan Mei; Yang, Xiao Guang; Kong, Ling Zhi; Zhai, Feng Ying; Cheng, Yi Yong; Guo, Jun Sheng; Su, Yi Xiang
      Background and Objectives: The Chinese Dietary Guidelines (CDGs) were first released to the public in 1989 by the Chinese Nutrition Society (CNS). In 2016, the Ministry of Health commissioned the CNS to revise and publish new CDGs.

      Methods and Study Design: The CNS convened an expert committee of leaders in the fields of nutrition, epidemiology, public health, preventive medicine, and food science. The CDGs were revised according to the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development procedures. The expert committee recommended key inclusions for the CDGs on the basis of the current status of public health and priority health challenges affecting the Chinese population, as well as the quality of scientific evidence.

      Results: The CDGs (2016) provide six key dietary recommendations for the general Chinese population aged 2 years and above. In addition to a newly revised Chinese Food Guide Pagoda, both the Chinese Food Guide Plate and Chinese Food Guide Abacus are newly created pictorial models in the CDGs (2016); the Chinese Food Guide Abacus is specifically designed for children. Seven additional dietary guidelines targeting specific populations are included; these guidelines emphasize the different physiological and nutritional requirements of particular populations, including dietary guidelines for vegetarians for the first time.

      Conclusions: The CDGs (2016) is an official document published by the National Health Commission of China. Its content highlights the current status of public health and offers advice to address health concerns faced by the Chinese population. The CDGs (2016) have been widely disseminated and accepted in the Chinese population; the National Nutrition Week is a major national event in which the CDG are used as its core to increase public awareness towards a healthy diet and lifestyle.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Is adherence to the Chinese Dietary Guidelines
           associated with better self-reported health': The Chinese dietary
           guidelines adherence score
    • Abstract: Zang, Jiajie; Guo, Changyi; Wang, Zhengyuan; Cheng, Yuejia; Jin, Wei; Zhu, Zhenni; Zou, Shurong; Wang, Chunfang; Lu, Ye; Wang, Wenjing; He, Xin; Tang, Hongmei; Gao, Hongmei; Jia, Xiaodong; Wu, Fan
      Background and Objectives: Poor adherence to dietary guidelines is related to physical and mental disorders, as reflected in self-reported health statuses. This study evaluates the association between diet quality and self reported health within the Shanghai Diet and Health Study.

      Methods and Study Design: We used Chinese Dietary Guidelines Adherence scores to assess diet quality in a cross-sectional study of 4487 subjects above 15 years of age, who completed three-day 24h diet recalls and responded to self-reported health questionnaires. A composite health score was calculated based on Item Response Theory, using the Rasch model. Multiple linearregression models were evaluated to assess the relationship between self-reported health status and diet quality.

      Results: Based on the various adherence scores, we divided our sample into fifths. Based on these divisions and with the exception of a single instance, our results show a significant trend: self-reported health declines with declining adherence to official dietary guidelines. This trend was even significant when controlling for a large number of potential confounders.

      Conclusions: This study shows that consumption of a healthy and balanced diet, as reflected in adherence to the Chinese Dietary Guidelines, is related to increased levels of overall health among Shanghai residents.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - Genetic variations of vitamin D receptor gene in
           metabolic syndrome and related diseases in the Thai population
    • Abstract: Karuwanarint, Piyaporn; Phonrat, Benjaluck; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee; Suriyaprom, Kanjana; Chuengsamarn, Somlak; Tungtronchitr, Rungsunn
      Background and Objectives: The genetic variations of vitamin D receptor (VDR) have revealed its association with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In Thailand, evidence of this association has not been obtained. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of VDR gene polymorphism with MetS and related diseases as well as the possible linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotypes of VDR in Thai adults.

      Methods and Study Design: Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR gene, rs2228570, rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236, were genotyped using PCR-RFLP method in 259 MetS and 261 control groups.

      Results: Genotypes AA of rs1544410, TG of rs7975232 and TG+TT of rs7975232 were significantly associated with an increased risk of MetS [OR 10.8 (2.07-56.1), p=0.005], [OR 1.83 (1.16-2.87), p=0.009] and [OR 1.78 (1.17-2.72), p=0.007], respectively, using GG as a reference. Moreover, genotype AA of rs1544410 showed a strong association compared with GG+AG [OR 11.4 (2.20-59.2), p=0.004]. Diseases related to MetS also had significant associations with two SNPs of the VDR gene (rs1544410 and rs7975232). In addition, LD among rs1544410, rs7975232 and rs731236 was detected. Haplotype CATT significantly increased the risk of MetS [OR 4.32 (1.32-14.1), p=0.016], although haplotype TGGT reduced the risk [OR 0.68 (0.48-0.98), p=0.042].

      Conclusions: The SNPs rs1544410 and rs7975232 were mainly implicated in the increased risk of MetS in the Thai population. LD and haplotypes of VDR gene related to MetS were also discovered. These SNPs of VDR gene are remarkable genetic factors involved in the development of MetS.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 4 - The quality of evidence on nutrition intervention
           published in Chinese journals: An assessment of meta-analyses on vitamin
           interventions
    • Abstract: Ning, Yanhua; Zhang, Juxia; Li, Yun
      Background and Objectives: The quality of meta-analyses (MAs) on nutrition intervention in mainland China remains uninvestigated. To assess the quality of the evidence regarding nutrition intervention in mainland China, we used vitamin intervention as an example to assess the overall methodological and reporting qualities of MAs on nutrition interventions published in Chinese journals.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study on MAs of vitamin interventions was performed. Four Chinese databases were searched from inception through September 2016 for all MAs of vitamin intervention. A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements were used to assess methodological and reporting qualities, respectively.

      Results: A total of 43 MAs of vitamin interventions were included, but none of the studies had been updated. These reviews mainly focused on the effects of interven-tions involving vitamin D, B vitamins and vitamin E, and the most studied condition was "Endocrine, Nutritional and Metabolic diseases," such as diabetes, obesity, and nutritional rickets. The median AMSTAR score was 6 (0-7), and median PRISMA score was 18 (3-24). No study provided an 'a priori' design, a list of excluded studies, or a statement on conflict of interest, and less than 50.0% of included MAs stated the publication status and per-formed an adequate structure summary.

      Conclusions: The quality of the included MAs was disappointing regard-ing some items, and some lower quality reviews should be updated. Future MAs should improve on reporting conflicts of interest, harm, and publication bias.

      PubDate: Fri, 3 Aug 2018 21:23:00 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Nutritional composition of breast milk in Chinese
           women: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Yang, Ting; Zhang, Liansheng; Bao, Wei; Rong, Shuang
      Background and Objectives: As breast milk is considered nature's best food for infant growth and development, understanding its nutritional composition is crucial for optimising the components of infant formula milk. In this study, we aimed to summarise the available evidence on the nutritional composition of breast milk from Chinese women, in particular, the macronutrients, fatty acids and minerals.

      Methods and Study Design: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases for articles about human breast milk from Chinese women published in English or Chinese between 1999 and 2015. We classified the data in 35 articles from the literature search into three lactation stages: colostral, transitional and mature milk.

      Results: The content of each component varied greatly during the three lactation stages. Protein content decreased from colostral milk to mature milk (mean+-SD, 1.64+-0.32 g/dL vs 1.22+-0.12 g/dL). In contrast, lipid content increased from colostral milk (2.36+-1.17 g/dL) to mature milk (3.39+-1.24 g/dL). Colostrum contained more linoleic acid (LA) than transitional and mature milk, while colostrum contained less α-linolenic acid (ALA) than transitional and mature milk. As lactation progressed, the ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to total fatty acids decreased while the potassium (K), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations decreased significantly, but their standard deviations were large. Magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) concentrations showed significant differences across the three lactation stages.

      Conclusions: The stage of lactation was an important factor affecting the nutritional composition of breast milk from Chinese women.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - The anti-wasting effects of L-carnitine
           supplementation on cancer: Experimental data and clinical studies
    • Abstract: Esfahani, Mahsa; Sahafi, Sahar; Derakhshandeh, Ali; Moghaddas, Azadeh
      Background and Objectives: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer.

      Methods and Study Design: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews.

      Results: The protective effects of L-carnitine were extracted from the literature review based on critical mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle loss, including increased proteolysis, impaired protein synthesis, myonuclear apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The results of this process favored L-carnitine supplementation in patients with cancer-related cachexia. Nitrogen balance was improved either through the increase of protein synthesis or by reduction in proteolysis, inhibiting apoptosis or reversing inflammatory processes.

      Conclusions: Although clinical studies are inconclusive, studies in animal models support L-carnitine administration to prevent oxidative stress and ameliorate mitochondrial function. L-carnitine supplementation leads to beneficial effects on several critical mechanisms involved in pathologic skeletal muscle loss and improved fatigue-related parameters in patients with cancer. However, more well-designed, double-blinded, randomized clinical trials are necessary to establish L-carnitine supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for cachexia.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in
           children with persistent diarrhea: Avoidance of elemental diet need,
           accessibility and costs
    • Abstract: Widodo, Ariani Dewi; Setiabudy, Rianto; Timan, Ina S; Bardosono, Saptawati; Winarta, Widdy; Firmansyah, Agus
      Background and Objectives: Persistent diarrhea has been proven to cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, due to decreased stimulation to the pancreas caused by prolonged mucosal injury. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) given in conjunction to regular treatment is thought to be beneficial in replacing this pancreatic enzyme deficiency, avoiding the need of elemental diet. This study aims to evaluate the benefit of PERT in children with persistent diarrhea.

      Methods and Study Design: This is a randomized, two double-blind parallel group, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in persistent diarrhea. Children age 6-60 months were recruited from pediatric inpatient and outpatient units of five hospitals in Jakarta. Subjects was randomly assigned to either pancreatic enzyme 8371 USP unit of lipase or placebo, 3 times daily for 1 month, as an adjunctive therapy to standard treatment. Subjects were then reevaluated at 2 weeks and 4 weeks interval after administration of enzyme or placebo. Variables observed were length of diarrhea after the start of intervention, change in serum prealbumin, and change in FE-1 between week 0 and week 4.

      Results: Pancreatic enzyme supplementation shortens the length of diarrhea by 7 days in the intervention group compared to placebo (p=0.019). Serum prealbumin and FE-1 shows trend that favors the intervention group, although not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

      Conclusion: PERT is clinically effective in reducing the length of diarrhea, thus minimizing the need, accessibility and costs of an elemental diet.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies among anemic
           individuals in metro Manila, Philippines and their intake of iron
           supplements
    • Abstract: Capanzana, Mario V; Mirasol, Ma Angelina L; Smith, Geoffry; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Perlas, Leah; Amarra, Maria Sofia; de los Reyes, Francisco
      Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia worldwide. In Southeast Asia, studies showed that genetic hemoglobin disorders also contribute significantly to the burden of anemia. The study aimed to estimate the proportion of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies versus iron deficiency and other causes in a sample of anemic individuals; describe the characteristics of thalassemic subjects in terms of severity of anemia, adequacy of iron stores, and hematological profile; examine the intake of iron supplements among individuals with varying causes of anemia.

      Methods and Study Design: A random sample of 101 anemic individuals living in Metro Manila was examined. Hemoglobinopathy was determined using capillary electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was determined using immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on the use of iron supplements.

      Results: The most frequent underlying cause of anemia was iron deficiency (37.6%), followed by anemia due to other causes (34.7%), and hemoglobinopathy (27.8%). The most prevalent form of hemoglobinopathy was alpha-thalassemia trait (20.8%), followed by betathalassemia trait (5%), iron deficiency anemia with concomitant HbE (1%), and beta-thalassemia HbE interacting (1%). Thalassemic subjects exhibited mild anemia, had either normal or excessive iron stores, and did not ingest iron supplements.

      Conclusion: The majority of anemia (62.5%) in this sample was due to other causes and hemoglobinopathy, rather than iron deficiency. Genetic hemoglobin disorders appear to be common among anemic individuals. Population screening is needed to determine the real prevalence of the disease. Further investigation is needed to identify other causes of anemia among Filipinos

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors
           for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fracture
    • Abstract: Ha, Yong-Chan; Choi, Hana; Kim, Kyu-Hwang; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Park, Ki-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Il
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fractures, as defined by the criteria of the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS).

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 327 elderly patients with hip fractures were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measure was the nutritional status and nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was made according to the guidelines of the AWGS. Whole body densitometry analysis was used to measure skeletal muscle mass, and muscle strength was evaluated by handgrip testing. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to analyze the nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures.

      Results: Of 327 patients with hip fractures (78 men and 249 women), the prevalence of sarcopenia was 60.3% and 30.1% in men and women, respectively. The rates of three indicators of malnutrition in men and women (low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoproteinemia) in sarcopenia patients with hip fractures were 23.4%, 31.9%, and 53.2% and 21.3%, 21.3%, and 37.3%, respectively. The prevalence of markers of chronic inflammation (increased CRP and ESR) in men and women with sarcopenia and hip fractures were 74.9% and 52.2%, and 49.3% and 85.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, low BMI and hypoproteinemia in women were associated with a 2.9- and 2.1-fold greater risk of sarcopenia than non-sarcopenia, respectively.

      Conclusions: The present study revealed a strong relationship between sarcopenia and malnutrition and chronic inflammatory factors in elderly patients with hip fractures.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Identifying errors in meals provided to and sourced by
           patients on therapeutic diets in hospital
    • Abstract: Rattray, Megan; Desbrow, Ben; Roberts, Shelley
      Background and Objectives: Patients requiring therapeutic diets in hospital are at risk of exposer to dietary errors that may pose an acute threat to their safety. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of meal-related errors among hospitalised patients prescribed therapeutic diets, following the implementation of an electronic food service system (EFS).

      Methods and Study Design: This observational study involved six wards in a tertiary metropolitan hospital that used an EFS for meal ordering and plating. Participants were adult medical inpatients receiving a therapeutic diet for medical or nutritional reasons. Meal accuracy was assessed for up to 48-hours per patient by comparing the dietary items placed on patients' meal trays or personal meals consumed by patients to their therapeutic diet prescription. Inaccuracies were categorised as 'critical' or 'non-critical errors' and were identified as having occurred at one of four steps in the EFS: 'menu planning' (main-meals), 'meal assembly' (mainmeals), 'meal delivery' (mid- and main-meals) and 'meal consumption' (personal-meals).

      Results: A total of 167 inpatients were included in the study. Of the 906 meals assessed, 69 errors (8%) were observed; with 97% classified as critical. Error rates differed according to the food service system step assessed: 17% for menu planning, < 1% for 'meal assembly', 53% for 'meal delivery': main-meals, 9% for 'meal delivery': mid-meals and 33% 'meal consumption'.

      Conclusion: An EFS almost completely eliminated errors associated with 'meal assembly'. However, when food service staff and patients selected dietary items at ward level (without a guiding system) a substantial number of potentially 'critical errors' occurred.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Prognostic value of preoperative prognostic
           nutritional index in stage III gastric cancer after curative resection: A
           retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Wang, Hua-Xi; Wang, Cun-Chuan; Yang, Wah; Gao, Li-Lian; Yu, Shu-Qing
      Background and Objectives: Nutrition and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of cancer. The prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been confirmed in some types of human cancers. This study analyzed the prognostic significance of the preoperative PNI in patients with stage III gastric cancer after curative surgery.

      Methods and Study Design: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 274 patients who underwent curative operation for stage III gastric cancer. The correlation between the preoperative PNI and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

      Results: The patients with a high PNI had a significantly higher median OS than did those with a low PNI (46.8 months vs 24.1 months, p=0.01). In the subgroup analysis, the survival benefit of the PNI was limited to the patients with poorly differentiated gastric cancer (high PNI, 46.8 months; low PNI, 21.8 months, p=0.004) and was not observed in those with well and moderately differentiated cancer (high PNI, 30.3 months; low PNI, 26.7 months, p=0.30). In the multivariate analysis, the PNI was an independent prognostic factor for OS.

      Conclusions: The PNI can be used as an independent prognostic biomarker for operable advanced gastric cancer

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - The impact of self-efficacy education based on the
           health belief model in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised
           controlled intervention study
    • Abstract: Mohammadi, Shooka; Karim, Norimah A; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Amani, Reza
      Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness which can be managed by patients' commitment to self-care and self-efficacy behaviors.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized controlled intervention study was carried out to determine the impact of self-efficacy education based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in 240 patients with type 2 diabetes at the Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran between October 2014 and August 2015. The education duration was three months followed by a 24-week follow-up visit to determine the progress of the subjects. In this study, reliable and validated diabetes educational booklet and questionnaires based on knowledge, health beliefs and quality of life were used. The participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (n=120) or to the conventional dietary counseling group as controls (n=120), and assessed at the baseline, week 12 and week 36. The study was divided into primary outcome measurements consisting of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, and anthropometric levels. Secondary outcome measures were related to nutrition knowledge, health beliefs and quality of life.

      Results: The results showed that subjects in the intervention group had significantly better metabolic and glycemic profiles compared with those in the control group. It also showed that knowledge, health belief and quality of life significantly increased in the intervention group.

      Conclusions: Findings indicate that through tailored self-efficacy education, the quality of life and metabolic profile of diabetes patients can be improved.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Cinnamon improves metabolic factors without detectable
           effects on adiponectin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Abstract: Borzoei, Azam; Rafraf, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad
      Background and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic indices, serum lipids and adiponectin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

      Methods and Study Design: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 84 overweight or obese PCOS patients. Subjects in cinnamon (n=42) and placebo (n=42) groups were given 3 cinnamon capsules (each one contained 500 mg cinnamon) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and dietary intake data were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance.

      Results: Cinnamon significantly decreased serum fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and weight and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with placebo (all p < 0.05). Serum triglyceride and body mass index significantly decreased in the cinnamon group, in comparison with baseline values (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). No significant changes were seen in serum adiponectin in either group.

      Conclusions: Short term supplementation of cinnamon had some favourable effects on metabolic risk factors of women with PCOS and may be useful in management of PCOS complications.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Efficacy of actinidin-containing kiwifruit extract
           zyactinase on constipation: A randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled
           clinical trial
    • Abstract: Weir, Iona; Shu, Quan; Wei, Nengding; Wei, Chengkai; Zhu, Yi
      Background and Objectives: Zyactinase is an extract of green kiwifruit, formulated into the consumer healthcare products marketed as Phloe and Kivia, used to assist in the relief of the symptoms associated with a range of digestive system dysfunction, including constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

      Methods and Study Design: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken to determine the effects of the kiwifruit extract on bowel movement, stool formation and IBS associated symptoms amongst a subject group of generally healthy individuals experiencing a period of moderate constipation. Fifty-eight participants were randomized to the kiwifruit extract (28) or placebo (30). Selection criterion was decreased number of bowel movements (
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Effects of palm olein and olive oil on serum lipids in
           a Chinese population: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial
    • Abstract: Sun, Guiju; Xia, Hui; Yang, Yuexin; Ma, Shushu; Zhou, Haiteng; Shu, Guofang; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Xian; Tang, Huali; Wang, Fengling; He, Yaqiong; Ding, Rong; Yin, Hong; Wang, Yanyan; Zhu, Hangju; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Yang
      Background and Objectives: As the most widely produced edible vegetable oil, palm oil is known as to contain a high level of saturated fatty acid, which was thought to adversely affect serum lipid profiles. However, recent studies have shown no influence or benefits of palm oil on serum lipids. The potential nutritional value of palm oil is attributed to the high mono-unsaturation at the crucial sn2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, as with the so-called 'healthy' olive oil (OO). The aim of this study was to further test this hypothesis and evaluate the effects of consuming palm olein versus olive oil on serum lipid profiles in a Chinese population.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 120 participants were recruited from a spinnery in Yixing city and randomly divided into two groups (palm olein or olive oil) to conduct a 2x2 crossover trial for 2 months' intervention with 2-week washout periods. Each participant was provided 48 g of test oil per day. At the end of each period, anthropometry, and blood lipid indices were measured to determine the effects of palm olein and olive oil.

      Results: Palm olein and olive oil consumption had no significantly different effect on BMI, on serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG), Apo B, fasting glucose, or insulin concentrations (all p > 0.05).

      Conclusions: In a dietary crossover trial, palm olein and olive oil had no recognisably different effects on body fatness or blood lipids in a healthy Chinese population.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Effect of probiotic supplements in women with
           gestational diabetes mellitus on inflammation and oxidative stress
           biomarkers: A randomized clinical trial
    • Abstract: Hajifaraji, Majid; Jahanjou, Fatemeh; Abbasalizadeh, Fatemeh; Aghamohammadzadeh, Nasser; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Dolatkhah, Neda
      Background and Objectives: Very little is known about the use of probiotics among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) especially its effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory indices. The aim of present study was to measure the effect of a probiotic supplement capsule on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in women with newly-diagnosed GDM.

      Methods and Study Design: 64 pregnant women with GDM were enrolled in a double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial in the spring and summer of 2014. They were randomly assigned to receive either a probiotic containing four bacterial strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium BB-12, Streptococcus Thermophilus STY-31 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus LBY-27 or placebo capsule for 8 consecutive weeks. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-treatment and serum indices of inflammation and oxidative stress were assayed. The measured mean response scales were then analyzed using mixed effects model. All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 16).

      Results: Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels improved in the probiotic group to a statistically significant level over the placebo group. Serum interleukin-6 levels decreased in both groups after intervention; however, neither within group nor between group differences interleukin-6 serum levels was statistically significant. Malondialdehyde, glutathione reductase and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase levels improved significantly with the use of probiotics when compared with the placebo.

      Conclusions: The probiotic supplement containing L.acidophilus LA- 5, Bifidobacterium BB- 12, S.thermophilus STY-31 and L.delbrueckii bulgaricus LBY-2 appears to improve several inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in women with GDM

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Anthropometry to assess body fat in Indonesian adults
    • Abstract: Hastuti, Janatin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P
      Background and Objectives: Anthropometric equations are widely used to estimate body composition however, are only appropriate for use in populations in which they have been developed and validated. The present study developed anthropometric prediction equations for Indonesian adults and cross-validated them with selected equations used in this population.

      Methods and Study Design: Six hundred Indonesian adults aged between 18-65 years (292 males and 308 females) were divided equally into development and validation groups. Stature, body weight, skinfold thickness at eight sites, girth at five sites, and bone breadth at four sites were measured. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to propose percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations using measured variables and %BF from the deuterium oxide dilution technique as the reference. The proposed prediction equations were then cross-validated using the validation group and %BF estimated from several existing equations.

      Results: Proposed prediction equations showed r ranged from 0.82 to 0.86 and Standard Error of the Estimate (SEE) from 4.7 to 5.4%. Cross-validation analysis showed bias with the reference %BF between 0.2 and 3.3% and Pure Error (PE) between 2.8 and 4.0%. Among the existing equations, the Durnin and Womersley equation was applicable in females whilst the equation by Davidson et al. underestimated %BF by 6.3-6.6% and the equation by Gurrici et al overestimated by 2.0-3.4% in both genders (p < 0.01).

      Conclusion: The proposed prediction equations provide better options for accurate prediction of %BF in Indonesian adults.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetic
           peripheral neuropathy and diabetic nephropathy in Tianjin, china
    • Abstract: Fan, Leping; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jie; Song, Yixuan; Lin, Jingna
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy (DN).

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 287 type 2 diabetic patients were categorized in two ways, and each divided into two groups: DPN (n=164) and non-DPN (NDPN) groups (n=123); and DN (n=148) and non-DN (NDN) groups (n=139). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D3] level. Correlation analysis between 25(OH)D3 and other indicators was performed.

      Results: 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in the DPN and DN groups than in the NDPN and NDN groups, and the difference was statistically significant (t =-6.23, -4.38, p < 0.0001). Moreover, a higher proportion of patients in the DPN and DN groups exhibited vitamin D deficiency than those in the NDPN and NDN groups (X2=22.231, 15.973, respectively, p < 0.0001). Vitamin D was highly correlated with DPN, DN, diabetes duration, age, sex, fasting plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 24-h urinary microalbumin, and beta-2 microglobulin (r=-0.34 -0.133, p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for DPN and DN (OR=3.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-6.03; OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.71-5.03; respectively, p < 0.0001).

      Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is closely correlated with DPN and DN and can be considered as an independent risk factor for DPN and DN.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Associations between socioeconomic status and
           overweight among urban children aged 7-12 years in Chengdu, southwest
           china
    • Abstract: Zhai, Junya; Xue, Hongmei; Luo, Jiao; Zhang, Lishi; Cheng, Guo
      Background and Objectives: Income inequality in China has risen steadily over the past decades. This study explored the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and overweight among urban children aged 7-12 years in Chengdu, a comparatively prosperous metropolis city located in "the West China", the backward, less developed region of China.

      Methods and Study Design: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among urban children aged 7-12 years old in Chengdu city. A total of 853 urban students were involved in this analysis, with measured heights, weights, and filled in self-administered questionnaires. Overweight, including obesity, was defined according to the Working Group on Obesity in China. SES indicators included family income, parental education and occupation class.

      Results: Urban girls living in high-income households were more likely to be overweight than those living in low-income households (OR 2.19, 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.83). However, no significant associations were found among boys and there were also null significant associations between other SES indicators and overweight in children of either sex.

      Conclusions: Urban girls living in relatively affluent circumstances were at greatest risk for being overweight. This study implies that any future overweight prevention program in Chengdu city is needed to start at the family level beginning with individuals of a high socioeconomic background, especially in urban girls.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Selenium in infant formula milk
    • Abstract: He, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Mu, Weipeng; Huang, Zhen-Wu
      Formula-based animal milk is an alternative source of infant nutrition in many cases when breastfeeding is unacceptable or inaccessible; however, these replacements often have low selenium levels. The composition of infant formula milk should be as close as possible to that of human breast milk, both in content and chemical speciation. Selenium is an essential trace element for infants. Generally, human breast milk is the ideal food to ensure adequate infant Se intake. However, to date, sodium selenite or sodium selenate has been used as selenium supplementation in infant formula milk in most countries. This inorganic Se, which is not a natural component of food, may not be the optimal speciation for Se supplementation in infant formula milk. Advances in speciation in foods, especially in animal milk, suggest that future proposals for selenium speciation in human breast milk can lead to discussions regarding the most favorable methods of selenium supplementation in infant formula milk.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Relevance of the mini nutritional assessment in
           cirrhotic liver disease patients
    • Abstract: Yasutake, Kenichiro; Koga, Shigemi; Hokko, Yuka; Ikemoto, Michiko; Yaguchi, Yuri; Sakai, Hironori; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is an important prognostic factor for patients with liver disease and a novel nutritional assessment tool is required for these patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as a nutritional screening tool for patients with liver disease, by comparing MNA scores with other nutrition-related parameters.

      Methods and Study Design: Patients who were hospitalized at the gastroenterology division of Kyushu and Beppu Medical Center were enrolled. The study included 77 patients with liver disease (male/female, 46/31; mean+-SD age, 68.5+-10.7 years; liver cirrhosis, 64.9%; liver cancer, 61.0%). Correlations of MNA score at hospital admission with anthropometric parameters and blood test data were evaluated.

      Results: In patients with liver disease, MNA scores demonstrated that 18 (23.4%) had normal nutritional status, 41 (53.2%) were at risk of malnutrition, and 18 (23.4%) were malnourished, indicating that up to 76.6% of the liver disease group were malnourished. Especially, patients with liver cirrhosis had lower scores of nutritional markers and MNA. The MNA score in liver cirrhotic patients correlated with the following parameters: % arm circumference, % triceps skinfolds, ratio of % maximum grasp strength and arm circumference, maximum grasp strength, arm muscle circumference, calf circumference, serum albumin levels, the controlling nutritional status score, and Onodera's prognostic index, while patients without liver cirrhosis did not show such correlation.

      Conclusions: MNA scores correlated with nutrition-related data in patients with liver cirrhosis. The MNA is an appropriate tool for nutritional screening assessment in these cirrhotic patients of any etiology.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Associations of postprandial lipemia with trunk/leg
           fat ratio in young normal weight women independently of fat mass and
           insulin resistance
    • Abstract: Takeuchi, Mika; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kurata, Miki; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke
      Background and Objectives: To determine whether postprandial lipemia is associated with fat distribution even in young, normal weight women independently of fat mass, adipokines, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation.

      Methods and Study Design: Female college students (ages 21-24, n=35) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a standardized breakfast providing 17 g triglycerides (TG). Serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, adipokines and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation were measured in fasting blood samples.

      Results: In crude analyses, postprandial lipemia, as assessed by 0-2 h area under the curve of serum TG (TG-AUC), was positively associated with fasting TG, trunk/leg fat ratio, apolipoprotein B, leptin/adiponectin ratio and log high-sensitivity CRP. Multiple linear regression analysis with these 5 variables as independent variables revealed that fasting TG (p < 0.001) and trunk/ leg fat ratio (p=0.001), were independent positive predictors of TG-AUC (R2=0.923). Women with high compared to low TG-AUC were characterized by higher trunk/leg fat ratio, elevated apolipoprotein B and leptin/adiponectin ratio.

      Conclusion: Trunk/leg fat ratio, a marker of central adiposity, is a significant predictor of postprandial lipemia even in young women who are normal weight and insulin- sensitive, suggesting a modifiable pathway to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, a cardiometabolic risk factor. These findings should be confirmed in studies employing more participants.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The efficacy of parenteral fish oil in critical
           illness patients with sepsis: A prospective, non-randomized, observational
           study
    • Abstract: Li, Wen-Si; Chen, Zhang-Zha; Zheng, Yi-Jun; Zhong, Ming; Ma, Jie-Fei; Xuan, Li-zhen; Song, Jie-Qiong; Lv, Qian-Zhou; Zhu, Du-Ming
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the clinical outcomes in septic patients receiving parenteral fish oil.

      Methods and Study Design: A prospective, non-randomized, observational clinical study was carried out in 112 patients with sepsis from March, 2013 to May, 2015 in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a tertiaryreferral hospital. The patients were put into one of two groups; either the control or the study group. Patients received the standard treatment of sepsis based on guidelines in the control group. In the study group, patients received parenteral nutrition (PN) containing fish oil. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, the length of ICU and hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, and readmission into the ICU were recorded. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were also evaluated.

      Results: The study group showed a significant reduction for all-cause mortality (20.0% vs 10.0% in study and control groups, p=0.034) and APACHE II score on day 5 (p=0.015), day 7 (p=0.036) and day out of SICU (p= 0.045) compared with the control group. The study group tended to show a shortened length of stay in the ICU compared to the control group. However, TNF-α and PCT level, 28 d mortality, the length of hospital stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation did not show statistical differences between the two groups. There were no drug-related adverse effects shown during the study. Conclusions: PN with fish oil is probably safe and may improve clinical outcome in critical ill patients with sepsis.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Contributors to nutritional status in continuous
           ambulatory peritoneal dialysis as practised in henan Province, china
    • Abstract: Miao, Jinhong; Liang, Rui; Tian, Ximei; Sun, Xiaoyin; Li, Zhengyan; Luo, Jing; Ming, Lan; Shi, Juanjuan
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the nutritional status of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and the factors involved.

      Methods and Study Design: We used the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status, a general questionnaire, dietary records, and laboratory parameters from 3 consecutive days to develop a NS assessment with it, we assessed 240 patients undergoing CAPD at a dialysis center in Henan Province.

      Results: In this setting, the prevalence of malnutrition in patients undergoing CAPD was 11.7%. Univariate analysis showed that patient characteristics related to NS included energy and protein intakes, weight and BMI, dialysis duration, urinary creatinine, and total creatinine clearance rate. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that dialysis duration (p < 0.001) and energy intake (p=0.01) were the principal predictors of nutritional status and allowed 81% of the variance in nutritional status to be explained. Conclusions: Effective collaboration between nutritionists and other health care workers to minimise dialysis duration and optimize energy intake should improve the nutritionally-related quality of life and well-being among CAPD patients.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Continuous tube feeding versus intermittent oral
           feeding for intermediate position enterostomy in infants
    • Abstract: Jiang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xiaoqun; Geng, Qiming; Tang, Weibing
      Background and Objectives: The stoma of intermediate position enterostomy (IPE) often leads to high output, which is related to electrolyte abnormalities, and prolongs patient recovery post-operatively. The continuous nasogastric tube feeding method has the advantage of reducing the risk of feeding intolerance, and improves nutrient absorption. In the current study, we review our experience with continuous tube feeding and compare the clinical outcomes with intermittent oral feeding in patients with an IPE post-operatively.

      Methods and Study Design: This was a retrospective review of 118 infants with IPEs in our hospital. The infants were categorized into two groups (intermittent oral feeding [OF] group [n=68 infants, 1-14 days of age] and continuous tube feeding [TF] group [n=50 infants, 1-14 days of age]). Differences in stool volume, daily intravenous fluid infusion, weight gain, nutrition indices, and post-operative complications were reviewed.

      Results: The stool volume and intravenous fluid infusion in the TF group were less than the OF group from week 2. The weight gain was higher in the TF group than the OF group from week 3. The pre-albumin and retinol binding protein levels were significantly higher in the TF group than the OF group in weeks 3-4 post-operatively. The incidence of cholestasis and water-electrolyte disturbances in the TF group was significantly lower than the OF group, and the incidence of intestinal obstruction was lower than the control group, but the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Continuous tube feeding had better clinical outcomes than intermittent oral feeding in IPE patients.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Refeeding hypophosphataemia after enteral nutrition in
           a Malaysian intensive care unit: Risk factors and outcome
    • Abstract: Ralib, Azrina Md; Mat Nor, Mohd Basri
      Background and Objectives: Refeeding hypophosphataemia (RH) is characterized by an acute electrolyte derangement following nutrition therapy. Complications associated include heart failure, respiratory failure, paraesthesia, seizure and death. We aim to assess its incidence, risk factors, and outcome in our local intensive care unit (ICU).

      Methods and Study Design: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the mixed medical- surgical of a tertiary ICU in Kuantan, Malaysia. The study was registered under the National Medical Research Register (NMRR-14-803-19813) and has received ethical approval. Inclusion criteria include adult admission longer than 48 hours who were started on enteral feeding. Chronic renal failure patients and those receiving dialysis were excluded. RH was defined as plasma phosphate less than 0.65 mmol/L and a drop of more than 0.16 mmol/L following feeding.

      Results: A total of 109 patients were recruited, of which 44 (42.6%) had RH. Patients with RH had higher SOFA score compared to those without (p=0.04). There were no differences in the APACHE II and NUTRIC scores. Serum albumin was lower in those with RH (p=0.04). After refeeding, patients with RH had lower serum phosphate, magnesium and albumin, and higher supplementation of phosphate, potassium and calcium. There were no differences in mortality, length of hospital or ICU stay. Conclusions: Refeeding hypophosphataemia occurs in almost half of ICU admission. Risk factors for refeeding include high organ failure score and low albumin. Refeeding was associated with imbalances in phosphate, magnesium, potassium and calcium. Future larger study may further investigate these risk factors and long-term outcomes.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Effects of eating frequency on respiratory quotient in
           patients with liver cirrhosis: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Yao, Jia; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Kong, Ming; Li, Lu; Hua, Xin; Zhao, Yaping; Yu, Shuqing; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping
      Background and Objectives: Respiratory quotient (RQ) is a good marker of substrate oxidation. Low RQ is frequently found in patients with liver cirrhosis and is associated with poor outcome. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of eating frequency on RQ in patients with cirrhosis.

      Methods and Study Design: We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of eating frequency on RQ in patients with cirrhosis. Seventy patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled, and patients were further randomized to receive either normal eating frequency (NEF) meals at 08:00, 12:00 and 18:00 h, or high eating frequency (HEF) meals at 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 20:00 h. The two groups had equivalent energy intake. Fasting RQ was measured at 07:30 h and daytime RQ was measured at 11:30 and 17:30 h. Disease severity was evaluated using the Child - Turcotte - Pugh (CTP) classification.

      Results: Fasting RQ and daytime RQ were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than in healthy controls. Patients in the HEF group had a higher RQ than patients in the NEF group at three time points. In patients with CTP-A, no significant differences in daytime RQ were observed between the two groups. However, in CTP-C patients, daytime RQ was significantly higher in the HEF group than in the NEF group. Serum free fatty acid levels were significantly decreased and albumin was significantly increased after HEF intervention. Conclusions: HEF strategy is effective in improvement of RQ and is beneficial to patients with cirrhosis.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns and obesity in preschool children in
           Australia: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Shi, Zumin; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao Jia
      Background and Objectives: Dietary patterns have been linked to the risk of obesity in adults but little is known about such a link in young children. To examine the association between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and obesity in a representative population of preschool children in Australia.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed food diary. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Children were classified as overweight or obesity if their BMI z-score was between the 85th-95th percentiles or was above the 95th percentile, respectively.

      Results: Three dietary patterns were identified. The 'Traditional' pattern was characterised by grains, fruit, vegetables, and red meat. The 'Processed' pattern was characterised by processed meats, snack foods and confectionary. The 'Health conscious' pattern was characterised by eggs, fish, polyunsaturated margarines and low fat dairy products. The "Traditional' pattern was positively associated with protein and zinc intake while the 'Processed' pattern was inversely associated. Both patterns were inversely associated with calcium intake. No associations were found between the 'Health conscious' pattern and macronutrients and key micronutrients intakes. The 'Traditional' pattern was positively associated with obesity but the association became non-significant after adjustment for energy and protein intake. No association was observed between the other two dietary patterns and weight status.

      Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, dietary patterns were not associated with obesity. Longitudinal follow up will help to better understand the relationship between dietary patterns in early childhood and the risk of obesity later in life.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Factors which may limit the value of dietary diversity
           and its association with nutritional outcomes in preschool children in
           high burden districts of India
    • Abstract: Nithya, Devanesan Jacinth; Bhavani, Ramanathapuram Vaidyanathan
      Background and Objectives: Dietary diversity plays a critical role in infants as they need energy and nutrient dense foods for both physical and mental development. This study examines whether three dietary diversity indices validate against Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and studies the relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of preschool children, in two districts of India: Wardha district in Maharashtra state and Koraput district in Odisha state.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary diversity was calculated using: individual food scores calculated using 24 hour diet recall (FS24hr) data; household dietary diversity using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores calculated using food frequency data (FSFFQ). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices.

      Results: It was observed that 42.7% of 1 to 5 years children were underweight, 38% stunted and 27.6% wasted across both locations. The dietary diversity was found to be relatively better in Wardha when compared with Koraput with mean diversity of FS24hr 7, DDI 90 and FSFFQ 63 in both locations. Preschool children in both locations consumed a cereal based diet. Apart from protein in both locations and energy in Koraput, the NAR of all nutrients consumed was < 70% of requirement. MAR showed lower consumption of nutrients than the recommended levels (50% adequacy). NAR and MAR correlate with FS24hr indicating that dietary diversity calculated using 24 hour diet recall ensures nutrient adequacy but showed association only with Height-for-Age scores.

      Conclusion: Dietary diversity calculated using three methods did not show any correlation with nutritional status of 1 to 5 years children.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Breakfast consumption among Malaysian primary and
           secondary school children and relationship with body weight status -
           findings from the mybreakfast study
    • Abstract: Tee, E Siong; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Karim, Norimah A; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight status among primary and secondary school children in Malaysia.

      Methods and Study Design: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires. Breakfast frequency was defined as follows: breakfast skippers (ate breakfast 0-2 days/week), irregular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast 3-4 days/week) and regular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast >-5 days/week).

      Results: The overall prevalence of breakfast skippers and irregular breakfast eaters was 11.7% and 12.7% respectively. Breakfast skipping was related to age, sex, ethnicity, income and physical activity level. Among primary school boys and secondary school girls, the proportion of overweight/obesity was higher among breakfast skippers (boys: 43.9%, girls: 30.5%) than regular breakfast eaters (boys: 31.2%, girls: 22.7%). Among primary school children, only boys who skipped breakfast had a higher mean BMI-for-age z-score than regular breakfast eaters. Among secondary school boys and girls, BMI-for-age z-score was higher among breakfast skippers than regular breakfast eaters. Compared to regular breakfast eaters, primary school boys who skipped breakfast were 1.71 times (95% CI=1.26-2.32, p=0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese, while the risk was lower in primary school girls (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.02-1.81, p=0.039) and secondary school girls (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.01-1.90, p=0.044).

      Conclusion: Regular breakfast consumption was associated with a healthier body weight status and is a dietary behaviour which should be encouraged.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of
           energy intake in Japanese adults: The 2012 national health and nutrition
           survey
    • Abstract: Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
      Background and Objectives: Information on a whole array of characteristics associated with dietary misreporting in a representative sample in each country is still limited. Using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake among 19,986 Japanese adults aged >=20 years.

      Methods and Study Design: Each individual's energy intake was calculated based on a 1-day semi-weighed dietary record. Under-, plausible, and over-reporters were identified based on the 95% confidence limits 1) for agreement between the ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1.55), and 2) of the expected ratio of energy intake to estimated energy requirement of 1.0, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity.

      Results: Almost all subjects (>=92.8%) were classified as plausible reporters by any of the methods applied, with very low percentages of under- and over-reporters (
      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Intake ratio and major food sources of n-3 and n-6
           fatty acids in Korea: A study based on the sixth Korea national health and
           nutrition examination survey (2013-2014)
    • Abstract: Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung
      Background and Objectives: In addition to the intake ratio of omega 6 (n-6) to omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids, their intake amount has an effect on health. This study evaluated the n-6:n-3 intake ratio as well as the food sources and association of these fatty acids with demographic characteristics based on sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

      Methods and Study Design: This study included 13,937 participants from the survey. The weighted mean intake and major food groups of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were determined. The 10 chief food sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid were expressed as percent contribution to total intake.

      Results: alpha- Linolenic acid constituted approximately 80% of total n-3 intake, followed by docosahexaenoic acid (10.5%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (6.1%). Linoleic acid constituted 97% of total n-6 intake. After adjustment for cofactors (age, sex, and energy intake), education level (p < 0.01), alcohol consumption frequency (p < 0.05) and monthly income (p < 0.01) were significant variables determining n-3 and n-6 FA intake by Korean people. The average n-6:n-3 intake ratio was 7.49:1. The major source of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid was soybean oil, whereas that of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid was mackerel. Pork (70.0%) and egg (38.7%) were the major food sources of arachidonic acid and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, respectively.

      Conclusion: Monthly income, alcohol consumption frequency, and education level significantly affected n-3 FA intake. The dietary n-6: n-3 intake ratio in Korea is 7.49:1; however, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake remains inadequate (0.27 g/day).

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Assessing self-reported green tea and coffee
           consumption by food frequency questionnaire and food record and their
           association with polyphenol biomarkers in Japanese women
    • Abstract: Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Harrison, Amy; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H
      Background and Objectives: Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies.

      Methods and Study Design: In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. The polyphenols assessed included (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)- epicatechin (EC), caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA).

      Results: Green tea consumption estimated by FFQ and FR showed moderate association, while strong association was detected for coffee consumption. Urinary green tea polyphenol concentrations were moderately-strongly associated with FR-estimated intake, while the associations were weak with FFQ. Similarly, coffee polyphenols in urine were moderately associated with FR-estimated coffee intake, whereas FFQ showed poor correlation. The associations between urinary and plasma polyphenols ranged from moderate to high.

      Conclusions: The results indicated that firstly, the FFQ tends to overestimate green tea intake. Secondly, the urinary polyphenols are preferred over plasma polyphenols as a potential surrogate marker of the short-term green tea and coffee intake, while their use as an indicator of long-term consumption is not reliable.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns, dietary lead exposure and
           hypertension in the older Chinese population
    • Abstract: Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J
      Background and Objectives: With rapid population ageing and an increasing rate of hypertension in China, this study aims to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary lead and hypertension among older Chinese population.

      Methods and Study Design: We analysed the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey data (2,634 individuals with dietary and hypertension measurement data, aged >=60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Dietary lead intake is based on a published systematic review of food lead concentration and dietary lead exposure in China. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Poisson regression and multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore the association between dietary patterns and hypertension.

      Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 47.0% in men and 48.9% in women. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was significantly inversely associated with known hypertension. In the fully adjusted model, compared with the lowest quartile of traditional dietary pattern, the highest quartile had a lower risk of known hypertension, with Relative Risk Ratio=0.69 (95% CI: 0.50; 0.95). However, associations between modern dietary pattern and hypertension differed by urbanization; an inverse, positive and null association was seen in low, medium and high urbanization. Additionally, dietary lead showed a significant positive association with hypertension and known hypertension.

      Conclusions: Policies that facilitate and promote healthy diets, and the availability of healthy foods particularly at the regional and local levels, are important for the prevention of hypertension.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Ambient temperature-related exaggerated post-prandial
           insulin response in a young athlete: A case report and implications for
           climate change
    • Abstract: Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Faure, Cecile; Hue, Olivier; Henri, Stephane
      The objective is to present the case of a 21-yr-old athlete observed with non-physiological immediate postprandial insulin response (1162 pmol/l; normal glucose excursion: 6.6 mmol/l), in a warm environment. No suspicion or evidence of any underlying pathology was found in this well-trained Afro-Caribbean male runner. He never reported any hypoglycemic episode. When performing the same protocol performed in a cooler environment (21.0 degreesC vs 30.3 degreesC), only physiological responses were observed. We conclude that 1) youth, leanness and regular exercise training are not absolutely protective against glucose metabolism impairment in apparently healthy subjects; 2) ambient temperature should be regarded as a potential source of glucose metabolism impairment.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Taste perception and diet in people of Chinese
           ancestry
    • Abstract: Leong, Claudia Shu-Fen; Forde, Ciaran G; Tey, Siew Ling; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
      Background and Objectives: Taste perception plays a key role in consumer acceptance and food choice, which has an important impact on human health. Our aim was to examine the relationship between taste intensities and preferences of sweet (sucrose), salty (sodium chloride and potassium chloride), sour (citric acid), and bitter (qui-nine and phenylthiocarbamide) in relation to dietary intake and dietary patterns in people of Chinese ancestry.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 100 adult Singaporean Chinese (50 women). A validated taste methodology was used with taste solutions provided by Monell Chemical Senses Center. Dietary intake and patterns were assessed by dietary recalls.

      Results: There was little relationship between taste intensity and tastant preference in regard to background dietary intake or pattern. Tastant differentiation was reliable, but there was some confusion in regard to the rating of saltiness as sourness.

      Conclusions: There was a salty-sour confusion among Singaporean Chinese unlike the bitter-sour confusion reported for Caucasians. Most sodium came from sauces and was added during food preparation. In programs to address sodium: potassium ratio excess among Chinese prone to hypertension and stroke, sour as well as salty taste may need to be considered.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at
           child care centers in south Korea and Japan
    • Abstract: Kwon, Sooyoun; Yeoh, Yoonjae; Abe, Satoko
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

      Methods and Study Design: The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. For Japan, a total of 30 meals provided by 5 child care centers in Tokyo were analyzed. Nutrient content and pattern in lunch menus were evaluated.

      Results: The lunch menus in Korea and Japan provided 359.5 kcal (25.7% of the estimated energy requirement) and 376.3 kcal (29.5% of the estimated energy requirement), respectively. 'Rice + Soup + Main dish + Side dish I + Side dish II' were provided in 66.7% of meals in Korea, while various patterns with rice and soup as their bases were provided in Japan.

      Conclusions: The lunch menus of child care centers in Korea and Japan provide similar amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, calcium, and other nutrients. However, there were significant differences in the lunch menu patterns in Korea and Japan. This study provides information about the nutritional content and pattern of lunch menus at child care centers in Asian countries with rice as a staple food.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education
           for enhancing nutrition knowledge and improving nutritional behaviour
           among adolescents
    • Abstract: Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming
      Background and Objectives: The integration of nutrition knowledge into nutritional behaviour can help children to develop a healthy lifestyle that may be carried forward into adulthood. E-learning enables students to take ownership of recording their dietary intake and modify their diets by making their own decisions regarding food choices and portion sizes through reflective feedback. This study investigated the role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education in modifying students' nutrition knowledge and behaviour.

      Methods and Study Design: Ninety-five secondary students studying from Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 were recruited from five schools. Moreover, 50 and 45 students were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Nutrition education delivered through e-learning (NeL) was adopted to record students' diets. Online reports with behavioural feedback were provided for the experimental group but not for the control group. NeL sessions lasted for 12 weeks. The energy and nutrient profiles of the students were recorded as pre-post measurements. Pre-post nutrition knowledge was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and after intervention.

      Results: The experimental group had significantly higher scores in the 'dietary recommendation' and 'food choices' domains of the questionnaire and demonstrated significant dietary improvement in the intake of all studied macronutrients and micronutrients.

      Conclusions: Nutrition education conducted with behavioural feedback can effectively improve adolescents' nutrition knowledge and nutritional behaviour.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and kidney
           disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: A repeated-measure study in
           taiwan
    • Abstract: Chung, Hsin-Fang; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Long, Kurt Z; Huang, Ya-Fang; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Meng-Chuan
      Background and Objectives: Western dietary patterns have been linked with kidney disease. This study investigated the association between Chinese dietary patterns and kidney disease in a Taiwanese population with type 2 diabetes and evaluated dietary fatty acid patterns, a kidney-related dietary biomarker.

      Methods and Study Design: We recruited 838 patients with type 2 diabetes and used their dietary and renal data obtained from three repeated measures in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Diet was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires, and factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Albuminuria was defined by having an albumin-to-creatinine ratio >=30 mg/g and kidney dysfunction by estimated glomerular filtration rate
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Regular egg consumption at breakfast by Japanese woman
           university students improves daily nutrient intakes: Open-labeled
           observations
    • Abstract: Taguchi, Chie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Usuda, Mika; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo
      Background and Objectives: Eggs, an important source of high-quality protein, contain a variety of key nutrients and antioxidants. Here we conducted an intervention study to evaluate whether the additional consumption of one egg per day would affect the daily nutritional intakes and blood antioxidant status in Japanese woman university students.

      Methods and Study Design: For 4 weeks, the 14 subjects were provided a nutritious breakfast including one boiled egg, and they were asked to keep a daily dietary record.

      Results: The subjects' daily energy intake during the intervention did not differ compared to the baseline, whereas the protein energy ratio and cholesterol intake were significantly increased. The subjects' consumption of confectionery during the intervention was significantly decreased compared to the pre-trial period. The total score of adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines for a healthy diet during the intervention was higher than that at baseline. The analysis of fasting blood samples showed that the subjects' serum lipids levels were not altered, whereas their malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) levels and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL were significantly reduced after the intervention. More importantly, serum folic acid levels were significantly increased.

      Conclusions: Our results suggest that regular egg consumption at breakfast can help improve the daily nutritional status and dietary habits and also ameliorate certain indices of antioxidant status in young women.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The effects of green kiwifruit combined with
           isoflavones on equol production, bone turnover and gut microflora in
           healthy postmenopausal women
    • Abstract: Kruger, Marlena C; Middlemiss, Catherine; Katsumata, Shinichi; Tousen, Yuko; Ishimi, Yoshiko
      Background and Objectives: Isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) interventions in postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent skeletal benefits, partly due to population heterogeneity in daidzein metabolism to equol by enteric bacteria. This study assessed changes in microflora and bone turnover in response to isoflavone and ki-wifruit supplementation in New Zealand postmenopausal women.

      Methods and Study Design: Healthy women 1-10 years post-menopause were randomly allocated to group A (n=16) or B (n=17) for a 16-week crossover trial. Two consecutive 6-week treatment periods had a 2-week lead-in period at intervention commencement and a 2-week washout period between treatments. Treatments prescribed either (1) daily isoflavone supplementation (50 mg/day aglycone daidzein and genistein) alone, or (2) with two green kiwifruit. At treatment baseline and end-point (four time points) the serum bone markers C Telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx), undercarboxylated os-teocalcin (unOC), and serum and urinary daidzein and equol, were measured. Changes in gut microflora were monitored in a subgroup of the women.

      Results: Equol producers made up 30% of this study population (equol producers n=10; non-equol producers n=23) with serum equol rising significantly in equol producers. Serum ucOC decreased by 15.5% (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces
           blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Mashhadi, Nafiseh Sokri; Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Mohammadiasl, Javad; Zarei, Mehdi; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein
      Background and Objectives: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 8 weeks to investigate the potential effects of astaxanthin (AST) supplementation on the adiponectin concentration, lipid peroxidation, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and anthropometric indices in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

      Methods and Study Design: We enrolled 44 participants with type 2 diabetes who met our inclusion criteria. Eight milligrams of AST supplementation or a placebo were randomly administered once daily for 8 weeks to these participants.

      Results: The 8-week administration of AST supplementation increased the serum adiponectin concentration and reduced visceral body fat mass (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Effects of grass jelly on glycemic control:
           Hydrocolloids may inhibit gut carbohydrase
    • Abstract: Lim, Joseph; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the hydrocolloid properties of grass jelly on reducing glycaemic response, (2) the impact of phenolic compounds in Mesona chinensis L. on glycaemic response. Methods and Study Design: A total of 15 healthy Chinese men were recruited to this study. On each visit, subjects consumed one of the following three treatments, i.e. glucose solution (T1), grass jelly (Mesona chinensis L.) solution with glucose (T2) or grass jelly gel with glucose (T3). Capillary blood glucose and venous plasma insulin were analysed over a period of 180 min. Results: The incremental area under the curve for capillary glucose and venous plasma insulin for glucose group, grass jelly solution group and grass jelly gel was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). In a previous study the co-ingestion of grass jelly with complex carbohydrate was found to reduce glycaemic response. The key difference between the two studies was the use of monosaccharide glucose in the present study, compared to complex carbohydrates in the other. The present study suggests that the glycaemic lowering effect of grass jelly may be dependent on the inhibition of carbohydrase enzymes. Conclusions: The co-ingestion of Mesona chinensis L. appears to reduce glycaemic response of only complex carbohydrates through the inhibition of carbohydrase. This conclusion was arrived at by the lack of any effect of Mesona chinensis L. on the monosaccharide glucose.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Consumption and sources of added sugar in Thailand: A
           review
    • Abstract: Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia V
      Background and Objectives: The present review examined the best available evidence regarding consumption levels and sources of added sugar in different population groups in Thailand.

      Methods and Study Design: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, food consumption surveys, government reports, published and unpublished studies.

      Results: A total of 24 references were obtained, comprising 8 nationally representative reports and 16 individual studies. Results were inconsistent. The National Statistical Office reported an available supply of 83 g sugar per capita per day in 2010. The 2009 Food Consumption Survey of Thai Population showed median intake of sugar and sweeteners for all age groups ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 g per day among males and from 2.0 to 15.7 g per day among females (below the Thai recommendation of 40 to 55 g/day). Studies on children suggested intake levels between 25 to 50 g/day, while studies on adults were inconsistent. Frequently consumed sources were table sugar, sweetened beverages, and sweet snacks (traditional desserts, baked products, crispy snacks).

      Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists regarding intake levels and sources of added sugar in Thailand. Limitations were the use of food frequency questionnaires or a single 24-h recall to assess intake, and outdated studies with small sample sizes. An updated nationally representative survey using improved methods is needed to determine the levels and sources of sugar intake in different population groups. These include biomarkers to establish levels of consumption and multiple 24-h recalls (at least two) to identify food sources that contribute significantly to excess sugar intake.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Childhood overweight and obesity amongst primary
           school children in hai phong City, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Ngan, Hoang Thi Duc; Tuyen, Le Danh; van Phu, Pham; Nambiar, Smita
      Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is a rising health concern in Vietnam, however, research in this area is not extensive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and to study associations between weight status and selected lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity levels, among children aged 6-10 years in Hai Phong City, Vietnam.

      Methods and Study Design: Two hundred and seventy-six children from an urban and a rural primary school participated in this cross-sectional study. Data on weight, height and waist circumference were used to calculate BMI, and waist-height ratio to determine the proportion of children who were overweight, obese and had high central adiposity. Information on diet, physical activity and socioeconomic status of families was collected using questionnaires.

      Results: Prevalences of overweight, obesity and high abdominal adiposity were 11.2%, 10.1% and 19.9%, respectively. Children who completed >=60 minutes of physical activity daily were 50% and 80% less likely to be overweight and have high abdominal adiposity, respectively. Computer usage increased the odds of overweight and high abdominal adiposity by 4.5 and 3.9 times, respectively. Mothers with higher education and income levels increased the risk of their children being overweight (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Breast milk and infant iodine status during the first
           12 weeks of lactation in Tianjin City, china
    • Abstract: Wang, Wei; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Wen; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Zhao, Zhuo; Lan, Shuhai; Zhang, Wanqi
      Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the iodine status of breast milk and breast-fed infants during the first 12 weeks postpartum in Tianjin, China.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 175 pregnant women were recruited before delivery. Their breastmilk and 24-h urine samples were collected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum; spot urine samples were simultaneously collected from their infants. The iodine content of the samples was measured.

      Results: The mean breast milk iodine concentrations (BMICs) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks were 221.7+-103.5 mug/L, 175.2+-76.2 mug/L, and 148.1+-66.2 mug/L, respectively. Significant differences existed between the mean BMICs of the three sampling times (F=12.449, p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor
           between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin
    • Abstract: Gustuti, Rina; Indrawati, Lipoeto Nur; Machmud, Rizanda
      Background and Objectives: Maternal iron deficiency in late pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period has an indirect impact to decrease neurotrophin concentration in the fetal hippocampus, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It plays an important role in the development of learning, memory, and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in BDNF between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin.

      Methods and Study Design: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 20 term pregnant women with normal ferritin (>=12 ng/mL) and 20 term pregnant women with low ferritin (
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and
           associated risk factors in pregnant Chinese women: A cross-sectional study
           in Huangdao, Qingdao, china
    • Abstract: Wu, Li; Han, Lei; Zhan, Ying; Cui, Lianhua; Chen, Wei'ai; Ma, Li; Lv, Jing; Pan, Rongfang; Zhao, Didi; Xiao, Ziyi
      Background and Objectives: This study explored the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women and identified risk factors for GDM after the implementation of the universal two-child policy.

      Methods and Study Design: On the basis of income and population, we randomly selected three hospitals through stratified and cluster sampling. From January 1 to July 31, 2016, 4959 women who had been registered within 12 weeks of gestation received a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria were used for the diagnosis of GDM.

      Results: The OGTT was positive in 1080 (21.8%; 1080/4959) women, who were then diagnosed as having GDM on the basis of their results. GDM was positively associated with the following factors: advanced maternal age (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary glycemic load and metabolic status in newly
           diagnosed type 2 diabetes in southeastern china
    • Abstract: Lin, Xiuhong; Chen, Chaogang; Lin, Diaozhu; Xu, Mingtong; Yuan, Zhimin; He, Fengyi; Yan, Li
      Background and Objectives: Large-scale epidemiological investigations worldwide have shown that dietary glycemic load is associated with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids in Chinese diabetic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine these correlations in southeastern China.

      Methods and Study Design: 201 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 126 participants with normal blood glucose were enrolled at the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangdong Province. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic load were assessed based on 3-day dietary records. Using glycemic load as the dependent variable, a correlation analysis and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids.

      Results: The mean glycemic load in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Critical examination of evidence for the nutritional
           status of children in Papua new guinea - a systematic review
    • Abstract: McGlynn, Peter J; Renzaho, Andre MN; Pham, Minh D; Toole, Mike; Fisher, Jane; Luchters, Stanley
      Background and Objectives: Undernutrition remains a significant cause of childhood illness, poor growth, development, and death in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Studies on child nutritional outcomes in PNG vary by design, measurement protocols and quality. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the prevalence of child undernutrition across different study populations, geographical locations and time periods.

      Methods and Study Design: Six electronic databases and additional grey literature were searched for articles describing the nutritional status by wasting, stunting and underweight, of PNG children under five years of age, published between 1990 and April 2015. Prevalence data using different scales of measurement and reference populations were standardized according to WHO protocols.

      Results: The search yielded 566 articles, of which, 31 studies met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of child undernutrition varied from 1% to 76% for wasting (median 11%), 5% to 92% for stunting (median 51%), and 14% to 59% for underweight (median 32%). Wide variations exist according to the index used for measurement, the population characteristics and the geographical region in which they live. Prevalence estimates increase significantly when data using different scales of measurement and population references are standardized to the WHO protocols.

      Conclusions: Child undernutrition in PNG is regionally variable due to a complex interplay of poverty, disease, food-security, cultural, environmental and sociopolitical issues requiring a complex mix of solutions by governments, health systems and local communities. Area- specific surveys using multiple measures are necessary to inform local solutions for this important problem.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Non-communicable diseases, food and nutrition in
           Vietnam from 1975 to 2015: The burden and national response
    • Abstract: Nguyen, Tuan T; Hoang, Minh V
      Background and Objectives: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015.

      Methods and Study Design: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam.

      Results: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 mil-lion years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam. Cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes mellitus were major contributors to the NCD burden. Adults had an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity (2.3% in 1993 to 15% in 2015) and hypertension (15% in 2002 to 20% in 2015). Among 25-64 years old in 2015, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 4.1% and the elevated blood cholesterol was 32%. Vietnamese had a low physical activity level, a high consumption of salt, instant noodles and sweetened non-alcoholic beverages as well as low consumption of fruit and vegetables and sea-food. The alcohol consumption and smoking prevalence were high in men. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke was high in men, women and youths at home, work, and public places. In Vietnam, policies for NCD prevention and control need to be combined with strengthened law enforcement and increased program coverage. There were increased food production and improved dietary intake (e.g., energy intake and protein-rich foods thanked to appropriate economic, agriculture, and nutrition strategies.

      Conclusions: NCDs and their risk factors are emerging problems in Vietnam, which need both disease-specific and sensitive strategies in health and related sectors.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Development and validation of a pediatric nutritional
           screening score (PNSS) for hospitalized children
    • Abstract: Lu, Lina; Mao, Xiaomeng; Sheng, Jinye; Huang, Jianhu; Wang, Ying; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei
      Background and Objectives: There is no evidence on the most effective nutritional screening tool for hospitalized children. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a pediatric nutritional screening tool to assess undernutrition risk upon hospital admission. Methods and Study Design: The study had a two-phase prospective observational design. A novel pediatric nutritional screening score (PNSS) was developed and sensitivity, specificity, and reliability were evaluated by comparing with a complete dietetic assessment. Length of hospital stay, weight loss, disease complications, and nutritional support were recorded. Results: PNSS consisted of three elements: disease with malnutrition risks, changes in food intake, and anthropometric measurements, with a score of 0-2 for each element. The optimal cut-off score to identify patients (n=96) at risk of undernutrition was two. The agreement between PNSS and the complete dietetic assessment was moderate (k=0.435, 95% CI=0.373- 0.498). Sensitivity and specificity values of PNSS were 82% (95% CI=76%-87%) and 71% (95% CI=67%-74%), respectively. Inter-rater agreement had a ' value of 0.596 (95% CI=0.529-0.664, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Consumption and sources of added sugar in Indonesia: A
           review
    • Abstract: Imanningsih, Nelis; Jahari, Abas B; Permaesih, Ir Dewi; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia
      Background and Objectives: The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia.

      Methods and Study Design: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports.

      Results: A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia's national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake. Published studies suggested higher levels of intake. Studies used expenditure surveys or a single day of recall to determine dietary intake. None made use of biomarkers to determine the level of sugar intake. The 2014 Total Diet Study estimated that 11.8% of the population consumed >50 grams sugar per day. Common food sources were table sugar, wheat products, milk products, sweetened drinks, condiments, candies and chocolate products.

      Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the levels and sources of added sugar intake of different population groups in Indonesia. A nationwide survey using multiple (at least two) 24-hour recalls to allow estimation of usual intake and to identify food sources, and the use of biomarkers to validate intake will provide more accurate information on which to base policy decisions.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Prevalence, cause and diagnosis of lactose intolerance
           in children aged 1-5 years: A systematic review of 1995-2015 literature
    • Abstract: Harvey, Louise; Ludwig, Thomas; Hou, Alice Qian; Hock, Quak Seng; Tan, Michelle LN; Osatakul, Seksit; Bindels, Jacques; Muhardi, Leilani
      Background and Objectives: To assess the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis of primary and secondary lactose intolerance (LI), including age of onset, among children 1-5 years of age. Suspected/perceived lactose intolerance can lead to dietary restrictions which may increase risk of future health issues.

      Methods and Study Design: MEDLINE, CAB , and Embase were searched for articles published from January 1995-June 2015 related to lactose intolerance in young children.
      Authors independently screened titles/abstracts, full text articles, for eligibility against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies.

      Results: The search identified 579 articles; 20 studies, the majority of which were crosssectional, were included in the qualitative synthesis. Few studies reported prevalence of primary LI in children aged 1-5 years; those that did reported a range between 0-17.9%. Prevalence of secondary LI was 0-19%. Hydrogen breath test was the most common method used to diagnose LI. None of the included studies reported age of onset of primary LI.

      Conclusions: There is limited recent evidence on the prevalence of LI in this age group. The low number of studies and wide range of methodologies used to diagnose LI means that comparison and interpretation, particularly of geographical trends, is compromised. Current understanding appears to rely on data generated in the 1960/70s, with varied qualities of evidence. New, high quality studies are necessary to understand the true prevalence of LI. This review is registered with the International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO).

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Salivary cariogenic bacteria counts are associated
           with obesity in student women at a Malaysian university
    • Abstract: Yeo, Wey-Zheng; Lim, Sheng-Pei; Say, Yee-How
      Background and Objectives: The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables.

      Methods and Study Design: Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture.

      Results: We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Chronic low grade inflammation measured by dietary
           inflammatory index and its association with obesity among school teachers
           in Yangon, Myanmar
    • Abstract: San, Khin Mittar Moe; Fahmida, Umi; Wijaksono, Fiastuti; Lin, Htin; Zaw, Ko Ko; Htet, Min Kyaw
      Background and Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the association between obesity and chronic low grade inflammation (CLGI) measured by Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) as a proxy indicator of CLGI among obese and non-obese teachers. Methods and Study Design: We conducted a cross sectional study among 128 non-obese (BMI =25) female teachers aged 25-60 years from six urban schools in Yangon, Myanmar between January and March 2015. Usual dietary intake was collected by 3-day nonconsecutive estimated 24 hour's dietary records and semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaires. Adapted DII was calculated by standardized methods using literature-derived population-based dietary inflammatory weights of 31 food parameters. C-reactive protein (CRP) was analysed by a sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Mean DII between obese and non-obese was compared by independent t test. The association between obesity indices and high DII (DII >=1.1) and high CRP (>3 mg/L) were investigated by logistic regression. Results: Obese teachers had lower intakes of anti-inflammatory nutrients (vitamin B-6, vitamin A and zinc)/food (onion) compared with non-obese teachers (p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Development and evaluation of nutritional, sensory and
           glycemic properties of finger millet ('Eleusine coracana' L.) based food
           products
    • Abstract: Shobana, Shanmugam; Selvi, Ravi Poovizhi; Kavitha, Vasudevan; Gayathri, Nagamuthu; Geetha, Gunasekaran; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Parthasarthy, Vijayalakshmi; Balasubramaniam, KKandappa Gounder; Vaidya, Ruchi; Sudha, Vasudevan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Malleshi, Nagappa Gurusiddappa; Henry, CJK; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Mohan, Viswanathan
      Background and Objectives: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) (FM) is rich in dietary fibre and is therefore expected to elicit a lower glycemic response compared to other grains. However, there is little data on the glycemic properties of FM-based products. We evaluated the nutritional, sensory and glycemic properties of decorticated millet with lower polish (DFM-LDP), flakes (FMF), vermicelli (FMV) and extruded snack (FMES) (both FMV and FMES with 7-8% added soluble fibre). Methods and Study Design: The nutrient contents of the FM products were evaluated by standard AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists) methods. Sensory evaluation was conducted monadically using a 9-point hedonic scale using untrained panel members. GI testing was conducted using a standardized validated protocol. The study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down by the Declaration of Helsinki, and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation.

      Results: The products had dietary fibre (DF) content between 5.8-15.6 g%. FMES was unique in having a very low fat content (0.17%). Evaluation of sensory perception revealed moderate acceptance of millet based products. The glycemic indices (GI) (mean+-SEM) of the products were 84.7+-7.7%, 82.3+-6.4%, 65.5+-5.1% and 65.0+-6.6% for DFM-LDP, FMF, FMV and FMES respectively. Conclusions: DFM-LDP and FMF (purely finger millet based products) elicited higher glycemic responses. Comparatively, FMV and FMES (with added functional ingredients) exhibited medium GI values and, are healthier dietary options. It is possible to prepare FM products with lower GI by utilizing functional ingredients.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - The geriatric nutritional risk index predicts
           mortality in nonagenarians and centenarians receiving home care
    • Abstract: Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong
      Background and Objectives: The increasing prevalence of malnutrition in old people is related to the risk of illness and death. A number of screening tools to detect malnutrition have been used in the elderly to assess nutritional status and predict prognosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) to assess nutritional status and predict mortality in very old home-care people by using a cross-sectional study of Chinese older people aged 90-105 years. Methods and Study Design: The present study was based on a 4-year follow-up of mortality data from a previous cross-sectional study. The study was conducted with a very elderly population with a mean age of 93.5+-3.2 years (n=716; 230 men and 486 women). In 2005, trained researchers performed face-to-face interviews and physical and geriatric assessments to obtain information on sociodemographic factors, self-reported medical diseases, geriatric-specific conditions, anthropometric factors, biochemical data, and the GNRI score. In 2009, vital status were requested from the local government. Results: After 4 years of follow-up, 371 participants died (125 men and 246 women, 51.8%). The median follow-up time was significantly worse in the nutritional risk group (GNRI
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Relative validity of an indirect calorimetry device
           for measuring resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient
    • Abstract: Wang, Xi; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Zenghui; Cao, Guangbei; Hu, Fusong; Sun, Yining; Ma, Zuchang; Zhou, Duoqi; Su, Benyue
      Background and Objectives: Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) are important for optimal nutritional care. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy and repeatability of an indirect calorimetry device (IIM-IC-100) in the measurement of REE and RQ in healthy Chinese adults. Methods and Study Design: A total of 38 healthy adults (19 male and 19 female) aged 18-52 years (25+-6 years) were enrolled in this study. REE and RQ were measured by IIM-IC-100 and by VO2000, alternately and in duplicate. Results: There was a highly significant correlation between IIM-IC-100 REE and VO2000 REE (r=0.906, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Effects of parenteral Omega-3 fatty acid
           supplementation in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer on immune
           function and length of hospital stay: A systematic review and
           meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Bai, Hao; Li, Zhaoping; Meng, Yan; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Huanhuan; Shen, Deqiang; Chen, Liyong
      Background and Objectives: Omega-3 fatty acids are widely used in nutritional support. However, whether parenteral supplementation with Omega-3 fatty acids is effective for gastrointestinal cancer patients remains uncertain. This study assessed the effects of this form of parenteral nutrition on immune function and clinical outcomes in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients.

      Methods and Study Design: We searched Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the reference lists of selected studies to identify randomized controlled trials that compared Omega-3 fatty acids with a control, and that included immune indices, infectious complications, or length of hospital stay in the final outcomes. The odds ratio and weighted mean difference with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and the I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity.

      Results: Seven trials with a total of 457 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Five pooled trials with 373 participants indicated that the incidence of infectious complications was significantly different between the intervention and control groups (odds ratio: 0.36; 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.74, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Common food antimicrobials: Effects on cellular
           inflammation and oxidative damage and their estimated occurrence in
           Singapore
    • Abstract: Loong, Claudine; Tsen, Shin Yih; Ho, Xing Lin; Raman, Muhammed Faiz B; Loke, Wai Mun
      Background and Objectives: The prevalence and potential health effects of common food antimicrobials in pro-cessed foods and beverages are relatively unknown in Singapore. The occurrence of chemical antimicrobials in processed foods and beverages and their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro were examined.

      Methods and Study Design: The occurrence of antimicrobials in 1605 processed food and 359 beverage items were examined by surveying the ingredients on the product labels. Human neutrophils were exposed to physio-logically relevant concentrations of common antimicrobials. Established markers of inflammation, l Leukotriene B4 and oxidative stress, F2-isoprostanes were measured using stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

      Results: Antimicrobials were added to 23.2% of the processed foods and beverages. Sorbic, benzo-ic, lactic, propionic and acetic acids accounted for 84.8% of the added antimicrobials in the processed foods and beverages. 92.5% of the bread contained propionic acid. Lactic acid was the most common antimicrobial (44.4%) in cheeses. Sorbic acid was added to 63.2% of the margarines selected. Sauces (31.5%), energy drinks (50.0%), soft drinks (70.7%) and fruit cordials (66.6%) contained added benzoic acid. Benzoic and propionic acids at phys-iologically relevant concentrations augmented leukotriene B4formation (benzoicacid, EC50 = 100 mug L-1and pro-pionic acid, >200 mug L-1). Lactic and sorbic acids dose-dependently inhibited the F2-isoprostanes production (IC50 values 100 mug L-1) and myeloperoxidase activity (IC50values 100 mug L-1).

      Conclusions: Our results demon-strate that Singapore consumers are significantly exposed to food antimicrobials, and these molecules, in physio-logically relevant concentrations, exert significant and differential effects in vitro.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or
           bitter taste acuity and food selection in Japanese women university
           students
    • Abstract: Kubota, Masaru; Toda, Chikako; Nagai-Moriyama, Ayako
      Background and Objectives: Although there are many studies on the umami receptor and its signaling pathway, literature on the effect of umami taste acuity on dietary choices in healthy subjects is limited. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity, food preference and intake.

      Methods and Study Design: Forty-two healthy Japanese female university students were enrolled. The acuity for umami, sweet, and bitter tastes was evaluated using the filter-paper disc method. The study population was divided into 32 umami normal tasters and 10 hypo-tasters based on the taste acuity at the posterior part of the tongue using monosodium glutamate.

      Results: Umami hypo-tasters exhibited a significantly lower sensitivity to sweet tastes than normal tasters. However, the sensitivity to bitter taste was comparable between the two groups. Food preference was examined by the food preference checklist consisted of 81 food items. Among them, umami tasters preferred shellfish, tomato, carrot, milk, low fat milk, cheese, dried shiitake, and kombu significantly more than umami hypo-tasters did. A self-reported food frequency questionnaire revealed no significant differences in the intake of calories and three macronutrients between the two groups; however, umami tasters were found to eat more seaweeds and less sugar than umami hypo-tasters.

      Conclusions: These data together may indicate the possibility that umami taste acuity has an effect on a dietary life. Therefore, training umami taste acuity from early childhood is important for a healthy diet later in life.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with
           vasovagal syncope
    • Abstract: Pektas, Ayhan; Koken, Resit; Koca, Halit Bugra
      Background and Objectives: The present study aims to determine the serum vitamin B-12 in children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Methods and Study Design: This is a prospective review of 160 children presenting with vasovagal syncope. Subgroup analysis was done based on the results of head up tilt test. Results: Head up tilt test gave positive results in 80 children and yielded negative results in the remaining 80 children. The tilt test positive children had significantly lower thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations (p=0.06), total iron binding capacity (p=0.04) and serum vitamin B-12 (p=0.01). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly higher in the tilt positive group (80% vs 52.5%, p=0.001). Out of 80 children with positive tilt test, 8 children (10%) showed cardioinhibitory response, 22 children (27.5%) demonstrated a vasodepressor response, 24 children (30%) displayed mixed response and 26 children (32.5%) had the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly lower in the mixed response group than in the vasodepressor group (6.2 0.8 mm/h vs 14.3 2.5 mm/h, p=0.001). Serum vitamin B-12 was significantly lower in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) group than in the vasodepressor group (240.8 38.2 pg/mL vs 392.7 27.1 pg/mL, p=0.001). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was significantly higher in the POTS group than in the vasodepressor group (92.3% vs 45.5%, p=0.001). Conclusions: Vitamin B-12 deficiency causes reduction in myelinization, deceleration in nerve conduction and elevation in serum concentrations of noradrenaline. These factors may contribute to the impairment of autonomic functions which are involved in the pathogenesis of vasovagal syncope.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation in different
           healthcare settings: A questionnaire survey of health professionals
    • Abstract: Nakahara, Saori; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Keisuke; Nishioka, Shinta; Kokura, Yoji
      Background and Objectives: The rates of sarcopenia and cachexia evaluations by different occupational groups at different settings are unclear. The objectives are to evaluate and compare the relative use of sarcopenia and cachexia evaluations among dietitians and associated healthcare professionals in a diverse range of settings.

      Methods and Study Design: Participants were 4,621 members from the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition. Settings included acute general wards, convalescent rehabilitation wards, long-term care wards, homecare service, and other settings. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate assessments for sarcopenia and cachexia among dietitians and other professionals. Multiple comparisons based on Bonferroni method and logistic regression analysis were used.

      Results: 718 (15.5%) answered the questionnaire. Data from 683 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Muscle strength, muscle mass, physical function, and cachexia were assessed by 53.4%, 51.1%, 53.4%, and 17.4% of dietitians. At convalescent rehabilitation wards, these rates were 81.8%, 62.0%, 82.5%, and 14.0%. The use of muscle strength and physical function evaluations was significantly lower among dietitians than among physical therapists and occupational therapists. The use of muscle mass and cachexia evaluations was not significantly different among the occupations. The use of muscle mass and strength evaluations was significantly higher in convalescent rehabilitation wards than in acute general wards, long-term care wards and facilities, and other settings, but not in homecare services. Cachexia evaluations were not significantly different between all settings.

      Conclusions: Raising the awareness of cachexia and sarcopenia among dietitians is a key issue, which should be addressed.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - International hospital accreditation and clinical
           nutrition service in acute care hospitals in South Korea: Results of a
           nationwide cross-sectional survey
    • Abstract: Um, Mi Hyang; Lyu, Eun Soon; Lee, Song Mi; Park, Yoo Kyoung
      Background and Objectives: Beginning in 2007, 29 hospitals in South Korea have received accreditation from Joint Commission International (JCI). The present study aimed to identify differences in clinical nutrition service provisions between JCI accredited acute care hospitals and non-accredited acute care hospitals. A survey questionnaire was sent to all 43 acute care hospitals in South Korea.

      Methods: A total of 35 sets of clinical nutrition service surveys, 234 sets of clinical dietitian job satisfaction surveys, and five-day daily work logs from 129 clinical dietitians were received. We used Fisher's exact test and independent t-test to analyze differences between acute care hospitals based on JCI accreditation.

      Study Design: Nationwide cross-sectional survey.

      Results: JCI accredited acute care hospitals (N=8) showed a higher, but not significantly higher, nutritional intervention rate of 12.7% among malnourished patients, compared with 7.0% in non-JCI accredited acute care hospitals (N=27). Analysis of work hours of clinical dietitians indicated time spent on direct care was higher (p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Postprandial long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
           response to krill oil and fish oil consumption in healthy women: A
           randomised controlled, single-dose, crossover study
    • Abstract: Sung, Hyunsin; Sinclair, Andrew J; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q
      Background and Objectives: Krill oil (KO) and fish oil (FO) are good sources of health-benefiting long chain n- 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), EPA and DHA. There are conflicting outcomes on the bioavailability of LC n-3 PUFA from KO compared with FO. This study investigated the postprandial incorporation of LC n- 3 PUFA into plasma lipids following consumption of 5 capsules of KO or FO in comparison with olive oil (OO) control in healthy women.

      Methods and Study Design: 10 women (aged 18-45 years) consumed a high-fat (15 g) breakfast, supplemented with 5 g of KO, FO, or OO in a random order with a minimum seven-day washout period between the supplementations. The LC n-3 PUFA content in KO was 907 mg compared with 1441 mg in FO. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and for the next 5 hours after test meal consumption on an hourly basis.

      Results: Significant increases in plasma EPA concentrations were observed starting at 2 h after KO and FO consumption (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in either DHA or DPA between the three groups. The increases in plasma EPA concentrations were similar between the KO and FO groups (p > 0.05).

      Conclusions: The lower dose (31%) of EPA from KO led to a similar plasma EPA concentration as in the FO group, suggesting that EPA from KO may be more efficiently incorporated into plasma. This may be related to the high content of phospholipids and free fatty acids in KO.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Benefit of oral nutritional supplements for children
           with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia during remissioninduction chemotherapy:
           A quasi-experimental study
    • Abstract: Liang, Rui; Chen, Gai-Yun; Fu, San-Xian; Zhong, Jie; Ma, Yan
      Background and Objectives: To determine the effect of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) on children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy.

      Methods and Study Design: We included 127 paediatric patients who were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and undergoing remission- induction chemotherapy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Children from two paediatric wards who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. One ward was randomly chosen as the intervention group and the other ward as the control group. Children in the two groups were matched for age and sex. The ONS group was administered Peptamen (n=60) and the control group was administered a low-fat diet (n=67).

      Results: The baseline information before treatment was not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05). In the control group, weight loss at the end of chemotherapy was significantly higher than that of ONS group (p < 0.05). The hemoglobin level and the concentrations of total protein, albumin, and pre-albumin were significantly higher in the ONS group than in the control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The incidences of hypoalbuminaemia, gastrointestinal complications, and infection were lower in the ONS group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The ONS group also used lower amount of albumin infusion, fewer blood-product infusion, and had lower hospital costs than the control group.

      Conclusions: During remission-induction chemotherapy, oral nutritional supplements can improve the nutritional status of children, reduce the incidence of complications, and decrease the costs of hospitalization.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Effects of preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy on
           perioperative glucose metabolism during oral- maxillofacial surgery:
           Randomised clinical trial
    • Abstract: Esaki, Kanako; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Sakamoto, Eiji; Yokoyama, Takeshi
      Background and Objectives: Preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy has been suggested to attenuate postoperative insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage given preoperatively on intraoperative glucose metabolism.

      Methods and Study Design: This study was a randomised, open-label, placebo-controlled trial. Patients undergoing oral-maxillofacial surgery were divided into two groups. In the glucose group, patients took glucose (50 g/278 mL, p.o.) 2 h before anaesthesia induction after overnight fasting; control-group patients took mineral water. Primary outcome was blood concentrations of ketone bodies (KBs); secondary outcomes were blood concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin and glucose. Concentrations were measured 2 h before anaesthesia (T0), induction of anaesthesia (T1), and 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), and 5h after anaesthesia start (T4).

      Results: In the control group (n=11), KBs increased continuously from anaesthesia induction. In the glucose group (n=12), KBs were maintained at low concentrations for 3h after beverage consumption but increased remarkably at T3. At T1 and T2, concentrations of KBs in the glucose group were significantly lower than those in the control group (T1, p=0.010; T2, p=0.028). In the glucose group, glucose concentrations decreased significantly at T2 temporarily, but in the control group, glucose concentrations were stable during this study (T2, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Home enteral nutrition after minimally invasive
           esophagectomy can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of
           malnutrition
    • Abstract: Wu, Zixiang; Wu, Ming; Wang, Qi; Zhan, Tianwei; Wang, Lian; Pan, Saibo; Chen, Gang
      Background and Objectives: The potential benefits of home enteral nutrition (HEN) and the effects of HEN on quality of life (QOL) after esophagectomy remain unclear. The aim was to investigate the effect of 3 months HEN on health related QOL and nutritional status of esophageal cancer patients who were preoperatively malnourished.

      Methods and Study Design: 142 malnourished (PG-SGA stage B or C) patients with esophageal cancer were assigned to receive Ivor Lewis minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE group) with laparoscopic jejunal feeding tube placement or open esophagectomy (OE group) with nasojejunal feeding tube placement. After discharge, patients in the MIE group received HEN with 500-1000 kcal/d for 3 months, while the OE group patients did not receive HEN, as nasojejunal feeding tubes had been removed. QLQ-C30 and PG-SGA questionnaires were used to evaluate the QOL and the risk of malnutrition.

      Results: 67 patients were enrolled in the MIE group and 75 patients were enrolled in the OE group. Symptoms related to fatigue, nausea, vomiting, pain, and appetite loss were significantly decreased in the patients treated with 3 months HEN. Similarly, patients treated with 3 months HEN had a lower risk of malnutrition than patients did not receive HEN (PG-SGA score, 5.7 vs 7.9, p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Dietary patterns change over two years in early
           adolescent girls in Hawai'i
    • Abstract: Mosley, Michelle Ann; Banna, Jinan C; Lim, Eunjung; Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; Novotny, Rachel
      Background and Objectives: In investigating diet-disease relationships, examination of dietary patterns allows for conclusions to be drawn based on overall intake. This study characterized dietary patterns of early adolescent girls over a two-year period and examined the relationship between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI).

      Methods and Study Design: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using longitudinal data from food records of early adolescent girls (n=148) 9 to 14 years in Hawai'i from the Female Adolescent Maturation (FAM) study. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis (PCA). Pearson's correlations between BMI percentile and z-score and dietary pattern factor scores at Times 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2002-2003) were calculated. For each dietary pattern, participants were divided into low, intermediate, and high scorers. Mean BMI percentiles and z-scores were compared between groups using analysis of covariance.

      Results: At Time 1, three patterns were identified, characterized by: (1) whole grains, nuts and seeds, added sugar; (2) non-whole grain, tomatoes, discretionary fat; and (3) deep yellow vegetables, other starchy vegetables, cooked dry beans/peas. At Time 2, three different dietary patterns emerged: (1) non-whole grains, meat, discretionary fat; (2) other vegetables, fish, eggs; and (3) whole grain, tomatoes, other vegetables. BMI percentile and z-score differed between high and low scorers on Time 1-Pattern 1 and Time 2-Pattern 3.

      Conclusion: Results revealed changes in dietary patterns over time and an association between intake and BMI. Findings demonstrate the importance of frequent nutrition assessment to monitor changes in intake that may be improved to prevent obesity.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in
           young adults in Hong Kong: Associations and implications
    • Abstract: Wang, Erica Wei-lan; Pang, Marco Yiu-Chung; Siu, Parco Ming-Fai; Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk; Woo, Jean; Collins, Andrew R; Benzie, Iris FF
      Background and Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is reportedly common, but we lack data from young adults. Such data are of interest because epidemiological data support vitamin D as a possible risk modulator for diabetes and cardiovascular ('cardiometabolic') disease. Our objectives were to assess vitamin D status (as plasma 25(OH)D concentration) and investigate associations between this and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in a group of still-healthy young adults in Hong Kong.

      Methods and Study Design: In this observational study, fasting venous blood was collected from 196 (63 males, 133 females), young (18-26 years) non-smoking, nonobese, consenting adults in good general health. Plasma 25(OH)D was measured by LC-MS/MS. A panel of established cardiometabolic risk factors (HbA1c, plasma glucose, lipid profile, hsCRP) and blood pressure were also measured.

      Results: Mean (SD) plasma 25(OH)D concentration was 42.1 (13.0), with range 15.7-86.8 nmol/L; 141/196 subjects (72%) had vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Fruit and vegetable intake of Korean children and
           adolescents according to cooking location and daily meal: Study based on
           
    • Abstract: Kwon, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yangsuk
      Background and Objectives: This study analyzed the intake of fruits and vegetables by cooking location and daily meals for Korean children and adolescents.

      Methods and Study Design: For this study, 2,538 Korean children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, who participated in the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dietary intake survey (24-hour recall methods), were sampled.

      Results: The total unsalted fruit and vegetable intake for all subjects was 300 g (aged 7-12 years, 280 g; aged 13-18 years, 316 g). Regarding meal serving location, the combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake was 159 g at home, 206 g at commercial locations, and 104 g at institutions. The combined unsalted fruit and vegetable intake in snack form was 128 g, which was higher than that during daily meals. In total, 24.9% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake ('400 g), according to the guidelines created by the World Health Organization/World Cancer Research Fund. Logistic regression analysis results revealed that the fruit and vegetable intake of girls was 1.4 times higher than that of boys, and the number of people who ate more than 400 g of fruits and vegetables was 1.7 times higher in the group with higher education.

      Conclusions: Based on the above results, in-depth measures to continuously increase intake of fruits and vegetables in children and adolescents are needed. This study can be used as basic data for the development of educational programs for dietary improvements.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Association of energy intake and physical activity
           with overweight among Indonesian children 6-12 years of age
    • Abstract: Harahap, Heryudarini; Sandjaja, Sandjaja; Soekatri, Moesijanti; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul
      Background and Objectives: Indonesia is currently facing double burden malnutrition in children. As overweight and obesity are due to a disturbed energy balance, this study aimed to assess the association of total energy intake and physical activity with the prevalence of overweight among Indonesian children.

      Methods and Study Design: The data used for this analysis were from 1143 children, 6-12 years old, that participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS). Physical activity (PA) was measured using pedometers for 2 consecutive days and was categorized low, moderate and high. Child nutritional status was categorized based on body mass index for age z-scores (BAZ) into normal weight (-2 SD 100% RDA had higher risk (ODDs 4.2, 95% CI 1.9, 9.3) of being overweight than children with high PA and energy intakes =100% RDA.

      Conclusions: Low physical activity independently or moderate physical activity and high energy intake are risk factors for Indonesian children to get overweight. Program intervention such as increasing physical activity at school and home is needed to reduce overweight among children.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Comparisons of proteomic profiles of whey protein
           between donor human milk collected earlier than 3 months and 6 months
           after delivery
    • Abstract: Hahn, Won-Ho; Song, Joon-Hwan; Seo, Jong-Bok; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Song, Seunghyun; Lee, Joohyun; Kang, Nam Mi
      Background and Objectives: Human milk has nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages for prema-ture infants. However, proteomic information of low abundant protein of donor milk is insufficient. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the proteome of low abundant protein of donor milk obtained at different postpartum ages other than the colostrum.

      Methods and Study Design: Donor breast milk from 12 healthy mothers was collected 15 days, 2 months and 6 months after delivery and stored by medically approved methods. The whey milk proteomes were analyzed by mass spectrometry and classified using bioinformatics analysis.

      Re-sults: Human milk obtained 15 days and 2 months after delivery showed more abundant expression of whey pro-teins related to the generation of precursor metabolites and energy, metabolism, and catalytic activity, compared with milk collected at 3 months. Immune and transport-related proteins were abundant at all time points. Proteins involved in cellular movement, immune cell trafficking, and the carbohydrate metabolism network was more abundant in whey milk collected at 15 day and 2 months using a network analysis.

      Conclusions: We report pro-teomic information for human donor whey protein. As significant changes were found in whey proteome collect-ed earlier than 2 months and 6 months after delivery, selecting human donor milk earlier than 2 months might be more helpful for early postnatal recipients.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Prevalence and determinants of iron deficiency anemia
           among non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Pakistan
    • Abstract: Habib, Muhammad Atif; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ali, Noshad; Nausheen, Sidrah; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Black, Kirsten I
      Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency Anemia (IDA) in women of reproductive age is a recognized public health concern that impairs health and well-being in women and is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. In Pakistan there is a dearth of up-to-date information on the prevalence and predictors of IDA. This study sought to investigate IDA in Pakistani women.

      Methods and Study Design: Secondary analysis was performed using the National Nutrition Survey in Pakistan 2011- 2012. We used a pre-structured instrument to collect socio demographic, reproductive and nutritional data on women. We also collected anthropometric measurements and blood samples for micronutrient deficiencies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyse the data.

      Results: A total of 7491 non-pregnant women aged between 15-49 years were included in the analysis. The prevalence of IDA was 18.1%. In the multivariate regression analysis; not using iron folic acid supplementation during the last pregnancy adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) 1.31 (1.05, 1.64), a history of four or more pregnancies AOR (95% CI) 1.30 (1.04, 1.60), birth interval of
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Exercise induced dehydration status and skinfold
           compressibility in athletes: An intervention study
    • Abstract: Araujo, Daniela; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Carvalho, Pedro; Amaral, Teresa F
      Background and Objectives: Skinfold thickness assessment is a widely recognized technique for the estimation of body adiposity and fat free mass. This method assumes that skinfolds' compressibility is constant but there are some factors that could influence its compressibility. This study aims to evaluate whether the skinfolds' compressibility is influenced by hydration status.

      Methods and Study Design: An intervention study was conducted in a sample of 22 adult male amateur soccer players, who took part in a 90min simulated soccer match. Before and after the intervention skinfolds thicknesses were measured in eight anatomical sites. An electronic caliper, Lipotool, was used to collect and record 120 values during 2s of evaluation. To analyze skinfolds' compressibility, two methods were used: identification of lowest skinfold thickness measurement (SL) and SH = 110% x SL, and the parameter TAU (t) determination. Baseline hydration status was evaluated by total body water (TBW) through multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Dehydration was assessed by the difference of body weight before and after the intervention.

      Results: The intervention resulted in a loss of 2.11% of participants' baseline weight. The skinfolds thicknesses, assessed by SL and SH, were significantly higher after exercise for all skinfolds except for skinfolds at iliac crest and abdominal. This intervention did not affect skinfolds' compressibility when assessed by t. However, an association between dehydration and medial-calf skinfold' compressibility was found (r=0.48, p=0.042).

      Conclusions: Although an increase in the skinfolds thickness after the intervention was found, skinfolds' compressibility did not change.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Platelet-related cytokines among normal body mass
           index, overweight, and obese Malaysians
    • Abstract: Riyahi, Nasrin; Mohd Tohit, Eusni Rahayu; Thambiah, Subashini C; Ibrahim, Zuriati
      Background and Objectives: Recent studies have reported that obesity is associated with platelet activation and systemic inflammation. Malaysia has the highest prevalence of obesity, hence, this research is performed to evaluate the development of low-grade inflammation and platelet activation, measured using soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-sel), and to determine their association with obesity. In addition, we assessed the mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet count (PLT), which are novel parameters consistently associated with obesity.

      Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 112 healthy men and women from 3 main ethnic group (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) who were aged 18-60 years. The participants were categorized into normal body mass index (BMI), overweight and obese groups according to WHO criteria for BMI in Asian populations (18.5 kg/m2 < BMI < 35 kg/m2). Waist circumference (WC) was also measured and included in the analysis.

      Results: MPV, sCD40L, and sP-sel differed significantly among the normal BMI, over-weight, and obese groups (p < 0.05). Contrastingly, the PLT did not vary significantly among the 3 groups. In addition, sP-sel levels correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.36, p=0.001) and WC (r=0.25, p=0.007) and MPV correlated significantly with BMI (r=0.2, p=0.001) and WC (r=0.2, p=0.003).

      Conclusions: Higher MPV and sP-sel levels in the obese participants than in the overweight and normal BMI participants indicated potentially high-er activation of platelets in people with obesity. Moreover, we observed higher sCD40L levels in obese partici-pants than in the overweight and normal BMI participants, suggesting a proinflammatory state in obese individuals.

      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Low maternal folate concentrations and maternal MTHFR
           C677T polymorphism are associated with an increased risk for neural tube
           defects in offspring: A case-control study among Pakistani case and
           control mothers
    • Abstract: Nauman, Nuzhat; Jalali, Samina; Shami, Sajjad; Rafiq, Shireen; Grosse, Greta; Hilger, Alina C; Zhang, Rhong; Mansoor, Saira; Ludwig, Michael; Reutter, Heiko
      Background and Objectives: There is considerable evidence that periconceptional maternal folate deficiency and coding variants in maternal genes coding for critical enzymes in the folate pathway are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. In a case-control study we investigated C677T polymorphism in the 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in case and control mothers of Pakistani origin, and compared these with the respective maternal folate concentrations measured at the time of delivery.

      Methods and Study Design: A case-control study was conducted among 109 case and 100 control mothers identified through the Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate concentrations and MTHFRC677T polymorphism were compared between case and control mothers.

      Results: Mean RBC folate and serum folate concentrations were significantly lower in cases compared with control mothers (p
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 1 - Premorbid dietary intake of protein is associated with
           early outcomes but not with severity of ischemic stroke
    • Abstract: Dai, Minhui; Tian, Ling; Zi, Wenjie; Cai, Biyang; Xiao, Lulu; Liu, Keting; Zhou, Shuyu; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhu, Wusheng; Yang, Fang; Liu, Xinfeng; Xu, Gelin
      Background and Objectives: Dietary protein intake has been associated with reduced risk of stroke. This study aimed to examine the relationship between premorbid dietary intake of protein and both stroke severity and neurological outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

      Methods and Study Design: Consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in Jinling Hospital were screened for eligibility of participation. A validated foodfrequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed to collect necessary data for calculating pre-stroke dietary intakes. Stroke severity was assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at baseline. Neurological outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after stroke onset. Multivariable logistical regression was applied to analyze the impacts of dietary protein intake on stroke severity or neurological outcomes.

      Results: Of the 201 enrolled patients, 110 (54.7%) were classified as minor (NIHSS =6). After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable logistic regression did not detect significant association between total (odds ratio (OR)=0.98, p=0.15), animal (OR=1.01, p=0.87) or plant protein intake (OR=0.96, p=0.07) and stroke severity. According to the 90-day mRS, 127 patients (63.2%) were determined with good (mRS
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 22:00:45 GMT
       
 
 
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