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Publisher: RMIT Publishing   (Total: 400 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 399 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Accounting, Accountability & Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.198, CiteScore: 0)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.122, CiteScore: 0)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Agricultural Commodities     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
AJP : The Australian J. of Pharmacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Anglican Historical Society J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.168, CiteScore: 0)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Art Monthly Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Drama Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.212, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Human Security, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian J. of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.118, CiteScore: 0)
Australasian Law Management J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.13, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Bookseller & Publisher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.146, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.317, CiteScore: 1)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 0)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.116, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.297, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.158, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.282, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.549, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.399, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.281, CiteScore: 1)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.156, CiteScore: 0)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
BOCSAR NSW Alcohol Studies Bulletins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bookseller + Publisher Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.183, CiteScore: 0)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.115, CiteScore: 0)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.111, CiteScore: 0)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.563, CiteScore: 1)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.032, CiteScore: 1)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.36, CiteScore: 1)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.18, CiteScore: 0)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.228, CiteScore: 1)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Gestalt J. of Australia and New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, CiteScore: 0)
Globe, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Government News     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Great Circle: J. of the Australian Association for Maritime History, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Grief Matters : The Australian J. of Grief and Bereavement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
He Puna Korero: J. of Maori and Pacific Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Headmark     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
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Health Voices     Full-text available via subscription  
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HIV Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Journal Cover
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0964-7058
Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [400 journals]
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Nutritional composition of breast milk in Chinese
           women: A systematic review
    • Abstract: Yang, Ting; Zhang, Liansheng; Bao, Wei; Rong, Shuang
      Background and Objectives: As breast milk is considered nature's best food for infant growth and development, understanding its nutritional composition is crucial for optimising the components of infant formula milk. In this study, we aimed to summarise the available evidence on the nutritional composition of breast milk from Chinese women, in particular, the macronutrients, fatty acids and minerals.

      Methods and Study Design: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Chinese databases for articles about human breast milk from Chinese women published in English or Chinese between 1999 and 2015. We classified the data in 35 articles from the literature search into three lactation stages: colostral, transitional and mature milk.

      Results: The content of each component varied greatly during the three lactation stages. Protein content decreased from colostral milk to mature milk (mean+-SD, 1.64+-0.32 g/dL vs 1.22+-0.12 g/dL). In contrast, lipid content increased from colostral milk (2.36+-1.17 g/dL) to mature milk (3.39+-1.24 g/dL). Colostrum contained more linoleic acid (LA) than transitional and mature milk, while colostrum contained less α-linolenic acid (ALA) than transitional and mature milk. As lactation progressed, the ratios of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to total fatty acids decreased while the potassium (K), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) concentrations decreased significantly, but their standard deviations were large. Magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) concentrations showed significant differences across the three lactation stages.

      Conclusions: The stage of lactation was an important factor affecting the nutritional composition of breast milk from Chinese women.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - The anti-wasting effects of L-carnitine
           supplementation on cancer: Experimental data and clinical studies
    • Abstract: Esfahani, Mahsa; Sahafi, Sahar; Derakhshandeh, Ali; Moghaddas, Azadeh
      Background and Objectives: Cachexia is a paraneoplastic syndrome that affects the large majority of patients with end-stage cancer. No known therapy exists to effectively overcome the severe symptoms of cachexia, which include anorexia, weight loss and fatigue. This study considered the results of both experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the suitability of L-carnitine and its derivatives as potential therapies for cachexia in patients with cancer.

      Methods and Study Design: All available English-language papers on the use of L-carnitine in patients with cachexia related to cancer, including reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical trials, were obtained by searching multiple databases, including all Elsevier publications, Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, clinical trials, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews.

      Results: The protective effects of L-carnitine were extracted from the literature review based on critical mechanisms involved in skeletal muscle loss, including increased proteolysis, impaired protein synthesis, myonuclear apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The results of this process favored L-carnitine supplementation in patients with cancer-related cachexia. Nitrogen balance was improved either through the increase of protein synthesis or by reduction in proteolysis, inhibiting apoptosis or reversing inflammatory processes.

      Conclusions: Although clinical studies are inconclusive, studies in animal models support L-carnitine administration to prevent oxidative stress and ameliorate mitochondrial function. L-carnitine supplementation leads to beneficial effects on several critical mechanisms involved in pathologic skeletal muscle loss and improved fatigue-related parameters in patients with cancer. However, more well-designed, double-blinded, randomized clinical trials are necessary to establish L-carnitine supplementation as a therapeutic strategy for cachexia.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) in
           children with persistent diarrhea: Avoidance of elemental diet need,
           accessibility and costs
    • Abstract: Widodo, Ariani Dewi; Setiabudy, Rianto; Timan, Ina S; Bardosono, Saptawati; Winarta, Widdy; Firmansyah, Agus
      Background and Objectives: Persistent diarrhea has been proven to cause pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, due to decreased stimulation to the pancreas caused by prolonged mucosal injury. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) given in conjunction to regular treatment is thought to be beneficial in replacing this pancreatic enzyme deficiency, avoiding the need of elemental diet. This study aims to evaluate the benefit of PERT in children with persistent diarrhea.

      Methods and Study Design: This is a randomized, two double-blind parallel group, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in persistent diarrhea. Children age 6-60 months were recruited from pediatric inpatient and outpatient units of five hospitals in Jakarta. Subjects was randomly assigned to either pancreatic enzyme 8371 USP unit of lipase or placebo, 3 times daily for 1 month, as an adjunctive therapy to standard treatment. Subjects were then reevaluated at 2 weeks and 4 weeks interval after administration of enzyme or placebo. Variables observed were length of diarrhea after the start of intervention, change in serum prealbumin, and change in FE-1 between week 0 and week 4.

      Results: Pancreatic enzyme supplementation shortens the length of diarrhea by 7 days in the intervention group compared to placebo (p=0.019). Serum prealbumin and FE-1 shows trend that favors the intervention group, although not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

      Conclusion: PERT is clinically effective in reducing the length of diarrhea, thus minimizing the need, accessibility and costs of an elemental diet.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies among anemic
           individuals in metro Manila, Philippines and their intake of iron
           supplements
    • Abstract: Capanzana, Mario V; Mirasol, Ma Angelina L; Smith, Geoffry; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Perlas, Leah; Amarra, Maria Sofia; de los Reyes, Francisco
      Background and Objectives: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia worldwide. In Southeast Asia, studies showed that genetic hemoglobin disorders also contribute significantly to the burden of anemia. The study aimed to estimate the proportion of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies versus iron deficiency and other causes in a sample of anemic individuals; describe the characteristics of thalassemic subjects in terms of severity of anemia, adequacy of iron stores, and hematological profile; examine the intake of iron supplements among individuals with varying causes of anemia.

      Methods and Study Design: A random sample of 101 anemic individuals living in Metro Manila was examined. Hemoglobinopathy was determined using capillary electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was determined using immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on the use of iron supplements.

      Results: The most frequent underlying cause of anemia was iron deficiency (37.6%), followed by anemia due to other causes (34.7%), and hemoglobinopathy (27.8%). The most prevalent form of hemoglobinopathy was alpha-thalassemia trait (20.8%), followed by betathalassemia trait (5%), iron deficiency anemia with concomitant HbE (1%), and beta-thalassemia HbE interacting (1%). Thalassemic subjects exhibited mild anemia, had either normal or excessive iron stores, and did not ingest iron supplements.

      Conclusion: The majority of anemia (62.5%) in this sample was due to other causes and hemoglobinopathy, rather than iron deficiency. Genetic hemoglobin disorders appear to be common among anemic individuals. Population screening is needed to determine the real prevalence of the disease. Further investigation is needed to identify other causes of anemia among Filipinos

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors
           for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fracture
    • Abstract: Ha, Yong-Chan; Choi, Hana; Kim, Kyu-Hwang; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Park, Ki-Soo; Yoo, Jun-Il
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fractures, as defined by the criteria of the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS).

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 327 elderly patients with hip fractures were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measure was the nutritional status and nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was made according to the guidelines of the AWGS. Whole body densitometry analysis was used to measure skeletal muscle mass, and muscle strength was evaluated by handgrip testing. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to analyze the nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures.

      Results: Of 327 patients with hip fractures (78 men and 249 women), the prevalence of sarcopenia was 60.3% and 30.1% in men and women, respectively. The rates of three indicators of malnutrition in men and women (low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoproteinemia) in sarcopenia patients with hip fractures were 23.4%, 31.9%, and 53.2% and 21.3%, 21.3%, and 37.3%, respectively. The prevalence of markers of chronic inflammation (increased CRP and ESR) in men and women with sarcopenia and hip fractures were 74.9% and 52.2%, and 49.3% and 85.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, low BMI and hypoproteinemia in women were associated with a 2.9- and 2.1-fold greater risk of sarcopenia than non-sarcopenia, respectively.

      Conclusions: The present study revealed a strong relationship between sarcopenia and malnutrition and chronic inflammatory factors in elderly patients with hip fractures.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Identifying errors in meals provided to and sourced by
           patients on therapeutic diets in hospital
    • Abstract: Rattray, Megan; Desbrow, Ben; Roberts, Shelley
      Background and Objectives: Patients requiring therapeutic diets in hospital are at risk of exposer to dietary errors that may pose an acute threat to their safety. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of meal-related errors among hospitalised patients prescribed therapeutic diets, following the implementation of an electronic food service system (EFS).

      Methods and Study Design: This observational study involved six wards in a tertiary metropolitan hospital that used an EFS for meal ordering and plating. Participants were adult medical inpatients receiving a therapeutic diet for medical or nutritional reasons. Meal accuracy was assessed for up to 48-hours per patient by comparing the dietary items placed on patients' meal trays or personal meals consumed by patients to their therapeutic diet prescription. Inaccuracies were categorised as 'critical' or 'non-critical errors' and were identified as having occurred at one of four steps in the EFS: 'menu planning' (main-meals), 'meal assembly' (mainmeals), 'meal delivery' (mid- and main-meals) and 'meal consumption' (personal-meals).

      Results: A total of 167 inpatients were included in the study. Of the 906 meals assessed, 69 errors (8%) were observed; with 97% classified as critical. Error rates differed according to the food service system step assessed: 17% for menu planning, < 1% for 'meal assembly', 53% for 'meal delivery': main-meals, 9% for 'meal delivery': mid-meals and 33% 'meal consumption'.

      Conclusion: An EFS almost completely eliminated errors associated with 'meal assembly'. However, when food service staff and patients selected dietary items at ward level (without a guiding system) a substantial number of potentially 'critical errors' occurred.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Prognostic value of preoperative prognostic
           nutritional index in stage III gastric cancer after curative resection: A
           retrospective cohort study
    • Abstract: Wang, Hua-Xi; Wang, Cun-Chuan; Yang, Wah; Gao, Li-Lian; Yu, Shu-Qing
      Background and Objectives: Nutrition and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of cancer. The prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) has been confirmed in some types of human cancers. This study analyzed the prognostic significance of the preoperative PNI in patients with stage III gastric cancer after curative surgery.

      Methods and Study Design: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 274 patients who underwent curative operation for stage III gastric cancer. The correlation between the preoperative PNI and overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

      Results: The patients with a high PNI had a significantly higher median OS than did those with a low PNI (46.8 months vs 24.1 months, p=0.01). In the subgroup analysis, the survival benefit of the PNI was limited to the patients with poorly differentiated gastric cancer (high PNI, 46.8 months; low PNI, 21.8 months, p=0.004) and was not observed in those with well and moderately differentiated cancer (high PNI, 30.3 months; low PNI, 26.7 months, p=0.30). In the multivariate analysis, the PNI was an independent prognostic factor for OS.

      Conclusions: The PNI can be used as an independent prognostic biomarker for operable advanced gastric cancer

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - The impact of self-efficacy education based on the
           health belief model in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomised
           controlled intervention study
    • Abstract: Mohammadi, Shooka; Karim, Norimah A; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Amani, Reza
      Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness which can be managed by patients' commitment to self-care and self-efficacy behaviors.

      Methods and Study Design: A randomized controlled intervention study was carried out to determine the impact of self-efficacy education based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in 240 patients with type 2 diabetes at the Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran between October 2014 and August 2015. The education duration was three months followed by a 24-week follow-up visit to determine the progress of the subjects. In this study, reliable and validated diabetes educational booklet and questionnaires based on knowledge, health beliefs and quality of life were used. The participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (n=120) or to the conventional dietary counseling group as controls (n=120), and assessed at the baseline, week 12 and week 36. The study was divided into primary outcome measurements consisting of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, and anthropometric levels. Secondary outcome measures were related to nutrition knowledge, health beliefs and quality of life.

      Results: The results showed that subjects in the intervention group had significantly better metabolic and glycemic profiles compared with those in the control group. It also showed that knowledge, health belief and quality of life significantly increased in the intervention group.

      Conclusions: Findings indicate that through tailored self-efficacy education, the quality of life and metabolic profile of diabetes patients can be improved.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Cinnamon improves metabolic factors without detectable
           effects on adiponectin in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    • Abstract: Borzoei, Azam; Rafraf, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad
      Background and Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on glycemic indices, serum lipids and adiponectin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

      Methods and Study Design: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 84 overweight or obese PCOS patients. Subjects in cinnamon (n=42) and placebo (n=42) groups were given 3 cinnamon capsules (each one contained 500 mg cinnamon) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements and dietary intake data were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test and analysis of covariance.

      Results: Cinnamon significantly decreased serum fasting blood glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and weight and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with placebo (all p < 0.05). Serum triglyceride and body mass index significantly decreased in the cinnamon group, in comparison with baseline values (p=0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). No significant changes were seen in serum adiponectin in either group.

      Conclusions: Short term supplementation of cinnamon had some favourable effects on metabolic risk factors of women with PCOS and may be useful in management of PCOS complications.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Efficacy of actinidin-containing kiwifruit extract
           zyactinase on constipation: A randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled
           clinical trial
    • Abstract: Weir, Iona; Shu, Quan; Wei, Nengding; Wei, Chengkai; Zhu, Yi
      Background and Objectives: Zyactinase is an extract of green kiwifruit, formulated into the consumer healthcare products marketed as Phloe and Kivia, used to assist in the relief of the symptoms associated with a range of digestive system dysfunction, including constipation and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

      Methods and Study Design: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was undertaken to determine the effects of the kiwifruit extract on bowel movement, stool formation and IBS associated symptoms amongst a subject group of generally healthy individuals experiencing a period of moderate constipation. Fifty-eight participants were randomized to the kiwifruit extract (28) or placebo (30). Selection criterion was decreased number of bowel movements (
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Effects of palm olein and olive oil on serum lipids in
           a Chinese population: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial
    • Abstract: Sun, Guiju; Xia, Hui; Yang, Yuexin; Ma, Shushu; Zhou, Haiteng; Shu, Guofang; Wang, Shaokang; Yang, Xian; Tang, Huali; Wang, Fengling; He, Yaqiong; Ding, Rong; Yin, Hong; Wang, Yanyan; Zhu, Hangju; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Yang
      Background and Objectives: As the most widely produced edible vegetable oil, palm oil is known as to contain a high level of saturated fatty acid, which was thought to adversely affect serum lipid profiles. However, recent studies have shown no influence or benefits of palm oil on serum lipids. The potential nutritional value of palm oil is attributed to the high mono-unsaturation at the crucial sn2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, as with the so-called 'healthy' olive oil (OO). The aim of this study was to further test this hypothesis and evaluate the effects of consuming palm olein versus olive oil on serum lipid profiles in a Chinese population.

      Methods and Study Design: In total, 120 participants were recruited from a spinnery in Yixing city and randomly divided into two groups (palm olein or olive oil) to conduct a 2x2 crossover trial for 2 months' intervention with 2-week washout periods. Each participant was provided 48 g of test oil per day. At the end of each period, anthropometry, and blood lipid indices were measured to determine the effects of palm olein and olive oil.

      Results: Palm olein and olive oil consumption had no significantly different effect on BMI, on serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG), Apo B, fasting glucose, or insulin concentrations (all p > 0.05).

      Conclusions: In a dietary crossover trial, palm olein and olive oil had no recognisably different effects on body fatness or blood lipids in a healthy Chinese population.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Effect of probiotic supplements in women with
           gestational diabetes mellitus on inflammation and oxidative stress
           biomarkers: A randomized clinical trial
    • Abstract: Hajifaraji, Majid; Jahanjou, Fatemeh; Abbasalizadeh, Fatemeh; Aghamohammadzadeh, Nasser; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Dolatkhah, Neda
      Background and Objectives: Very little is known about the use of probiotics among pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) especially its effect on oxidative stress and inflammatory indices. The aim of present study was to measure the effect of a probiotic supplement capsule on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in women with newly-diagnosed GDM.

      Methods and Study Design: 64 pregnant women with GDM were enrolled in a double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial in the spring and summer of 2014. They were randomly assigned to receive either a probiotic containing four bacterial strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium BB-12, Streptococcus Thermophilus STY-31 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus LBY-27 or placebo capsule for 8 consecutive weeks. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-treatment and serum indices of inflammation and oxidative stress were assayed. The measured mean response scales were then analyzed using mixed effects model. All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 16).

      Results: Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels improved in the probiotic group to a statistically significant level over the placebo group. Serum interleukin-6 levels decreased in both groups after intervention; however, neither within group nor between group differences interleukin-6 serum levels was statistically significant. Malondialdehyde, glutathione reductase and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase levels improved significantly with the use of probiotics when compared with the placebo.

      Conclusions: The probiotic supplement containing L.acidophilus LA- 5, Bifidobacterium BB- 12, S.thermophilus STY-31 and L.delbrueckii bulgaricus LBY-2 appears to improve several inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in women with GDM

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Anthropometry to assess body fat in Indonesian adults
    • Abstract: Hastuti, Janatin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P
      Background and Objectives: Anthropometric equations are widely used to estimate body composition however, are only appropriate for use in populations in which they have been developed and validated. The present study developed anthropometric prediction equations for Indonesian adults and cross-validated them with selected equations used in this population.

      Methods and Study Design: Six hundred Indonesian adults aged between 18-65 years (292 males and 308 females) were divided equally into development and validation groups. Stature, body weight, skinfold thickness at eight sites, girth at five sites, and bone breadth at four sites were measured. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to propose percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations using measured variables and %BF from the deuterium oxide dilution technique as the reference. The proposed prediction equations were then cross-validated using the validation group and %BF estimated from several existing equations.

      Results: Proposed prediction equations showed r ranged from 0.82 to 0.86 and Standard Error of the Estimate (SEE) from 4.7 to 5.4%. Cross-validation analysis showed bias with the reference %BF between 0.2 and 3.3% and Pure Error (PE) between 2.8 and 4.0%. Among the existing equations, the Durnin and Womersley equation was applicable in females whilst the equation by Davidson et al. underestimated %BF by 6.3-6.6% and the equation by Gurrici et al overestimated by 2.0-3.4% in both genders (p < 0.01).

      Conclusion: The proposed prediction equations provide better options for accurate prediction of %BF in Indonesian adults.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetic
           peripheral neuropathy and diabetic nephropathy in Tianjin, china
    • Abstract: Fan, Leping; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jie; Song, Yixuan; Lin, Jingna
      Background and Objectives: To evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and diabetic nephropathy (DN).

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 287 type 2 diabetic patients were categorized in two ways, and each divided into two groups: DPN (n=164) and non-DPN (NDPN) groups (n=123); and DN (n=148) and non-DN (NDN) groups (n=139). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D3] level. Correlation analysis between 25(OH)D3 and other indicators was performed.

      Results: 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in the DPN and DN groups than in the NDPN and NDN groups, and the difference was statistically significant (t =-6.23, -4.38, p < 0.0001). Moreover, a higher proportion of patients in the DPN and DN groups exhibited vitamin D deficiency than those in the NDPN and NDN groups (X2=22.231, 15.973, respectively, p < 0.0001). Vitamin D was highly correlated with DPN, DN, diabetes duration, age, sex, fasting plasma glucose, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, 24-h urinary microalbumin, and beta-2 microglobulin (r=-0.34 -0.133, p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that vitamin D deficiency is an independent risk factor for DPN and DN (OR=3.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.06-6.03; OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.71-5.03; respectively, p < 0.0001).

      Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is closely correlated with DPN and DN and can be considered as an independent risk factor for DPN and DN.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Associations between socioeconomic status and
           overweight among urban children aged 7-12 years in Chengdu, southwest
           china
    • Abstract: Zhai, Junya; Xue, Hongmei; Luo, Jiao; Zhang, Lishi; Cheng, Guo
      Background and Objectives: Income inequality in China has risen steadily over the past decades. This study explored the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and overweight among urban children aged 7-12 years in Chengdu, a comparatively prosperous metropolis city located in "the West China", the backward, less developed region of China.

      Methods and Study Design: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 among urban children aged 7-12 years old in Chengdu city. A total of 853 urban students were involved in this analysis, with measured heights, weights, and filled in self-administered questionnaires. Overweight, including obesity, was defined according to the Working Group on Obesity in China. SES indicators included family income, parental education and occupation class.

      Results: Urban girls living in high-income households were more likely to be overweight than those living in low-income households (OR 2.19, 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.83). However, no significant associations were found among boys and there were also null significant associations between other SES indicators and overweight in children of either sex.

      Conclusions: Urban girls living in relatively affluent circumstances were at greatest risk for being overweight. This study implies that any future overweight prevention program in Chengdu city is needed to start at the family level beginning with individuals of a high socioeconomic background, especially in urban girls.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Effect of individualised dietary education at medical
           check-ups on maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant Japanese women
    • Abstract: Tajirika-Shirai, Reiko; Takimoto, Hidemi; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Kaneko, Hitoshi; Kubota, Toshiro; Miyasaka, Naoyuki
      Background and Objectives: An increased prevalence of low maternal weight and insufficient pregnancy weight gain may be responsible for an increase in low birthweight infants in Japan. We aimed to examine the effects of individualised dietary education at medical check-ups on maternal/fetal outcomes in Japanese women.

      Methods and Study Design: Four hundred and six underweight and normal weight singleton pregnant women, who attended check-ups at an obstetric facility until >=30 weeks gestation and delivered at 36-41 weeks gestation, were selected for analyses. Weight gain was assessed at each check-up based on the official "Dietary Guidelines for Pregnant and Lactating Women". Individual dietary advice was provided by dieticians to those with insufficient or excess weight gain status around 28 weeks gestation. The medical records from uncomplicated singleton deliveries (36-41 weeks gestation) at the same facility from 2008-2010 were used (n=792) to examine the effect of dietary education on maternal/fetal outcomes.

      Results: Pre-pregnancy underweight was present in > 24% of women in both the intervention and non intervention groups. Adequate weight gain occurred more frequently in the intervention group (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in mean birthweight or the proportion of low birthweight infants. However, the proportion of extremely small for gestational age infants (birthweight < 3rd percentile) was lower in the intervention group (p=0.011). There were no differences in the frequency of caesarean delivery, pregnancy induced hypertension, or infant Apgar scores < 7.

      Conclusions: Dietary education during pregnancy check-ups promotes adequate maternal weight gain and helps prevent extreme fetal growth restraint.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Validation study of a self-administered diet history
           questionnaire for estimating amino acid intake among Japanese adults
    • Abstract: Suga, Hitomi; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nojima, Masanori; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa
      Background and Objectives: Despite growing interest in the association between dietary amino acid intake and optimal health, validated dietary questionnaires that can estimate amino acid intake have been scarce. We examined the validity of amino acid intakes estimated using a self-administered diet history questionnaire (DHQ) comparing with 16-day semi-weighed dietary records (DR).

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 184 Japanese men and women completed a four-day DR and a DHQ four times, once in each season. Dietary amino acid in-takes were estimated as crude, energy-adjusted, and percentage of total protein intake (% protein) using an amino acid database of Japanese foods. The validity of dietary amino acid intake estimated by the first-time DHQ was examined using the mean of 16 days' DRs as reference.

      Results: Mean intakes of almost all amino acids estimated by DHQ were significantly lower than those estimated by the DR for energy-adjusted values in both sexes. Although mean amino acid intakes estimated by DHQ were significantly higher than those estimated by the DR for % protein value, the differences between the DR and DHQ were slight (-0.04 to 0.39% protein for men, -0.05 to 0.37% protein for women). Pearson correlation coefficients between DHQ and the DR showed reasonable ranking ability in % protein values for men (interquartile range (Q1-Q3): 0.31-0.47) and energy-adjusted values for women (interquartile range (Q1-Q3): 0.40-0.45).

      Conclusion: DHQ showed acceptable ability to estimate mean amino acid intake and to rank individuals in a population according to their amino acid intake for using in large-scale epidemiological studies.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Pre-earthquake national patterns of preschool child
           undernutrition and household food insecurity in Nepal in 2013 and 2014
    • Abstract: Shrestha, Sudeep; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Manohar, Swetha; Shrestha, Binod; Neupane, Sumanta; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Shrestha, Raman; Klemm, Rolf DW; Nonyane, Bareng AS; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Webb, Patrick; West, Keith P
      Background and Objectives: Preschool undernutrition remains a burden in Nepal. This paper reports results of surveys in 2013 and 2014, examining patterns of child nutritional status across the country, associations with household food insecurity and antecedent comparative national data for subsequent evaluations of nutritional status following the earthquake in Nepal in 2015.

      Methods and Study Design: A multi-stage sample was drawn comprising 21 sites in 75 districts of the country, representing the mountains, hills and Terai zones, providing proportionate to zonal samples of 4286 and 4947 households and 5401 and 5474 preschool children in each year, respectively. Children 6 to 59 months of age were measured for weight and height, expressed as standardized z-scores for height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ), and stunting and wasting (
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Is high sodium intake associated with hearing
           impairment': The association between spot urine sodium concentration
           and hearing threshold in Korean adolescents
    • Abstract: Choi, Hyun Seung; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hong; Kang, Ju Wan
      Background and Objectives: High sodium intake is a well-known risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular and renal disease. There may also be links between sodium intake and inner ear symptoms. However, the available data are limited, and clinicians remain suspicious about sodium intake and hearing threshold. We analyzed the relationship between spot urine sodium concentration and sensorineural hearing loss in Korean adolescents.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 534 subjects, aged 12-19 years old, were enrolled in this study. Sex, age, hearing threshold, and overnight spot urine sodium concentration were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the independent effect of sodium intake on hearing level.

      Results: Higher urine sodium concentrations were observed in subjects with hearing impairment in 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz. After adjusting for sex, age and BMI, we found an association between urine sodium concentration and sensorineural hearing loss in 500, 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz.

      Conclusion: Our results suggest that high sodium intake might be associated with hearing impairment.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Age and CD4 count are dominant factors in the
           prediction of anaemia in Javanese HIV patients
    • Abstract: Wahyuwibowo, Joko; Harumsari, Stefani; Zulaikha, Siti Thomas; Suwondo, Ari; Sofro, Muchlis Achsan Udji; Hadisaputro, Suharyo
      Background and Objectives: Anaemia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is multifactorial and an increasingly important variable to consider in the management. This is the first study of anaemia in HIV infection in the Javanese population, which constitutes the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine the factors which are associated with anaemia in Javanese patients with HIV infection.

      Methods and Study Design: This study applied a cross-sectional design involving HIV patients in Dr Kariadi Hospital and Balai Kesehatan Paru Masyarakat (BKPM), Semarang, Indonesia. The characteristic data of the subjects were age, gender, BMI, duration of therapy and antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Haematology tests were conducted using flow cytometry.

      Results: The prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients was 21 (38.88%). Macrocytic anemia was found as a majority (12; 57.1 %) in anaemic patients. The risk factors which were found to be associated with increase of anaemia were white blood cells (WBC) < 5.0 x 109/L and CD4 < 200.0 cells/muL (p < 0.05). A correlation between anaemia and age (r=0.49, p < 0.01), duration of treatment (r=0.35, p
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Glycemic load is associated with diabetes and
           prediabetes among middle-aged and elderly adults in Guangzhou, china
    • Abstract: He, Feng-yi; Chen, Chao-Gang; Lin, Diao-zhu; Li, Feng; Lin, Xiu-hong; Yuan, Zhi-min; Yan, Li
      Background and Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding the possible associations between glycemic load (GL) indices and diabetes. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between several GL indices, including the total dietary GL, the energy-adjusted GL, and the prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism, including prediabetes and diabetes.

      Methods and Study Design: This study was conducted in Guangzhou, China from July 2011 to December 2011. It included 2,022 participants (602 men and 1,420 women), between 45 and 75 years of age. The prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was compared across the quartiles of GL indices to discover any potential linear correlations. Stratified analysis was conducted according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measurements.

      Results: Energy-adjusted GL was positively associated with the prevalence of diabetes and the multivariable-adjusted estimate of the OR comparing the highest versus the lowest quartile was 2.50 (95% CI, 1.49-4.19). For the stratified analysis by sex, BMI or WC, similar associations were observed. For the overweight and obese (BMI >=24.0 kg/m2) or centrally obese (WC >=85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women) participants, compared to participants in the lowest quartile of energy-adjusted GL, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. The OR estimates were 2.25 (95% CI: 1.45-3.52) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.06-2.25), respectively.

      Conclusions: High dietary energy-adjusted GL is associated with the prevalence of diabetes as well as abnormal glucose metabolism among middle-aged and elderly adults.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Food guide pagoda and the food safety of women:
           One-year follow-up study on the effects of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake
    • Abstract: Xu, Xianglong; Bai, Ruixue; Bing, Li; Rao, Yunshuang; Liu, Lingli; Reis, Cesar; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong
      Background and Objectives: Women are a dominant force in the family's diet and nutrition in China. The short-term effects of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake were found. However, the long-term effects of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake on the food safety, energy, and intake frequency of women remain unclear. This study analyzed the effects of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake on the dietary behaviors of women one year after the earthquake.

      Methods and Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 207 women were selected using the proportional sampling method. Among them, 91 were from the earthquake-affected area and 116 were from the non-affected area.

      Results: Women from the earthquake-affected area paid significantly more attention to health, diet, food and water safety after the earthquake (p < 0.05 for each category) when compared with those from the non-affected area. Women from the earthquake-affected area also had a significantly higher proportion of adequate understanding of low-energy food, properly separated their raw food from cooked food, ate high-energy food, and picky eating habits (p < 0.05 for each category) than those from the non-affected area. In addition, women from the earthquake-affected area were more likely to adhere to the 2007 Chinese Food Guide Pagoda (FGP) guidelines for eating rice than those from the non-affected area (OR=2.25, 95% CI [1.13, 4.51]).

      Conclusion: The female survivors of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake preferred high-energy food, paid more attention to food safety, and were more likely to adhere to FGP when compared to those that did not undergo the same tragedy.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Oral health behavior as a risk factor for high urinary
           sodium among Korean women
    • Abstract: Han, Kyungdo; Kim, NamRyang; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong-Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom
      Background and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between urinary sodium, urinary sodium/creatinine, and urinary sodium/urine specific gravity and oral health behavior using nationally representative data.

      Methods and Study Design: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; the sample analyzed in this study consisted a total of 15,013 respondents over 19 years old who had no missing values for the urinalysis or outcome variables. Urinary sodium was significantly lower in fem ales (p < 0.05).

      Results: The rate of hypertension and diabetes was significantly lower in women (p < 0.05). Adjusted odds ratios of urinary sodium and their 95% confidence intervals in relation to the frequency of tooth brushing (≤1, 2, and ≥3 times per day, respectively) were 1, 0.898 (0.704, 1.145), and 0.734 (0.573, 0.939) for women (p < 0.05). This association between sodium uptake and oral health behavior was independent of various potential confounding factors such as age, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, diabetes, and hypertension.

      Conclusions: Poor oral health behavior was associated with higher sodium consumption in women. Oral health behavior may be considered an independent risk indicator for high urinary sodium in Korean women

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Taste sensitivities and diet of Chinese and Indians in
           Singapore
    • Abstract: Shu-Fen, Claudia Leong; Tey, Siew Ling; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Forde, Ciaran G
      Background and Objectives: Taste perception plays a key role in consumer acceptance and food choice, which has an important impact on human health. Our aim was to examine the relationship between recognition thresholds for five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) in Chinese and Indians in relation to their dietary intake.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 114 subjects (60 Chinese, 54 Indians). Taste thresholds were determined using a forced choice method and dietary intakes were assessed using an estimated three-day food diary.

      Results: Indians had significantly higher recognition thresholds for sweet, salty, sour, umami and bitter tastes compared to Chinese (all p 0.05).

      Conclusion: Future work is needed to further understand how differences in taste perception may influence dietary intakes between ethnic groups.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Combined effect of eating alone and a poor nutritional
           status on cognitive decline among older adults in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Li, Cheng-Lun; Tung, Ho-Jui; Yeh, Ming-Chin
      Background and Objectives: Nutritional status is not only associated with older individuals' physical health but also has an impact on their cognitive functioning. Evidence indicates that a socially integrated lifestyle in the later stages of life protects against cognitive decline and dementia. This study tested the combined effect of two hazards, the risk of malnutrition and eating meals alone, on the cognitive changes among a representative sample of older Taiwanese individuals over an 8-year period.

      Methods and Study Design: Data were taken from the Taiwan Longitudinal Survey on Aging. In 1999, 2584 respondents aged >=65 years were surveyed, and follow-up surveys were performed in 2003 and 2007. The Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and Mini Nutritional Assessment were used to evaluate participants' cognitive functioning and nutritional status, respectively. Nutritional status and eating alone data assessed at baseline were combined to predict changes in SPMSQ scores longitudinally. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the longitudinal changes from baseline to 2007.

      Results: Findings suggest that nutritional status was a salient predictor for cognitive decline among the older Taiwanese adults over the 8-year period. Female respondents who had a compromised nutritional status at baseline and who were eating their meals alone exhibited a greater decrease in SPMSQ scores compared with those who had a normal nutritional status and who were eating their meals with others.

      Conclusion: Nutritional programs for the elderly should focus on what they eat as well as who they eat their meals with to prevent social isolation, especially among older women.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Eating disorders and body image concerns as influenced
           by family and media among university students in Sharjah, UAE
    • Abstract: Hasan, Hayder A; Najm, Lina; Zaurub, Sara; Jami, Faridah; Javadi, Fahimeh; Deeb, Lina Adeeb; Iskandarani, Amani; Radwan, Hadia
      Background and Objectives: Eating disorders (ED) can be influenced by psychological and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental and media influences and body image concerns as factors in the onset of ED. Methods and Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 662 students (407 women and 255 men) attending one of three universities in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study employed an online self-administered questionnaire with validated scales: Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Media Influences Scale, and Family Influences Scale (FIS).

      Results: About 33% of the sample had EAT-26 scores >=20 and 45% showed mild to marked concerns about their body shape. Women students were significantly more concerned about their shape, and more influenced by media than men. There were significant differences in the means of all scores, except for media influence, among the four BMI groups. The EAT-26 score showed strongest correlation with BSQ (r=0.48), followed by FIS, Media and BMI (r=0.419, r=0.276 and r=0.18 respectively). The BSQ was the best predictor of ED and was inversely associated with the EAT-26 score (B=-1.51, OR=0.219, 95% CI: 0.152-0.316, p < 0.001).

      Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that ED and body shape concerns are highly prevalent among the university student sample, and highlight the strong influence that both the media and families exert on the development of ED among young adults. These findings provide baseline data for future longitudinal studies to investigate factors influencing ED.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Habitual tea drinking associated with a lower risk of
           type 2 diabetes in Vietnamese adults
    • Abstract: Nguyen, Chung Thanh; Lee, Andy H; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Do, Vuong Van; Ngu, Nghia Duy; Tran, Binh Quang; Binns, Colin
      Background and Objectives: The association between tea consumption and type 2 diabetes risk remains inconsistent in Asian populations. This case-control study investigated the association between habitual tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes among Vietnamese adults.

      Methods and Study Design: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted during 2013-2015 in Vietnam. A total of 599 newly diagnosed diabetic cases (aged 40-65 years) and 599 hospital-based controls, frequency matched by age and sex, were recruited. Information about frequency, quantity, and duration of tea drinking, together with demographics, habitual diet and lifestyle characteristics, was obtained from direct interviews using a validated and reliable questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between different metrics of tea consumption and the type 2 diabetes risk.

      Results: Control subjects reported higher tea consumption levels than the cases in terms of duration, frequency, and quantity of tea drunk. After accounting for confounding factors, increasing tea consumption was found to be associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes; the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.66 (0.49, 0.89) for participants drinking > 2 cups/day, relative to those drinking < 1 cup/day. Significant inverse dose-response relationships were also observed for average number of cups consumed daily and years of tea drinking (p < 0.01).

      Conclusions: Habitual tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes among Vietnamese adults.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) Taq1
           polymorphisms with eating behaviors and obesity among Chinese and Indian
           Malaysian university students
    • Abstract: Lek, Fang-Ying; Ong, Hing-Huat; Say, Yee-How
      Background and Objectives: This study investigated the association of 'DRD2' Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D gene polymorphisms with eating behavior, the preference/intake frequency/craving of high-fat foods and obesity in 394 Malaysian adults (161 males, 233 females; 308 Chinese, 86 Indians; 67 obese, 327 non-obese).

      Methods and Study Design: Eating behaviors namely Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating and Emotional Eating scores were assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The preference/intake frequency/craving of 26 common high-fat Malaysian foods was assessed using a 7-point hedonic scale. Anthropometric measurements were taken and Taq1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using DNA extracted from mouthwash samples.

      Results: The overall minor allele frequencies of Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D according to ethnicities (Chinese/Indian) were 0.37/0.29, 0.39/0.28, 0.06/0.30, respectively; genotype and allele distributions of Taq1B and Taq1D were significantly different between ethnicities. Eating behaviorscores were not significantly different between gender and ethnicities. Those with A1 or B1 allele had lower Cognitive Restraint score and higher Uncontrolled Eating score, while those with A1/A1 or B1/B1 genotype had higher fast food preference. D1 allele was associated with increased starchy food craving and 'mamak' (Malaysian Indian-Muslim) food preference, but not eating behavior scores. All three gene variants were not associated with obesity and adiposity.

      Conclusion: Taken together, we posit that three 'DRD2' Taq1 gene polymorphisms influence the eating behavior and preference/intake frequency/craving of certain high-fat foods in Malaysian adults, but their role in obesity and adiposity is still inconclusive and needs further investigation.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Effects of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism on peripheral
           blood folate concentration in healthy populations: A meta-analysis of
           observational studies
    • Abstract: Yu, Xin; Wu, Lihua; Lu, Xiaolin; Chang, Shaoyan; Yin, Jiyong; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhen; Piao, Wei
      Background and Objectives: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) irreversibly converts 5,10- methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is the main form of folate used in the body. Previous studies suggest that MTHFR polymorphism influences folate metabolism, but conflicting results are reported. We performed a meta-analysis to accurately characterize the association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and peripheral blood folate concentration in healthy populations.

      Methods and Study Design: Studies focusing on MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate concentrations were identified and subjected to a metaanalysis using Review Manager 5.1. Standard mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the association between these variables.

      Results: A total of 14 studies with 5616 healthy individuals were included in this meta-analysis. Significant differences in folate concentration were found in the MTHFR homozygote model (SMD=0.12, 95% CI=0.00-0.24, I2=17%, p=0.04) and the dominant model (SMD=0.07, 95% CI=0.01-0.14, I2=22%, p=0.02) in the general population excluding the elderly. While abnormal folate concentrations are more common in elderly, no association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and peripheral blood folate concentration was found in the meta-analysis when elderly were included.

      Conclusions:This meta-analysis indicates that, in the general population excluding the elderly, the C allele of MTHFR 1298 polymorphism is associated with the risk for an increased folate concentration.

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 3 - Rehabilitation nutrition in pressure ulcer management
           with type 2 diabetes: A case report
    • Abstract: Saino, Yoko; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Keisuke; Nishioka, Shinta; Hao, Takako; Mimatsu, Kenji
      Background and Objectives: Severe infection, inadequate food intake, and pressure ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes can result in malnutrition. We describe a case in which rehabilitation nutrition was effective for treating a pressure ulcer in a malnourished patient with type 2 diabetes.

      Methods and Results: A 58-year-old man with type 2 diabetes was diagnosed with hidradenitis suppurativa on the left buttock and thigh and a severe pres-sure ulcer on his left kneecap. Malnutrition was related to hypermetabolism caused by chronic hidradenitis suppurativa and inadequate protein-energy intake before admission. We initiated a rehabilitation nutrition intervention to improve physical function and to treat a pressure ulcer by prescribing 2,000 kcal/day of food, including 80 g of protein, and physical rehabilitation for 40 minutes/day. The patient showed good progress in terms of his physical function and healing of the pressure ulcer. After prescribing 2,250 kcal/day of food, including 85 g of protein, and physical rehabilitation for 60 minutes/day, HbA1c levels increased to 7.4%. The energy prescription was decreased to 2,000 kcal/day to improve glycemic levels. Then, the patients weight decreased and his hand grip strength became weaker. On day 134 and discharge the patient could walk independently with a t-cane and ankle supporter. By day 14 after discharge, the pressure ulcer had epithelialized.

      Conclusion: Rehabilitation nutrition management improved physical function and facilitated pressure ulcer healing in a malnourished patient with type 2 diabetes. Close conjoint management of hyperglycemia was also necessary

      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 22:47:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Selenium in infant formula milk
    • Abstract: He, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Shuang-Qing; Mu, Weipeng; Huang, Zhen-Wu
      Formula-based animal milk is an alternative source of infant nutrition in many cases when breastfeeding is unacceptable or inaccessible; however, these replacements often have low selenium levels. The composition of infant formula milk should be as close as possible to that of human breast milk, both in content and chemical speciation. Selenium is an essential trace element for infants. Generally, human breast milk is the ideal food to ensure adequate infant Se intake. However, to date, sodium selenite or sodium selenate has been used as selenium supplementation in infant formula milk in most countries. This inorganic Se, which is not a natural component of food, may not be the optimal speciation for Se supplementation in infant formula milk. Advances in speciation in foods, especially in animal milk, suggest that future proposals for selenium speciation in human breast milk can lead to discussions regarding the most favorable methods of selenium supplementation in infant formula milk.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Relevance of the mini nutritional assessment in
           cirrhotic liver disease patients
    • Abstract: Yasutake, Kenichiro; Koga, Shigemi; Hokko, Yuka; Ikemoto, Michiko; Yaguchi, Yuri; Sakai, Hironori; Murata, Yusuke; Ohe, Kenji; Kohjima, Motoyuki; Nakamuta, Makoto; Enjoji, Munechika
      Background and Objectives: Malnutrition is an important prognostic factor for patients with liver disease and a novel nutritional assessment tool is required for these patients. The aim of this study was to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as a nutritional screening tool for patients with liver disease, by comparing MNA scores with other nutrition-related parameters.

      Methods and Study Design: Patients who were hospitalized at the gastroenterology division of Kyushu and Beppu Medical Center were enrolled. The study included 77 patients with liver disease (male/female, 46/31; mean+-SD age, 68.5+-10.7 years; liver cirrhosis, 64.9%; liver cancer, 61.0%). Correlations of MNA score at hospital admission with anthropometric parameters and blood test data were evaluated.

      Results: In patients with liver disease, MNA scores demonstrated that 18 (23.4%) had normal nutritional status, 41 (53.2%) were at risk of malnutrition, and 18 (23.4%) were malnourished, indicating that up to 76.6% of the liver disease group were malnourished. Especially, patients with liver cirrhosis had lower scores of nutritional markers and MNA. The MNA score in liver cirrhotic patients correlated with the following parameters: % arm circumference, % triceps skinfolds, ratio of % maximum grasp strength and arm circumference, maximum grasp strength, arm muscle circumference, calf circumference, serum albumin levels, the controlling nutritional status score, and Onodera's prognostic index, while patients without liver cirrhosis did not show such correlation.

      Conclusions: MNA scores correlated with nutrition-related data in patients with liver cirrhosis. The MNA is an appropriate tool for nutritional screening assessment in these cirrhotic patients of any etiology.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Associations of postprandial lipemia with trunk/leg
           fat ratio in young normal weight women independently of fat mass and
           insulin resistance
    • Abstract: Takeuchi, Mika; Tsuboi, Ayaka; Kurata, Miki; Kazumi, Tsutomu; Fukuo, Keisuke
      Background and Objectives: To determine whether postprandial lipemia is associated with fat distribution even in young, normal weight women independently of fat mass, adipokines, insulin resistance and systemic inflammation.

      Methods and Study Design: Female college students (ages 21-24, n=35) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a standardized breakfast providing 17 g triglycerides (TG). Serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, adipokines and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation were measured in fasting blood samples.

      Results: In crude analyses, postprandial lipemia, as assessed by 0-2 h area under the curve of serum TG (TG-AUC), was positively associated with fasting TG, trunk/leg fat ratio, apolipoprotein B, leptin/adiponectin ratio and log high-sensitivity CRP. Multiple linear regression analysis with these 5 variables as independent variables revealed that fasting TG (p < 0.001) and trunk/ leg fat ratio (p=0.001), were independent positive predictors of TG-AUC (R2=0.923). Women with high compared to low TG-AUC were characterized by higher trunk/leg fat ratio, elevated apolipoprotein B and leptin/adiponectin ratio.

      Conclusion: Trunk/leg fat ratio, a marker of central adiposity, is a significant predictor of postprandial lipemia even in young women who are normal weight and insulin- sensitive, suggesting a modifiable pathway to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, a cardiometabolic risk factor. These findings should be confirmed in studies employing more participants.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The efficacy of parenteral fish oil in critical
           illness patients with sepsis: A prospective, non-randomized, observational
           study
    • Abstract: Li, Wen-Si; Chen, Zhang-Zha; Zheng, Yi-Jun; Zhong, Ming; Ma, Jie-Fei; Xuan, Li-zhen; Song, Jie-Qiong; Lv, Qian-Zhou; Zhu, Du-Ming
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the clinical outcomes in septic patients receiving parenteral fish oil.

      Methods and Study Design: A prospective, non-randomized, observational clinical study was carried out in 112 patients with sepsis from March, 2013 to May, 2015 in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) of a tertiaryreferral hospital. The patients were put into one of two groups; either the control or the study group. Patients received the standard treatment of sepsis based on guidelines in the control group. In the study group, patients received parenteral nutrition (PN) containing fish oil. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, the length of ICU and hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, and readmission into the ICU were recorded. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were also evaluated.

      Results: The study group showed a significant reduction for all-cause mortality (20.0% vs 10.0% in study and control groups, p=0.034) and APACHE II score on day 5 (p=0.015), day 7 (p=0.036) and day out of SICU (p= 0.045) compared with the control group. The study group tended to show a shortened length of stay in the ICU compared to the control group. However, TNF-α and PCT level, 28 d mortality, the length of hospital stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation did not show statistical differences between the two groups. There were no drug-related adverse effects shown during the study. Conclusions: PN with fish oil is probably safe and may improve clinical outcome in critical ill patients with sepsis.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Contributors to nutritional status in continuous
           ambulatory peritoneal dialysis as practised in henan Province, china
    • Abstract: Miao, Jinhong; Liang, Rui; Tian, Ximei; Sun, Xiaoyin; Li, Zhengyan; Luo, Jing; Ming, Lan; Shi, Juanjuan
      Background and Objectives: To investigate the nutritional status of patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and the factors involved.

      Methods and Study Design: We used the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) of nutritional status, a general questionnaire, dietary records, and laboratory parameters from 3 consecutive days to develop a NS assessment with it, we assessed 240 patients undergoing CAPD at a dialysis center in Henan Province.

      Results: In this setting, the prevalence of malnutrition in patients undergoing CAPD was 11.7%. Univariate analysis showed that patient characteristics related to NS included energy and protein intakes, weight and BMI, dialysis duration, urinary creatinine, and total creatinine clearance rate. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that dialysis duration (p < 0.001) and energy intake (p=0.01) were the principal predictors of nutritional status and allowed 81% of the variance in nutritional status to be explained. Conclusions: Effective collaboration between nutritionists and other health care workers to minimise dialysis duration and optimize energy intake should improve the nutritionally-related quality of life and well-being among CAPD patients.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Continuous tube feeding versus intermittent oral
           feeding for intermediate position enterostomy in infants
    • Abstract: Jiang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xiaoqun; Geng, Qiming; Tang, Weibing
      Background and Objectives: The stoma of intermediate position enterostomy (IPE) often leads to high output, which is related to electrolyte abnormalities, and prolongs patient recovery post-operatively. The continuous nasogastric tube feeding method has the advantage of reducing the risk of feeding intolerance, and improves nutrient absorption. In the current study, we review our experience with continuous tube feeding and compare the clinical outcomes with intermittent oral feeding in patients with an IPE post-operatively.

      Methods and Study Design: This was a retrospective review of 118 infants with IPEs in our hospital. The infants were categorized into two groups (intermittent oral feeding [OF] group [n=68 infants, 1-14 days of age] and continuous tube feeding [TF] group [n=50 infants, 1-14 days of age]). Differences in stool volume, daily intravenous fluid infusion, weight gain, nutrition indices, and post-operative complications were reviewed.

      Results: The stool volume and intravenous fluid infusion in the TF group were less than the OF group from week 2. The weight gain was higher in the TF group than the OF group from week 3. The pre-albumin and retinol binding protein levels were significantly higher in the TF group than the OF group in weeks 3-4 post-operatively. The incidence of cholestasis and water-electrolyte disturbances in the TF group was significantly lower than the OF group, and the incidence of intestinal obstruction was lower than the control group, but the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Continuous tube feeding had better clinical outcomes than intermittent oral feeding in IPE patients.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Refeeding hypophosphataemia after enteral nutrition in
           a Malaysian intensive care unit: Risk factors and outcome
    • Abstract: Ralib, Azrina Md; Mat Nor, Mohd Basri
      Background and Objectives: Refeeding hypophosphataemia (RH) is characterized by an acute electrolyte derangement following nutrition therapy. Complications associated include heart failure, respiratory failure, paraesthesia, seizure and death. We aim to assess its incidence, risk factors, and outcome in our local intensive care unit (ICU).

      Methods and Study Design: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the mixed medical- surgical of a tertiary ICU in Kuantan, Malaysia. The study was registered under the National Medical Research Register (NMRR-14-803-19813) and has received ethical approval. Inclusion criteria include adult admission longer than 48 hours who were started on enteral feeding. Chronic renal failure patients and those receiving dialysis were excluded. RH was defined as plasma phosphate less than 0.65 mmol/L and a drop of more than 0.16 mmol/L following feeding.

      Results: A total of 109 patients were recruited, of which 44 (42.6%) had RH. Patients with RH had higher SOFA score compared to those without (p=0.04). There were no differences in the APACHE II and NUTRIC scores. Serum albumin was lower in those with RH (p=0.04). After refeeding, patients with RH had lower serum phosphate, magnesium and albumin, and higher supplementation of phosphate, potassium and calcium. There were no differences in mortality, length of hospital or ICU stay. Conclusions: Refeeding hypophosphataemia occurs in almost half of ICU admission. Risk factors for refeeding include high organ failure score and low albumin. Refeeding was associated with imbalances in phosphate, magnesium, potassium and calcium. Future larger study may further investigate these risk factors and long-term outcomes.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Effects of eating frequency on respiratory quotient in
           patients with liver cirrhosis: A randomized controlled trial
    • Abstract: Yao, Jia; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Kong, Ming; Li, Lu; Hua, Xin; Zhao, Yaping; Yu, Shuqing; Chen, Yu; Duan, Zhongping
      Background and Objectives: Respiratory quotient (RQ) is a good marker of substrate oxidation. Low RQ is frequently found in patients with liver cirrhosis and is associated with poor outcome. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of eating frequency on RQ in patients with cirrhosis.

      Methods and Study Design: We performed a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of eating frequency on RQ in patients with cirrhosis. Seventy patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled, and patients were further randomized to receive either normal eating frequency (NEF) meals at 08:00, 12:00 and 18:00 h, or high eating frequency (HEF) meals at 08:00, 10:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00 and 20:00 h. The two groups had equivalent energy intake. Fasting RQ was measured at 07:30 h and daytime RQ was measured at 11:30 and 17:30 h. Disease severity was evaluated using the Child - Turcotte - Pugh (CTP) classification.

      Results: Fasting RQ and daytime RQ were significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis than in healthy controls. Patients in the HEF group had a higher RQ than patients in the NEF group at three time points. In patients with CTP-A, no significant differences in daytime RQ were observed between the two groups. However, in CTP-C patients, daytime RQ was significantly higher in the HEF group than in the NEF group. Serum free fatty acid levels were significantly decreased and albumin was significantly increased after HEF intervention. Conclusions: HEF strategy is effective in improvement of RQ and is beneficial to patients with cirrhosis.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns and obesity in preschool children in
           Australia: A cross-sectional study
    • Abstract: Shi, Zumin; Makrides, Maria; Zhou, Shao Jia
      Background and Objectives: Dietary patterns have been linked to the risk of obesity in adults but little is known about such a link in young children. To examine the association between dietary patterns, nutrient intake and obesity in a representative population of preschool children in Australia.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day weighed food diary. Dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Children were classified as overweight or obesity if their BMI z-score was between the 85th-95th percentiles or was above the 95th percentile, respectively.

      Results: Three dietary patterns were identified. The 'Traditional' pattern was characterised by grains, fruit, vegetables, and red meat. The 'Processed' pattern was characterised by processed meats, snack foods and confectionary. The 'Health conscious' pattern was characterised by eggs, fish, polyunsaturated margarines and low fat dairy products. The "Traditional' pattern was positively associated with protein and zinc intake while the 'Processed' pattern was inversely associated. Both patterns were inversely associated with calcium intake. No associations were found between the 'Health conscious' pattern and macronutrients and key micronutrients intakes. The 'Traditional' pattern was positively associated with obesity but the association became non-significant after adjustment for energy and protein intake. No association was observed between the other two dietary patterns and weight status.

      Conclusions: In this cross-sectional study, dietary patterns were not associated with obesity. Longitudinal follow up will help to better understand the relationship between dietary patterns in early childhood and the risk of obesity later in life.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Factors which may limit the value of dietary diversity
           and its association with nutritional outcomes in preschool children in
           high burden districts of India
    • Abstract: Nithya, Devanesan Jacinth; Bhavani, Ramanathapuram Vaidyanathan
      Background and Objectives: Dietary diversity plays a critical role in infants as they need energy and nutrient dense foods for both physical and mental development. This study examines whether three dietary diversity indices validate against Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) and Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) and studies the relationship of dietary diversity with nutritional status of preschool children, in two districts of India: Wardha district in Maharashtra state and Koraput district in Odisha state.

      Methods and Study Design: Dietary diversity was calculated using: individual food scores calculated using 24 hour diet recall (FS24hr) data; household dietary diversity using Berry's index (DDI) and food scores calculated using food frequency data (FSFFQ). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices.

      Results: It was observed that 42.7% of 1 to 5 years children were underweight, 38% stunted and 27.6% wasted across both locations. The dietary diversity was found to be relatively better in Wardha when compared with Koraput with mean diversity of FS24hr 7, DDI 90 and FSFFQ 63 in both locations. Preschool children in both locations consumed a cereal based diet. Apart from protein in both locations and energy in Koraput, the NAR of all nutrients consumed was < 70% of requirement. MAR showed lower consumption of nutrients than the recommended levels (50% adequacy). NAR and MAR correlate with FS24hr indicating that dietary diversity calculated using 24 hour diet recall ensures nutrient adequacy but showed association only with Height-for-Age scores.

      Conclusion: Dietary diversity calculated using three methods did not show any correlation with nutritional status of 1 to 5 years children.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Breakfast consumption among Malaysian primary and
           secondary school children and relationship with body weight status -
           findings from the mybreakfast study
    • Abstract: Tee, E Siong; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Karim, Norimah A; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight status among primary and secondary school children in Malaysia.

      Methods and Study Design: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires. Breakfast frequency was defined as follows: breakfast skippers (ate breakfast 0-2 days/week), irregular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast 3-4 days/week) and regular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast >-5 days/week).

      Results: The overall prevalence of breakfast skippers and irregular breakfast eaters was 11.7% and 12.7% respectively. Breakfast skipping was related to age, sex, ethnicity, income and physical activity level. Among primary school boys and secondary school girls, the proportion of overweight/obesity was higher among breakfast skippers (boys: 43.9%, girls: 30.5%) than regular breakfast eaters (boys: 31.2%, girls: 22.7%). Among primary school children, only boys who skipped breakfast had a higher mean BMI-for-age z-score than regular breakfast eaters. Among secondary school boys and girls, BMI-for-age z-score was higher among breakfast skippers than regular breakfast eaters. Compared to regular breakfast eaters, primary school boys who skipped breakfast were 1.71 times (95% CI=1.26-2.32, p=0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese, while the risk was lower in primary school girls (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.02-1.81, p=0.039) and secondary school girls (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.01-1.90, p=0.044).

      Conclusion: Regular breakfast consumption was associated with a healthier body weight status and is a dietary behaviour which should be encouraged.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of
           energy intake in Japanese adults: The 2012 national health and nutrition
           survey
    • Abstract: Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
      Background and Objectives: Information on a whole array of characteristics associated with dietary misreporting in a representative sample in each country is still limited. Using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake among 19,986 Japanese adults aged >=20 years.

      Methods and Study Design: Each individual's energy intake was calculated based on a 1-day semi-weighed dietary record. Under-, plausible, and over-reporters were identified based on the 95% confidence limits 1) for agreement between the ratio of energy intake to basal metabolic rate and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1.55), and 2) of the expected ratio of energy intake to estimated energy requirement of 1.0, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity.

      Results: Almost all subjects (>=92.8%) were classified as plausible reporters by any of the methods applied, with very low percentages of under- and over-reporters (
      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Intake ratio and major food sources of n-3 and n-6
           fatty acids in Korea: A study based on the sixth Korea national health and
           nutrition examination survey (2013-2014)
    • Abstract: Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung
      Background and Objectives: In addition to the intake ratio of omega 6 (n-6) to omega 3 (n-3) fatty acids, their intake amount has an effect on health. This study evaluated the n-6:n-3 intake ratio as well as the food sources and association of these fatty acids with demographic characteristics based on sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data.

      Methods and Study Design: This study included 13,937 participants from the survey. The weighted mean intake and major food groups of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were determined. The 10 chief food sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid were expressed as percent contribution to total intake.

      Results: alpha- Linolenic acid constituted approximately 80% of total n-3 intake, followed by docosahexaenoic acid (10.5%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (6.1%). Linoleic acid constituted 97% of total n-6 intake. After adjustment for cofactors (age, sex, and energy intake), education level (p < 0.01), alcohol consumption frequency (p < 0.05) and monthly income (p < 0.01) were significant variables determining n-3 and n-6 FA intake by Korean people. The average n-6:n-3 intake ratio was 7.49:1. The major source of alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid was soybean oil, whereas that of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid was mackerel. Pork (70.0%) and egg (38.7%) were the major food sources of arachidonic acid and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, respectively.

      Conclusion: Monthly income, alcohol consumption frequency, and education level significantly affected n-3 FA intake. The dietary n-6: n-3 intake ratio in Korea is 7.49:1; however, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake remains inadequate (0.27 g/day).

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Assessing self-reported green tea and coffee
           consumption by food frequency questionnaire and food record and their
           association with polyphenol biomarkers in Japanese women
    • Abstract: Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Harrison, Amy; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H
      Background and Objectives: Despite the demonstrated protective effects of green tea and coffee intake against several chronic diseases, finding between studies have not been consistent. One potential reason of this discrepancy is the imprecision in the measurement of tea or coffee consumption using food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and food record (FR) in epidemiological studies.

      Methods and Study Design: In a sample of 57 healthy Japanese women, intake of green tea and coffee was estimated by a validated FFQ and a 3-day FR, while their plasma and urine concentrations of polyphenol biomarkers were measured by HPLC. The polyphenols assessed included (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)- epicatechin (EC), caffeic acid (CA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA).

      Results: Green tea consumption estimated by FFQ and FR showed moderate association, while strong association was detected for coffee consumption. Urinary green tea polyphenol concentrations were moderately-strongly associated with FR-estimated intake, while the associations were weak with FFQ. Similarly, coffee polyphenols in urine were moderately associated with FR-estimated coffee intake, whereas FFQ showed poor correlation. The associations between urinary and plasma polyphenols ranged from moderate to high.

      Conclusions: The results indicated that firstly, the FFQ tends to overestimate green tea intake. Secondly, the urinary polyphenols are preferred over plasma polyphenols as a potential surrogate marker of the short-term green tea and coffee intake, while their use as an indicator of long-term consumption is not reliable.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns, dietary lead exposure and
           hypertension in the older Chinese population
    • Abstract: Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie E; Shi, Zumin; Hall, John J
      Background and Objectives: With rapid population ageing and an increasing rate of hypertension in China, this study aims to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary lead and hypertension among older Chinese population.

      Methods and Study Design: We analysed the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey data (2,634 individuals with dietary and hypertension measurement data, aged >=60 years). Dietary data were obtained using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Dietary lead intake is based on a published systematic review of food lead concentration and dietary lead exposure in China. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Poisson regression and multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore the association between dietary patterns and hypertension.

      Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 47.0% in men and 48.9% in women. Traditional dietary pattern (high intake of rice, pork and vegetables) was significantly inversely associated with known hypertension. In the fully adjusted model, compared with the lowest quartile of traditional dietary pattern, the highest quartile had a lower risk of known hypertension, with Relative Risk Ratio=0.69 (95% CI: 0.50; 0.95). However, associations between modern dietary pattern and hypertension differed by urbanization; an inverse, positive and null association was seen in low, medium and high urbanization. Additionally, dietary lead showed a significant positive association with hypertension and known hypertension.

      Conclusions: Policies that facilitate and promote healthy diets, and the availability of healthy foods particularly at the regional and local levels, are important for the prevention of hypertension.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Ambient temperature-related exaggerated post-prandial
           insulin response in a young athlete: A case report and implications for
           climate change
    • Abstract: Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Faure, Cecile; Hue, Olivier; Henri, Stephane
      The objective is to present the case of a 21-yr-old athlete observed with non-physiological immediate postprandial insulin response (1162 pmol/l; normal glucose excursion: 6.6 mmol/l), in a warm environment. No suspicion or evidence of any underlying pathology was found in this well-trained Afro-Caribbean male runner. He never reported any hypoglycemic episode. When performing the same protocol performed in a cooler environment (21.0 degreesC vs 30.3 degreesC), only physiological responses were observed. We conclude that 1) youth, leanness and regular exercise training are not absolutely protective against glucose metabolism impairment in apparently healthy subjects; 2) ambient temperature should be regarded as a potential source of glucose metabolism impairment.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Taste perception and diet in people of Chinese
           ancestry
    • Abstract: Leong, Claudia Shu-Fen; Forde, Ciaran G; Tey, Siew Ling; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
      Background and Objectives: Taste perception plays a key role in consumer acceptance and food choice, which has an important impact on human health. Our aim was to examine the relationship between taste intensities and preferences of sweet (sucrose), salty (sodium chloride and potassium chloride), sour (citric acid), and bitter (qui-nine and phenylthiocarbamide) in relation to dietary intake and dietary patterns in people of Chinese ancestry.

      Methods and Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 100 adult Singaporean Chinese (50 women). A validated taste methodology was used with taste solutions provided by Monell Chemical Senses Center. Dietary intake and patterns were assessed by dietary recalls.

      Results: There was little relationship between taste intensity and tastant preference in regard to background dietary intake or pattern. Tastant differentiation was reliable, but there was some confusion in regard to the rating of saltiness as sourness.

      Conclusions: There was a salty-sour confusion among Singaporean Chinese unlike the bitter-sour confusion reported for Caucasians. Most sodium came from sauces and was added during food preparation. In programs to address sodium: potassium ratio excess among Chinese prone to hypertension and stroke, sour as well as salty taste may need to be considered.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus at
           child care centers in south Korea and Japan
    • Abstract: Kwon, Sooyoun; Yeoh, Yoonjae; Abe, Satoko
      Background and Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the nutritional quality and patterns of lunch menus provided by child care centers in South Korea and Japan.

      Methods and Study Design: The weekly lunch menus from Monday to Saturday that child care centers provided in November 2014 in South Korea and Japan were analyzed. For Korea, a total of 72 meals provided by 12 centers in Seoul were analyzed by referring to the homepage of the Center for Children's Foodservice Management, which serviced menus for child care centers. For Japan, a total of 30 meals provided by 5 child care centers in Tokyo were analyzed. Nutrient content and pattern in lunch menus were evaluated.

      Results: The lunch menus in Korea and Japan provided 359.5 kcal (25.7% of the estimated energy requirement) and 376.3 kcal (29.5% of the estimated energy requirement), respectively. 'Rice + Soup + Main dish + Side dish I + Side dish II' were provided in 66.7% of meals in Korea, while various patterns with rice and soup as their bases were provided in Japan.

      Conclusions: The lunch menus of child care centers in Korea and Japan provide similar amounts of energy, protein, carbohydrate, vitamin A, calcium, and other nutrients. However, there were significant differences in the lunch menu patterns in Korea and Japan. This study provides information about the nutritional content and pattern of lunch menus at child care centers in Asian countries with rice as a staple food.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education
           for enhancing nutrition knowledge and improving nutritional behaviour
           among adolescents
    • Abstract: Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming
      Background and Objectives: The integration of nutrition knowledge into nutritional behaviour can help children to develop a healthy lifestyle that may be carried forward into adulthood. E-learning enables students to take ownership of recording their dietary intake and modify their diets by making their own decisions regarding food choices and portion sizes through reflective feedback. This study investigated the role of behavioural feedback in nutrition education in modifying students' nutrition knowledge and behaviour.

      Methods and Study Design: Ninety-five secondary students studying from Secondary 1 to Secondary 3 were recruited from five schools. Moreover, 50 and 45 students were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, respectively. Nutrition education delivered through e-learning (NeL) was adopted to record students' diets. Online reports with behavioural feedback were provided for the experimental group but not for the control group. NeL sessions lasted for 12 weeks. The energy and nutrient profiles of the students were recorded as pre-post measurements. Pre-post nutrition knowledge was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and after intervention.

      Results: The experimental group had significantly higher scores in the 'dietary recommendation' and 'food choices' domains of the questionnaire and demonstrated significant dietary improvement in the intake of all studied macronutrients and micronutrients.

      Conclusions: Nutrition education conducted with behavioural feedback can effectively improve adolescents' nutrition knowledge and nutritional behaviour.

      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 19:56:31 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary patterns, dietary biomarkers, and kidney
           disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: A repeated-measure study in
           taiwan
    • Abstract: Chung, Hsin-Fang; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Long, Kurt Z; Huang, Ya-Fang; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Meng-Chuan
      Background and Objectives: Western dietary patterns have been linked with kidney disease. This study investigated the association between Chinese dietary patterns and kidney disease in a Taiwanese population with type 2 diabetes and evaluated dietary fatty acid patterns, a kidney-related dietary biomarker.

      Methods and Study Design: We recruited 838 patients with type 2 diabetes and used their dietary and renal data obtained from three repeated measures in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Diet was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires, and factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. Albuminuria was defined by having an albumin-to-creatinine ratio >=30 mg/g and kidney dysfunction by estimated glomerular filtration rate
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Regular egg consumption at breakfast by Japanese woman
           university students improves daily nutrient intakes: Open-labeled
           observations
    • Abstract: Taguchi, Chie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Saita, Emi; Usuda, Mika; Wang, Wei; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kondo, Kazuo
      Background and Objectives: Eggs, an important source of high-quality protein, contain a variety of key nutrients and antioxidants. Here we conducted an intervention study to evaluate whether the additional consumption of one egg per day would affect the daily nutritional intakes and blood antioxidant status in Japanese woman university students.

      Methods and Study Design: For 4 weeks, the 14 subjects were provided a nutritious breakfast including one boiled egg, and they were asked to keep a daily dietary record.

      Results: The subjects' daily energy intake during the intervention did not differ compared to the baseline, whereas the protein energy ratio and cholesterol intake were significantly increased. The subjects' consumption of confectionery during the intervention was significantly decreased compared to the pre-trial period. The total score of adherence to the food-based Japanese dietary guidelines for a healthy diet during the intervention was higher than that at baseline. The analysis of fasting blood samples showed that the subjects' serum lipids levels were not altered, whereas their malondialdehyde modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) levels and the oxidative susceptibility of LDL were significantly reduced after the intervention. More importantly, serum folic acid levels were significantly increased.

      Conclusions: Our results suggest that regular egg consumption at breakfast can help improve the daily nutritional status and dietary habits and also ameliorate certain indices of antioxidant status in young women.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - The effects of green kiwifruit combined with
           isoflavones on equol production, bone turnover and gut microflora in
           healthy postmenopausal women
    • Abstract: Kruger, Marlena C; Middlemiss, Catherine; Katsumata, Shinichi; Tousen, Yuko; Ishimi, Yoshiko
      Background and Objectives: Isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) interventions in postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent skeletal benefits, partly due to population heterogeneity in daidzein metabolism to equol by enteric bacteria. This study assessed changes in microflora and bone turnover in response to isoflavone and ki-wifruit supplementation in New Zealand postmenopausal women.

      Methods and Study Design: Healthy women 1-10 years post-menopause were randomly allocated to group A (n=16) or B (n=17) for a 16-week crossover trial. Two consecutive 6-week treatment periods had a 2-week lead-in period at intervention commencement and a 2-week washout period between treatments. Treatments prescribed either (1) daily isoflavone supplementation (50 mg/day aglycone daidzein and genistein) alone, or (2) with two green kiwifruit. At treatment baseline and end-point (four time points) the serum bone markers C Telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx), undercarboxylated os-teocalcin (unOC), and serum and urinary daidzein and equol, were measured. Changes in gut microflora were monitored in a subgroup of the women.

      Results: Equol producers made up 30% of this study population (equol producers n=10; non-equol producers n=23) with serum equol rising significantly in equol producers. Serum ucOC decreased by 15.5% (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Astaxanthin improves glucose metabolism and reduces
           blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Mashhadi, Nafiseh Sokri; Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Mohammadiasl, Javad; Zarei, Mehdi; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein
      Background and Objectives: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 8 weeks to investigate the potential effects of astaxanthin (AST) supplementation on the adiponectin concentration, lipid peroxidation, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and anthropometric indices in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

      Methods and Study Design: We enrolled 44 participants with type 2 diabetes who met our inclusion criteria. Eight milligrams of AST supplementation or a placebo were randomly administered once daily for 8 weeks to these participants.

      Results: The 8-week administration of AST supplementation increased the serum adiponectin concentration and reduced visceral body fat mass (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Effects of grass jelly on glycemic control:
           Hydrocolloids may inhibit gut carbohydrase
    • Abstract: Lim, Joseph; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
      Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the hydrocolloid properties of grass jelly on reducing glycaemic response, (2) the impact of phenolic compounds in Mesona chinensis L. on glycaemic response. Methods and Study Design: A total of 15 healthy Chinese men were recruited to this study. On each visit, subjects consumed one of the following three treatments, i.e. glucose solution (T1), grass jelly (Mesona chinensis L.) solution with glucose (T2) or grass jelly gel with glucose (T3). Capillary blood glucose and venous plasma insulin were analysed over a period of 180 min. Results: The incremental area under the curve for capillary glucose and venous plasma insulin for glucose group, grass jelly solution group and grass jelly gel was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). In a previous study the co-ingestion of grass jelly with complex carbohydrate was found to reduce glycaemic response. The key difference between the two studies was the use of monosaccharide glucose in the present study, compared to complex carbohydrates in the other. The present study suggests that the glycaemic lowering effect of grass jelly may be dependent on the inhibition of carbohydrase enzymes. Conclusions: The co-ingestion of Mesona chinensis L. appears to reduce glycaemic response of only complex carbohydrates through the inhibition of carbohydrase. This conclusion was arrived at by the lack of any effect of Mesona chinensis L. on the monosaccharide glucose.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Consumption and sources of added sugar in Thailand: A
           review
    • Abstract: Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia V
      Background and Objectives: The present review examined the best available evidence regarding consumption levels and sources of added sugar in different population groups in Thailand.

      Methods and Study Design: Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, food consumption surveys, government reports, published and unpublished studies.

      Results: A total of 24 references were obtained, comprising 8 nationally representative reports and 16 individual studies. Results were inconsistent. The National Statistical Office reported an available supply of 83 g sugar per capita per day in 2010. The 2009 Food Consumption Survey of Thai Population showed median intake of sugar and sweeteners for all age groups ranging from 2.0 to 20.0 g per day among males and from 2.0 to 15.7 g per day among females (below the Thai recommendation of 40 to 55 g/day). Studies on children suggested intake levels between 25 to 50 g/day, while studies on adults were inconsistent. Frequently consumed sources were table sugar, sweetened beverages, and sweet snacks (traditional desserts, baked products, crispy snacks).

      Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists regarding intake levels and sources of added sugar in Thailand. Limitations were the use of food frequency questionnaires or a single 24-h recall to assess intake, and outdated studies with small sample sizes. An updated nationally representative survey using improved methods is needed to determine the levels and sources of sugar intake in different population groups. These include biomarkers to establish levels of consumption and multiple 24-h recalls (at least two) to identify food sources that contribute significantly to excess sugar intake.

      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Childhood overweight and obesity amongst primary
           school children in hai phong City, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Ngan, Hoang Thi Duc; Tuyen, Le Danh; van Phu, Pham; Nambiar, Smita
      Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is a rising health concern in Vietnam, however, research in this area is not extensive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and to study associations between weight status and selected lifestyle factors, such as diet and physical activity levels, among children aged 6-10 years in Hai Phong City, Vietnam.

      Methods and Study Design: Two hundred and seventy-six children from an urban and a rural primary school participated in this cross-sectional study. Data on weight, height and waist circumference were used to calculate BMI, and waist-height ratio to determine the proportion of children who were overweight, obese and had high central adiposity. Information on diet, physical activity and socioeconomic status of families was collected using questionnaires.

      Results: Prevalences of overweight, obesity and high abdominal adiposity were 11.2%, 10.1% and 19.9%, respectively. Children who completed >=60 minutes of physical activity daily were 50% and 80% less likely to be overweight and have high abdominal adiposity, respectively. Computer usage increased the odds of overweight and high abdominal adiposity by 4.5 and 3.9 times, respectively. Mothers with higher education and income levels increased the risk of their children being overweight (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Breast milk and infant iodine status during the first
           12 weeks of lactation in Tianjin City, china
    • Abstract: Wang, Wei; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Yixin; Chen, Wen; Tan, Long; Shen, Jun; Zhao, Zhuo; Lan, Shuhai; Zhang, Wanqi
      Background and Objectives: The present study investigated the iodine status of breast milk and breast-fed infants during the first 12 weeks postpartum in Tianjin, China.

      Methods and Study Design: A total of 175 pregnant women were recruited before delivery. Their breastmilk and 24-h urine samples were collected at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum; spot urine samples were simultaneously collected from their infants. The iodine content of the samples was measured.

      Results: The mean breast milk iodine concentrations (BMICs) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks were 221.7+-103.5 mug/L, 175.2+-76.2 mug/L, and 148.1+-66.2 mug/L, respectively. Significant differences existed between the mean BMICs of the three sampling times (F=12.449, p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Differences in brain-derived neurotrophic factor
           between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin
    • Abstract: Gustuti, Rina; Indrawati, Lipoeto Nur; Machmud, Rizanda
      Background and Objectives: Maternal iron deficiency in late pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum period has an indirect impact to decrease neurotrophin concentration in the fetal hippocampus, namely brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It plays an important role in the development of learning, memory, and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in BDNF between neonates born to mothers with normal and low ferritin.

      Methods and Study Design: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional design involving 20 term pregnant women with normal ferritin (>=12 ng/mL) and 20 term pregnant women with low ferritin (
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and
           associated risk factors in pregnant Chinese women: A cross-sectional study
           in Huangdao, Qingdao, china
    • Abstract: Wu, Li; Han, Lei; Zhan, Ying; Cui, Lianhua; Chen, Wei'ai; Ma, Li; Lv, Jing; Pan, Rongfang; Zhao, Didi; Xiao, Ziyi
      Background and Objectives: This study explored the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Chinese pregnant women and identified risk factors for GDM after the implementation of the universal two-child policy.

      Methods and Study Design: On the basis of income and population, we randomly selected three hospitals through stratified and cluster sampling. From January 1 to July 31, 2016, 4959 women who had been registered within 12 weeks of gestation received a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 24-28 gestational weeks. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria were used for the diagnosis of GDM.

      Results: The OGTT was positive in 1080 (21.8%; 1080/4959) women, who were then diagnosed as having GDM on the basis of their results. GDM was positively associated with the following factors: advanced maternal age (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
  • Volume 27 Issue 2 - Dietary glycemic load and metabolic status in newly
           diagnosed type 2 diabetes in southeastern china
    • Abstract: Lin, Xiuhong; Chen, Chaogang; Lin, Diaozhu; Xu, Mingtong; Yuan, Zhimin; He, Fengyi; Yan, Li
      Background and Objectives: Large-scale epidemiological investigations worldwide have shown that dietary glycemic load is associated with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. However, only a few studies have examined the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids in Chinese diabetic patients. Therefore, this study aimed to determine these correlations in southeastern China.

      Methods and Study Design: 201 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and 126 participants with normal blood glucose were enrolled at the Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangdong Province. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic load were assessed based on 3-day dietary records. Using glycemic load as the dependent variable, a correlation analysis and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the correlations between glycemic load and blood glucose and lipids.

      Results: The mean glycemic load in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that in the control group (p
      PubDate: Tue, 6 Feb 2018 00:32:23 GMT
       
 
 
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