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Showing 1 - 200 of 400 Journals sorted alphabetically
40 [degrees] South     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Aboriginal Child at School     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
About Performance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Access     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
ACCESS: Critical Perspectives on Communication, Cultural & Policy Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
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ACORN : The J. of Perioperative Nursing in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.103, h-index: 4)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advocate: Newsletter of the National Tertiary Education Union     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agenda: A J. of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agora     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
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Agricultural Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
AIMA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Ancient History : Resources for Teachers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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Annals of the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 11)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Appita J.: J. of the Technical Association of the Australian and New Zealand Pulp and Paper Industry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.18, h-index: 27)
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription  
Arena J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Around the Globe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Artefact : the journal of the Archaeological and Anthropological Society of Victoria     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Artlink     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Nutrition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.672, h-index: 51)
Asia Pacific J. of Health Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Aurora J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 8)
Australasian Catholic Record, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Australasian Epidemiologist     Full-text available via subscription  
Australasian Historical Archaeology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australasian J. of Early Childhood     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.174, h-index: 1)
Australasian J. of Gifted Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.115, h-index: 3)
Australasian J. of Human Security, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian J. of Irish Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australasian J. of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
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Australasian Leisure Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australasian Musculoskeletal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australasian Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Parks and Leisure     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Plant Conservation: J. of the Australian Network for Plant Conservation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Public Libraries and Information Services     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Aboriginal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 6)
Australian Advanced Aesthetics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Ageing Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian and New Zealand Continence J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Art Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian Bookseller & Publisher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Bulletin of Labour     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Canegrower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Coeliac     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.143, h-index: 4)
Australian Family Physician     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.364, h-index: 31)
Australian Field Ornithology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.141, h-index: 6)
Australian Forest Grower     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Forestry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.252, h-index: 24)
Australian Grain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Holstein J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Humanist, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Australian Intl. Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian J. of Acupuncture and Chinese Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.106, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Adult Learning     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.159, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Advanced Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 26)
Australian J. of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian J. of Cancer Nursing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Civil Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.17, h-index: 3)
Australian J. of Dyslexia and Learning Difficulties     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Emergency Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.401, h-index: 18)
Australian J. of French Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Herbal Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.109, h-index: 7)
Australian J. of Language and Literacy, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.399, h-index: 9)
Australian J. of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Australian J. of Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.129, h-index: 4)
Australian J. of Medical Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.122, h-index: 5)
Australian J. of Multi-Disciplinary Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Music Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian J. of Music Therapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian J. of Parapsychology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J. of Social Issues     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.178, h-index: 20)
Australian J. of Structural Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 8)
Australian J. of Water Resources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.226, h-index: 9)
Australian J. on Volunteering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian J.ism Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Life Scientist     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 2)
Australian Literary Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.1, h-index: 6)
Australian Mathematics Teacher, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Nursing J. : ANJ     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian Orthoptic J.     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Screen Education Online     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Senior Mathematics J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Sugarcane     Full-text available via subscription  
Australian TAFE Teacher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Tax Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Australian Universities' Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Voice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The J. of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
BOCSAR NSW Alcohol Studies Bulletins     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bookseller + Publisher Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Breastfeeding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.31, h-index: 19)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Brolga: An Australian J. about Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.143, h-index: 10)
Cardiovascular Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Childrenz Issues: J. of the Children's Issues Centre     Full-text available via subscription  
Chiropractic J. of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 3)
Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Church Heritage     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The J. of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.567, h-index: 27)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Communities, Children and Families Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Connect     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Contemporary PNG Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Context: J. of Music Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Corporate Governance Law Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Creative Approaches to Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Critical Care and Resuscitation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.737, h-index: 24)
Cultural Studies Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Culture Scope     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Current Issues in Criminal Justice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dance Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
DANZ Quarterly: New Zealand Dance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Day Surgery Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Developing Practice : The Child, Youth and Family Work J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Early Days: J. of the Royal Western Australian Historical Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Early Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
EarthSong J.: Perspectives in Ecology, Spirituality and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
East Asian Archives of Psychiatry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 7)
Educare News: The National Newspaper for All Non-government Schools     Full-text available via subscription  
Educating Young Children: Learning and Teaching in the Early Childhood Years     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Education in Rural Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Education, Research and Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Educational Research J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Electronic J. of Radical Organisation Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Employment Relations Record     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
English in Aotearoa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
English in Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 6)
Essays in French Literature and Culture     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Extempore     Full-text available via subscription  
Family Matters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 8)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Fijian Studies: A J. of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Focus on Health Professional Education : A Multi-disciplinary J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Food New Zealand     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fourth World J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Frontline     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Future Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gambling Research: J. of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Gay and Lesbian Law J.     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Gender Impact Assessment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Geographical Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Geriatric Medicine in General Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
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Journal Cover Australian Forestry
  [SJR: 0.252]   [H-I: 24]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0004-9158
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [400 journals]
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Notice to contributors
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Letters to the editor
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Social impacts of the regional forest agreement on
           members of the forest industry in North-Eastern New South Wales
    • Abstract: Loxton, Edwina A; Schirmer, Jacki; Kanowski, Peter
      Reduced access to publicly-owned native forests for timber harvesting affects businesses and workers whose livelihoods depend on this timber. We explored the social impacts experienced by members of the forest industry, defined here to encompass businesses and individuals involved in native forest management and the harvesting, hauling, sawmilling and processing of timber from publicly-owned native forests. The study focused on one region in Australia, upper north-eastern New South Wales, where policy and management changes both preceded and followed a Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) signed by the Commonwealth and New South Wales governments in 2000. The process of developing the RFA was protracted and signified the culmination of some 20 years of activism by the conservation movement which had progressively restricted the forest industry's access to public native forest resources. The area of publicly-owned native forest in reserve increased by about 190%, and further restrictions were placed on the harvesting of the remaining area, thus requiring reductions in timber harvesting so as to maintain a sustained yield. The RFA process included ex-ante social impact assessments, and a Forest Industry Structural Adjustment Package to assist members of the forest industry to mitigate negative impacts and take advantage of new opportunities. Since the agreement was concluded, little follow-up (ex-post facto) social impact assessment has been undertaken to assess the negative and positive social impacts experienced by members of the forest industry, the ways in which businesses and individuals responded, or the effectiveness of government mitigation measures to assist them. Our study investigated each of these topics. Our results suggest that members of the forest industry experienced multiple negative and positive impacts over four stages: the anticipatory, initial-response, longer-term and subsequent-change stages. Participants' experiences of change and of positive and negative social impacts were influenced by their individual motivations, fears, skills and responses. These factors were influenced by the extent to which participants were able to respond proactively, the changes and impacts they anticipated they would experience, and their access to information and support via mitigation measures.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Assessment of Western Australian sandalwood seeds for
           seed oil production
    • Abstract: Hettiarachchi, Dhanushka S; Liu, Yandi; Jose, Sonia; Boddy, Michael R; Fox, John E.D; Sunderland, Bruce
      The Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum R.Br.) industry is transforming into an agro-forestry industry in which the seeds are being considered as a valuable secondary income-generating product. Oil extracted from the seeds has a potential use in the cosmetic industry. This study aimed to identify the quality parameters for seeds to obtain oil of better and consistent quality, and the effect of seed source, seed size and storage time. Different seed samples varied in oil content, moisture content and fatty acid profile. Larger seeds from plantation trees in the wheatbelt region of Western Australia are the most suitable source of seed oil thus far evaluated. The seed grading system currently used by the sandalwood industry was suitable for selecting seeds from plantations (but not from natural stands in arid regions - 'wild wood') for seed oil production. Basic parameters for the selection of seeds for oil extraction were identified.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Improving the productivity of mechanised harvesting
           systems using remote sensing
    • Abstract: Alam, Muhammad M; Strandgard, Martin N; Brown, Mark W; Fox, Julian C
      Mechanised harvesting operations are popular in Australia because of their productivity and efficiency, improved worker safety and reduced cost of operations. Most research has found that the productivity and efficiency of a mechanised harvesting system is affected by a number of factors such as forest stand characteristics, terrain variables, operator skill and machinery limitations. However, current studies did not quantify these factors sufficiently to evaluate the productivity and efficiency effects that can guide allocation of different harvesting equipment. This article reviews the literature on how major forest stand characteristics such as tree size and undergrowth affect the productivity and efficiency of a harvesting machine and/or system in clearfelling operations, and explores the application of remote sensing technology including multi-spectral imagery and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) to identify and quantify these characteristics to allow for better harvest planning and harvest system allocation. It is concluded that by evaluating the interactions between each of these factors and different types of harvesting equipment, an empirical model could be developed to optimise the use of current harvesting systems and assist the selection of more cost-effective harvesting machinery, using remote sensing.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Cytokinin concentrations for optimal micropropagation
           of 'Corymbia torelliana x C. citriodora'
    • Abstract: Hung, Cao Dinh; Trueman, Stephen J
      The eucalypt Corymbia torelliana x C. citriodora is grown in subtropical Australia, India and Brazil, but plantation establishment has been limited by inadequate seed supply and low amenability to propagation using conventional cuttings. We have recently developed tissue culture methods for propagation, storage and distribution of this hybrid, using low to moderate concentrations (0-2.2 muM) of the cytokinin benzyladenine (BA) for proliferating shoots in vitro. In this study, we determined the effects of higher BA concentrations (2.2-17.8 muM) on shoot proliferation and the subsequent conversion of shoots into plantlets in five full-sibling C. torelliana x C. citriodora families. We found that 4.4 muM BA provided consistently high shoot proliferation in all families (137 +/- 46 to 858 +/- 175 shoots from each seed in 21 weeks), complete survival of clones (100%), very high conversion of shoots into plantlets (91 +/- 4% to 99 +/- 1%) and excellent formation of adventitious roots (3.6 +/- 0.1 to 4.5 +/- 0.1 roots per plantlet). This method will allow simultaneous archiving and testing of C. torelliana x C. citriodora germplasm in the laboratory, nursery and plantation as part of a clonal forestry or vegetative family forestry program.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Estimated heartwood weights and oil concentrations
           within 16-year-old Indian sandalwood ('Santalum album') trees planted near
           Kununurra, Western Australia
    • Abstract: Brand, Jonathan E; Norris, Len J; Dumbrell, Ian C
      Thirty-two Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) trees aged 16 y, growing near Kununurra (Western Australia), were harvested, de-barked and weighed to determine their commercial wood (heartwood and sapwood) weights. within each tree, heartwood area, percentage and weight were measured in stem cross-sections at five different heights (0, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00m above the ground) in the main stem, and used to estimate total heartwood volume and weight. Heartwood oil concentration and a-and B-santalol concentrations were also measured at the same heights in each tree. At age 16 y, the 32 S. album trees had mean estimated air-dry weights (at 12% moisture content) of 5.8 kg heartwood tree-1 and 43.7 kg sapwood tree-1. The mean air-dry wood densities were 940 kg m-3 for the heartwood and 840 kg m-3 for the sapwood. Estimated heartwood weight was variable between trees, with the three largest trees each containing 24-30 kg heartwood, while nine other trees each had 0-1 kg heartwood. The S. album plantation in this study contained about 260 trees ha-1, and its predicted yields (air-dry weight) at age 16 y were 1.5 t heartwood ha-1 and 11.4 t sapwood ha-1. Within each tree, the mean oil concentration (w/w air dry) ranged from 6.2% (at 0 m) to 2.9% (at 3.00 m). Overall, the mean oil concentration within the heartwood was 5.0%, giving estimated yields of 0.28 kg oil tree-1 and 73 kg oil ha-1 (based on 260 trees ha-1). The mean a-santalol concentration (44-50%) and B-santalol concentration (18-20%) at the five different tree heights met the current ISO standard for S.oil. In the 16-y-old S.trees, over-bark stem diameter at 300 mm above the ground correlated well to both total air-dry weight of wood (heartwood and sapwood) per tree (r2 = 0.88) and heartwood air-dry weight per tree (r2 = 0.87). This indicated that large-diameter trees had markedly higher heartwood weights.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 4 - Genetic variation in growth, cold tolerance and
           coppicing in 'Eucalyptus dunnii' in trials in Hunan, China
    • Abstract: Li, Bohai; Arnold, Roger; Luo,, Jianzhong; Li, Zhihui
      Eighty-four open-pollinated families of Eucalyptus dunnii representing 14 natural stand seed sources and one seed orchard source from Australia were established at two sites in central and southern Hunan province in 2004. These were assessed at ages 2.5-3.5 y (around half the average rotation length of eucalypt plantations in China) for tree growth and stem straightness at both sites and cold tolerance at age 3.5 y at the central site. At the southern site, all trees were cut back to stumps at about age 3.5 y, following ice storms that led to stem breakage of almost all trees. Subsequently, the coppicing traits of number of sprouts per stump and DBH and height of the largest sprout per stump were assessed at 12 months after felling. Significant differences were observed among seed sources for almost all traits. At each site, average individual tree volume of the best seed source was more than 60% above that of the poorest. The magnitude of variation among families within seed sources was generally greater and more often significant than the variation among seed sources - especially for average tree volume. The magnitude of the variations observed in stem form, though significant statistically, were small. Significant seed source differences were found also for cold tolerance at the central site and for all three coppice traits at the southern site. Estimates of within-seed-source individual-tree heritability for individual-tree volume in 2007 at the southern site and in 2006 at the central Hunan site were 0.11 +/- 0.07 and 0.17 +/- 0.15 respectively and that for stem straightness at the southern site was 0.17 +/- 0.07. Heritabilities for coppice traits, assessed only at the southern site, ranged from 0.14 +/- 0.11 for number of sprouts per stump and up to 0.42 +/- 0.17 for DBH of the largest coppice on each stump. Heritability for cold tolerance at the central Hunan site was 0.11 +/- 0.10. These heritabilities and favourable phenotypic and genetic correlations indicate selection would be effective to improve both volume and growth of subsequent coppice development. These results indicate emphasis should be placed on selecting the best candidate trees of E. dunnii regardless of their seed source for inclusion in future breeding and propagation populations of this species in Hunan. Together, the results presented support the value of investing in E. dunnii's genetic improvement; significant gains could be delivered to commercial growers and investors including enhanced financial prospects and decreased risks for commercial plantations of this species.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Notice to contributors
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Letter to the editor
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - The future of the world's forests - ideas vs
           ideologies [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Sands, Roger
      Review(s) of: The future of the world's forests - ideas vs ideologies, by Jim Douglas and Markuu Simula, Springer, 2010, xiii + 211 pp. ISBN 9789048195817, Hardcover $159.95.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Current status and future prospects for carbon
           forestry in Australia
    • Abstract: Mitchell, Christopher D; Harper, Richard J; Keenan, Rodney J
      Carbon forestry is part of a suite of land-based activities that can be used to mitigate carbon emissions, and also provide a range of other environmental co-benefits. Components are included in the Carbon Credits (Carbon Farming Initiative) Act 2011. There is large divergence in Australian estimates of the areas of land that may be used for carbon forests and there has been a vigorous public debate about carbon forestry, partly based on concerns about displacement of food-producing land. We identify four distinct afforestation or reforestation (AR) activities that involve carbon mitigation and suggest a terminology based on these. These are (1) 'plantations' that also produce timber and wood products, (2)carbon-focused' sinks, (3)environmental' or natural resource management plantings and (4)bioenergy' plantings for use either as a feedstock for stationary energy production or transport fuels. After accounting for AR projects established for other purposes (e.g. timber and pulpwood), we estimate that the current area of carbon forests in Australia is 65 000 ha. Despite the national Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 and its 2010 amendments there are few extant biomass projects. However this may change with the development of new technologies and the imposition of a carbon price on electricity production. The reasons for the gulf between actual and potential carbon AR activity are proposed to include (1) the absence of a formal carbon compliance scheme, (2) challenges in managing carbon through an entire product cycle, (3)degree of understanding of carbon forestry by financiers, (4) landholder preference, (5) technical barriers and (6) regulatory uncertainty. We suggest an extension of the National Plantation Inventory from traditional plantations to carbon forestry, so that future policy can be developed on the basis of good-quality underpinning information that can be disaggregated to analyse trends in AR for different purposes. To encourage innovation in the sector, we also suggest either the extension or establishment of research and development funding arrangements, similar to those already existing for other rural industries.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Future forestry employment and education
    • Abstract: Ferguson, Ian
      Formal and informal rules create an institutional framework that governs the operations of a democratic society. They require various forms of organisational structures to implement them. These are the oft-forgotten links in sustainable forest management and good forest governance. This paper examines some of the major causal influences that have shaped and are shaping institutional frameworks and supporting organisations in Australia and that are likely to influence forestry employment and education. These include sometimes conflicting, sometimes complementary, influences between state and corporate forestry, industrial and smallholder forestry, in-house expertise and contracting out, regulation and certification, and decentralisation and centralisation. Because institutional change is often largely a political response to satisfy different constituents, change is likely to continue, with increasing diversity in the resulting organisations and complexity in their interactions. Competitive market processes will increasingly replace bureaucratic allocation and management wherever commercial products and services are supplied or wherever potentially commercial services can be hived off from state departments. Almost every conceivable combination now exists in the organisational structures responsible for state forestry policy, regulation, commercial timber management, reserve management, research and fire management across the different states of Australia. The greatest challenge for forestry education in Australia is whether the gulf in the mutual perceptions of the major timber management and reserve management organisations can be bridged to take advantage of the mutual concerns while acknowledging and respecting the differences. Forestry education needs revision to deal with the demands for core subjects and specialisation, the roles of kindred education courses, manageable costs, and the differing needs of polity in relation to forestry.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Public participation in commercial environments:
           Critical reflections on community engagement methods used in the
           Australian plantation forestry industry
    • Abstract: Dare, Melanie; Vanclay, Frank; Schirmer, Jacki
      Social concerns surrounding commercial plantation forest management practices in Australia have resulted in calls for more participatory forms of forest management decision-making. Public participation (or community engagement, CE) processes provide opportunities for affected and interested community members to voice their concerns over proposed plantation management activities, share relevant information and influence decision-making processes. A large body of literature provides ample support for the adoption of more participatory forms of resource management. The literature, however, provides little guidance on implementing such processes within the commercial domain of plantation forest management. Based on a review of the public participation literature and key informant interviews, we highlight the gaps between CE in practice in Australian commercial plantation management, and the theoretical objectives of CE: trust, process flexibility, inclusivity and representation. These gaps stem from the need to implement CE techniques in a way that recognises the commercial and regulatory realities of plantation forest management. While participatory techniques currently used by plantation managers meet some of the ideal objectives of 'good' participation and there is room for improvement, this improvement can take place only if CE practitioners recognise and address the commercial realities of CE implementation within plantation management, and acknowledge the limited practical applicability of some theoretical objectives.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Field testing desire delta trap and GLS sex pheromone
           lure system for measuring outbreak and basal populations of 'Uraba lugens'
           Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae)
    • Abstract: Farr, Janet D; Wills, Allan J
      In December 2009 and January 2010 an outbreak of Uraba lugens Walker (Lepidoptera: Nolidae), the gumleaf skeletonizer (GLS) that affects jarrah, Eucalyptus marginata, became apparent in south-western Western Australia in the vicinity of Yanmah (34 degrees9 S, 116 degrees01 E), Carter (34 degrees05 S, 116 degrees02 E) and Quinninup (34 degrees23 S, 116 degrees17 E) forest blocks. By the end of January 2011 the outbreak severely affected more than 250 000 ha of jarrah forest. This study is a preliminary field trial of the Desire(r) GLS pheromone lure and trap system that compares trap results with larval populations determined from branch-clip samples. Thirteen of 19 sites for deployment of the trap and lure system were selected from an array of 61 sites from which GLS larval density data from November 2010 had been collected, and trap sites included six Forestcheck sites, for which long-term monitoring of forest condition had been undertaken. These 19 sites were across a rainfall gradient, and provided a strong contrast in outbreak severity between eastern and western sites. The GLS lure was highly specific for GLS, with a mean capture rate of 55 male moths per site. However, a trap at a site with a thick tall understorey that had supported a large larval population captured only four moths. The trap and GLS lure system are effective for monitoring both outbreak and basal populations of GLS in jarrah forest with an open understory. Moth captures from lure traps are an effective alternative to monitoring GLS larval populations, with the reservation that the trap system has impaired effectiveness in locations with thick understory that exceeds the trap height.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Genetic variation in growth and stem straightness in
           'Eucalyptus saligna' trials in Fujian
    • Abstract: Hesheng, Lan; Xiumei, Huang; Jianzhong, Luo; Arnold, Roger J
      Trials of two groups of Eucalyptus saligna families, with 84 open-pollinated families representing nine natural stand provenances from Australia, were established at three sites in central and northern Fujian province in 2002. At age 3.5 y (about half the average rotation length for eucalypt plantations in south-eastern China) these were assessed for tree growth, stem straightness, branching habit and self-pruning ability, whilst cold tolerance was assessed at the coolest site at about age 3 y. Significant differences were observed in some of the trials variously between provenances and families-within-provenances for growth (average tree volume), stem and branch form traits and cold tolerance. Average individual-tree volume was sensitively dependent on both genetics and environment - tree volume among trial sites varied up to six-fold, but within any one trial, average tree volume of the best provenance was only about 30% above that of the poorest provenance. The magnitude of variation between families-within-provenances was generally greater and more often significant than the variation between provenances - especially for average tree volume. The magnitude of variations observed for stem and branch form traits were generally minor. At the coldest site, some significant provenance differences were also found for cold tolerance. Estimates of within-provenance individual-tree heritability for individual-tree volume ranged from 0.00 to 0.21 +/- 0.12 and those for stem straightness, branching habit and self-pruning ability ranged from 0.00 to 0.10 +/- 0.09. A number of provenances tested ranked highly for average tree volume at one or more sites but performance across sites was generally not consistent and significant site x provenance interactions were found for both volume and stem straightness. For volume the site x family-within-provenance interaction was also significant. Consequently, definitive conclusions regarding provenance potential could not made, though a provenance from Blackdown Tableland in Queensland was notable for combining good growth and cold tolerance. It was concluded that the best path for genetic improvement of E. saligna in such environments would involve vegetative clonal propagation of the best individual trees, regardless of provenance or family, for commercial plantation deployment; acquiring a wider sample of provenances and families of this species from higher-elevation, summer-rainfall areas (e.g. tablelands of northern NSW and Queensland) to expand the breeding population; and initiating sublines within the breeding population for markedly different target environments.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - A synthesis of outcomes from the Warra Silvicultural
           Systems Trial, Tasmania: Safety, timber production, economics,
           biodiversity, silviculture and social acceptability
    • Abstract: Neyland, Mark; Hickey, John; Read, Steve M
      The Warra Silvicultural Systems Trial was established in southern Tasmania from 1998 to 2007 in tall wet Eucalyptus obliqua forest to compare seven alternatives to the traditional clear-fell, burn and sow (CBS) harvesting method. The alternatives included CBS with understorey islands, patch-fell, strip-fell, dispersed retention, aggregated retention, single-tree/small-group selection and group selection. The effects of the treatments were compared at age three years against six criteria: safety for harvesting crews, rate of timber recovery, economic returns to the forest owner, old-growth biodiversity, regeneration and growth of eucalypts (silviculture), and social acceptability. Combining all criteria, aggregated retention performed best, and is suggested to be the most suitable alternative for routine use in wet eucalypt forests if a management objective is to maintain old-growth structures and biodiversity at the stand (coupe) level. Aggregated retention presented no novel safety issues even though coupes contained a relatively greater amount of forest edge; harvesting was relatively productive, although total forest management costs increased by about $5 per tonne or cubic metre compared to clear-felling. Biodiversity outcomes were much superior to clear-felling, both at three years of age and (predicted) at rotation age, and the system had greater visual appeal and social acceptability than clear-felling. Regeneration burns in the aggregated retention treatments were operationally more difficult than with clear-felling and were somewhat less effective in creating a suitable seedbed, resulting in lower densities of eucalypt stems in the regenerating forest although stocking standards were still attained. Old-growth biodiversity in commercial forests can be managed at the landscape level, through retention between coupes and through wildlife habitat strips that connect larger ecological reserves. However, internationally there is increasing recognition that maintaining old-growth elements at the coupe level is a worthwhile complementary practice for maintaining biodiversity in commercially-managed native forests. Managers of tall wet eucalypt forests need to balance the difficulties of regeneration burning and costs of aggregated retention against its ecological and social acceptability benefits.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 3 - Engaging the public debate on the role of forest
           management in greenhouse gas mitigation
    • Abstract: Moroni, Martin T
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Notice to contributors
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Regreening the Bare Hills - tropical forest
           restoration in the Asia-Pacific region [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Thomson, Lex
      Review(s) of: Regreening the Bare Hills - tropical forest restoration in the Asia-Pacific region, by David Lamb, Springer Verlag, World Forests series Vol. 8, 2011, xxi + 547 pp. ISBN 9789048198696, Hardcover on Amazon about $200; eBook version also available.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Protecting Western Australia's old-growth forests: The
           impact of 2001 policy changes
    • Abstract: Houghton, DStewart
      In 1999, the signing of a Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) between the Western Australian and Commonwealth governments generated a storm of political protest which subsequently contributed to a change in government in Western Australia and the implementation of a new policy known as 'Protecting our Old-Growth Forests'. This not only increased the area of native forest set aside for conservation but also significantly reduced the amount of native hardwood available for harvesting. This paper outlines the background to these changes in forest management policy in Western Australia; the impact the new policy has had on the local timber industry; the cost of compensating businesses and workers affected by down-sizing; and the broader environmental implications of the changes. It is concluded that, while the 'Protecting our Old-Growth Forests' policy succeeded in defusing a longstanding political conflict, the economic costs have been much greater than they would have been under the proposed RFA. The environmental benefits of the new policy also appear to be less clear-cut than is commonly assumed.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Development of sprouted stumps of 'Eucalyptus
           globulus' and 'E. maidenii' in Uruguay
    • Abstract: Alonso, R; Lupo, S; Martínez, S; Tiscornia, S; Bettucci, L
      Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill. and E. globulus ssp. maidenii (Mueller) Kirkpatrick are two of the main plantation species used in Uruguay. When felled, stumps of these species have the ability to produce new growth via dormant buds situated beneath the bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of coppice arising from the dormant buds and to determine if pathogenic wood-rooting fungi colonised the stumps and reduced sprouting. The development of coppice from stumps of trees felled monthly over a six-month period was evaluated five times over about 18 months in each instance. Coppice of E. maidenii remained alive longer than did that of E. globulus. At the stump surface more than 40% of the bark of E. globulus was detached; this could be associated with the death of coppice and low survival of stumps. Consequently, new plantations are being established by planting between rows of stumps, instead of trying to manage the stump coppice. Several wood-rotting fungi colonising stump surfaces were identified, but no pathogenic species were associated with the death of coppice or stumps.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Crown structure differences and dynamics in
           100-year-old and old-growth 'Eucalyptus obliqua' trees
    • Abstract: Bar-Ness, YD; Kirkpatrick, JB; McQuillan, PB
      The crown structures of eight old-growth ( 450 y) and eight 100-y-old intermixed Eucalyptus obliqua trees at Warra LTER, southern Tasmania, were mapped by direct climbing and vector-based surveys. The quantitative maps were statistically compared between age classes. The older trees had a more variable crown structure and size range when compared with the unaltered growth pattern of branches in the generally rounder-crowned younger trees. The older trees were more decayed, with more dead wood in the crown and, in some cases, a snapped trunk. The 100-y trees averaged 44.5m tall, 1.04m DBH and 14.1 m3 trunk wood volume. The older trees were larger in many dimensions, averaging 60.8m tall, 2.79m DBH and 97.3 m3 trunk wood volume. Principal components analysis delineated the age classes clearly along Axis 1, weighted on measures of tree size and branch size, and slightly less so along Axis 2, weighted on branch numbers and total crown volume. Evidence of higher structural diversity was detected in old trees lacking visible evidence of fire and in 100-y trees that were less dominant in the canopy. Marked differences in crown structure were detected visually, and the inter-branch dynamics at the tree scale responsible for these differences elucidated an analogy to inter-tree dynamics at the forest scale.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - The effects of cording, timber load and soil gravel
           content on soil compaction during timber harvesting on moist soils
    • Abstract: Whitford, KR; Stoneman, G; Seymour, A; Murray, P; Eaton, L; Tanimoto, M
      Timber harvesting with heavy machinery can cause long-lasting compaction of forest soils, adversely affecting soil processes such as infiltration and respiration that are fundamental to forest health. This study examined the effectiveness of corduroying as a means of reducing soil compaction on log extraction tracks during timber harvesting under moist soil conditions in the forests of south-western Western Australia. The effects of the weight of logs removed from the stand, soil gravel content and initial bulk density, were also considered. Timber harvesting under moist soil conditions lead to significant compaction of surface soil on primary and secondary extraction tracks. This compaction was significantly related to four factors: timber load, initial soil bulk density and gravel content, and the use of cording. Compaction increased as the total load of timber hauled over the tracks increased. Soils with a high initial bulk density were less compacted during timber harvesting than soils with a low initial bulk density. On soils with initial bulk densities greater than about 0.55 g cm-3, compaction decreased as gravel content of the soil increased. Cording also significantly reduced soil compaction, but this reduction was small and may not justify the cost or the associated negative environmental impacts of routinely using corduroying while harvesting timber on moist soil. While reducing the load of timber hauled over an extraction track reduces soil compaction, this does not provide a practical solution for reducing soil damage in timber harvesting. Rather than dispersing traffic across many extraction tracks to reduce the load on individual tracks, the impact of soil compaction is best minimised by focusing all traffic onto as few tracks as possible; thus minimising the area of forest soil that is compacted by harvesting machinery. In addition, reusing compacted extraction tracks that remain from any previous harvesting is one of the most effective means of reducing the impact of timber harvesting on forest soils.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - An exploratory study of community expectations
           regarding public forests in Western Australia
    • Abstract: Williamson, Jim; Rodger, Kate; Moore, Susan A; Warren, Carol
      For much of the 20th century the management of public forests in Western Australia focused on timber production and economic outputs. Shifts in environmental attitudes over the last four decades have contributed to a much broader set of community expectations. This paper analysed these expectations regarding public forests in south-western Australia at the start of the 21st century. A two-stage survey approach included a face-to-face interview followed by a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a comprehensive list of 176 items that forests potentially provide, such as conservation, scenery, bushwalking and timber products, and respondents were asked to indicate the extent of their support for each. Those surveyed covered a range of ages and affiliations including academia, conservation, forestry, primary production, Indigenous interests and young people. Clearly evident was strong support for the aesthetic values of these forests and their natural environment, with weaker but still notable support for using forest resources. The comprehensive list of items in the questionnaire provides a novel, rapid means of assessing community expectations, with potential benefits for forestry planning and policy development.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Variation in anatomical properties and correlations
           with wood density and compressive strength in 'Casuarina equisetifolia'
           growing in Bangladesh
    • Abstract: Chowdhury, Md Qumruzzaman; Ishiguri, Futoshi; Hiraiwa, Tokiko; Matsumoto, Kahoru; Takashima, Yuya; Iizuka, Kazuya; Yokota, Shinso; Yoshizawa, Nobuo
      Variation in anatomical properties and relationships with air-dry density and compressive strength were examined in wood of 10-y-old Casuarina equisetifolia. Average vessel diameter increased gradually between sample points 2.5 cm and 7.5 cm from the pith. Vessel frequency decreased between sample points 2.5 cm and 5 cm from the pith and then stabilised. Average fibre diameter decreased gradually from pith to bark, while fibre wall thickness displayed a reverse trend. The proportion of vessels decreased slightly between the 2.5 and 5 cm sample points and then increased again towards the bark. Fibre and cell wall proportions increased from the pith to bark. The proportion of rays was nearly constant along the radius, while the proportion of axial parenchyma decreased somewhat toward the bark. Vessel diameter, fibre wall thickness and the proportions of fibre and cell wall were positively correlated with air-dry density, whereas fibre diameter showed a negative correlation. A significant negative correlation was found between compressive strength and fibre diameter. Strong positive correlations suggest that variation in air-dry density and compressive strength is mainly determined by the proportion of cell wall in transverse sections.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Australian carbon biosequestration and bioenergy
           policy co-evolution: Mechanisms, mitigation and convergence
    • Abstract: McHenry, Mark P
      The intricacies of international land-use change and forestry policy reflect the temporal, technical and political difficulty of integrating biological systems and climate change mitigation. The plethora of co-existing policies with varied technical rules, accreditation requirements, accounting methods, market registries, etc., disguise the unequal efficacies of each mechanism. This work explores the co-evolution and convergence of Australian voluntary and mandatory climate-related policies at the biosequestration-bioenergy interface. Currently, there are temporal differences between the fast-evolving and precise climate-change mechanisms, and the long-term 'permanence' sought from land use changes encouraged by biosequestration instruments. Policy convergence that favours the most efficient, appropriate and scientifically substantiated policy mechanisms is required. These policies must recognise the fundamental biological foundation of biosequestration, bioenergy, biomaterial industrial development and other areas such as food security and environmental concerns. Policy mechanisms that provide administrative simplicity, project longevity and market certainty are necessary for rural and regional Australians to cost-effectively harness the considerable climate change mitigation potential of biological systems.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - Employment of indigenous Australians in the forestry
           sector: A case study from Northern Queensland
    • Abstract: Loxton, E; Schirmer, J; Kanowski, P
      There are compelling reasons to encourage the employment of Indigenous Australians in the forestry sector. The benefits of, and constraints to, Indigenous employment in the sector were examined using a case study approach focused on Indigenous participation in 'Operation Farm Clear', an emergency response following Cyclone Larry in northern Queensland in 2006. The findings suggested that, given a supportive environment, there are opportunities for Indigenous people to benefit from employment in the forestry sector. These benefits included skill development and increased confidence, the opportunity for employment and participation in land management. The findings also highlighted constraints that could limit the delivery of these benefits. Constraints included an insufficient level of relevant skill or experience, lack of a supportive environment, the difficulty of balancing Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultures, and limitations related to the nature of the forestry sector. In the case study, the most important factors for the realisation of benefits were the provision of long-term support and opportunities for ongoing training and employment, and the peer support provided by other Indigenous employees.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 2 - History and heritage
    • Abstract: Dargavel, John
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Response to Jim Douglas's rejoinder to my comments on
           his guest editorial in Australian Forestry
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Rejoinder to Mark Poynter's comments on the guest
           editorial by Jim Douglas (Australian Forestry June 2011)
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Fire frequency in south-eastern Tasmania
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Burning Issues: Sustainability and management of
           Australian forests [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Cheney, Phil
      Review(s) of: Burning Issues: Sustainability and Management of Australian Forests, by Mark Adams and Peter Attiwill, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria. 2011 160 pp. ISBN: 9780643094437 Paperback $49.95.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Analysis of the resourcing and containment of multiple
           remote fires: The Great Divide Complex of fires, Victoria, December 2006
    • Abstract: McCarthy, GJ
      The Great Divide Complex of fires started from 66 lightning strikes across the Great Dividing Range in Victoria on 1 December 2006 and eventually burned 1 048 410 ha over the following two months. This study analysed the resourcing of suppression activities for these fires and the success of containment efforts until 10 December, when severe fire weather conditions across the whole region caused the overall fire area to expand to 355 000 ha. Forty-two of the fires were resourced in this time, and 20 of these were successfully contained. Resourcing was found to be associated with distance to nearest road or track, slope, elevation and fuel hazard. Containment success of the resourced fires was related to slope, overall fuel hazard and fire size at detection.The quantity of firefighting resources required to contain all fires within the first four to six days was determined for comparison with the quantity of resources actually deployed. Fireline suppression and line construction rates were calculated for the prevailing fireline conditions, for both hand crews and aircraft. These rates were used to predict the resources required to contain all fires, given the lengths of fire perimeter during this period. The minimum quantity of resources required was found to be substantially more than that available.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Fire management strategies for' Pinus radiata'
           plantations near urban areas
    • Abstract: Bartlett, AG
      The western suburbs of Canberra were established in the 1970s adjacent to the Stromlo pine plantation with interface treeless buffer widths of between 55 and 82 m. Bushfires in 2001 and 2003 that burnt through Stromlo plantation provide information about the threats from bushfires in radiata pine plantations to houses and the effectiveness of some plantation fire management practices close to urban areas.This paper reviews the scientific basis for fire management in Pinus radiata plantations and provides information about fire management strategies and the specific measures that were in place in the Stromlo plantation. It reviews the 2001 and 2003 bushfires and their impacts on the Stromlo plantation and adjacent urban assets, as well as the effects of fuel management undertaken prior to the 2003 bushfire. The 2001 bushfire, burning under a Forest Fire Danger Index of 38, destroyed 500 ha of the plantation without any losses of urban assets. The 2003 bushfire, burning under a Forest Fire Danger Index of 102 destroyed the remaining 1800 ha of plantation and 250 houses in the suburbs adjacent to the plantation. Forty-three percent of houses in the 125-152-m-wide plantation ember zone at the urban interface were destroyed, apparently as a result of heavy ember attack. The width of the existing buffers had little impact on the proportion of houses lost. A low-intensity prescribed burn conducted in 2001 reduced the fire intensity in the plantation but did not reduce the proportion of adjacent houses that were destroyed.Drawing on this information, the paper identifies where further research is needed and recommends minimum buffers of 150 m between pine plantations and urban assets in order to reduce the risk of house losses from ember attack during intense bushfires.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Variation in green density and moisture content of
           radiata pine trees in the Hume region of New South Wales
    • Abstract: Chan, Julian Moreno; Walker, J.C.F; Raymond, CA
      Variation in green density and moisture content are relevant for log transport planning, weight-scaling systems, lumber drying and dynamic assessment of stiffness. The lack of published Australian reports on the subject prompted the present study (most studies with radiata pine have been carried out in New Zealand).Patterns of variation in green density and moisture content of radiata pine as influenced by age, site, thinning regime, height in the stem and season were investigated using paired stands of mature trees (34.5-36.5 y old) on contrasting sites and with various thinning regimes, and a stand of young trees (9 y old), in the Hume region of New South Wales. Destructive samples were taken from mature trees at successive heights in the stem, and from young trees at 1.3 m. The effect of extended drought was included by using data from separate studies. The effect of green density variation on weight scaling was determined by calculating weight-to-volume conversions for a number of stands under two climatic scenarios.Under normal climate, sapwood green density averaged about 1100 kg m-3 and showed little variation across ages, seasons, sites, thinning regimes and height in the stem. Sapwood saturation showed small but consistent differences with age, season and height in the stem, but practically no differences with site and thinning regime. For mature trees, sapwood saturation ranged from 90% at the base of the tree to 92-94% higher up in the stem, whereas for young trees it averaged 96% at 1.3 m height.Heartwood green density varied greatly with height in the stem, but showed no consistent differences with site and thinning regime; it ranged from about 550 to 630 kg m-3 at 1.3 m height across mature stands. Heartwood saturation averaged about 7% at 1.3 m, decreased from the base of the tree to 10.5 m followed by an increase up the stem, was higher in the high-altitude site and decreased slightly from winter to summer. Whole-section green density was driven by the ratio of sapwood to heartwood that in turn was affected primarily by age and height in the stem, followed by site and to a lesser extent by thinning regime. Season exerted practically no effect on whole-section green density. Whole-section green density varied considerably between mature stands, ranging from 943 to 1023 kg m-3 at 1.3 m height, 928 to 996 kg m-3 at 10.5 m, and 960 to 1016 kg m-3 at 16 m. Whole-section green density and thus weight-to-volume conversions were significantly affected by site, age and severe drought, but not by thinning regime nor season. Using a common conversion factor between contrasting sites would lead to errors of 3-5%. The errors in applying such a factor to unthinned stands under severe drought would be 10% (large trees), 12% (average trees) and 25% (suppressed trees). The errors for the 9-10.5-y-old trees under normal climate would be 8-10% and up to 5% under severe drought. If a separate conversion factor was set for young trees, conversions under severe drought would have an error of 9-13%. It is then advisable to determine variations in green density at site and age levels in large plantation areas with a range of growing conditions and age classes, as well as to monitor changes during extended droughts.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Sorting 'Eucalyptus nitens' plantation logs using
           acoustic wave velocity
    • Abstract: Farrell, R; Innes, Trevor C; Harwood, Christopher E
      Acoustic wave velocity (AWV) was evaluated as a predictor of wood stiffness in plantation-grown 'Eucalyptus nitens'. To represent the resource currently being directed to the structural timber market, five harvest sites were selected in NE and NW Tasmania spanning two age classes (8 y and 13-15 y) and three productivity classes. A total of 155 sawlogs, 5.5 m long, were cut from 137 harvested trees. AWV was measured in both standing trees and in sawlogs in the mill yard. Disk samples were collected from the butt end of each log to determine green and basic density. Logs were then sawn, and structural boards dried and finished according to commercial processing practice. One sample board per log was then tested for stiffness, bending and shear strength and hardness. Sites differed significantly (P < 0.001) in standing tree AWV, log AWV and all wood properties of the butt logs, with the 13-15-y age class displaying higher AWV, wood basic density, stiffness and hardness than the 8-y age class. Log AWV2 explained 54% of the variance in board static modulus of elasticity (MoEstat) for the pooled data. At the age class level, 47% of the variance was explained for the 13-15-y logs, but the correlation was much poorer explaining only 6% of variance in MoEstat for the subset of 56 logs from the two 8-y-old sites. Dynamic MOE (MoEdyn, the product of green density and log AWV2), gave useful predictions of MoEstat for the younger age class. MoEdyn calculated using log AWV2 explained 56% of the variation in MoEstat, facilitating the segregation of logs into three stiffness classes. Tree AWV2 explained 40% of the variation in MoEstat for the pooled data, similarly enabling segregation of boards into three stiffness classes. Relative to segregation at the log level, a similar percentage of low-stiffness material was identified; but ability to identify higher-stiffness material was reduced. A significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation of 0.30 was found between board stiffness and hardness, indicating that segregation based on increasing stiffness would also improve hardness.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - Contested forestries, contested educations: A
           centenary reflection
    • Abstract: Dargavel, John
      The first 50 years of Australian forestry education was, like the present, a period of conflict and change in forestry, and of fierce contests about how education should be conducted. Colonial practice, British plantation culture, classic European forestry, imperial practice and American pragmatism created different types of forestry, or 'forestries'. They resulted in contests about how forestry should be organised, who should lead it and how foresters should be educated. The contests were played out in the histories of the Victorian School of Forestry, the Australian Forestry School and the University of Melbourne. They are illustrated in the life of Alfred Oscar Platt Lawrence (1904-1986), one of the six foresters who graduated from both the Victorian School of Forestry and the Australian Forestry School. He had a distinguished career and became Commissioner in 1949 and Chief Commissioner of the Victorian Forests Commission (1956-1968) during a period of convergence of forestry and forestry education. The single model of forestry ended in the contests of the last quarter of a century. Reflections on the future consider the biodiversity rift, the contrast between 'the forest of care' and 'the wood of neglect', globalisation and localism, general education and specialisation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - The effect of gap size on growth and species
           composition of 15-year-old regrowth in mixed blackbutt forests
    • Abstract: Kinny, Matthew; McElhinny, Chris; Smith, Geoff
      In north-eastern New South Wales (NSW) the Regional Forest Agreement process has transferred more than 400 000 ha of state forests to national park, and restricted silviculture to 'single tree selection' and a light form of 'Australian group selection'. While these silvicultural systems are theoretically well suited to ecologically sustainable forest management, there is concern that in their current form they are not achieving adequate regeneration or optimising the growth of that regeneration. This is of particular concern for mixed-species blackbutt forest, for which there is no quantitative research concerning the growth and composition of regeneration within group-selection gaps. We address this issue by: (1) quantifying the effect of gap size, and other gap characteristics including distance from gap edge, on the growth of regeneration; and (2) assessing the effect of gap size on the composition of regeneration. We use the answers to these questions to recommend a gap size for group selection silviculture in mixed-species blackbutt forests in north-eastern NSW. We measured attributes describing the growth and composition of regeneration in nine circular group-selection gaps in mixed-species blackbutt forest near Coffs Harbour and Wauchope. These gaps contained 14.5-15.5-y-old regeneration and provided three replicates of small (0.27-0.3 ha), medium (0.45-0.67 ha) and large (0.93-0.97 ha) gaps. ANOVA testing indicated significantly (P < 0.05) lower height, diameter and volume growth of dominant blackbutt stems up to five metres from gap edge. Outside this zone growth remained fairly constant, indicating dominant blackbutt trees were susceptible to suppression only in close proximity to gap edges. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the relatively short distance from gap edges over which suppression occurred, with distance to closest gap edge explaining a small proportion of the variation in the models fitted for tree- and plot-level growth. The origin of blackbutt regeneration within gaps was a significant effect in tree-level growth models, with planted stems having increased diameter and volume growth compared with stems regenerated from natural seedfall. Gap size had no significant effect on the composition of regeneration. We conclude that for the range of gaps tested, 1-ha gaps are optimal for growth because they minimise the proportion of gap within 5 m of the retained forest edge, without altering composition. Larger gaps have also been shown to have operational and economic benefits compared with smaller gaps.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 75 Issue 1 - The House of Representatives inquiry and the future of
    • Abstract: Vanclay, Jerry
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Wildfires, not logging, cause landscape traps
    • Abstract: Ferguson, Ian; Cheney, Phil
      Lindenmayer et al. (2011) recently published an article entitled 'Newly discovered landscape traps produce regime shifts in wet forests' that was accompanied by media interviews and media statements directed against logging of mountain ash forests. The topic is of such importance that we believe that Australian forestry and the Australian public would benefit from this response.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Response to Jim Douglas's guest editorial, Australian
           forestry June 2011
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Silvicultural impacts in jarrah forest of Western
           Australia: Synthesis, evaluation, and policy implications of the
           Forestcheck monitoring project of 2001-2006
    • Abstract: Abbott, Ian; Williams, Matthew R
      This paper, the final in a series of ten papers that report the impact of silvicultural treatments (harvesting and associated burning) in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest, reviews these papers and explores similarities and disparities. More than 2500 species were processed, dominated by macro-invertebrates, vascular flora and macrofungi. Few significant impacts were evident, and most species groups were resilient to the disturbances imposed. Regeneration stocking did not meet specified standards on two gap release and seven shelterwood grids subjected to silvicultural treatment in the period 1988-2002. Six treated grids had a retained basal area of more than18 m2 ha, which obviated the need for further regeneration. More than 50 y may be needed for biological processes to reverse the increase in bulk density of soil caused during harvesting. Cryptogams (especially lichens) were the species group most sensitive to disturbance, although recovery of species richness was nearly complete 10 y after disturbance. For cryptogams and vascular flora, species recorded in only one grid (singletons) were more likely to occur on reference grids than on silviculturally treated grids. For all species groups studied, the imprint of harvesting 40 or more years earlier on species composition had become indistinguishable from that on grids never harvested. Soil nutrient status correlated with species richness for fungi on wood (negatively), light-trapped invertebrates (positively), birds (positively) and terrestrial vertebrates (frogs, reptiles and mammals, negatively). Silvicultural disturbance (timber harvesting and associated burning) correlated with species richness for fungi on wood (positively), terrestrial vertebrates (positively) and cryptogams (negatively). Time since the last (prescribed) fire did not correlate with any species group. Plant disease decreased species richness of light-trapped invertebrates by about 35%. Very few taxa were sufficiently widespread or sufficiently responsive to silvicultural disturbance to be of value as bio-indicators, demonstrating the superiority of biodiversity monitoring over bio-indicator monitoring. It is recommended that Forestcheck be expanded into a biological survey of the lower south-west of Western Australia.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Forestcheck: terrestrial vertebrate associations with
           fox control and silviculture in jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest
    • Abstract: Wayne, Adrian F; Liddelow, Graeme L; Williams, Matthew R
      Terrestrial vertebrate associations with silviculture and other factors were investigated as part of the Forestcheck monitoring program in the jarrah (Eucalytpus marginata) forests of south-west Western Australia. A total of 48 integrated monitoring grids form the basis of this study - sampled over five years (2001-2006), across five ecosystem-defined regions (one sampled per year), each with replicates of two silvicultural treatments (shelterwood, gap release) and external reference forest (uncut forest or structurally mature forest that had not been harvested for timber for over 40 y). Terrestrial vertebrates were surveyed in spring and autumn using pitfall traps and wire cages. Forty-one terrestrial vertebrate taxa (8 frogs, 22 reptiles, 11 mammals) comprising 1165 captures were recorded. Fox (Vulpes vulpes) control had the strongest effect on terrestrial vertebrates, with baited areas supporting significantly more individuals (three-fold increase) than unbaited areas. The mammals Trichosurus vulpecula, Bettongia penicillata, Cercartetus concinnus and Dasyurus geoffroii, and the skink Tiliqua rugosa were particularly more abundant in fox-baited forest. Several terrestrial vertebrate community attributes (species accumulations by grids and number of individuals, dominance - diversity plots, overall community structure and overall abundance) differed little among the three treatments (i.e. two silvicultural, plus external reference forest). However, external reference grids had significantly lower species richness than the shelterwood grids and a significantly different community structure. These differences resulted from a greater prevalence within shelterwood of some species such as the reptiles Egernia napoleonis, Menetia greyii, Ctenotus labillardieri and Ramphotyphlops australis. Forests that had never been harvested, a subset (8/15 grids) of the external reference treatment, had the lowest overall abundance, due largely to a confounding with fox control. The level of replication enabled differences between treatments of greater than 23% in species richness, and 37% in overall abundance, to be detected as statistically significant. Significant ecosystem/year differences were found. Differences in community structure between ecosystems/years approximated the geographic/bioclimatic relationships between the grids, with the distinction between southern jarrah communities (Jarrah South/2001-02 and Jarrah Blackwood Plateau/2005-06) and the northern communities being particularly apparent. Time since last fire, live tree basal area, and the proportion of basal area removed by harvesting and silvicultural treatment were not correlated with vertebrate species richness, abundance or community structure. In comparison to the effect of fox control and regional/temporal variation, silvicultural treatment and the intensity of timber harvesting had minor impacts. Suggestions for the improvement of this and similar studies are discussed, with a particular focus on reducing residual variance and increasing sample size.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Forestcheck: The response of birds to silviculture in
           jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest
    • Abstract: Abbott, Ian; Liddelow, Graeme L; Vellios, Chris V; Mellican, Amanda E; Williams, Matthew R
      In the five-year period from 2001 to 2006, 48 monitoring grids comprising the Forestcheck initiative were established in open eucalypt (jarrah, Eucalyptus marginata) forest in south-west Western Australia. Since 1985, revised silvicultural objectives have necessitated detailed monitoring of responses by bird species and assemblages to silvicultural treatments (timber harvesting and associated burning). Few marked changes in the avifauna were detected. Species accumulated (in terms of numbers of grids) at similar rates in gap release, shelterwood /selective cut, and reference (either never harvested or harvested more than 40 years previously) forests. In terms of individuals, species accumulated faster in the gap release forests. The number of species represented as singletons was greatest on the never harvested (8), coupe buffer (7) and gap release (6) grids. Dominance - diversity curves also showed only minor differences between silvicultural treatments. Neither nMDS nor CAP ordinations showed any clear separation between the treatments. There was little evidence of any substantial effect of silvicultural treatments on avian community structure or on individual bird species. Community structure was, however, significantly associated with forest ecosystem/year of sampling. The basal area of live trees was not correlated with bird species richness or abundance on each grid. These results are consistent with previous studies, which indicate that most bird species in jarrah forest have a high threshold level of tolerance to disturbance. It is likely that the rapid regeneration of dominant tree species after harvesting and associated fire, the patchiness of treatments at the landscape scale, the high degree of connectivity of harvested and burnt forests with forests not recently harvested or burnt, and the retention of habitat trees in the most heavilyharvested (gap release) forests all conduce to dampen local-scale impacts and conserve the avifauna in relation to the home range and normal movements of its constituent bird species.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Forestcheck: the response of macro-invertebrates to
           silviculture in jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest
    • Abstract: Farr, Janet D; Wills, Allan J; Van Heurck, Paul F; Mellican, Amanda E; Williams, Matthew R
      The response of invertebrates to silvicultural treatments (including timber harvesting and post-harvest burning) was examined as part of the Forestcheck monitoring project in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of south-west Western Australia. Invertebrates were collected twice yearly (spring and autumn) at 48 sample grids in four jarrah forest ecosystems, which included two different vegetation complexes within the same ecosystem. Grids represented examples of unharvested forest (reference) and forest subject to gap release and shelterwood/selective cut treatments. Collection methods included light trapping, pitfall trapping and hand sampling. A total of 56 705 invertebrate specimens comprising 1497 morphospecies were collected. within each forest ecosystem, species richness did not differ significantly between gap release, shelterwood/selective cut and reference forest. Estimated total richness of macro-invertebrates varied with silvicultural treatment and collection method: 630 species for pitfall trapping and 1095 for light trapping. Estimated richness from light trapping of grids in unharvested forest was 892 species, compared with 780 species in shelterwood/selective cut and 665 species in gap release treatments. Collection method influenced the direction and magnitude of changes in estimated richness following timber harvesting and post-harvest burning, indicating that multiple collection methods are needed to assess invertebrate response to disturbance. Based on combined capture methods, estimated whole bioregional richness of macro-invertebrate morphospecies was highest in reference forest (1783), intermediate in forest subject to shelterwood/selective cut treatment (1652) and lowest in forest subject to gap release (1527 morphospecies). Greater richness estimates in reference forest are attributable to a greater proportion of macro-invertebrate species that occurred in only one grid. However, the robustness of comparisons between treatments of these bioregional estimates of richness is compromised by inadequate sampling. In contrast, for equivalent sampling effort, species accumulation was slightly greater in silviculturally treated forest than in reference forest, implying that silviculturally treated grids had a more homogenous species composition. Data were analysed using non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination and canonical analysis of principal co-ordinates (CAP) analysis. Invertebrate assemblage composition and abundance were strongly influenced by biogeographic pattern, as represented by forest ecosystem/year of collection (these factors were confounded in the design of the monitoring project). No significant effects of silvicultural treatments on morphospecies composition were detected using CAP analysis of morphospecies abundance. Retention of patches of unharvested forest adjacent to harvested forest will assist in maintaining invertebrate biodiversity at the landscape scale. The data suggest that indicator species may be of limited value for monitoring recovery after disturbance in the jarrah forest bioregion because of substantial species turnover between different forest ecosystems and years of sampling. Monitoring of invertebrates should be continued to demonstrate whether harvested coupes are sufficiently heterogeneous, so that their contribution to bioregion species diversity is equivalent to that of unharvested areas.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Forestcheck: The response of lichens and bryophytes to
           silviculture in jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest
    • Abstract: Cranfield, Raymond J; Robinson, Richard M; Williams, Matthew R; Tunsell, Verna L
      The effect of silvicultural treatments on lichen, moss and liverwort communities was investigated as a component of the Forestcheck monitoring project in jarrah forest of south-west Western Australia. Forty-eight monitoring grids were established across five locations within four jarrah forest ecosystems and were monitored over a 5-y period, with one location monitored each year. Silvicultural treatments (shelterwood/selective cut and gap release) were compared with reference forest that had never been harvested or had not been harvested for over 40 y. A total of 318 species was recorded comprising 280 lichens, 27 mosses, 10 liverworts and one hornwort. Seventy-two percent were identified to species level. There were strong regional influences (relating to different forest ecosystem types) observed in the composition of cryptogam communities. Silvicultural treatments significantly affected the species richness of lichens, which decreased with intensity of harvest, and the composition of the total cryptogam community. Total cryptogam species richness was lowest in silviculturally treated grids 1-4 y after treatment, but 10 or more years after treatment it was similar to that in reference grids prescribed-burnt 10 y or more previously. Species such as Sematophyllum subhumile var. contiguum (moss) and Cephaloziella exilifolia (liverwort) and several lichens were more frequent in reference forest than in silviculturally treated forest. Pannaparmelia wilsonii, Hypogymnia subphysodes and Tephromela alectoronica, two foliose and a crustose lichen associated with mature trees, were also recorded in the gap release treatment, demonstrating the importance of retained habitat trees for species other than native mammals and birds. One-half of all the cryptogams recorded used coarse woody debris as a substrate and 40% of them depended on it entirely. Coarse woody debris is affected by both timber harvesting and fire, so there is a need to learn more regarding the specific requirements of saproxylic cryptogams in jarrah forest.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Forestcheck: The response of epigeous macrofungi to
           silviculture in jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest
    • Abstract: Robinson, Richard M; Williams, Matthew R
      Species richness, abundance and composition of epigeous macrofungi were monitored at 48 grids across four jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest ecosystems in south-west Western Australia as part of an integrated monitoring project to examine responses to different timber harvesting and regeneration treatments. Forest that had never been harvested or had not been harvested for over 40 years was used as a reference, and compared to forest that had undergone shelterwood/selective cutting and gap release treatment after 1988. Silvicultural treatment also included post-harvest burning. All epigeous species of macrofungi and their abundance were recorded from autumn surveys at each grid. A total of 450 species were recorded. Overall mean species richness and abundance was similar but the composition of species assemblages contributing to macrofungal communities differed significantly between silvicultural treatments and reference forest. Sixty-nine species were restricted to reference forest while 35 were restricted to shelterwood/selective cut and 62 to gap release treatment. In all treatments, the overall mean number of species per grid recorded fruiting on soil was 2-4 times higher than that recorded on litter or wood. Species richness of sporophores recorded on both soil and litter was similar for all treatments, but was significantly lower on wood in reference forest compared to the gap release treatment. Mean sporophore abundance was significantly higher on litter and lower on wood in reference forest compared with silviculturally treated forest. Because fire is an integral part of jarrah forest silviculture, it was not possible to separate the singular effect that either tree removal or fire had on macrofungal communities. However, in different time-since-treatment classes the overall composition of species assemblages was different, but species richness and abundance for each silvicultural treatment were similar. Each forest ecosystem supported its own unique fungal community, which supports the concept of ecosystems in jarrah forest based on forest structure and understory vegetation resulting from variation in climate, soils and landforms. Current conservation policy and silviculture practice in jarrah forest produces a landscape mosaic containing early succession stands through to mature forest across the landscape, which is important for the maintenance of fungal biodiversity. Much of the fungal population in jarrah forest, however, remains unknown and only a long-term commitment to survey and monitoring will improve knowledge on the diversity and ecology of these important organisms and ensure their consideration in future management decisions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Forestcheck: The response of vascular flora to
           silviculture in jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest
    • Abstract: Ward, Bruce; Robinson, Richard M; Cranfield, Raymond J; Williams, Matthew R
      Forest understorey vascular plants were monitored across a sequence of time since treatment to assess the effects of silviculture (timber harvesting and regeneration systems) in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest in south-west Western Australia. Species richness, abundance and structure were assessed at 48 sites in four jarrah forest ecosystems. Monitoring grids in reference forest, which was either uncut or had not been harvested for at least 40 y, were compared to grids in forest that had undergone shelterwood/selective cut and gap release silvicultural treatments. A total of 446 plant species was recorded of which 68, 22 and 35 species were recorded on only one grid within the reference, shelterwood/selective cut and gap release treatments respectively. Silvicultural treatments had no significant long-term effect on mean species richness and abundance of understorey plants, but had a distinct influence on plant community composition. Reference forest had more species of small and medium shrubs compared with silvicultural treatments. Xanthorrhoea preisii (a grass tree) was significantly less common in silvicultural treatments compared with reference forest and Allocasuarina fraseriana (a small to medium tree) and Kennedia coccinea (a vine) were more common on harvested grids. The mean number of plant species per grid was not significantly different between treatments or forest ecosystems. There was, however, strong regional variation in plant community composition, especially in the Jarrah Blackwood Plateau and Jarrah South forest ecosystems and which probably reflects the influence of climatic and edaphic factors on jarrah forest species composition. Dominance - diversity curves for each treatment showed that ranking of species with high abundance was similar in all treatments, but varied between treatments for species with very low abundances. There was no significant relationship between species richness and time since last fire because field assessments were carried out at least 3-13 y after disturbance, by which time species assemblages had stabilised.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Intensity, extent and persistence of soil disturbance
           caused by timber harvesting in jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest on
           Forestcheck monitoring sites
    • Abstract: Whitford, KR; Mellican, Amanda E
      The intensity and extent of soil compaction caused by timber harvesting was examined in the jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest of south-west Western Australia. The extent of soil compaction was determined by mapping soil disturbance categories. The intensity of compaction was determined from the bulk density of these disturbance categories. Bulk density of surface soil (0-100 mm) was measured across monitoring grids established for the Forestcheck project on eleven harvested sites and seven sites that had never been harvested. Surface soils on sites that had never been harvested had a mean fine earth bulk density of 0.71 g cm. Timber harvesting increased the bulk density of surface soils by a mean of 0.15 g cm. Compaction was greatest on log landings and primary and secondary extraction tracks where fine earth bulk density was increased by 0.27 g cm compared to never-harvested forest. Compaction on the general harvested area (0.13 g cm), which excludes the extraction tracks, was about half that of log landings and extraction tracks. The intensity of soil compaction was consistent with increases observed as a result of timber harvesting in a range of other forests. Although the intensity of harvesting activity and the volume of logs removed is typically greater in gap release than in shelterwood treatments, there was no significant difference in soil compaction between these treatments. Soil compaction did decline as the intensity of individual disturbance activities inside harvested areas declined. Given the potential and demonstrated effects of soil compaction and disturbance on jarrah forest ecosystems, and the potentially long time periods indicated for the amelioration of soil compaction in these forests, ongoing operational management and monitoring of this disturbance is required to limit long-term effects on the productive capacity of jarrah forest.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Characteristics of jarrah ('Eucalyptus marginata')
           forest at Forestcheck monitoring sites in south-west Western Australia:
           Stand structure, litter, woody debris, soil and foliar nutrients
    • Abstract: McCaw, WLachlan
      Species composition, size class distribution and developmental stage of canopy and mid-storey tree species were measured at 48 sampling grids in jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest for the Forestcheck monitoring project. Other site attributes quantified at each grid included litter loading and coarse woody debris volume, and concentrations of N, P and K in surface soil and eucalypt foliage. Grids were located in stands treated to release regeneration by gap creation (n = 14), to establish regeneration by shelterwood harvesting (n = 12) and in stands where the outcome of harvesting was a selective cut (n = 3). Grids were also located in coupe buffers (n = 4) and in external reference forest (n = 15) that had not been harvested since 1960, with eight grids having no record of previous harvesting or evidence of cut stumps. Live eucalypt basal area in external reference forest and coupe buffers averaged 41 m2 ha (range 13-78 m2 ha), with marri (Corymbia calophylla) contributing more than half the basal area on some grids in the Jarrah South and Jarrah Blackwood Plateau ecosystems. On average, basal area was reduced by 14 m2 ha to 17 m2 ha in shelterwood stands and by a similar amount in selectively cut stands. Basal area was reduced by 22 m2 ha to 9 m2 ha in areas cut to gap release. Mature trees greater than 70 cm diameter were retained at a rate of six to seven per hectare in harvested stands. Basal area ingrowth following harvesting averaged 0.5 m2 ha y of jarrah and 0.3 m2 ha y of marri. Harvesting increased the volume of coarse woody debris, with the largest amounts present in stands cut to gap release. The volume of woody debris < 250 mm in diameter was significantly less in external reference forest that had never been harvested than in shelterwood or gap release stands. Data collected during the initial 5 y of the Forestcheck project demonstrate that gap release treatment has resulted in fully stocked stands with a developing cohort of saplings. Shelterwood treatment has been applied conservatively with a tendency to retain more basal area than required by the silvicultural guidelines, and in areas that may already have had sufficient ground coppice to allow for satisfactorily regeneration by gap release. Shelterwood silviculture does not necessarily result in establishment of sufficient seedlings to satisfy regeneration stocking standards within 10 y of treatment, but further episodic recruitment following fire is expected to achieve this over the longer term.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - Integrated biodiversity monitoring for the jarrah
           ('Eucalyptus marginata') forest in south-west Western Australia: The
           Forestcheck project
    • Abstract: McCaw, WLachlan; Robinson, Richard M; Williams, Matthew R
      The jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forest in south-west Western Australia is managed for a variety of land uses and supports a rich biodiversity recognised as being of national and international significance. Forestcheck, an integrated monitoring project, was established in 2001 to inform forest managers about changes and trends in key elements of forest biodiversity associated with a variety of management activities. Forestcheck monitoring is designed to provide information relevant to a number of regional-level indicators of ecological sustainable forest management, and it samples a wide range of organisms at multiple sites across the main environmental gradients in the jarrah forest. Monitoring has focused initially on the effects of timber harvesting and associated silvicultural treatment including regeneration release through gap creation, regeneration establishment using shelterwood, and selective harvesting. Forty-eight monitoring grids, each 2 ha in size, have been established within four of the jarrah forest ecosystems mapped for the Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement. This series of papers present results from five years of data collection and examines the response of vascular plants, cryptogams, fungi, vertebrate and macro-invertebrate fauna to silvicultural treatment, including the planned use of fire. Responses of different elements of forest biodiversity are interpreted in relation to changes in forest structure and soil disturbance caused by treatment and underlying patterns of moisture availability and fertility across the forest landscape. The Forestcheck project contributes to adaptive management of Western Australian forests by providing timely and relevant information about the implementation and effectiveness of silvicultural practices.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 4 - The Forestcheck project
    • Abstract: Squire, Ross
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Reflections on reflections
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Eucalypts: A celebration [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Fagg, Peter
      Review(s) of: Eucalypts: A celebration, by John Wrigley and Murray Fagg, Allen and Unwin, Crows Nest, NSW 2010 vii + 343 pp. ISBN 978 1 741759242, RRP $65.00.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Forest valuation: A primer
    • Abstract: Leech, Jerry; Ferguson, Ian
      Forest valuation has become increasingly important. More and more forests are changing ownership and Australian corporations law requires companies owning and managing forests to incorporate the annual change in forest value into their profit and loss statement. This brief technical note summarises the key principles of forest valuation under the current accounting standards.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Variable retention silviculture in Tasmania's wet
           forests: Ecological rationale, adaptive management and synthesis of
           biodiversity benefits
    • Abstract: Baker, Susan C; Read, Steve M
      The recognition that biodiversity conservation requires more than a system of reserves has led to the need to consider the outcomes of land management actions, such as timber harvesting, in the matrix land outside reserves. The design of harvesting systems can be guided by the natural disturbance regime, which in Tasmania's lowland wet eucalypt forests is infrequent, intense wildfire. Clearfell, burn and sow silviculture has been used since the 1960s for harvesting these forests but, while this system is practical and effectively regenerates eucalypts in harvested coupes, it is predicted to lead to losses at the coupe level of late-successional species and structures that would survive into stands regenerating following natural wildfire. Variable retention silviculture is thus currently being implemented as an alternative to clearfelling in wet old-growth forest on public land (state forest) in Tasmania. In contrast to clearfelling, variable retention has the explicit ecological goal of maintaining some species, habitats and structural legacies from the pre-harvest forest into the harvested and regenerating stand. This paper synthesises biodiversity findings from the Warra Silvicultural Systems Trial (SST), established in 1997, and demonstrates that aggregated retention is the optimal form of variable retention for ensuring coupe-scale persistence ('lifeboating') of mature-forest biodiversity. In addition to providing retained forest, aggregates are also designed to facilitate recolonisation of harvested areas by mature-forest species ('forest influence'), and to provide connectivity across the forest stand. In the last few years, more than 50 aggregated-retention coupes have been harvested in mature forest across Tasmania. Development and implementation of variable retention in Tasmania is an example of active adaptive management, which we describe in relation to five steps for a formalised adaptive management program, indicating how ecological criteria are incorporated in operational guidelines for implementation of aggregated retention.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Variation in growth and 'Quambalaria' tolerance of
           clones of 'Corymbia citriodora' subsp. 'variegata' planted on four
           contrasting sites in north-eastern NSW
    • Abstract: Lan, J; Raymond, CA; Smith, HJ; Thomas, DS; Henson, M; Carnegie, AJ; Nichols, JD
      Genetic parameters, including heritabilities, trait-trait correlations and across-site correlations for growth traits and quambalaria shoot blight damage were estimated in four Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata clonal trials in northern New South Wales, Australia. Additive and non-additive variances were calculated separately to allow the estimation of broad- and narrow-sense heritabilities. Quambalaria shoot blight damage at ages 1 and 3.5 y was under predominantly non-additive genetic control (H2 = 0.02-0.46, h2 = 0-0.17). Growth traits at age 5 y were under moderate genetic control (H2 = 0.32-0.54, h2 = 0-0.54). Growth traits were strongly correlated with quambalaria shoot blight damage. Across-site correlations were low for quambalaria shoot blight damage (rg = 0.13-1.00) but high (> 0.8) for the growth traits. Index selection was used to determine the most efficient selection strategies for improvement of growth and disease tolerance.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Variation in mammal browsing damage between eucalypt
           plantations in Tasmania, and attempts to associate the variation with
           environmental features
    • Abstract: Walsh, Andrew M; Wardlaw, Timothy J
      Mammal browsing damage to Eucalyptus nitens and E. globulus seedlings in 23 eucalypt plantations throughout Tasmania was surveyed over time by repeated visits. All sites were planted with no initial browsing protection and monitored intensively. The levels of browsing damage over time varied considerably among plantations, but more than half were damaged at rates sufficiently low as to suggest reactive, low-intensity post-planting browsing control options would have been more appropriate in such sites rather than intensive, pre-emptive browsing control before planting. In order to investigate the possibility of identifying such sites before planting, three different predictive modelling approaches were taken (ordinary least squares regression, binary response logistic regression, and classification regression trees) using 97 variables derived from GIS data that described habitat within and around the plantations. Five variables significantly explained the variation in browsing pressure, but when models based on these variables were tested on a validation set of plantations that had been classified as either high or low browsing damage based on detailed records of their browsing control operations, they performed poorly. Principal components analysis using the five GIS variables showed that the 23 plantations used for modelling occupied a similar ordination space as the plantations used for validation. We conclude that browsing pressure is related to a wider range of variables than those we were able to identify from the 23 intensively-monitored plantations.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Using an IML-Resi drill to assess wood density in
           'Eucalyptus globulus' subsp. 'pseudoglobulus'
    • Abstract: Johnstone, Denise; Ades, Peter; Moore, Gregory M; Smith, Ian W
      Evaluating the wood density of standing trees quickly, cheaply and reliably with a minimum of damage is clearly of benefit to wood producers. In this study an IML-Resi F300S field tool, which is a constant-feed drill that measures resistance, was compared with the high-resolution SiviScan2 X-ray and image-analysis instrument for assessing wood density of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus. The IML-Resi successfully predicted average wood density but was less reliable for assessing changes in density within a single stem.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Fire frequency variation in south-eastern Tasmanian
           dry eucalypt forest 1740-2004 from fire scars
    • Abstract: von Platen, Julie; Kirkpatrick, JB; Allen, Kathryn J
      An understanding of fire history is important in determining appropriate fire management regimes for biodiversity conservation in fire-prone ecosystems, such as the dry eucalypt forests of temperate Australia. We tested whether ring counts and evidence of fire in the stumps of felled eucalypts could be used to construct fire chronologies in the dry forests of south-eastern Tasmania. Given that the dates of fires derived from this method were consistent with other evidence of fire years, we constructed chronologies for 13 sites in the region. We applied a conversion factor for fires per decade per site based on the relationship between fire detection and sample size for all sites. Between 1740 and 1819 when indigenous people were managing the region, decadal fire frequency averaged 0.7. Between 1820 and 1849 fires were very infrequent in the region, with a mean decadal fire frequency of 0.4. An upward transition to a higher fire frequency took place between the 1840s and 1850s. Between 1850 and 1909 decadal fire frequency varied between 0.8 and 1.2 then sharply increased again. Between 1910 and 1989 it varied between 1.3 and 1.7. Extensive fire years were strongly related to annual precipitation < 0.75 standard deviations below the mean. Variation in annual precipitation, however, could not explain the sharp transitions in decadal fire frequency that took place in 1820, 1850, 1910 and 1990 and the constancy of fire frequency between these dates. The relationships of these transitions to land use changes are described.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Irrigation with industrial effluent leads to mortality
           of coppice growth in 'Eucalyptus'
    • Abstract: Piper, Andrew D; Lamb, David; Menzies, Neal W
      Land disposal of effluent can be an effective and productive method of dealing with wastewater. One approach has been to use fast-growing trees in plantations to transpire large amounts of water and immobilise chemicals. The productivity of these plantations can be enhanced, and hence the rate of water use and chemical immobilisation increased, by felling trees at an early age and regenerating the plantation using coppice growth. Trials were carried out to evaluate the ability of coppice systems to dispose of effluent produced by a food processing factory in south-eastern Queensland. Plantations of Eucalyptus moluccana and E. tereticornis were irrigated with effluent from an early age - once the seedlings were clearly established. Both species grew well and reached a height of about 8m within 33 months. At this age selected plots of trees of both species were felled and both readily produced coppice. Irrigation of the coppiced and uncut trees continued. After a further 8 months, coppice growth of both species was failing. By contrast, uncut trees remained healthy. The main causes of the failure of coppiced trees appeared to be a combination of acid soils, high soil Al concentrations and high foliar Mn concentrations. The acidification appears to have been induced by nitrification of the ammonium-N applied in the effluent irrigation, while the high Mn reflects both the low soil pH and the reducing conditions induced by waterlogging with high BOD effluent. At this time the uncut trees showed no clear visual signs of stress. There was less waterlogging in the plots with uncut trees and these had lower foliar concentrations of potentially toxic elements. The use of coppice growth in the context of wastewater disposal could potentially remove greater quantities of water and nutrients than established trees. Results here, however, suggest that the coppice growth was more susceptible to unfavourable environmental conditions than normal tree growth and this should be taken into account when choosing a management regime.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - Foliar pests and pathogens of 'Eucalyptus dunnii'
           plantations in southern Queensland
    • Abstract: Whyte, Gilbert; Howard, Kay; Burgess, Treena I; Hardy, Giles E St J
      Eucalyptus dunnii is grown in plantations in subtropical Queensland, beyond its endemic distribution of northern NSW. As the plantation industry has expanded into subtropical Australia there has been an increase in the incidence of defoliating insects and foliar pathogens. This study measured the incidence and severity of damage (abiotic damage, fungal damage, insect defoliation, insect-induced necrosis and or other insect damage), four times over one year, in eight plantations aged 1, 2, 3 and 4 y where E. dunnii was the dominant species: four near Brisbane and four near Bundaberg. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis showed little separation between the two regions so all data for the study were combined. During the study period, the monthly rainfall was substantially lower than over the previous 30 y, particularly in all months except September to January where higher-than-average rainfall occurred in both regions. This resulted in a strong seasonal effect. The greatest damage was caused by defoliating insects (39.6% of total damage) most notably chrysomelids, followed by insect necrosis (19.2%). The pests and diseases causing most damage (e.g. chrysomelids) were present most of the year and are known to be multivoltine in subtropical regions of Australia. Only chrysomelid damage increased over the survey period, while fungal damage decreased slightly in the same period. Insect necrosis was present all year round, with most damage occurring in winter and least damage in summer. Other insect damage was highest in 1.75-3-y-old trees, peaking in winter at 9.1% in the 1.75-y-old trees. This study has provided some interesting insights into the incidence and severity of abiotic stress, pests and pathogens over four seasons. These findings may influence future plantation management of pests and diseases in establishing plantations.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 3 - The Maxwell Ralph Jacobs memorial oration 2011 the
           tragedy of the forests
    • Abstract: Wilkinson, Graham
      Forest goods and services are global, common-pool resources. In Australia, forest land and trees may be held under private ownership but the associated forest values such as biodiversity remain as public resources. A failure to adequately resolve the rivalry between public and private rights has presented us with a 'tragedy of the forests'; a tragedy that is caused by individuals and groups within society pursuing their own self-interest to the detriment of the common good. The conflict over forest use and the management of public values is not resolved simply through land allocation decisions that result in forest management being polarised into either reserves or wood production zones. The resolution requires the effective management of the forests' values across all tenures, using a mix of reserves and management prescriptions, recognising both public and private rights.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Expenditure on Forestry and Forest Products Research
           in Australia 2007-2008
    • Abstract: Turner, John; Lambert, Marcia
      Total expenditure on forestry research and forest products research in 2007-2008 in Australia was $87.8 million. This comprised $61.0 million on forestry research and $26.8 million on forest products research and was estimated using the same methods as in the several previous assessments (Quick and Booth 1987; Lambert and Turner 1992; Turner and Lambert 1997, 2005). When some peripheral expenditure such as support, administration and surveys were included, the total expenditure increased to about $105.8 million. The total expenditure represents an annual average increase of about 3% since 1982 but a slow decline (0.45% per annum) in adjusted terms (1982 dollars). About 50 organisations reported undertaking forestry and or forest products research, while other organisations provided funding for research. The expenditure was attributed to four broad sectors undertaking research - Commonwealth, state, university and private - and also to broad research areas (native forests, exotic species plantations, native species plantations and environment). Research on native forests and exotic species plantations generally declined, whereas that on surveys in native forests and native species in plantations increased from 2001-2002 to 2007-2008. Similarly, research capacity declined in traditionally strong research areas such as pests and diseases and fire behaviour, and increased in energy areas such as carbon and forest bio-energy. About 600 full-time-effective researchers and technicians were involved in research in 2007-2008, plus support and management staff. The staffing numbers of individual organisations ranged from single individuals to more than fifty. In 2007-2008, about 52% of the research funds were provided directly or indirectly by the Commonwealth Government, 28% by state governments and 20% by private companies. Total expenditure on forestry and forest products research ($87.8 million) averaged $5.78 ha-1 of managed forest. The forestry research expenditure according to forest type comprised $14.80 ha-1 on exotic species plantations, $36.90 ha-1 on native species plantations and $0.99 ha-1 on native forests (including ecological and environmental research, and hydrological studies and fauna-flora research). Additionally, there was expenditure of about $0.45 ha-1 on land-based surveys (mainly biodiversity), primarily in native forests. Total expenditure on forestry and forest products research equated to an average of $3.90 m-3 of harvested timber. This comprised $1.02 m-3 on timber removals from exotic species plantations, $7.38 m-3 from native species plantations and $1.90 m-3 from native forests.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Referees 2010
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Influence of Age on Sandalwood ('Santalum spicatum')
           Oil Content Within Different Wood Grades from Five Plantations in Western
    • Abstract: Brand, Jonathan E; Pronk, Grant M
      Sixty-four sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) trees aged 8-26 y were harvested from five separate plantations during 2007 to determine wood yields and quality (percentage heartwood; oil and alpha-santalol concentrations) at different ages. Each plantation was located in the 400-600 mm mean annual rainfall zone in south-western Western Australia. The whole trees, including the roots, were extracted from the ground, de-barked and the wood divided into five separate commercial wood grades: butt, roots, 1st grade, 2nd grade and 3rd grade. Mean percentage heartwood and oil concentration in the wood increased significantly with sandalwood age. However, mean alpha-santalol concentration in the oil was less age-related, but was generally high in the trees aged 26 y. Both oil and alpha-santalol concentrations were relatively high in the butt, roots and 1st-grade wood from trees aged 26 y, and only in the butt of trees aged 14 y. Wood of all grades from trees aged 8-11 y was of low value. These results indicate that to obtain a large proportion of high-grade wood from sandalwood plantations the stand age may have to be at least 25 y. A power relationship equation was developed to predict the total commercial weight of wood within a sandalwood tree knowing stem diameter over bark at 150 mm above the ground. within each tree, the greatest amount (33-46% of the total weight) of commercial wood was classed as 1st grade, and each of the other four grades contained 10-23% of the total.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - A Root Drench in Unsaturated Hydrogel Solution Reduced
           Stress in Transplanted 'Eucalyptus pilularis' Cuttings but Was Ineffective
           for Seedlings: A Glasshouse Experiment
    • Abstract: Thomas, DS; Heagney, GA
      Available soil moisture and quality of planting material are two important criteria affecting survival during plantation establishment. It has been observed that in northern NSW most seedling deaths occur within the first four weeks of planting. Reducing the rate that plants become stressed is important as less-stressed plants are more capable of exploiting available soil moisture required for survival beyond this four-week period. The health (leaf gas exchange, visual symptoms of leaf and stem wilt) and survival of Eucalyptus pilularis Smith seedlings and cuttings were examined following the application of water in the form of either a hydrogel solution or as irrigation. The main findings were that the rate at which stress developed was slower for cuttings than for seedlings; and that supplying more water, either as hydrogel or irrigation, reduced transplant stress and prolonged survival. Differences in morphology between seedlings and cuttings may explain why cuttings developed stress more slowly than did seedlings. Compared with seedlings, cuttings had reduced leaf area, an increased root : shoot ratio and lower leaf area : root dry mass ratio, all of which are traits that enhance water uptake and reduce water loss. The most effective treatments for reducing stress of seedlings and cuttings were either removing individual seedlings or cuttings from nursery trays and dipping the root ball into a 100% saturated hydrogel solution which coated it with a layer of saturated hydrogel, or supplying the equivalent volume of water as irrigation when transplanting the plants. Drenching nursery trays in 25% and 50% unsaturated hydrogel solutions prior to the removal of the plants delayed stress of transplanted cuttings to a similar extent as the 100% saturated hydrogel solution, but these solutions were ineffective in delaying stress in seedlings. It is thought the more open structure of the soil medium used for cuttings allowed the unsaturated hydrogel solutions to enter the root-ball during root drenching, and because the hydrogel solutions are more viscous than water the drainage of the solutions after removing the nursery trays from the root drench was reduced.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Direct Benefits of Rhizobial Inoculation to 'Acacia
           mearnsii' De Wild. as Tubed Stock and in a Plantation, and Synergistic
           Benefits to Interplanted 'Eucalyptus nitens' (Deane and Maiden) Maiden
    • Abstract: Brockwell, John; Mitchell, Peter A; Searle, Suzette D; Leach, Elainne MA; Crews, Tim E
      Acacia mearnsii De Wild., inoculated (soil enrichment inoculation) with three effective strains of Bradyrhizobium or uninoculated, was grown as tubed stock in a nursery. After 33 weeks, the seedlings were outplanted into a plantation as monocultures (monocrops) or interplanted with Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden (polycrops). Observations on root nodulation, tree growth and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (N2 fixation) were made during the nursery phase and for 5 y (1998-2003) after outplanting. Four benefits of inoculation were identified. First, it led to the production of tubed stock that was significantly (P < 0.05) superior to uninoculated plants in abundance of nodulation, in the proportion of total shoot nitrogen (N) derived from atmospheric N2 and in shoot dry matter. Second, after outplanting, survival of inoculated plants was significantly higher than survival of uninoculated tubed stock. Third, after outplanting, the difference in size between inoculated and uninoculated acacias that had been observed in the nursery was maintained in the plantation. (However, differences were not significant from 2002, i.e. 4 y after outplanting.) Fourth, E. nitens interplanted with inoculated A. mearnsii grew significantly better than eucalypts grown with uninoculated acacias. Acacias that were interplanted with eucalypts had consistently greater diameters than monocropped acacias; by 2003 (5 y after outplanting), the difference was statistically significant. In addition, interplanting of inoculated acacias with eucalypts (polycropping) conferred a growth benefit on the E. nitens by comparison with eucalypts grown as a monocrop. In terms of total timber production, the treatment in which E. nitens was interplanted with inoculated A. mearnsii was more productive than any other. These differences were attributed to the improved N economy within the inoculated treatments stemming from the nitrogen-fixing ability of the three original inoculant strains. Eucalypts also benefitted from interplanting with uninoculated acacias. It is concluded that the use of well-nodulated, N2-fixing nursery-grown tubed stock provides opportunities for efficient establishment of acacias in plantations and farm forestry and for revegetation, especially in riparian situations.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Eucalypt Taxa for Low- to Medium-rainfall Farm
           Forestry in South-Eastern Australia
    • Abstract: Marcar, Nico; Bush, David; Stewart, Leroy; Falkiner, Randall; Crawford, Debbie; Larmour, John; Myers, Brian
      Enhanced knowledge of on-farm forestry opportunities in the low to medium (500-750 mm) mean annual rainfall zone of south-eastern Australia is needed to maximise commercial and environmental benefits. Key research issues include species and provenance selection, site preparation and silviculture. As part of the 'Heartlands Initiative', CSIRO established several taxa evaluation trials in southern NSW and northern Victoria (within the Murray Darling Basin) in 2002. Results from four of these trials, comprising 16 taxa, are presented. Large differences in survival were evident amongst sites and species. Mean survival after 5 y was highest (89%) at Coomalong (near Violet Town, north-eastern Victoria), followed by Brooklyn West (near Wagga Wagga, NSW; 85%), Byawatha Hills (near Springhurst, north-eastern Victoria; 76%) and Koora (near Holbrook, NSW; 54%). Mean stem diameter and calculated stem volume at 5 y were greatest at Coomalong, but mean height was similar at the three sites. Survival of the commercial Eucalyptus camaldulensis E. globulus hybrid clone, E. cladocalyx, E. argophloia and E. camaldulensis was consistently high. Eucalyptus camaldulensis E. globulus hybrid clone had the best growth across all sites, followed by E. benthamii, E. botryoides and Corymbia maculata. Best tree form was achieved by E. camaldulensis E. grandis, E. camaldulensis E. globulus, E. benthamii, C. maculata and C. variegata. Growth of E. crebra was consistently poorest, with E. occidentalis also having slow growth and poor form. Selection of suitable taxa and best-practice establishment and silviculture are critical to establishing good plantations on these sites.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - How Much Water Is Needed to Produce a Cubic Metre of
           Radiata Pine Log'
    • Abstract: Bren, Leon; Elms, Stephen; Costenaro, John
      The concept of 'virtual water' is the amount of water that is embedded in products and used in their production. For commercially-grown wood this is the evapotranspiration per cubic metre or per tonne of product. A Pinus radiata plantation on a paired catchment project ('Croppers Creek') in north-eastern Victoria, Australia, was destroyed in a major wildfire. Salvage-logging of the area provided an excellent opportunity to compute this parameter. If data from the entire research catchment was included, the result was a virtual water volume value of 796 m3 of water per cubic metre of radiata pine log product. If pre-treatment data were used to correct for the presence of a retained riparian strip of native eucalypt forest the result obtained was a virtual water volume value of 771 m3 of water per cubic metre of product. If the results are converted to dry weight then the values become 1768 and 1713 m3 of water per tonne of product. These results are similar to those of products such as rice or wheat. We cannot find comparable values for other wood products. Although the concept of virtual water is attractive, the utility of the value obtained is arguable. The scientific alternative of water-use efficiency is more credible but the information available on this tends to be for individual plants over short periods of time.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Strategic Seedbanks to Meet Fire Risks for Victorian
           Ash-type Species
    • Abstract: Ferguson, Ian
      This study investigated the economics of maintaining strategic seedbanks for key eucalypt species to facilitate forest recovery following major fires in fire-sensitive forests of mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) and alpine ash (E. delegatensis) in Victoria. The analysis was confined to state forests and used Monte Carlo processes to model the occurrence of good seed-production years, the extent of natural regeneration occurring after major fires, the occurrence of minor and major fires, and the areal extent of those fires. The occurrence of major fires was predicted from estimates of the mean intervals between fires and long-term trends were also superimposed on these values to take account of future climate change. Three alternative scenarios for the extent of seed collection in good seed production years were investigated, together with three alternative strategies for future seed collection and storage facilities. The choice between these strategies and scenarios was evaluated using a discounted net cost criterion, together with consideration of the tradeoffs with risks associated with (1) backlogs of regeneration, (2) biological viability and (3) timber production of each forest type. The results provided clear guidance as to seed collection and storage facilities and to the initial targets for seed collection in good seed-production years. The results for risks raise a number of concerns about the future of these forest types, especially for alpine ash, given the distribution of age classes following major fires in 2003, 2006-2007 and 2009. Beyond 2050, even the high levels of seed collection and storage recommended may not be sufficient to maintain these ash forest types within state forests, which are extremely important for water production, water quality, biodiversity and timber production, and consideration needs to be given to additional measures and research.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - The Effect of Fireline Intensity on Woody Fuel
           Consumption in Southern Australian Eucalypt Forest Fires
    • Abstract: Hollis, JJ; Anderson, WR; McCaw, WL; Cruz, MG; Burrows, ND; Ward, B; Tolhurst, KG; Gould, JS
      The relationship between woody fuel consumption and fireline intensity was assessed using data collected at controlled fires and wildfires in south-western Western Australia, central Victoria and south-eastern New South Wales. The combined dataset consisted of fires in a range of dry eucalypt forests. Fire behaviour varied from slow, self-extinguishing prescribed burns to intense, fast-moving fires burning under conditions of extreme fire danger. Fireline intensity ranged from 50 kW m-1 to > 31 000 kW m-1. Woody fuel consumption ranged from 31% to 100%, and generally increased with fire intensity. Percentage consumption was highest for small woody fuels where the diameter was between 0.6 cm and 2.5 cm. Fireline intensity had a statistically significant, positive relationship with the proportion of woody fuel consumed by both controlled fires and wildfires. Two generalised linear models (GLM) describing woody fuel consumption as a function of fireline intensity were developed, one applicable to the prescribed fire environment (with fireline intensities typically < 750 kW m-1) and the other to the full range of fireline intensities. The prescribed burning model produced the best fit and lowest error statistics. The findings of this research have important practical implications for the management of fire to reduce fuel loads, maintain habitat and manage carbon stocks in fire-prone eucalypt forests. The woody fuel consumption models presented may assist the assessment of potential climate change impacts on coarse woody debris in Australian southern eucalypt forests. The results of this research suggest that predicted changes to fire regimes and fire intensity associated with climate change in southern Australia could result in greater woody fuel consumption and carbon release during bushfires and a reduction in woody fuel loads in dry eucalypt forests. Use of low-intensity prescribed fires may provide a practical way of managing woody fuel stocks to achieve particular land management objectives.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 2 - Reflections of an Expatriate Forester
    • Abstract: Douglas, Jim
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Araucariaceae [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Bevege, Ian
      Araucariaceae, Edited by Rod L. Bieleski and Mike D. Wilcox, Proceedings of the 2002 Araucariaceae Symposium, Araucaria-Agathis-Wollemia. International Dendrology Society, Auckland, New Zealand, 14-17 March 2002. ISBN 9780473152260. Includes references.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Abstracts of Forestry-related Postgraduate Degrees of
           Relevance to Australia
    • Abstract: Lambert, Marcia J; Turner, John
      In 1989 and 1991 abstracts of postgraduate theses relating to forest science and undertaken in Australia and by Australians in overseas institutions were published in Australian Forestry. The Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA) subsequently commissioned a more complete compilation for publication on the IFA website for access by the forestry community. The details (full name, year, institution, doctorate or masters degree, field of study, genus and species, rainforest or native forest or plantation) and abstract of each thesis recording research into forestry, forest products or forestry-related topics in Australian universities or by Australians in overseas institutions were collated through direct contact with university libraries or individuals. Records of a total of 964 theses are now on the website of the IFA. These records are from a total of 35 institutions, of which four provided 67% of all the records; the annual number of theses completed at the latter increased sharply after the mid-1960s. The topics studied were diverse; wildlife and ecology became prominent in later years. Fifty-four percent of studies pertained to native forest (excluding rainforest), 38% to plantations and 8% to rainforest.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Modelling Growth Responses of Individual Trees to
           Early-age Thinning in 'Eucalyptus globulus, E. nitens and E. grandis'
           Plantations in Northern Victoria
    • Abstract: Wang, Yue; LeMay, Valerie M; Baker, Thomas G
      Interest in production of sawlogs from eucalypt plantations in Australia has increased as logging in native forests has declined. Management for sawlog production commonly involves early-age selection and pruning of potential sawlog trees, and thinning. Existing stand-level models developed using data from unthinned plantations, grown primarily for pulpwood, cannot provide accurate estimates of sawlog yield for thinned plantations, and further model development is required. We addressed this issue using an individual- tree distance-independent modelling approach. Data from thinning and pruning experiments at three sites in northern Victoria were analysed, and diameter increment models were estimated for three tested species, Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. grandis Hill ex Maiden and E. nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden. A new model form with use of two indicator variables was designed in this study to compare the growth of sawlog trees selected in thinned treatments with their equivalent cohorts in unthinned treatments. The best variables identified by regression analysis included initial diameter of the target tree, stand age, site index and time since thinning, together with a measure of thinning intensity (the removed basal area ratio) and a measure of inter-tree competition (basal area for the larger trees). Structured in this way, the developed models are flexible for predicting the thinning responses of selected sawlog trees for a wide range of tree size, site and stand conditions, and thinning treatments, leading to more accurate prediction of sawlog yield and associated size class distribution information. This result implies that better decisions on whether to thin may be achieved in plantation management practice. To provide the models with sound statistical properties, nonlinear mixed-model techniques were used to correct for within- and between-subject auto-correlation and heterogeneity of errors. Further study to validate the developed models for a wide range of stand and site conditions, and thinning treatments, using independent data is recommended.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Forest Road Networks: Metrics for Coverage, Efficiency
           and Convenience
    • Abstract: Eastaugh, Chris S; Molina, Domingo
      The topological1 aspects of forest roads are most commonly quantified only by length and road density, which are poor indicators of many aspects of the network relevant to forest managers. This paper presents three new metrics - for coverage, efficiency and convenience - and uses a case study to demonstrate their utility in assisting road network decision-making. The procedures for determining the metrics are described, and suggestions made for their future application. The metric for road network coverage was found to be a useful guideline for road network planning.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Thinning, Fire and Birds in Boola Boola State Forest,
           Victoria, Australia
    • Abstract: Barr, Rachel; Wright, Wendy; Rayment, Philip
      Thinning is a silvicultural technique used extensively throughout Australia's production forests. The longer-term effects of thinning on forest biota are not well understood. This study provides an insight into the effects of thinning on avifauna and vegetation, 5-10 y after a thinning operation. A paired-site experimental design was used to compare bird density and species richness at thinned and unthinned sites in a mixed eucalypt production forest in Gippsland, Victoria. The 2006-2007 fires across Gippsland directly affected eight of twelve sites in this study, providing an opportunity to investigate the immediate effects of wildfire on birds. Significantly greater numbers of birds and bird species were found at thinned sites, compared with unthinned sites. Differences in vegetation structure and habitat quality were also apparent between thinned and unthinned sites. A reduction in both bird abundance and species richness occurred immediately after the wildfire. Research into the impact of silvicultural techniques, such as thinning, on forest biota is an important step towards achieving ecologically sustainable forestry. Improved understanding of the effect of forestry operations is imperative in order to maximise conservation in production environments.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Effect of Selection Method on Genetic Correlation and
           Gain in a Two-trait Selection Scheme
    • Abstract: Wu, Harry X; Sanchez, Leopoldo
      Adverse genetic correlations between wood volume and quality traits are one of the main constraints in advancing radiata pine and other pine breeding programs. To overcome or deal with adverse genetic correlation in radiata pine and other conifer breeding programs, a Monte Carlo simulation study for the adversely correlated traits DBH and wood density was conducted using allele-based models. Two allelic models were generated for the study: a mixed-loci model using independent and pleiotropic loci (i.e. each locus affecting more than one trait) for adversely correlated traits and an all-antagonistic-pleiotropic-loci model. Selection was conducted for three scenarios: the first was based on a single trait, the second on index selection for two adversely correlated traits (DBH and wood density) with equal or, third, unequal economic weights. Results indicated that: 1. Adverse genetic correlation tends to increase under pleiotropic models with selection. 2. Genetic gains for adversely correlated traits (such as DBH and wood density) could be made for many generations with selective breeding if there are independent loci for individual traits. 3. New alleles (from infusion or mutation) with less antagonistic effect are required for further genetic gain in the two adversely correlated traits simultaneously if all independent alleles are fixed (i.e. without allelic variation) and pleiotropic loci with antagonistic effects are not fixed. 4. For short-term genetic gain in adversely correlated traits, selection based on two traits simultaneously is more effective than selection based on a single trait. Developing economic weights through breeding objectives is a sound approach for short-term breeding programs. Economic weights will influence genetic gain for individual traits and genetic correlation between traits. 5. For long-term genetic gain, dissecting the genetic basis of traits using a large association population is recommended. When the genetic mechanisms controlling adversely correlated traits are better understood, an allele model could be developed to study optimal strategies under different gene actions.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Identifying Deployment Zones for 'Eucalyptus
           camaldulensis' x 'E. globulus' and x 'E. grandis' Hybrids Using Factor
           Analytic Modelling of Genotype by Environment Interaction
    • Abstract: Hardner, Craig; Dieters, Mark; DeLacy, Ian; Neal, Jodi; Fletcher, Susan; Dale, Glenn; Basford, Kaye
      In this study we apply factor analytic methods to the analysis of diameter at breast height (DBH) at 3 years for 22 trials of 892 clones from four E. camaldulensis x E. globulus and six E. camaldulensis x E. grandis families established throughout Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Western Australia). Three factors were sufficient to describe the genetic variation in the data set and, on average, described 86% of the genetic variance within a trial. Estimated broad-sense heritability ranged from 0.05 to 0.85, and genetic correlation estimates between pairs of trials ranged from 0.09 to 0.99. Two-dimensional plots of factor loadings and cluster analysis of the estimated genetic correlation matrix indicated that the trials formed three groups that represent potential zones for deployment to maximise genetic gain. However, there was no geographic pattern in the distribution of the trials within these groups; further research is required to develop predictive models of the patterns in G E for the germplasm and identify genotypes that are superior in each deployment zone.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - The Significance of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
           (SNPS) in 'Eucalyptus globulus' Breeding Programs
    • Abstract: Thavamanikumar, Saravanan; McManus, Luke J; Tibbits, Josquin F G; Bossinger, Gerd
      Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) is the most widely planted eucalypt for pulpwood in temperate regions of the world. Breeding to improve pulp properties of this species has been hampered by the long time between planting and pulp trait assessment and the high cost of estimating pulp traits. Identifying and employing allelic variants that associate with superior pulp yield and quality has the potential to assist breeding programs. Before this strategy can deliver benefits, detailed knowledge of population structure, nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) must be collected. To address this, 20 wood quality candidate genes were sequenced in 8 to 28 Eucalyptus globulus individuals. Relative to other tree species where such studies have been conducted, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies were high. Decay of linkage disequilibrium was rapid at all loci tested, with linkage rarely extending beyond 500 base pairs. Regions within many candidate genes exhibited significant positive or negative selection signatures, indicative of purifying or balancing selection, respectively. Our findings have implications for association mapping in Eucalyptus species. The potential for E. globulus pedigree reconstruction and whole-genome association approaches in eucalypts in general are discussed.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Semi-automating the Stand Delineation Process in
           Mapping Natural Eucalypt Forests
    • Abstract: Haywood, Andrew; Stone, Christine
      For decades, aerial photo interpretation has been, and to a good extent is still, the method of choice for producing fine-scale native forest stand mapping. Recent computer techniques have eased the task of the interpreter, who is now able to delineate polygons through on-screen digitising in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. Even with these advances, a great deal of skill is required in the polygon delineation. In an effort to contribute to the automation of this process, we introduce an open-source object-based solution to the mapping of forest stand boundaries using attributes derived from digital aerial photography and laser scanning data acquired over a study area in the Victorian Central Highlands. This methodology transforms remotely sensed imagery (single or multichannel) and canopy raster layers derived from laser scanning (lidar) into polygon vector layers. It is intended that the resultant polygon layer should resemble the product derived by an aerial interpreter, without any prior knowledge of the scene. The derived product aims to produce a layer comprised of relatively homogeneous polygons all exceeding a minimum size. The derived product is meant to be a preliminary template aimed at reducing time and effort in manual digitisation. The relationship between spectral, texture and laser scanning derived features for forest stand boundary delineation and human interpreted boundaries is not straight forward. The interpreter however, can aggregate and sometimes correct the automated delineated regions by simple drag-and-click operations This approach is relatively cheap and flexible, being a workable compromise between fully automated image interpretation which requires further research for acceptable levels of accuracy and reliability, and manual segmentation and classification. Preliminary results are encouraging, both in regard to automating the process and the delivery of robust delineation of stand boundaries in native forest landscapes. Future research will focus on appropriate input resolution to reduce computation requirements and improved data fusion methods to obtain more accurate forest stand delineation.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Using Airborne Laser Scanning Data to Estimate
           Structural Attributes of Natural Eucalypt Regrowth Forests
    • Abstract: Haywood, Andrew; Stone, Christine
      Airborne laser scanning (lidar) data provide the means to measure the vertical and horizontal structure of forest vegetation. The aim of this study was to investigate how metrics derived from laser scanning data could be used in simple regression models to estimate eucalypt top height, basal area and stems per hectare on 20 m x 20 m field plots. The study area was located in the Central Forest Management Area in Victoria. The target population was younger regrowth forests aged 20-60 y dominated by mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) and other ash species. A linear regression function was able to provide precise estimates of eucalypt top height (r2 = 0.87; root mean square error (RMSE) = 3.9 m) using a single height percentile variable. On the strength of this result it should be possible to predict top height with a precision that is close to traditional field measurement methods. Regression estimates of eucalypt stand basal area were less precise (r2 = 0.56; RMSE = 14.7 m2) than those of the top height model. The model included both a height percentile and intensity variable. Regression modelling was able to provide an estimate of (eucalypt stems per hectare)-2 using height percentiles, laser intensity and canopy structure as predictor variables (r2 = 0.41; RMSE = 5.6).

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 74 Issue 1 - Forests as Landscapes for Reconciliation
    • Abstract: Arabena, Kerry
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Notice to Contributors
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Indexes to Volume 73
    • PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Response to Stephen Walker's Guest Editorial
    • Abstract: Florence, Ross
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Risks Affecting Breeding Objectives for radiata pine
           in Australia
    • Abstract: Ivkovic, M; Gapare, WJ; Wharton, T; Jovanovic, T; Elms, S; McRae, TA; Wu, HX
      This paper examines the effects of climatic and biotic risks-drought, Essigella aphid, Dothistroma needle blight and Fusarium pitch canker-on the Pinus radiata production system in Australia. These risks were examined in relation to climatic variables in order to develop 'hazard ratings' for planting sites. Bio-economic models were developed to link the risks with the established breeding objective for solid wood production. Economic weights were derived for resistance traits that can be used in index selection for breeding and deployment. Under one scenario, drought-affected sites can achieve an internal rate of return of > 7.0% only if the land rental is sufficiently low, that is < $25 ha-1 y-1, but replanting costs and volume losses due to mortality can be significant. An average of 13.5% defoliation caused by Essigella aphid would reduce volume growth over a rotation period by about 10%. A modest increase in profitability can be achieved through deployment of Essigella-resistant genotypes. Reduction of volume growth by Dothistroma defoliation at an early age (4-10 y) had a relatively small effect on subsequent yield reduction. At a site with a high level of infection, however, the profitability of improving Dothistroma resistance was similar to that for improving growth on uninfected sites. The economic importance of risk traits relative to MAI over the entire radiata pine plantation estate was generally low: 4% for pine aphid, 0.6% for needle blight and 1.3% for pitch canker resistance. Essigella pine aphid is the most important pest currently affecting the productivity of radiata pine plantations in Australia.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Association of Allelic Variation in Xylem Genes with
           Wood Properties in 'Eucalyptus nitens'
    • Abstract: Southerton, SG; MacMillan, CP; Bell, JC; Bhuiyan, N; Downes, G; Ravenwood, IC; Joyce, KR; Williams, D; Thumma, BR
      We used association studies to identify allelic variation in genes that influence wood fibre development in Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden). Genes selected for analysis were differentially expressed in wood with contrasting properties such as cellulose and lignin content, pulp yield and microfibril angle (MFA). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by sequencing the candidate genes in a number of unrelated individuals. Selected SNPs were genotyped across 420 unrelated E. nitens trees from central Victorian populations and growing in a provenance trial at Meunna in north-western Tasmania. Significantly associated SNPs were genotyped across two other populations in northern Tasmania in order to validate associated SNPs. We have compiled a database of phenotypic information relating particularly to wood fibre properties for each individual in the association and validation populations. Associations between SNPs and wood properties were identified by comparing trait means in different SNP genotype classes. Several significantly associated SNPs identified in the Meunna population were validated in the other populations. The direction of the allele effect was reversed for two SNPs that were associated with kraft pulp yield. DNA markers identified in this research may be used to complement existing selection methods in breeding programs.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Genetic Association Studies in 'Eucalyptus pilularis'
           Smith (Blackbutt)
    • Abstract: Sexton, Timothy R; Henry, Robert J; McManus, Luke J; Henson, Michael; Thomas, Dane S; Shepherd, Mervyn
      Breeding for wood quality is limited by the long generation times and the delay before wood quality can be measured reliably. Association studies allow links between phenotype and genotype to be made, and are a prelude to accelerated domestication of trees by molecular breeding approaches. This study uses association genetics to identify DNA polymorphisms that correlate with solid wood properties of Eucalyptus pilularis Smith (blackbutt). We undertook extensive phenotyping of dimensional stability, growth and structural wood properties on a nine-year-old progeny trial established by Forests NSW at Hannam Vale, near Port Macquarie in NSW. A subset of 372 phenotyped individuals representing 284 families collected from 37 provenances was used as the association population for genotypic assessment. Fifty-two out of 127 novel DNA polymorphisms were surveyed within four candidate genes, CCR, CAD, MYB1 and MYB2. Several putative associations between wood quality traits and selected DNA polymorphisms are reported, along with the likely mechanism of action on wood quality. Association studies such as this will facilitate non-destructive DNA tests for heritable wood properties that can be used to enrich breeding populations at any developmental stage with desirable alleles.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Growth Patterns of Plantation-Grown 'Taiwania
           cryptomerioides' Following Thinning
    • Abstract: Chiu, Chih-Ming; Nigh, Gordon; Chien, Ching-Te; Ying, Cheng C
      Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata) is an important tree species in Taiwan; its rapid growth makes it a choice species for intensive silviculture. To assist silviculturalists in planning operations, we developed growth and yield models for taiwania stands that had undergone four levels of thinning: none, light, medium, and heavy. The variables that we modelled are average diameter at breast height, average height, basal area per hectare and volume per hectare. We used data from a thinning experiment with the four levels of thinning undertaken at ages 17 and 25 y. The Chapman-Richards function provided the basis for our model. We modified this function to account for both the immediate effects of the thinnings and their longer-term effects on growth. The model was fitted using nonlinear mixed modelling with plot as the subject for the random effect. Since the thinnings were from below, they tended to increase the average diameter and height but decreased the basal area and volume of the residual stands. However, the total volume available (volume removed + volume standing) increased as the thinning intensity increased. Taiwania is found mainly at higher elevations and consequently the sites it grows on can be sensitive to erosion and landslides. Managing for wood production must therefore consider site protection and other aspects of resource management. We discuss the practical applications of these models that will be useful to managers trying to efficiently manage taiwania plantations on sites that are limited by biophysical and ecophysiological constraints.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Site Index Prediction of 'Eucalyptus dunnii' Maiden
           Plantations with Soil and Site Parameters in Sub-tropical Eastern
    • Abstract: Grant, John C; Nichols, JDoland; Smith, RGeoff B; Brennan, Paul; Vanclay, Jerome K
      The Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden plantation estate in north-eastern NSW and south-eastern Queensland is significantly expanding on ex-grazing land. Thirty-one growth plots (average age 5.2 y) covering a latitudinal range of about 3.2 (370 km) and at altitudes from 8m to 740 m asl in NSW were used to evaluate the correlation of site, soil and climatic variables with growth of E. dunnii. Using height at an age of 10 y as a standard, site indices for E. dunnii across the 31 sites averaged about 16m, ranging from around 5m to 26m. The factors available-water storage capacity of the soil, rainfall and altitude accounted for 62% of the variation in site index. Inclusion of measures of fertility did not improve the predictive capacity of the model, possibly because of the limited size of the data set with soil chemical analyses. The predictive model, based on simple, easily assessable site factors, has the capacity to improve the quantitative evaluation of the productivity of sites for E. dunnii plantations. The need for a simple field assessment procedure for selection of suitable sites was highlighted by the wide range of productivity exhibited across the plots.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Education and Training Challenges for the Australian
           Forestry Sector: An Analysis Based on Recent Trends in University and
           Vocational Education and Training (VET) Completions
    • Abstract: Pratley, JE; Kanowski, PJ; Bull, LM
      As in other Australian primary industry sectors, there has been increasing concern over the past decade about the skills shortages evident in the forestry sector, and the education and training needs of the sector. The forestry sector, like others in the primary industries, is characterised by relatively low levels of workforce qualifications compared with community-wide averages. We review nationally-consistent data on degree completions at postgraduate research and undergraduate levels, and course completions at vocational levels, in 'forestry' across Australia, and discuss the results in the context of the current workforce at these levels in the Australian forestry sector. Comparative data for postgraduate research and undergraduate completions were available for the years 1994 and 2005-2007, and the years 2001, 2004 and 2007, respectively. The number of research higher degree completions classified as 'forestry' in the period 2005-2007 was around 20 annually, more or less equally divided between PhD and Masters by research; this was substantially more than completions in 1994. Undergraduate pass degree completions declined by more than 50%, to a total of about 30 annually, over the seven-year period studied (2001-2007). In contrast, honours degree completions increased by about the same proportion, but from a very low base, to around eight annually. Data for total course completions in vocational education and training (VET) 'forestry' programs were available for the four-year period 2004-2007. Total completions over this period were around 2000, but declined by nearly 50% between 2004 and 2007. These data underestimate participation in the VET sector and predate the establishment of ForestWorks as the sector's Industry Skills Council. We conducted a simple workforce planning analysis based on available estimates of the workforce employed in the forestry sector and assumed career durations. On this basis, the level of supply of higher-degree research graduates in forestry -at around 20 in 2007 -would seem to be of the right order, although our analysis does not account for the high level of specialisation which characterises both completions and workforce needs. In contrast, the current and projected numbers of undergraduate forestry completions, currently at 19 and projected to decline to 10 by 2013, are well below workforce replacement levels. The decline in undergraduate forestry completions is being offset to an extent by increased numbers of professional Masters graduates in forestry, at around 25 annually, but the combined number of expected undergraduate and professional Masters completions remains less than is required for sustaining the professional workforce at existing levels. The comparatively low rates of completion of vocational-level qualifications suggest that the vocational-level workforce engaged in forest growing and management, in forest operations and in primary processing will remain less formally-qualified than both the primary industry sector and the community more generally. These results emphasize the need for the forestry sector to continue to focus on, and invest in, the education and training needs of its workforce, at all levels.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Sustainable Pole Supply Project
    • Abstract: Stone, Hugh; Wood, David
      Over one million square kilometres of regional Queensland has its electricity needs serviced by one corporation, Ergon Energy. This corporation is facing a critical shortage in the future supply of hardwood power poles, with demand expected to increase from 13 000 to 25 000 p.a. over the next 15 years. This is unlikely to be met by traditional suppliers. With over 900 000 poles in the network, of which about 94% are hardwood, the shortfall will commence as early as 2010. Hardwood is the preferred pole type due to its economic advantages and its superior electrical insulation properties. It is safe and reliable. The Sustainable Pole Supply Project has been initiated to ensure that Ergon Energy has a reliable and economic future supply of poles. To achieve this, the corporation seeks to acquire native forests and to establish plantations for poles. These forests will be located in diverse geographic areas to minimise risk and will be selectively harvested to provide a renewable supply of hardwood power poles while preserving ecosystems and maintaining habitats. Additionally, the benefits of carbon capture and biodiversity conservation can offset other activities of the corporation in meeting its sustainability objectives. This paper discusses the risks and benefits to Ergon Energy and the community of undertaking the project.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - An Indicative Estimate of Carbon Stocks on Victoria's
           Publicly Managed Land Using the FullCAM Carbon Accounting Model
    • Abstract: Norris, Jaymie; Arnold, Scott; Fairman, Thomas
      The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) is responsible for managing public land in Victoria. The land comprises mostly national park and state forest tenures but also includes a range of other Crown land tenures. The broad goal of this study was to provide an event-driven set of carbon accounts for Victoria's publicly managed land. An event-based model increases the understanding of fluxes in carbon stocks and informs the policy development process in areas relating to managing carbon as an asset. The study aims to discuss the method and its imperfections in addition to investigating the results from running the model. Variation in carbon stocks across the state is virtually unknown, with most past investigations occurring within the actively harvested, productive forest. This paper constitutes the first attempt at modelling carbon on all publicly managed land in Victoria. The study area was stratified on the basis of historical event data that are known to influence carbon stocks, such as fire and harvesting activities and geographic region. Large volumes of historical event data were simplified and aggregated to allow modelling and used to determine the stock trajectories for each stratum. The input resided in a geographic information system (GIS), and a database system was developed to pass data to and from the carbon accounting model, FullCAM, where carbon stocks were calculated. Simulations showed that carbon stocks were most heavily influenced by wildfire events, with more than 16 million t of carbon, or 2% of the total stock of 750 million t of carbon (2750 million t CO2), emitted by fires during the period from 2000 to 2009. Furthermore, the total carbon stocks of Victoria are highly correlated with large-extent wildfire events, yet even so the effect is largely transient even if corresponding emissions are significant. Events such as harvesting, wildfires and prescribed burns are major causes of change in carbon stocks on Victoria's publicly managed land. Of these events, the direct effect of harvesting is greater in reducing carbon stocks at particular locations than either wildfire or prescribed burning, yet the relative effect of wildfires is greater due to the spatial extent of these events. Prescribed burning has very little effect on carbon stocks in the FullCAM model, due to the patchy nature of these events and generally low intensity of prescribed burning operations. The forested lands are resilient to effects of harvesting and fire as carbon stocks were found to return to pre-disturbance levels, with recovery of the debris pool being fastest. The soil carbon pool is relatively stable, whilst the live vegetation carbon pool is the most dynamic and heavily influenced by events.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 4 - Sustainability of Eucalypt Plantations in Australia Is
    • Abstract: Nambiar, Sadanandan
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 3 - Kenneth George Eldridge 6 April 1934 - 16 June 2010
    • Abstract: Matheson, Colin; Kanowski, Peter; Brown, Alan; Harwood, Chris
      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 3 - A Future in Flames [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Ryan, Michael
      Review(s) of: A Future in Flames, by Danielle Clode, Melbourne University Press and the State Library of Victoria, 2010, viii + 304 pages, ISBN 9780522857238 (paperback), RRP $34.99.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
  • Volume 73 Issue 3 - Genetic and Environmental Influences on Capsule
           Retention Following Controlled Pollination of 'Eucalyptus globulus'
    • Abstract: Collins, SL; Callister, AN
      'One-stop' controlled pollination (CP) and mass supplementary pollination (MSP) are now widely used for commercial production of genetically superior Eucalyptus globulus seed. Abortion of pollinated capsules, however, remains a common problem, resulting in reduced yield and greater cost of seed. We studied capsule retention following pollination of 1 072 000 flowers over three commercial CP seasons at a grafted E. globulus seed orchard. The aim of our study was to quantify genetic and orchard management effects on capsule retention. We also characterised trends in capsule abortion for 15 mo following pollination to determine associations with weather and orchard management events. Average capsule retention varied between 32% and 46% across the three seasons. within seasons, capsule retention values for maternal clones varied by 48%. Maternal clone values were highly correlated between seasons (r = 0.83-0.95), suggesting that maternal clone effects can be reliably estimated from a single season. The effect of paternal clone was significant but smaller than the effect of maternal clone. Ramets with poorest health had an average of 17% lower capsule retention than those with the best health score. Ramets that had received an application of the growth hormone paclobutrazol within the previous 5 y had on average 13% lower capsule retention in two of the three seasons. Capsule retention was on average 0.6% lower for each year of ramet age. In two of the three seasons, capsule retention was 1.7% lower for every 500 flowers pollinated on the tree. The rate of capsule loss from the time of pollination followed different trends in the two years that data were recorded. No maternal or paternal effect was found on the pattern or rate of capsule loss, suggesting overriding environmental effects. Orchard management activities such as irrigation and pruning had no discernible effect. We conclude that the cost of CP and MSP seed can be greatly reduced by careful selection of clones and by eliminating ramets of poor health. The negative association between paclobutrazol application and capsule retention needs to be balanced with the positive effect of paclobutrazol on flower production. Further research is required to understand the physiological bases for capsule abortion, although our results suggest that carbon limitation may be a significant factor.

      PubDate: Thu, 2 Nov 2017 11:47:32 GMT
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