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Publisher: Biomed Central Ltd.   (Total: 307 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 307 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 158, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 72, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 46, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 166, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 186, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access  
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Central J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 3)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Cilia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Sarcoma Research     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 61, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)

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International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2056-9920
Published by Biomed Central Ltd. Homepage  [307 journals]
  • Endoscopic vitreoretinal surgery: principles, applications and new

    • Abstract: Purpose To analyze endoscopic vitreoretinal surgery principles, applications, challenges and potential technological advances. Background Microendoscopic imaging permits vitreoretinal surgery for tissues that are not visible using operating microscopy ophthalmoscopy. Evolving instrumentation may overcome some limitations of current endoscopic technology. Analysis Transfer of the fine detail in endoscopic vitreoretinal images to extraocular video cameras is constrained currently by the caliber limitations of intraocular probes in ophthalmic surgery. Gradient index and Hopkins rod lenses provide high resolution ophthalmoscopy but restrict surgical manipulation. Fiberoptic coherent image guides offer surgical maneuverability but reduce imaging resolution. Coaxial endoscopic illumination can highlight delicate vitreoretinal structures difficult to image in chandelier or endoilluminator diffuse, side-scattered lighting. Microendoscopy’s ultra-high magnification video monitor images can reveal microscopic tissue details blurred partly by ocular media aberrations in contemporary surgical microscope ophthalmoscopy, thereby providing a lower resolution, invasive alternative to confocal fundus imaging. Endoscopic surgery is particularly useful when ocular media opacities or small pupils restrict or prevent transpupillary ophthalmoscopy. It has a growing spectrum of surgical uses that include the management of proliferative vitreoretinopathy and epiretinal membranes as well as the implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses and electrode arrays for intraretinal stimulation in retinitis pigmentosa. Microendoscopy’s range of applications will continue to grow with technological developments that include video microchip sensors, stereoscopic visualization, chromovitrectomy, digital image enhancement and operating room heads-up displays. Conclusion Microendoscopy is a robust platform for vitreoretinal surgery. Continuing clinical and technological innovation will help integrate it into the modern ophthalmic operating room of interconnected surgical microscopy, microendoscopy, vitrectomy machine and heads-up display instrumentation.
      PubDate: 2019-06-18
  • One-year outcomes of 27-gauge versus 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy for
           uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair

    • Abstract: Background 27-gauge (27G) and 25-gauge (25G) transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) were considered equal about safety, effectiveness and vitrectomy time for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), although larger and long-term comparative studies are needed to confirm previous knowledge. Furthermore, a combined comparison of time duration of surgery and vitreous removal was never performed. Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of 27G versus 25G TSV for the treatment of uncomplicated RRD over a 1-year follow-up. Methods A 12-months single-center prospective, randomized, interventional study of 92 consecutive patients was performed. 46 patients underwent 27G TSV (Group 1) and 46 underwent 25G TSV (Group 2). Primary outcomes were primary and final reattachment rate, and final functional success (visual acuity ≥ 20/200, 1 LogMar). Secondary outcomes were the surgical and vitrectomy time. Complications were recorded. Results All functional and morphologic data at baseline and at all follow-up time points up to 12 months after surgery were available for only 88 patients. Four patients in Group 1 dropped out of the study after surgery. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Primary and final reattachment rates were 90.5% and 100% in Group 1, and 95.6% and 100% in Group 2, respectively (p > .05, p > .05, respectively). Visual acuity improved from 1.5 ± 1.09 LogMar to 0.38 ± 0.55 LogMar in Group 1 (p < .001) and 1.2 ± 0.9 LogMar to 0.49 ± 0.53 LogMar in Group 2 (p < .001), without significant difference between the groups (p > .05). The surgical time was 73.2 ± 11.3 min with 27G TSV and 64.4 ± 9.5 min with 25G TSV (p = .0001). The vitrectomy time was 19.9 ± 3.8 min with 27G TSV and 20.8 ± 3.8 min with 25G TSV (p > .05). One single case of choroidal detachment occurred. Conclusions Reattachment rates, functional success and vitrectomy time were comparable between 27G and 25G TSV for RRD. Surgical time was significantly longer using 27G vitrectomy.
      PubDate: 2019-06-04
  • Looking ahead in retinal disease management: highlights of the 2019
           angiogenesis, exudation and degeneration symposium

    • PubDate: 2019-05-29
  • Mapping diurnal variations in choroidal sublayer perfusion in patients
           with idiopathic epiretinal membrane: an optical coherence tomography
           angiography study

    • Abstract: Background Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive tool for imaging and quantifying the choroidal vasculature and perfusion state. In this index study, OCTA was used to investigate diurnal changes in choroidal sublayer perfusion in eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) and to identify impacting factors. Methods A prospective study was conducted on volunteers with symptomatic ERM, each of whom underwent repeated measurements of subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography and perfusion of choroidal vascular sublayers using OCTA at 7 a.m., 12 p.m., 4 p.m., and 8 p.m. Possible interactions between diurnal variations and other factors, such as gender and age, were evaluated. Results A total of 21 eyes of 21 participants (mean age 72.43 ± 7.06 years) were analysed. A significant pattern of diurnal variation was observed for SFCT (p = 0.008) as well as perfusion of Haller’s layer (HLP, p = 0.001). SFCT and HLP both demonstrated a quadratic relation to time of the day, decreasing from morning to afternoon, before increasing again in the evening. No significant differences with regard to gender or age were detectable. Conclusion OCTA-based analysis of choroidal sublayer perfusion demonstrated significant diurnal variations in patients with symptomatic ERM, which are quite different from changes reported in healthy eyes. Therefore, it is important to account for time of day, when comparing longitudinal OCTA data.
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
  • Experimental model to evaluate the benefits of lutein to prevent retinal
           phototoxicity during pars plana vitrectomy surgery using xenon source
           light illumination in rabbits

    • Abstract: Background To evaluate the benefits of lutein in preventing retinal phototoxicity generated by xenon light sources during vitreoretinal surgery. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study in pigmented rabbit eyes exposed to different vitreoretinal surgery lighting simulations. Twenty Dutch-belted rabbits were divided into two groups exposed to two different xenon wavelength light sources filters (420 nm and 435 nm). In addition, two subgroups were administered with daily supplemental of 10 mg of Lutein systemically. Electroretinography (ERG), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography (FA) were performed before and after surgery to quantify the retinal damage. Results All animals submitted to the experiment presented some degree of phototoxicity independent of wavelength light filter used. Retinal damage was evident as the FA presented areas of hyperfluorescence, and the OCT depicted increased reflective areas of the inner and outer retinal layers, and RPE. ERG showed a diffuse reduction of the a and b waves amplitudes in all animals. Conclusion Use of systemic administration of lutein showed no benefit to avoiding retinal phototoxicity generate to xenon light source using filters of 435 nm and 420 nm when comparing to the control group.
      PubDate: 2019-05-07
  • Treat and extend regimen with aflibercept for chronic central retinal vein
           occlusions: 2¬†year results of the NEWTON study

    • Abstract: Background To determine whether aflibercept (Eylea; Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tarrytown, NY) could continue to extend the macular edema free interval in patients on a treat and extend (TAE) with non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusions (CRVOs) previously treated with ranibizumab (Lucentis; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) or bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA) in the second year. Methods Twenty patients with macular edema secondary to non-ischemic CRVOs previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab were prospectively treated with intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI) using a TAE dosing regimen. Injection frequencies were extended 2 weeks if there were no signs of disease activity on OCT or change in visual acuity. In the second year of the study, patients who have recurrences of macular edema could be re-challenged with a longer treatment interval under the following criterion: absence of any macular edema on three consecutive visits with the same treatment interval. Results Twenty patients had an average duration of a CRVO for 22 months (range 7–90) and averaged an anti-VEGF treatment every 42 days (range 28–60 days). The macular edema free interval increased from 38 to 75 days when switched to aflibercept (p = 0.000003) at month 24. There was an average increase of 37 days (median 34 days; range 0–91 days) in the macular edema free interval with aflibercept. At the month 24 visit, 50% (8/16) went > 12 weeks with a macular edema free interval between IAI. There was an improvement in vision (+ 8 ETDRS letters, p = 0.006) and decreased retinal thickness (158 µm, p = 0.00003) with aflibercept treatment at month 24. Conclusions The 2-year results of the NEWTON study demonstrated the sustained benefits of a TAE dosing regimen with aflibercept in patients with chronic CRVOs. The visual acuity gains and anatomic improvements observed at year one were maintained through month 24 with less visits and treatments. This may help minimize the treatment burden in patients with recurrent macular edema secondary to non-ischemic CRVO. Trial Registration, NCT01870427, Registered June 6, 2013,'cond=NEWTON&rank=1. Presented at the RETICON 2017: The Retina Congress with Live Surgery, Chennai, India-April 2017.
      PubDate: 2019-04-15
  • Macular hyperpigmentary changes in ABCA4 -Stargardt disease

    • Abstract: Background Stargardt disease (STGD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) share clinical and pathophysiological features. In AMD, macular hyperpigmentary changes are associated to a worse prognosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize macular hyperpigmentary changes in patients with STGD and associate them with the severity of phenotype. Materials and methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included 141 patients with STGD. Hyperpigmentary changes were evaluated on color fundus photography and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Severity of phenotype was assessed by full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) patterns, and visual acuity (VA). Results Thirty patients (21.7%) showed macular hyperpigmentary changes in four distinct patterns. Out of seventeen patients who had follow-up images, eleven patients demonstrated increases of the hyperpigmented lesions, and progression of the underlying RPE atrophy overtime. VA remained stable. Of 28 patients who had ffERG, 17 patients presented with reduction of photopic and scotopic responses, while 8 presented with reduction of photopic responses only, and 3 presented with preserved photopic and scotopic responses. Of 25 patients who had FAF available, 12 presented with widespread disease extending anteriorly to the vascular arcades, while eight presented with widespread disease, extending beyond the vascular arcades, and 5 presented with disease confined to the foveal area. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated that patients with STGD with macular hyperpigmented lesions had a severe phenotype. Overtime, hyperpigmented lesions increased in size, spread across the retina, and migrated to different retinal layers. Macular hyperpigmentation may be a marker of advanced stage of the disease.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Anterior chamber paracentesis during intravitreal injections in
           observational trials: effectiveness and safety and effects

    • Abstract: A paracentesis prior to an intravitreal injection is a very safe procedure and can prevent IOP-spikes after injections. As these spikes pose the risk of inducing glaucomatous changes particularly in patients with frequent injections and/or with a risk profile, a regular paracentesis prior to an injection may be considered and discussed with the patient.
      PubDate: 2019-03-06
  • Novel stem cell and gene therapy in diabetic retinopathy, age related
           macular degeneration, and retinitis pigmentosa

    • Abstract: Degenerative retinal disease leads to significant visual morbidity worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration are leading causes of blindness in the developed world. While current therapies for these diseases slow disease progression, stem cell and gene therapy may also reverse the effects of these, and other, degenerative retinal conditions. Novel therapies being investigated include the use of various types of stem cells in the regeneration of atrophic or damaged retinal tissue, the prolonged administration of neurotrophic factors and/or drug delivery, immunomodulation, as well as the replacement of mutant genes, and immunomodulation through viral vector delivery. This review will update the reader on aspects of stem cell and gene therapy in diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa and other less common inherited retinal dystrophies. These therapies include the use of adeno-associated viral vector-based therapies for treatment of various types of retinitis pigmentosa and dry age-related macular degeneration. Other potential therapies reviewed include the use of mesenchymal stem cells in local immunomodulation, and the use of stem cells in generating structures like three-dimensional retinal sheets for transplantation into degenerative retinas. Finally, aspects of stem cell and gene therapy in diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and other less common inherited retinal dystrophies will be reviewed.
      PubDate: 2019-02-13
  • Best vitelliform macular dystrophy in a large Brazilian family

    • Abstract: Background To describe the clinical and multimodal imaging findings of a Brazilian family with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Methods A retrospective chart review of a Brazilian family was conducted and complementary fundus images (color photography, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography) were analyzed. Results Seven patients had typical macular lesions at different stages of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Electrooculography was performed in two of them and showed abnormal Arden ratio. The pedigree strongly suggests an autosomal dominant inheritance. Low visual acuity was mainly associated with advanced age, retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, and photoreceptors damage. However, yellow subretinal deposits were evidenced in patients with better visual acuity. Conclusion We present the largest case series of a Brazilian family with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy. Multimodal imaging analysis is important to determine retinal abnormalities. Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy and loss of photoreceptors outer segments seem to be a late but important finding related to severe visual acuity impairment.
      PubDate: 2019-01-30
  • Spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial tear in type 2 choroidal
           neovascularization: repair mechanisms following anti-VEGF therapy

    • Abstract: Background To report the clinical course and the multimodal retinal imaging of a spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tear in a type 2 choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. Case presentation A 74 year-old man presented with visual acuity deterioration in the right eye. Multimodal retinal imaging showed a predominantly classic (type 2) CNV complicated by a spontaneous RPE tear. The patient received six intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF which resulted in improvement of the vision and stabilization of the neovascular lesion on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Longitudinal changes of the RPE-photoreceptors interface, including RPE splitting, are reported on OCT. Conclusion RPE tears may spontaneously occur in type 2 CNV. Anti-VEGF treatment should be aimed at promoting RPE repair and limiting the extent of the scarring. The mechanisms of RPE repair during treatment may be documented with OCT.
      PubDate: 2019-01-23
  • Retinal sensitivity and photoreceptor arrangement changes secondary to
           congenital simple hamartoma of retinal pigment epithelium

    • Abstract: Background The congenital simple hamartoma of the retinal pigment epithelium is a benign lesion and previous observations with noninvasive imaging have detected potential photoreceptor abnormalities and retinal function interplay. Case presentation A 35-year-old woman was found to have an asymptomatic, solitary, circumscribed, pigmented lesion in her left eye. The patient underwent ophthalmic examination including multimodal evaluation with fluorescein angiography, near-infrared reflectance scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, blue autofluorescence, enhanced-depth imaging spectralis B-scan optical coherence tomography (EDI-SBOCT), en face OCT angiography (OCT-A) and microperimetry plus adaptive optics imaging. Ophthalmoscopic examination revealed a juxtafoveolar pigmented lesion with feeding retinal arteriole, consistent with congenital simple hamartoma of RPE. There was no macular edema, exudation, hemorrhage, traction or subretinal fluid. Multimodal imaging of the mass using fluorescein angiography revealed intra-lesion late staining, near-infrared reflectance imaging demonstrated intrinsic hyperreflectivity, short-wavelength autofluorescence and red-free filter photography revealed blocked signal, and SBOCT showed abrupt shadowing. On OCT-A, an exclusive ring-shaped vascular circuit with increased foveal avascular zone was noted. Adaptive optics revealed cell density arrangement and retinal sensitivity correlations on microperimetry. Conclusion These findings suggest that this hamartomatous lesion might cause specific cellular changes that impact retinal sensitivity response and potentially result from vasculature malnourishment to the outer retinal layers.
      PubDate: 2019-01-15
  • Computing uveal melanoma basal diameters: a comparative analysis of
           several novel techniques with improved accuracy

    • Abstract: Background We sought to compare the accuracy of standard and novel echographic methods for computing intraocular tumor largest basal diameter (LBD). Design Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Subjects All patients presenting with new diagnosis of uveal melanoma (UM). Methods Ultrasounds were obtained for all patients, and axial length (AL) was measured for a subset of patients. LBD was calculated as: (1) a single chord measured on B scan ultrasound (one-chord method [1CM]), or (2) by subdividing the basal diameter into two chords, which were summated (two-chord method [2CM]), or (3) by a mathematically-derived formula (MF) based on geometric relationships. The accuracy of each method was then compared, and sensitivity of each technique to factors such as tumor size and AL were analyzed. Main outcome measures Accuracy, robustness, correctness of predicted plaque size. Results 116 UMs were analyzed; 1CM-calculated LBD underestimated 2CM-calculated LBD by 7.5% and underestimated LBD by MF by 7.8%; 2CM and MF were tightly correlated (average LBD difference = 0.038%). At larger LBDs, 1CM underestimated 2CM and MF by a much greater percentage (p < 0.001). By linear regression, 1CM underestimated LBD compared to 2CM by 0.8% and underestimated LBD compared to MF by 1.2% for every 1-mm LBD increase (p < 0.001 for each). Increasing the number of ultrasound chords beyond two did not significantly impact LBD calculations. For eyes with AL within two standard deviations of the mean, AL did not impact plaque selection using MF. 1CM would have led to selection of an undersized plaque in 41% of cases compared to 2CM and would have misclassified half of all eyes that actually required enucleation. For tumors with LBD < 12 mm, 1CM does not significantly underestimate LBD. Conclusions Tumor LBD by 1CM is an inaccurate means of determining actual LBD, especially for larger tumors. Using either 2CM or MF is much more accurate, especially for tumors > 12 mm, where a single chord on ultrasound is more likely to lead to incorrect, undersized plaque selection. Our MF can be applied with great accuracy even in cases where the AL of the eye is not measured, using the population average AL (23.7 mm), and the formula \( {\text{LBD}} = 23.7\sin^{ - 1} ({{{\text{chord}}\;{\text{length}}} \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{\text{chord}}\;{\text{length}}} {23.7}}} \right. \kern-0pt} {23.7}}) \) .
      PubDate: 2019-01-09
  • Correction to: Sustained and targeted episcleral delivery of celecoxib in
           a rabbit model of retinal and choroidal neovascularization

    • Abstract: Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported the following changes to the article: 1. The correct name of Dr. De Carvalho is Ricardo A. Pontes de Carvalho.
      PubDate: 2019-01-07
  • Release of silicone oil droplets from syringes

    • Abstract: Background Intravitreal silicone oil droplets have been found in the vitreous. The aim of this study is to compare the rates of silicone oil released by different brands of commonly used syringes for intravitreal injection after agitation by flicking. Methods Three models of two brands of syringes were analyzed for their rates of silicone oil release: Saldanha Rodrigues (SR) 1 mL insulin syringe (SR, Brazil, syringe 1), Becton–Dickinson (BD) Plastipak 1 mL insulin syringe (Brazil, syringe 2), and BD Safety-Glide 1 mL insulin syringe (USA, syringe 3). All syringes were tested under four different conditions: positive control (fluid with addition of silicone oil) without agitation (group 1, n = 5); positive control with agitation (group 2, n = 3); fluid only without agitation (group 3, n = 5); and fluid only with agitation (group 4, n = 5). Masked graders performed all analyses using light microscopy. Results All syringes (1, 2, and 3) released silicone oil droplets in the positive control group regardless of the agitation status (groups 1 and 2). When no oil was added and the syringes were not agitated, only syringe 1 released silicone oil droplets (40% of samples). After agitation, syringes 1 and 3 released silicone oil droplets in all samples. Quantitative analysis showed a significantly (P = 0.011; 11.2 ± 2.9 vs. 0.6 ± 0.9, respectively) higher mean number of silicone oil droplets released by syringe 1 after agitation compared to no agitation. Syringe 1 also had significantly (P = 0.002, 11.2 ± 2.9 vs. 0.0 ± 0.0 vs. 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) more droplets than syringes 2 and 3 after agitation. Conclusions Syringes commonly used for intravitreal injections frequently release silicone oil droplets when agitated by flicking, especially the SR insulin ones. We recommend that they not be agitated at the time of intravitreal injection and that the manufacturers consider producing syringes adapted for intraocular use.
      PubDate: 2019-01-03
  • Quantitative measurement of vascular density and flow using optical
           coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with central retinal
           vein occlusion: Can OCTA help in distinguishing ischemic from non-ischemic

    • Abstract: Background To evaluate microvascular changes and quantitative parameters in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and finding difference between presumably ischemic and non ischemic CRVO. Methods Patients with CRVO (31) and healthy control (20) were enrolled in this observational case control study. The OCTA was done for each patient and control subject. In macular area 2 images were taken for each eye (3 × 3 mm and 8 × 8 mm). The images were analyzed at three capillary plexuses (superficial and deep retinal capillary layers and choriocapillaris layer). Results Thirty-one patients with CRVO (mean age 60.00 ± 13.72 years) and 20 healthy age/gender matched subjects (mean age 54.10 ± 12.33 years) were enrolled in this study (p = 0.095). The mean visual acuity of patients was 0.47 ± 0.54 LogMAR. Eyes with CRVO as compared with fellow eyes and control group showed significant reduction of flow in superficial (1.171 ± 0.262 vs. 1.362 ± 0.285 vs. 1.453 ± 0.105) and deep capillary plexus (1.042 ± 0.402 vs. 1.331 ± 0.315 vs. 1.526 ± 0.123) and choriocapillaris (1.206 ± 0.543 vs. 1.841 ± 0.308 vs. 1.966 ± 0.05) and vascular density in superficial (45.92 ± 4.2 vs. 50.99 ± 4.35 vs. 52.85 ± 2.99) and deep (48.03 ± 4.71 vs. 55.86 ± 3.81 vs. 58.2 ± 2.65) capillary plexuses. Some parameters (flow of both retinal capillary plexuses and parafoveal vascular density in deep plexus) showed significantly reduction in fellow eyes than control group. The parameters including flow [superficial (1.014 ± 0.264 vs. 1.279 ± 0.19) and deep (0.873 ± 0.442 vs. 1.152 ± 0.32) capillary plexuses and choriocapillaris (0.79 ± 0.327 vs. 1.424 ± 0.51)] and vascular density [superficial (44.24 ± 2.13 vs. 46.58 ± 4.13) and deep (45.28 ± 3.5 vs. 49.32 ± 3.94) capillary plexuses] were lower significantly in ischemic type than non ischemic CRVO. The most damaged parameter was flow in deep capillary plexus. The model with smallest Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion was chosen as the best model. For easier calculation, we also calculated the reduced model. By choosing the threshold of 12.6, the formula [3.9 × F1S + 0.8 × F3S] can diagnose the presumably ischemic CRVO from non ischemic type with AUC of 0.84, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 69%. (F1S: flow in the central 1 mm-radius-circle of superficial plexus and F3S: flow in the central 3 mm-radius-circle of superficial plexus). Conclusion and relevance In CRVO patients, the OCTA can accurately evaluate changes in microvascular structures. It may help in differentiation ischemic CRVO from non-ischemic CRVO.
      PubDate: 2018-12-27
  • Multicolor imaging in choroidal osteomas

    • Abstract: Background To describe the multicolour (MC) imaging characteristics associated with choroidal osteomas (CO) and their secondary complications. Methods Retrospective descriptive case series of eleven eyes of ten patients with CO. Findings of multicolour imaging were correlated with visual acuity, clinical features, lesion characteristics and findings from other imaging modalities. Results Infrared reflectance (IR) images showed calcified CO lesions as hyporeflectance (dark) areas while decalcified lesions were seen as iso reflectance (normal) areas. Overlying RPE atrophy on IR were seen as white areas. MC images showed color variations depending upon the reflectivity of the tumour material tumour and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy. Green color was noted in calcified CO tumour while decalcified CO tumour showed no color change. RPE atrophy were seen as bright orange areas. Green and blue reflectance images were not able to pick the choroidal osteoma lesion. Other changes secondary to CO like presence of choroidal neovascular membrane, hemorrhage and/or fluid in the retinal layers were identified on green and blue reflectance images. Conclusion MC imaging is a useful tool in our arsenal of existing imaging modalities in the assessment of CO and its secondary changes. Change in reflectance of the IR and MC images can be used as an indicator to assess the extent of tumour decalcification and its secondary changes and therefore, can aid in prognostication in the same. It has the potential to replace color fundus photography in documentation and follow up of patients with CO.
      PubDate: 2018-12-13
  • Cuticular drusen associated with aneurysmal type 1 neovascularization
           (polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy)

    • Abstract: Background Aneurysmal type 1 neovascularization (AT1) is a term recently introduced to better describe the aneurysmal dilatation that may arise from neovascular lesions, more commonly known as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. The proposed term, AT1, includes an expanded clinical spectrum of aneurysmal (polypoidal) lesions observed in both different ethnicities and associated with varied clinical phenotypes. Case presentation A 61-year-old woman of European descent was referred for a new, asymptomatic retinal hemorrhage found on routine examination. Ophthalmoscopy revealed cuticular drusen in both eyes best appreciated on fundus autofluorescence, and a hemorrhagic retinal pigment epithelium detachment above the superior arcade in the right eye. In the fellow eye, a reddish appearing pigment epithelial detachment was noted nasal to the optic nerve. Indocyanine green angiography showed findings of AT1 in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography angiography showed intrinsic flow signal within the aneurysmal lesions. Conclusions Eyes with cuticular drusen may develop AT1 which, to our knowledge, has not been described. This is an important observation because the documented coexistence of AT1 in the setting of a variant of age-related macular degeneration lends supports to this new understanding of AT1 as a growth pattern of neovascular tissue proliferating between the RPE and Bruch membrane, rather than as a distinct disease entity.
      PubDate: 2018-12-05
  • Multimodal imaging in a patient with Prader–Willi syndrome

    • Abstract: Background Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease caused by loss of expression of the paternally inherited copy of several genes on the long arm of chromosome 15. Ophthalmic manifestations of PWS include strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, hypopigmentation of the iris and choroid, diabetic retinopathy, cataract and congenital ectropion uvea. An overlap between PWS and oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) has long been recognized and attributed to deletion of OCA2 gene located in PWS critical region (PWCR). Case report A 30-year-old male patient with PWS presented with vision loss in his left eye. His right eye had normal visual acuity. Multimodal imaging revealed absence of a foveal depression and extremely reduced diameter of the foveal avascular zone in the right eye and an inactive type 2 macular neovascular lesion in the left eye. Conclusions We report a presumed association of fovea plana and choroidal neovascularization with PWS. The use of multimodal imaging revealed novel findings in a PWS patient that might enrich our current understanding of the overlap between PWS and OCA.
      PubDate: 2018-11-30
  • Multimodal imaging of retinal metastasis masquerading as an acute retinal

    • Abstract: Background To report the multimodal imaging and histology of a case of metastatic esophageal cancer with vitreoretinal involvement resembling acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in a patient receiving systemic chemotherapy. Case presentation A 69-year-old Japanese man with a history of stage 4 esophageal carcinoma, treated with three cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy as well as 30 sessions of radiation therapy, presented with new onset of blurry vision in the right eye (OD). Visual acuity was 20/200 OD. Fundus examination OD revealed 2+ nuclear cataract, veil-like vitreous opacity, a tractional retinal detachment, and white retinal lesions in the macula and periphery masquerading as an ARN. Due to the poor view and uncertainty regarding diagnosis, combined cataract extraction and 25 gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Polymerase chain reaction and cytologic analysis were performed on the vitreous samples, which was negative for all infectious entities but positive for poorly differentiated malignant cells. The vitreous biopsy was consistent with the primary endoscopic esophageal biopsy. Ultra-wide view fundus imaging revealed multifocal white intraretinal lesions in the macula and periphery. Optical coherence tomography through these white opacities displayed hyper-reflective inner retinal lesions with no choroidal involvement, suggestive of retinal metastasis. Observation and palliative support was continued until the patient passed away 3 months after diagnosis. Conclusion Retinal metastasis may mimic infectious syndromes such as ARN and are associated with a very poor prognosis. Outside of the retina, no further central nervous system metastasis was found. 5-FU is known to cross the blood–brain-barrier but may be inadequate in preventing retinal metastasis.
      PubDate: 2018-11-21
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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