Publisher: BMC (Biomed Central)   (Total: 310 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 310 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 186, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Energy     Open Access  
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 90, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 184, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 191, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Central J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 3)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Cilia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Sarcoma Research     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)

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International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2056-9920
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [310 journals]
  • Intravitreal ziv-aflibercept in diabetic vitreous hemorrhage

    • Abstract: Background To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept (IVZ) in the management of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in eyes with previously lasered proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods In a prospective multicenter study, previously lasered eyes who had dense VH from PDR underwent intravitreal injection of ziv-aflibercept (IVZ) (1.25 mg aflibercept). Demographic characteristics of the patients, baseline and final logMar visual acuity, number of injections, VH clearance time, and need for vitrectomy were recorded. Results Twenty-seven eyes of 21 patients were included in the study. Mean age of study patients was 61.3 ± 14.1 years with mean duration of diabetes mellitus of 22.6 ± 7.8 years. Mean logMAR BCVA at baseline was 1.41 ± 1.26 (Snellen equivalent 20/514) and at the last visit 0.55 ± 0.61 (Snellen equivalent 20/70) with a mean gain of 0.86 EDTRS line (paired student t test = 5.1; p ≤ 0.001). Mean number of IVZ 2.4 ± 1.6 (range 1–6). The mean follow-up time was 11.7 ± 11.1 months (range 1–34). Mean time for visual recovery and/or VH clearance was 5.7 ± 3.3 weeks. Eyes, which required multiple injections, the interval period between injections for recurrent VH was 6.4 ± 5.2 months. No subject required vitrectomy. No ocular or systemic adverse effects were noted. Conclusions IVZ injections had good short-term safety and efficacy for the therapy of new or recurrent VH in previously lasered eyes with PDR reducing somewhat the need for vitrectomy. Trial registration: NCT02486484
      PubDate: 2020-01-14
  • Artificial intelligence, robotics and eye surgery: are we overfitted'

    • Abstract: Abstract Eye surgery, specifically retinal micro-surgery involves sensory and motor skill that approaches human boundaries and physiological limits for steadiness, accuracy, and the ability to detect the small forces involved. Despite assumptions as to the benefit of robots in surgery and also despite great development effort, numerous challenges to the full development and adoption of robotic assistance in surgical ophthalmology, remain. Historically, the first in-human–robot-assisted retinal surgery occurred nearly 30 years after the first experimental papers on the subject. Similarly, artificial intelligence emerged decades ago and it is only now being more fully realized in ophthalmology. The delay between conception and application has in part been due to the necessary technological advances required to implement new processing strategies. Chief among these has been the better matched processing power of specialty graphics processing units for machine learning. Transcending the classic concept of robots performing repetitive tasks, artificial intelligence and machine learning are related concepts that has proven their abilities to design concepts and solve problems. The implication of such abilities being that future machines may further intrude on the domain of heretofore “human-reserved” tasks. Although the potential of artificial intelligence/machine learning is profound, present marketing promises and hype exceeds its stage of development, analogous to the seventieth century mathematical “boom” with algebra. Nevertheless robotic systems augmented by machine learning may eventually improve robot-assisted retinal surgery and could potentially transform the discipline. This commentary analyzes advances in retinal robotic surgery, its current drawbacks and limitations, and the potential role of artificial intelligence in robotic retinal surgery.
      PubDate: 2019-12-16
  • Comparison of montage with conventional stereoscopic seven-field
           photographs for assessment of ETDRS diabetic retinopathy severity

    • Abstract: Background The ETDRS stereoscopic seven-field (7F) has been a standard imaging and grading protocol for assessment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity score in many clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, the comparison between montage and stereoscopic 7F has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to compare agreement between montage and stereoscopic seven-field (7F) photographs in the assessment of DR severity. Methods Stereoscopic 7F photographs were captured from subjects with DR. Montages of monoscopic 7F images were created using Adobe Photoshop CS6 Extended©. The best quality image of each stereo pair was selected and placed on a 150 × 125-inch canvas field according to the standard location from field 1 to 7. All the fields were aligned following the vessels and overlaid using the built-in blending tool. The resulting montage was utilized for grading and compared with grading on stereoscopic 7F photographs. Three independent graders were asked to assess DR severity on stereoscopic 7F photographs and montage. Severity level agreement between stereo 7F and montage was cross-tabulated and the agreement of DR severity levels between stereoscopic 7-field images and montage was analyzed using κ intergrader agreement; statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results A total of 50 eyes were included in the study. There was a substantial agreement between stereoscopic 7F and montage (κ = 0.745, κweighted = 0.867) in assessment of DR severity. Of 50 eyes, 80% of the cases showed complete agreement, and 100% of the cases had agreement within one-step. There was a moderate agreement among graders, and κ-value ranged from 0.4705 to 0.5803. Conclusion In this study, we found a substantial agreement in assessing DR severity score employing non-stereoscopic montage and stereoscopic 7F photographs.
      PubDate: 2019-12-13
  • Wide-field angiography in retinal vein occlusions

    • Abstract: Background Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy. It can result in significant visual loss from complications like macula edema, retinal and iris neovascularization, and vitreous hemorrhage. Recently, ultra-widefield imaging (UWF) has been developed for posterior pole visualization and has shown to be useful in the evaluation and treatment of RVO. Main text Ultra-widefield imaging (UWF) imaging allows for visualization of the retina up to an angle of 200°. This is especially important in detecting peripheral retinal pathologies, especially in retinal conditions such as RVO, where the disease process affects the peripheral as well as central retina. In particular, retinal non-perfusion in RVO is a risk factor for neovascularization. Various techniques, such as ischemic index and stereographic projection, have been described to assess areas of ischemia on UWF images. Retinal non-perfusion has an impact on disease complications, such as macular edema, and retinal and iris neovascularization. Retinal non-perfusion also has implications on disease response, including visual acuity, reduction in retinal edema and treatment burden. Conclusion Ultra-widefield imaging (UWF) imaging plays an important role in the assessment and management of RVO, especially in measuring retinal non-perfusion in the peripheries.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Application of wide-field infrared reflectance imaging in retinoschisis,
           retinal detachments, and schisis detachments

    • Abstract: Background Retinoschisis and retinal detachment are distinguished based on features in clinical examination. Even to skilled examiners, some cases may be diagnostic challenges. Infrared and wide-angle infrared reflectance imaging are relatively new modalities that can provide additional diagnostic information. Non-contact infrared reflectance imaging (also described as near-infrared imaging) highlights sub-retinal features which may otherwise be obscured by standard retinal photography. It is non-invasive and uses the retina’s ability to absorb, reflect or scatter infrared light to produce high quality images. Main body The aim of this review is to describe the role of wide-field infrared imaging in screening, diagnosing, and monitoring structural peripheral retinal disorders including retinoschisis, retinal detachment or combined retinoschisis rhegmatogenous detachments. Infrared imaging can also be used to monitor anterior segment inflammation. Heidelberg Wide-Field Module lens and Heidelberg Spectralis® HRA + OCT machine (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) were used to obtain noncontact, wide-field infrared images on each study eye. Pseudocolor photos were captured by Optos Optomap® (Optos, Inc, Massachusetts, USA). Conclusion Wide angle infrared imaging offers a quick, noncontact, and noninvasive way to help specialists accurately diagnose, monitor for progression, and educate patients about retinal detachment, retinoschisis and even anterior segment inflammation.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Wide-field imaging in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    • Abstract: Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. For decades, 7-field 30-degree fundus imaging has been the gold standard for DR classification. The aim of this review article is to discuss how the advent of ultra-wide-field (UWF) fundus imaging has changed the management of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Main body Current data suggests that UWF imaging, as compared to conventional Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) fields, detects additional and more extensive PDR pathologies. DR lesions, captured by UWF imaging outside of ETDRS fields, likely carry prognostication value. Conclusion UWF imaging represents a major advancement in the detection and management of DR. It remains unclear whether, when and how patients, with PDR changes only peripheral to standard ETDRS fields, should be treated. A larger, prospective, randomized clinical trial is also needed to compare the efficacy of UWF image-guided targeted laser photocoagulation with that of conventional panretinal photocoagulation.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Clinic-based ultra-wide field retinal imaging in a pediatric population

    • Abstract: Background Pediatric retinal disorders, although uncommon, can be challenging to assess in the clinic setting and often requires an exam under anesthesia. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the use of ultra-wide field retinal imaging in children without sedation in an outpatient clinic. Methods We performed a retrospective case series of patients 18 years or younger who received ultra-wide field imaging over a one year period. The age, gender, and clinical course were documented. Color fundus and red-free images were reviewed to assess field of view. Ultra-wide field autofluorescence (UWF-FAF) was evaluated for abnormal autofluorescence patterns and ultra-wide field fluorescein angiography (UWF-FA) was assessed for angiographic phase and field of view. Results A total of 107 eyes of 55 patients with a mean age of 11.1 years (SD 3.7 years, range 3–18 years) were evaluated. Twenty-seven (49%) patients were male. The most common diagnosis was retinopathy of prematurity (7 of 55 patients, 12.7%) followed by trauma (7.4%), Coats disease (7.4%), and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (7.4%). The number of quadrants visualized anterior to the equator correlated with patient age (r = 0.4, p < 0.01). On UWF-FA, 6 of 14 patients (43%) had images of the arterial phase captured and 14 of 14 patients (100%) had images of the venous phase or later captured. Conclusions We demonstrated that UWF imaging is obtainable in children as young as 3 years old without sedation. UWF fundus photography, UWF-FAF and UWF-FA were useful clinical adjuvants to examination and provide additional information for documenting and monitoring pediatric retinal diseases.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Wide-field imaging of sickle retinopathy

    • Abstract: Background Wide-field imaging is a newer retinal imaging technology, capturing up to 200 degrees of the retina in a single photograph. Individuals with sickle cell retinopathy commonly exhibit peripheral retinal ischemia. Patients with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy develop pathologic retinal neovascularization of the peripheral retina which may progress into sight-threatening sequelae of vitreous hemorrhage and/or retinal detachment. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current and future applications of wide-field retinal imaging for sickle cell retinopathy, and recommend indications for best use. Main body There are several advantages to wide-field imaging in the clinical management of sickle cell disease patients. Retrospective and prospective studies support the success of wide-field imaging in detecting more sickle cell induced retinal microvascular abnormalities than traditional non-wide-field imaging. Clinicians can easily capture a greater extent of the retinal periphery in a patient’s clinical baseline imaging to follow the changes at an earlier point and determine the rate of progression over time. Wide-field imaging minimizes patient and photographer burden, necessitating less photos and technical skill to capture the peripheral retina. Minimizing the number of necessary images can be especially helpful for pediatric patients with sickle cell retinopathy. Wide-field imaging has already been successful in identifying new biomarkers and risk factors for the development of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. While these advantages should be considered, clinicians need to perform a careful risk–benefit analysis before ordering this test. Although wide-field fluorescein angiography successfully detects additional pathologic abnormalities compared to traditional imaging, a recent research study suggests that peripheral changes differentially detected by wide-field imaging may not change clinical management for most sickle cell patients. Conclusions While wide-field imaging may not carry a clinically significant direct benefit to all patients, it shows future promise in expanding our knowledge of sickle cell retinopathy. Clinicians may monitor peripheral retinal pathology such as retinal ischemia and retinal neovascularization over progressive time points, and use sequential wide-field retinal images to monitor response to treatment. Future applications for wide-field imaging may include providing data to facilitate machine learning, and potential use in tele-ophthalmology screening for proliferative sickle retinopathy.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Widefield imaging of retinal and choroidal tumors

    • Abstract: Background Wide-field imaging plays an increasingly important role in ocular oncology clinics. The purpose of this review is to describe the commonly used wide-field imaging devices and review conditions seen in ocular oncology clinic that underwent wide-field imaging as part of the multimodal evaluation. Summary of review Wide-field or wide-angle imaging is defined as greater than 50° field of view. Modern devices can reach far beyond this reporting fields of view up to 267°, when utilizing montage features, with increasingly impressive resolution. Wide-field imaging modalities include fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), indocyanine angiography (ICG), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and recently wide-field OCT Angiography (OCTA). These imaging modalities are increasingly prevalent in practice. The wide-field systems include laser, optical, and lens based systems that are contact or non-contact lens systems each with its own benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this review is to discuss commonly used wide-field imaging modalities for retinal and choroidal tumors and demonstrate the use of various widefield imaging modalities in select ocular oncology cases. Conclusions Clinical examination remains the gold standard for the evaluation of choroidal and retinal tumors. Wide-field imaging plays an important role in ocular oncology for initial documentation, surgical planning, determining the relationship of the tumor to adjacent ocular structures, following tumor size after treatment, and monitoring for recurrence.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Retinopathy of prematurity: incidence report of outliers based on
           international screening guidelines

    • Abstract: Aim The objective of this study is to report the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) outliers that fall outside the screening guidelines of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) in our country. Methods A retrospective review of 503 records of newborns evaluated in our institution between January 2011 and March 2017. We analyzed the data by subgroups based on gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW) and stage, focusing on the outliers that don’t meet the criteria of the screening AAO guidelines (GA ≤ 30 weeks, BW ≤ 1500 g). Results Of the 503 records, 352 had some degree of ROP, 91.76% being bilateral, and 26.2% require treatment. The mean GA at delivery was 30.56 ± 2.33 weeks, and the mean BW was 1287.90 ± 338.52 g. For the current AAO/AAP ROP screening, 19.9% were outliers, of which (57%) had ROP diagnosis and (38%) required treatment. Conclusions ROP diagnosis in newborns of BW > 1500 g or GA > 30 weeks is not uncommon in Mexico, and it is important to take this into account to adjust the selection criteria on each population to reach all the infants at risk.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Antibiotics and antifungals in silicone oil

    • Abstract: Background Antimicrobials may be injected into silicone oil-filled eyes with endophthalmitis, but the interaction with oil is unclear. The purpose of the experiment is to determine whether vancomycin, amikacin, and amphotericin B mix with silicone oil. Methods Using the relative proportions of the human eye, 4 ml of 1000 centistokes silicone oil was centrifuged with 0.1 ml of vancomycin 1 mg/0.1 ml, amikacin 0.4 mg/0.1 ml, or amphotericin B 5 µg/0.1 ml in vitro and eluted. The aqueous was immediately analyzed with a liquid chromatographer/mass spectrometer and after 24 h. Results Within 24 h, a mean of 26.9 μmol/L of vancomycin, 0 nmol/L of amikacin, and 0 nmol/L of amphotericin B were recovered. When the concentrations of amikacin and amphotericin B were increased 100-fold, 0 nmol/L of amikacin and 75.7 µmol/L of amphotericin B were recovered. Conclusions Vancomycin and amphotericin B partially mixed with the silicone oil. Amikacin was not recovered from the antibiotic–silicone oil mixture.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Wide-field fundus autofluorescence imaging in patients with hereditary
           retinal degeneration: a literature review

    • Abstract: Background Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) refers to a heterogenous group of progressive diseases that cause death of photoreceptor cells and subsequent vision loss. These diseases often affect the peripheral retina, objective evaluation of which has been difficult until recently. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a non-invasive retinal imaging technique that depicts the distribution of intrinsic fluorophores in the retina. The primary source of retinal autofluorescence is lipofuscin, which is contained in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Excessive accumulation of lipofuscin and a window defect attributable to loss of photoreceptor pigment result in increased FAF whereas loss of the RPE results in decreased FAF. These changes can be seen during the course of IRD. Mainbody While conventional modalities are limited in their angle of view, recent technologic advances, known as wide-field and ultra-widefield FAF imaging, have enabled visualization of the far peripheral retina. Although clinical application of this technique in patients with IRD is still in its infancy, some studies have already indicated its usefulness. For example, an area with decreased FAF correlates well with a visual field defect in an eye with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or cone-rod dystrophy. An abnormal FAF pattern may help in the diagnosis of IRD and associated diseases. In addition, female carriers of X-linked RP and female choroideremia show characteristic appearance. Conversely, absence of abnormal FAF despite severe retinal degeneration helps differentiation of cancer-associated retinopathy. Conclusion This paper reviews the principles of FAF, wide-field imaging, and findings in specific diseases. Wide-field imaging, particularly wide-field FAF, will provide further information for the characteristics, prognosis, and pathogenesis of IRD.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Wide field retinal imaging and the detection of drug associated retinal

    • Abstract: Background To describe the peripheral retinal findings associated with systemic medication toxicity and to outline the importance of ultra-widefield imaging in the detection, analysis and monitoring of these abnormalities. Main text This review highlights the retinal manifestations associated with the more common drug toxicities, with emphasis on the peripheral features and the indications for wide field imaging. The presenting findings, underlying pathophysiology, and retinal alterations in hydroxychloroquine, thioridazine, didanosine, tamoxifen, MEK-inhibitor, and immune checkpoint inhibitor associated drug toxicity will be described and the importance of wide field imaging in the evaluation of these abnormalities will be emphasized. Conclusions Wide field retinal imaging can improve the detection of peripheral retinal abnormalities associated with drug toxicity and may be an important tool in the diagnosis and management of these disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-12-12
  • Traumatic submacular hemorrhage: available treatment options and synthesis
           of the literature

    • Abstract: Abstract Sub-macular hemorrhage (SMH) is a hematic collection between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium; one of its causes is ocular blunt trauma, that usually affects young patients. Persisting SMH leads to a damage of photoreceptors mediated by three main mechanisms: iron-related toxicity, impairment of diffusion of oxygen and nutriment, mechanical damage due to clot contraction. Since early photoreceptors’ damage has been reported within 24 h, it is suggested to provide an early treatment, although there are no guidelines or consensus between authors regarding treatment strategies. The aim of this review was to present and compare available treatment options, like intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) associated with pneumatic displacement, pneumatic displacement alone, subretinal tPA injection with pneumatic displacement, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection. All procedures obtained consistent results, though the most effective seemed to be pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tPA and gas tamponade, probably due to a quicker liquefaction and displacement of the clot. Limitations concern the greater invasiveness and the higher incidence of complications. Alternatively, intravitreal injection of tPA and gas may represent a less invasive option with fewer complications. Intravitreal injection of gas and prone position could be preferred in young patients without coexisting ocular pathology, being a minimally invasive treatment, with lower risk of complications and a good visual recovery. Anti-VEGF agent have found, to date, limited employment in cases of traumatic SMH even though they may be useful as alternative or adjuvant therapy. Most of the published literature consists of small studies and case reports, therefore further investigations and larger clinical trials are required to fully understand safety and efficacy of the procedures. A preoperative comprehensive evaluation may be helpful to realize a surgical plan tailored on patient.
      PubDate: 2019-12-11
  • Changes in retinal and choriocapillaris density in diabetic patients
           receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment using optical
           coherence tomography angiography

    • Abstract: Background Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) enables detailed, non-invasive assessment of ocular vasculature. This study uses OCTA imaging to evaluate choriocapillaris and retinal capillary perfusion density (CPD) changes in diabetic retinopathy following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment. Methods Records of 38 eyes at a single institution were reviewed, grouped as non-diabetic controls (19 eyes), diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR, 19 eyes) and macular edema (DME). DR eyes were imaged at baseline, 6-months and 12-months after anti-VEGF treatment. Quantitative analyses assessed CPD of the choriocapillaris and retinal plexus. Results DR eyes showed decreased choriocapillaris whole-image CPD (62.6 ± 6.1 vs. 68.4 ± 5.1, p < 0.003), foveal CPD (61.2 ± 7.4 vs. 66.3 ± 9.8, p < 0.014), and parafoveal CPD (61.9 ± 6.6 vs. 68.2 ± 4.8, p < 0.002) at baseline. DR eyes also showed decreased retinal density, including whole-image CPD (46.9 ± 5.1 vs. 50.7 ± 5.6, p < 0.04), foveal CPD (27.6 ± 5.9 vs. 34.1 ± 6.1, p < 0.002), and parafoveal CPD (49.0 ± 5.6 vs. 53.1 ± 6.0, p < 0.011). Following 12 months of anti-VEGF treatment, no changes to retinal or choriocapillaris or CPD were observed. Retinal central subfield thickness decreased (397.1 ± 93.2 µm vs. 294.2 ± 71.5 µm, p < 0.005). Lastly, FAZ area (0.307 ± 0.133 mm2 vs. 0.184 ± 0.058 mm2, p = 0.008) and perimeter (2.415 ± 0.692 mm2 vs. 1.753 ± 0.408 mm2, p = 0.002) were increased in DR eyes at baseline. No changes to FAZ area or perimeter were seen with anti-VEGF treatment in DR eyes. Conclusions Compared to control, choriocapillaris and retinal CPD are reduced in DR, while FAZ area and perimeter are increased. No retinal capillary or choriocapillaris CPD changes were observed in DR eyes following anti-VEGF treatment.
      PubDate: 2019-12-10
  • Anterior hyaloid membrane dissection using the conventional surgical
           microscope: a novel surgical approach in 2 patients

    • Abstract: Background To describe the dissection and removal of the anterior hyaloid membrane using the conventional surgical microscope. Case presentation This microscopic surgical approach involves dissecting the anterior hyaloid at the natural anatomical plane. A 30-gauge needle mounted on a 3.0 cc syringe is used to inject filtered air anterior to the anterior hyaloid membrane. Two patients needed this procedure; the first patient was pseudophakic with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, tractional retinal detachment, and vitreous hemorrhage. The second patient was phakic with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy, and recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. Both patients tolerated the procedure well with no complications. Conclusion Pneumatic dissection of the anterior hyaloid membrane is previously thought to be only possible with the aid of ophthalmic endoscopy. This novel surgical approach provides surgeons with the option to perform pneumatic dissection of the anterior hyaloid when ophthalmic endoscopy is not available. Prospective studies are needed to reveal possible additional benefits or risks associated with this approach.
      PubDate: 2019-12-03
  • Six-year epidemiological analysis of post traumatic endophthalmitis in a
           Brazilian hospital

    • Abstract: Background To evaluate the epidemiology of endophthalmitis cases related to ocular trauma, including visual acuity during and 1 year after trauma, source of trauma and method of treatment. Methods A retrospective study analyzed the epidemiological data of patients with a clinical presentation of endophthalmitis after ocular penetrating trauma between January 2012 and January 2017 at Escola Paulista de Medicina/UNIFESP, a hospital in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Results A total of 453 patients with antecedent open globe trauma were evaluated, among these, 30 patients with suspected endophthalmitis. All patients were male. The time interval between trauma and ophthalmological evaluation and collection of vitreous and aqueous material was 1 day in 36.66%, 2–7 days in 43.44%, 7–14 days in 10% and more than 15 days in 10% of patients; 66.66% had positive cultures. 11 patients had intraocular foreign body. One year after trauma, visual acuity was classified as no light perception (NLP) in 33.33%, light perception in 6.66%, hand motion in 13.33%, counting fingers in 13.33%, and better than 20/400 in 20% of patients. Considering presence of intraocular foreign body, initial visual acuity and symptoms onset time, only initial visual acuity showed as better prognostic factor in final visual acuity. Conclusion Endophthalmitis is a severe ocular inflammatory condition that may lead to irreversible vision loss. Initially only one patient had visual acuity of NLP, but after 1 year, 33% showed visual acuity of NLP, and only 20% had visual acuity better than 20/400, what is consistent with a severe infection with a guarded prognosis. The high incidence of endophthalmitis after ocular penetrant trauma justifies distinct treatment and greater attention.
      PubDate: 2019-11-26
  • Relationship between retinal vessel tortuosity and oxygenation in sickle
           cell retinopathy

    • Abstract: Background Reduced retinal vascular oxygen (O2) content causes tissue hypoxia and may lead to development of vision-threatening pathologies. Since increased vessel tortuosity is an early sign for some hypoxia-implicated retinopathies, we investigated a relationship between retinal vascular O2 content and vessel tortuosity indices. Methods Dual wavelength retinal oximetry using a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope was performed in both eyes of 12 healthy (NC) and 12 sickle cell retinopathy (SCR) subjects. Images were analyzed to quantify retinal arterial and venous O2 content and determine vessel tortuosity index (VTI) and vessel inflection index (VII) in circumpapillary regions. Linear mixed model analysis was used to determine the effect of disease on vascular O2 content, VTI and VII, and relate vascular O2 content with VTI and VII. Models accounted for vessel type, fellow eyes, age and mean arterial pressure. Results Retinal arterial and venous O2 content were lower in SCR (O2A = 11 ± 4 mLO2/dL, O2V = 7 ± 2 mLO2/dL) compared to NC (O2A = 18 ± 3 mLO2/dL, O2V = 13 ± 3 mLO2/dL) subjects (p < 0.001). As expected, O2 content was higher in arteries (15 ± 5 mLO2/dL) than veins (10 ± 4 mLO2/dL) (p < 0.001), but not different between eyes (OD: 12 ± 5 mLO2/dL; OS:13 ± 5 mLO2/dL) (p = 0.3). VTI was not significantly different between SCR (0.18 ± 0.07) and NC (0.15 ± 0.04) subjects, or between arteries (0.18 ± 0.07) and veins (0.16 ± 0.04), or between eyes (OD: 0.18 ± 0.07, OS:0.17 ± 0.05) (p ≥ 0.06). VII was significantly higher in SCR (10 ± 2) compared to NC subjects (8 ± 1) (p = 0.003). VII was also higher in veins (9 ± 2) compared to arteries (8 ± 5) (p = 0.04), but not different between eyes (OD: 9 ± 2; OS: 9 ± 2) (p = 0.2). There was an inverse linear relationship between vascular O2 (13 ± 5 mLO2/dL) content and VII (9 ± 2) (β = −0.5; p = 0.02). Conclusions The findings augment knowledge of relationship between retinal vascular oxygenation and morphological changes and potentially contribute to identifying biomarkers for assessment of retinal hypoxia due to SCR and other retinopathies.
      PubDate: 2019-11-18
  • Resistive index of central retinal artery is a bioimaging biomarker for
           severity of diabetic retinopathy

    • Abstract: Background The present study was undertaken to assess the resistive index (RI) of central retinal artery (CRA) as a bioimaging biomarker for the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR), for the first time. Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus between the ages of 40 and 70 years were included in a tertiary care center-based cross sectional study. Severity of retinopathy was assessed according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) classification: diabetes mellitus with no retinopathy (No DR) (n = 26); non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) (n = 29); and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 26). Twenty-six healthy controls of similar age were also included. Resistive index of CRA was studied using color Doppler and gray scale sonography. Central subfield thickness (CST), cube average thickness (CAT), retinal photoreceptor ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness were evaluated using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results Mean RI of CRA for the study groups revealed significant increase with severity of diabetic retinopathy (F = 10.24, P < 0.001). The ROC curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracy of RI of CRA (area under curve = 0.841–0.999; sensitivity = 76–100%, specificity = 95.45–100%, P < 0.001) in discriminating controls and patients. Univariate regression analysis revealed significant association between the study groups and RI of CRA (P < 0.001). RI of CRA correlated positively with CST (r = 0.37), CAT (r = 0.45), EZ disruption (r = 0.43) and negatively with RNFL thickness (r = − 0.35) (P < 0.001). Conclusions Resistive index of CRA is a reliable bioimaging biomarker for the severity of DR.
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Serum vitamin D is a biomolecular biomarker for proliferative diabetic

    • Abstract: Background Vitamin D is a multi-functional fat-soluble metabolite essential for a vast number of physiological processes. Non-classical functions are gaining attention because of the close association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetes, and its complications. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of vitamin D as a biomarker for proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods A tertiary care center based cross-sectional study was undertaken. Seventy-two consecutive cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was made using American Diabetes Association guidelines. Study subjects included: diabetes mellitus with no retinopathy (No DR) (n = 24); non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 24); and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 24) and healthy controls (n = 24). All of the study subjects underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation. Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) was measured on the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) scale. Serum 25-OH Vitamin D assay was done using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay technology. Diagnostic accuracy of vitamin D was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve (AUC) was determined for the first time. Results ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in serum vitamin D levels with severity of diabetic retinopathy (F = 8.95, p < 0.001). LogMAR BCVA was found to increase significantly with the severity of DR (F = 112.64, p < 0.001). On AUC analysis, a cut off value of 18.6 ng/mL for Vitamin D was found to be significantly associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy [sensitivity = 86.36% (95% CI 65.1–96.9); specificity = 81.82% (95% CI 59.7–94.7); AUC = 0.91 (excellent); and Z value = 8.17]. Conclusions Serum vitamin D levels of ≤ 18.6 ng/mL serve as sensitive and specific indicator for proliferative disease, among patients of DR.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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