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Showing 201 - 316 of 316 Journals sorted by number of followers
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Clinical Movement Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Public Health Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Angiogenesis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Urban Transformations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CABI Agriculture and Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biomedical Semantics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
One Health Outlook     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
NeuroCommons     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Signals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.101, CiteScore: 3)
Molecular Neurodegeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 3.418, CiteScore: 7)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Neural Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.821, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Neuroinflammation     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.336, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2, CiteScore: 6)
Particle and Fibre Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.253, CiteScore: 8)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
Reproductive Health     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 2)
Plant Methods     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.885, CiteScore: 4)
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Longevity & Healthspan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Environmental Health Science & Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.802, CiteScore: 3)
Translational Neurodegeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.901, CiteScore: 5)
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.843, CiteScore: 2)
Women's Midlife Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pilot and Feasibility Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Orphanet J. of Rare Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.413, CiteScore: 3)
Skeletal Muscle     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.32, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Medical Case Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, CiteScore: 1)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Respiratory Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.644, CiteScore: 4)
Proteome Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.792, CiteScore: 2)
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.783, CiteScore: 2)
Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Thyroid Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.329, CiteScore: 1)
World Allergy Organization J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.936, CiteScore: 6)
World J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.688, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.292, CiteScore: 5)
Molecular Cytogenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.623, CiteScore: 1)
Measurement Instruments for the Social Sciences     Open Access  
BMC Energy     Open Access  
Sustainable Earth     Open Access  
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
ExRNA     Open Access  
J. of Cotton Research     Open Access  
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Porcine Health Management     Open Access  
Neurovascular Imaging     Open Access  
NeuroMetals     Open Access  
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Neuropsychiatric Electrophysiology     Open Access  
Research Involvement and Engagement     Open Access  
J. of Biological Research - Thessaloniki     Open Access   (SJR: 0.32, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Therapeutic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.906, CiteScore: 3)
Cilia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Vascular Cell     Open Access   (SJR: 1.349, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Sarcoma Research     Open Access  
Environmental Microbiome     Open Access   (SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Mobile DNA     Open Access   (SJR: 3.783, CiteScore: 5)
J. of Neurodevelopmental Disorders     Open Access   (SJR: 1.71, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
PMC Biophysics     Open Access  
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
J. of Ovarian Research     Open Access   (SJR: 1.008, CiteScore: 3)
Source Code for Biology and Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Retrovirology     Open Access   (SJR: 1.855, CiteScore: 3)
Lipids in Health and Disease     Open Access   (SJR: 0.915, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Negative Results in BioMedicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.483, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 3)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)

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Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2052-6687
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [316 journals]
  • Heterozygosity testing and multiplex DNA panel screening as a potential
           tool to monitor health and inbreeding in a small, closed dog population

    • Abstract: Background Selective breeding in populations with a limited effective population size may result in a loss of genetic diversity, which can cause an increased concentration of specific disease liability genes. The Dutch Shepherd Dog (DSD) in the Netherlands is an example of such a breed with a small effective population. Objective To evaluate the measurement of genetic diversity and multiplex DNA panel screening for implementation in a breeding strategy for the Dutch Shepherd Dog (DSD) and to investigate the clinical relevance of potentially identified mutations in the multiplex DNA panel screening. Results Genome-wide SNP testing showed genetic isolation and reduced genetic diversity within coat variety subgroups of the DSD. Panel screening identified a Von Willebrand’s Disease type I mutation. Although decreased Von Willebrand’s Factor proteins were significantly lower in DSDs carrying the VWD-I allele compared to the wildtype, clinical follow-up did not show a significant association between the clinical phenotype and VWD-I genotype. Conclusions Genetic relationship measurement within a breed population may be a useful tool to enable breeding strategies to conserve genetic diversity. Results from a disease panel screening need to be evaluated for clinical relevance before breed selection restrictions can be considered.
      PubDate: 2018-12-28
  • Neuter status as a risk factor for canine intervertebral disc herniation
           (IVDH) in dachshunds: a retrospective cohort study

    • Abstract: Background Intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) involves displacement of the intervertebral disc secondary to disc degeneration and is extremely common in dachshunds. Clinical signs include pain with or without paresis or paralysis. Mortality rate is high and some cases are left with permanent disability even after treatment. Aims of this study were twofold: Firstly, to investigate whether neutering, i.e. gonadectomy, is associated with increased risk of IVDH in dachshunds, and secondly to investigate whether age of neutering alters risk of IVDH in this breed. Information was obtained for 1964 dachshunds from the owner survey, “Dachslife 2015”. For dachshunds that were ≥ 3 years and < 10 years old at the time of the survey (1073 individuals) incidence of IVDH was compared between early-neutered (< 12 months), late-neutered (> 12 months) and entire animals of each gender. Results Neutered females were at significantly higher risk of IVDH than entire females (risk ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.28–2.54). For males, incidence of IVDH in neutered as compared with entire dachshunds was increased but this difference was not quite statistically significant (risk ratio 1.38, 95% CI 0.96–1.99). For both genders, this study demonstrated significantly increased risk of IVDH in early-neutered dachshunds (before 12 months old) as compared with those neutered late (after 12 months old). For early neutered males, risk ratio was 1.54 (95% CI 1.07–2.22). For early-neutered females, risk ratio was 2.12 (95% CI 1.44–3.11). Conclusion Results from this retrospective study suggest that gonadectomy, especially if performed before 12 months old, increases risk of IVDH in this breed. Decisions regarding neutering should be made on an individual basis, taking a range of pros and cons into account. Considering the high prevalence, morbidity and mortality of IVDH in dachshunds, increased IVDH risk associated with neutering is a key factor to consider in deciding whether and when to neuter.
      PubDate: 2018-11-15
  • Labrador retrievers under primary veterinary care in the UK: demography,
           mortality and disorders

    • Abstract: Background Labrador retrievers are reportedly predisposed to many disorders but accurate prevalence information relating to the general population are lacking. This study aimed to describe demography, mortality and commonly recorded diseases in Labrador retrievers under UK veterinary care. Methods The VetCompass™ programme collects electronic patient record data on dogs attending UK primary-care veterinary practices. Demographic analysis covered all33,320 Labrador retrievers in the VetCompass™ database under veterinary care during 2013 while disorder and mortality data were extracted from a random sample of 2074 (6.2%) of these dogs. Results Of the Labrador retrievers with information available, 15,427 (46.4%) were female and 15,252 (53.6%) were male. Females were more likely to be neutered than males (59.7% versus 54.8%, P <  0.001). The overall mean adult bodyweight was 33.0 kg (SD 6.1). Adult males were heavier (35.2 kg, SD 5.9 kg) than adult females (30.4 kg, SD 5.2 kg) (P <  0.001). The median longevity of Labrador retrievers overall was 12.0 years (IQR 9.9–13.8, range 0.0–16.0). The most common recorded colours were black (44.6%), yellow (27.8%) and liver/chocolate (reported from hereon as chocolate) (23.8%). The median longevity of non-chocolate coloured dogs (n = 139, 12.1 years, IQR 10.2–13.9, range 0.0–16.0) was longer than for chocolate coloured animals (n = 34, 10.7 years, IQR 9.0–12.4, range 3.8–15.5) (P = 0.028). Of a random sample of 2074 (6.2%) Labrador retrievers under care in 2013 that had full disorder data extracted, 1277 (61.6%) had at least one disorder recorded. The total number of dogs who died at any date during the study was 176. The most prevalent disorders recorded were otitis externa (n = 215, prevalence 10.4%, 95% CI: 9.1–11.8), overweight/obesity (183, 8.8%, 95% CI: 7.6–10.1) and degenerative joint disease (115, 5.5%, 95% CI: 4.6–6.6). Overweight/obesity was not statistically significantly associated with neutering in females (8.3% of entire versus 12.5% of neutered, P = 0.065) but was associated with neutering in males (4.1% of entire versus 11.4% of neutered, P < 0.001). The prevalence of otitis externa in black dogs was 12.8%, in yellow dogs it was 17.0% but, in chocolate dogs, it rose to 23.4% (P < 0.001). Similarly, the prevalence of pyo-traumatic dermatitis in black dogs was 1.1%, in yellow dogs it was 1.6% but in chocolate dogs it rose to 4.0% (P = 0.011). Conclusions The current study assists prioritisation of health issues within Labrador retrievers. The most common disorders were overweight/obesity, otitis externa and degenerative joint disease. Males were significantly heavier females. These results can alert prospective owners to potential health issues and inform breed-specific wellness checks.
      PubDate: 2018-10-22
  • Longevity and mortality in Kennel Club registered dog breeds in the UK in

    • Abstract: Background The domestic dog is one of the most diverse mammalian species, exhibiting wide variations in morphology, behaviour and morbidity across breeds. Therefore, it is not unexpected that breeds should also exhibit variation in mortality and longevity. While shorter longevity per se may not necessarily be a welfare issue, a generally foreshortened lifespan in a breed that is accompanied by a high prevalence of a particular cause of death may reveal potentially serious welfare concerns and highlight scope to improve breed welfare. Survey data gathered directly from owners offer useful insights into canine longevity and mortality that can support the overall evidence base for welfare reforms within breeds. Results Mortality data on 5663 deceased dogs registered with the UK Kennel Club were collected from an owner-based survey. The most commonly reported causes of death were old age (13.8%), unspecified cancer (8.7%) and heart failure (4.9%); with 5.1% of deaths reported as unknown cause. Overall median age at death was 10.33 years (interquartile range: 7.17–12.83 years). Breeds varied widely in median longevity overall from the West Highland Terrier (12.71 years) to the Dobermann Pinscher (7.67 years). There was also wide variation in the prevalence of some common causes of death among breeds, and in median longevity across the causes of death. Conclusion Substantial variation in the median lifespan and the prominent causes of death exists across breeds. This study has identified some breeds with both a low median lifespan and also a high proportional mortality for one or more specific causes of death that should be considered as both potential welfare concerns as well as opportunities for improvement.
      PubDate: 2018-10-17
  • Lipoma in dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK: prevalence and
           breed associations

    • Abstract: Background Lipomas are masses of mesenchymal origin, comprising of adipocytes, and are often clinically unremarkable but can be alarming to owners. Although lipomas are reportedly common in dogs, no studies have specifically investigated risk factors associated with their occurrence. This study was a large-scale retrospective analysis of electronic patient records of dogs attending practices participating in VetCompass™. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to evaluate associations between risk factors and primary-care veterinary diagnosis of lipoma. Results From 384,284 dogs under veterinary care during 2013 at 215 primary practice clinics in the UK, there were 2765 lipoma cases identified giving a one-year prevalence of 1.94% (95% CI: 1.87–2.01). Breeds with the highest lipoma prevalence included Weimaraner (7.84%, 95% CI 6.46–9.40), Dobermann Pinscher (6.96%, 95% CI 5.67–8.44), German Pointer (5.23%, 95% CI 3.93–6.80), Springer Spaniel (5.19%, 95% CI 4.76–5.66), and Labrador Retriever (5.15%, 95% CI 4.90–5.41). Dogs with an adult bodyweight equal or higher than their breed/sex mean had 1.96 (95% CI 1.81–2.14, P <  0.001) times the odds of lipoma compared with dogs that weighed below their breed/sex mean. The odds of lipoma increased as adult bodyweight increased. Increased age was strongly associated with increasing odds of lipoma. Compared with dogs aged 3.0 to < 6.0 years, dogs aged 9.0 - < 12.0 years had 17.52 times the odds (95% CI 14.71–20.85, P <  0.001) of lipoma. Neutered males (OR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.69–2.36, P <  0.001) and neutered females (OR: 1.62, 95% CI 1.37–1.91, P <  0.001) had higher odds than entire females. Insured dogs had 1.78 (95% CI 1.53–2.07, P <  0.001) times the odds of lipoma compared with uninsured dogs. Conclusions Lipomas appear to be a relatively common diagnosis in primary-care practice. Certain breeds were identified with remarkably high lipoma prevalence, highlighting the risk that owners should be prepared for. Lipoma predisposition of larger bodyweight individuals within breed/sex suggests that being overweight or obese may be a predisposing factor but would need further work to confirm.
      PubDate: 2018-09-27
  • Meeting report from the Companion Animal Genetic Health conference 2018
           (CAGH 2018): a healthy companionship: the genetics of health in dogs

    • PubDate: 2018-08-29
  • Selected canine abstracts from the Companion Animal Genetic Health
           conference 2018 (CAGH 2018): Canine Genetics and Epidemiology

    • PubDate: 2018-08-29
  • Work-type influences perceived livestock herding success in Australian
           Working Kelpies

    • Abstract: Background Working dog handlers and breeders have very different behavioural requirements in the animals that they employ for managing livestock. The Australian Working Kelpie breed may be used in several working contexts, notably yards, paddocks and a combination of both. The working context influences the skillsets required and gives rise to three corresponding work-types: Yard, Paddock and Utility Kelpies. In particular, dogs used for working stock in the confines of yards and trucks interact with stock more forcefully than those mustering in larger areas (paddocks) where they can herd stock effectively from a greater distance. This article explores owner assessments of dog working quality and assessment of genomic similarity by multidimensional scaling, to ask whether it is sufficient for breeders to aim for a multipurpose breeding objective, or whether breeding only specialist lines maximises user satisfaction for yard and paddock work. Results Reported owner perceptions of 298 dogs assessed with the Livestock Herding Dog assessment tool showed that dog handlers across all working types were very happy with their dogs’ level of general skills. Compared with both Yard and Utility Kelpies, Paddock Kelpies had significantly lower trait scores for force (pressure applied by the dog to move livestock), willingness to back the stock (run along a sheep’s dorsum) and bite (frequency of using the mouth to grab or bite the livestock). Meanwhile, compared with both Paddock and Utility Kelpies, the Yard Kelpies had significantly higher scores for hyperactivity and excitability (both with and without stock) and impulsiveness without stock. As one would predict for all-rounders, Utility Kelpies had intermediate scores for all behaviours and working traits. Conclusions Specialist characteristics were displayed by dogs in the Yard Kelpie and Paddock Kelpie groups. In particular, Yard Kelpies demonstrate higher excitability, willingness to back the stock, and a higher tendency to bark and bite the stock. Conversely, Paddock Kelpies rarely display these characteristics. Utility Kelpies, as the name suggests, are intermediate between the other two groups and display the characteristics of both. Genetic analysis suggests that the Yard, Utility and Paddock Kelpies are not distinguishable at a DNA level. In conclusion, at this time there is no suggestion of a breed split in the Australian Working Kelpie generated by selection for work type. A common breeding objective should enable dogs to be produced that fulfil all potential working requirements. This reinforces the importance of breeder skill in recognising the phenotypic potential of pups in order to place them in appropriate working contexts.
      PubDate: 2018-08-13
  • Demography and disorders of the French Bulldog population under primary
           veterinary care in the UK in 2013

    • Abstract: Background Despite its Gallic name, the French Bulldog is a breed of both British and French origin that was first recognised by The Kennel Club in 1906. The French Bulldog has demonstrated recent rapid rises in Kennel Club registrations and is now (2017) the second most commonly registered pedigree breed in the UK. However, the breed has been reported to be predisposed to several disorders including ocular, respiratory, neurological and dermatological problems. The VetCompass™ Programme collates de-identified clinical data from primary-care veterinary practices in the UK for epidemiological research. Using VetCompass™ clinical data, this study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of the general population of French Bulldogs under veterinary care in the UK. Results French Bulldogs comprised 2228 (0.49%) of 445,557 study dogs under veterinary care during 2013. Annual proportional birth rates showed that the proportional ownership of French Bulldog puppies rose steeply from 0.02% of the annual birth cohort attending VetCompass™ practices in 2003 to 1.46% in 2013. The median age of the French Bulldogs overall was 1.3 years (IQR 0.6–2.5, range 0.0–13.0). The most common colours of French Bulldogs were brindle (solid or main) (32.36%) and fawn (solid or main) (29.9%). Of the 2228 French Bulldogs under veterinary care during 2013, 1612 (72.4%) had at least one disorder recorded. The most prevalent fine-level precision disorders recorded were otitis externa (14.0%, 95% CI: 12.6–15.5), diarrhoea (7.5%, 95% CI: 6.4–8.7), conjunctivitis (3.2%, 95% CI: 2.5–4.0), nails overlong (3.1%, 95% CI% 2.4–3.9) and skin fold dermatitis (3.0%, 95% CI% 2.3–3.8). The most prevalent disorder groups were cutaneous (17.9%, 95% CI: 16.3–19.6), enteropathy (16.7%, 95% CI: 15.2–18.3), aural (16.3%, 95% CI: 14.8–17.9), upper respiratory tract (12.7%, 95% CI: 11.3–14.1) and ophthalmological (10.5%, 95% CI: 9.3–11.9). Conclusions Ownership of French Bulldogs in the UK is rising steeply. This means that the disorder profiles reported in this study reflect a current young UK population and are likely to shift as this cohort ages. Otitis externa, diarrhoea and conjunctivitis were the most common disorders in French Bulldogs. Identification of health priorities based on VetCompass™ data can support evidence–based reforms to improve health and welfare within the breed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-03
  • Letter to the editor regarding an autosomal recessive mutation in SCL24A4
           causing enamel hypoplasia in Samoyed and its relationship to breed-wide
           genetic diversity

    • PubDate: 2018-05-01
  • Nationwide genetic testing towards eliminating Lafora disease from
           Miniature Wirehaired Dachshunds in the United Kingdom

    • Abstract: Background Canine DNA-testing has become an important tool in purebred dog breeding and many breeders use genetic testing results when planning their breeding strategies. In addition, information obtained from testing of hundreds dogs in one breed gives valuable information about the breed-wide genotype frequency of disease associated allele. Lafora disease is a late onset, recessively inherited genetic disease which is diagnosed in Miniature Wirehaired Dachshunds (MWHD). It is one of the most severe forms of canine epilepsy leading to neurodegeneration and, frequently euthanasia within a few years of diagnosis. Canine Lafora disease is caused by a dodecamer repeat expansion mutation in the NHLRC1 gene and a DNA test is available to identify homozygous dogs at risk, carriers and dogs free of the mutation. Results Blood samples were collected from 733 MWHDs worldwide, mostly of UK origin, for canine Lafora disease testing. Among the tested MWHD population 7.0% were homozygous for the mutation and at risk for Lafora disease. In addition, 234 dogs were heterozygous, indicating a carrier frequency of 31.9% in the tested population. Among the tested MWHDs, the mutant allele frequency was 0.2. In addition, data from the tested dogs over 6 years (2012–2017) indicated that the frequency of the homozygous and carrier dogs has decreased from 10.4% to 2.7% and 41.5% to 25.7%, respectively among MWHDs tested. As a consequence, the frequency of dogs free of the mutation has increased from 48.1% to 71.6%. Conclusions This study provides valuable data for the MWHD community and shows that the DNA test is a useful tool for the breeders to prevent occurrence of Lafora disease in MWHDs. DNA testing has, over 6 years, helped to decrease the frequency of carriers and dogs at risk. Additionally, the DNA test can continue to be used to slowly eradicate the disease-causing mutation in the breed. However, this should be done carefully, over time, to avoid further compromising the genetic diversity of the breed. The DNA test also provides a diagnostic tool for veterinarians if they are presented with a dog that shows clinical signs associated with canine Lafora disease.
      PubDate: 2018-03-27
  • Assessing the relative importance of health and conformation traits in the
           cavalier king Charles spaniel

    • Abstract: Background The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed. Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score. This however requires a consideration of their relative value according to their economic weight, which is difficult to express in monetary units for health traits. The use of a choice experiment to derive non-market values might be a solution to this problem. This is a pilot study to assess the potential use of choice experiments to ascertain the public preference and relative importance attached to health- and conformation traits in the selection of a Cavalier King Charles spaniel. The focus was on two prevalent disorders, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, and on several important conformation traits such as muzzle length and eye shape. Based on available prior information, a Bayesian D-optimal design approach was used to develop a choice experiment and the resulting choice sets. Results Every participant (breeder or owner) in the choice experiment was presented with a total of 17 choice sets, in which at most four traits could vary to reduce the cognitive burden. A total of 114 respondents participated in the choice experiment and results showed that respondents (breeders/owners) current attitudes were directed towards health (syringomyelia and mitral valve disease), followed by eye shape and level of inbreeding. Conclusions This approach identifies the value breeders and owners attach to certain traits in the breeding objective. The resulting relative weights, represented as the logworths obtained from the choice experiment, could be an alternative to economic weights. They could be implemented as a weight when breeding values are available, but more study on this topic will be necessary. A challenge in this approach is to scale up the experiment with additional traits. Moreover, for other traits, the genetic parameters and correlations should be known first, in order to include them in the health selection index as well.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
  • Moving from information and collaboration to action: report from the 3rd
           International Dog Health Workshop, Paris in April 2017

    • Abstract: Background Breed-related health problems in dogs have received increased focus over the last decade. Responsibility for causing and/or solving these problems has been variously directed towards dog breeders and kennel clubs, the veterinary profession, welfare scientists, owners, regulators, insurance companies and the media. In reality, all these stakeholders are likely to share some responsibility and optimal progress on resolving these challenges requires all key stakeholders to work together. The International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD), together with an alternating host organization, holds biennial meetings called the International Dog Health Workshops (IDHW). The Société Centrale Canine (French Kennel Club) hosted the 3rd IDHW, in Paris, in April, 2017. These meetings bring together a wide range of stakeholders in dog health, science and welfare to improve international sharing of information and resources, to provide a forum for ongoing collaboration, and to identify specific needs and actions to improve health, well-being and welfare in dogs. Results The workshop included 140 participants from 23 countries and was structured around six important issues facing those who work to improve dog health. These included individualized breed-specific strategies for health and breeding, extreme conformations, education and communication in relation to antimicrobial resistance, behavior and welfare, genetic testing and population-based evidence. A number of exciting actions were agreed during the meeting. These included setting up working groups to create tools to help breed clubs accelerate the implementation of breed-health strategies, review aspects of extreme conformation and share useful information on behavior. The meeting also heralded the development of an online resource of relevant information describing quality measures for DNA testing. A demand for more and better data and evidence was a recurring message stressed across all themes. Conclusions The meeting confirmed the benefits from inclusion of a diverse range of stakeholders who all play relevant and collaborative parts to improve future canine health. Firm actions were set for progress towards improving breed-related welfare. The next international workshop will be in the UK in 2019 and will be organized by the UK Kennel Club.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
  • Border Terriers under primary veterinary care in England: demography and

    • Abstract: Background The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Results Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10.9 kg, IQR: 9.6–12.3, range: 6.3–25.0) was higher than for females (9.1 kg, IQR: 8.2–10.3, range: 5.2–21.6) (P < 0.001). The median longevity was 12.7 years (IQR 9.3–14.3, range 1.0–17.5). The most prevalent fine-level disorders recorded were periodontal disease (17.63%, 95% CI: 15.62–19.79), overweight/obesity (7.01%, 95% CI: 5.69–8.52) and otitis externa (6.71%, 95% CI: 5.42–8.19). The most prevalent grouped-level precision disorders were dental disorder (18.54%, 95% CI: 16.48–20.74), enteropathy (11.68%, 95% CI: 10.00–13.53), and skin disorder (10.17%, 95% CI: 8.60–11.93). Syndromic analysis showed that the most prevalent body locations affected were the head-and-neck (37.75%, 95% CI: 35.14–40.43), abdomen (18.61%, 95% CI: 16.55–20.81) and limb (11.53%, 95% CI: 9.86–13.37). At least one organ system was affected in 834 (62.85%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent organ systems affected were the digestive (32.03%, 95% CI: 29.52–34.61), integument (26.68%, 95% CI: 24.31–29.14), connective/soft tissue (11.15%, 95% CI: 9.51–12.97) and auditory (9.87%, 95% CI: 8.32–11.60). At least one affected pathophysiological process was described in 881 (66.39%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent pathophysiologic processes recorded were inflammation (31.65%, 95% CI: 29.15–34.23), nutritional (9.04%, 95% CI: 7.55–10.72), mass/swelling (8.89%, 95% CI: 7.42–10.55), traumatic (7.99%, 95% CI: 6.59–9.58) and infectious (7.76%, 95% CI: 6.38–9.33). Conclusions This study documented a trend towards reducing ownership and relatively long-livedness in the Border Terrier. The most common disorders were periodontal disease, overweight/obesity and otitis externa. Predisposition to dental and neurological disease was suggested. These results can provide a comprehensive evidence resource to support breed-based health plans that can contribute positively to reforms to improve health and welfare within the breed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
  • Rottweilers under primary veterinary care in the UK: demography, mortality
           and disorders

    • Abstract: Background Rottweilers are reportedly predisposed to many disorders but accurate prevalence information relating to the general population are lacking. This study aimed to describe demography, mortality and commonly recorded diseases in Rottweilers under UK veterinary care. Clinical health records within the VetCompass Programme were explored for disorders recorded during 2013. Results Rottweilers comprised 5321 (1.17%) of 455,557 dogs attending 304 clinics. Annual proportional birth rates dropped from 1.75% in 2006 to 1.07% in 2013. Median adult bodyweight overall was 44.9 kg (IQR 39.55–51.00, range 20.00–88.80). Median male adult bodyweight (48.5 kg, interquartile range [IQR] 43.0–54.0, range 20.0–88.8) was heavier than female (41.5 kg, IQR 37.0–46.4, range 21.1–73.5) (P < 0.001). Median longevity overall was 9.0 years (IQR 7.2–10.5, range 0.0–17.0). Median female longevity (9.5 years, IQR 7.8–11.0) was greater than male (8.7 years, IQR 6.8–10.1) (P = 0.002). The most common causes of death were neoplasia (33.0%), inability to stand (16.0%) and mass-associated disorder (7.1%). At least one disorder was recorded for 60.31% of Rottweilers. The most prevalent specific disorders recorded were aggression (7.46%, 95% CI 6.40–8.64), overweight/obesity (7.06%, 95% CI: 6.02–8.21), otitis externa (6.14%, 95% CI: 5.18–7.23) and degenerative joint disease (4.69%, 95% CI: 3.84–5.66). Male Rottweilers had higher prevalence than females for aggression (9.36% versus 5.47%, P = 0.001) and pyotraumatic dermatitis (4.05% versus 1.76%, P = 0.001). Aggression was more prevalent in neutered than entire females (7.5% versus 3.1%, P = 0.003) but did not differ between neutered and entire males (9.6% versus 9.0%, P = 0.773). The most frequent disorder groups were musculoskeletal (12.01%, 95% CI: 10.69–13.45), dermatological (10.96%, 95% CI: 9.69–12.35), gastro-intestinal (195, 8.87%, 95% CI: 7.72–10.14), undesirable behaviour (7.96%, 95% CI: 6.87–9.18) and neoplasia (7.96%, 95% CI: 6.87–9.18). Conclusions The current study assists prioritisation of health issues within Rottweilers. Rottweilers are relatively short-lived and neoplasia is a common cause of death. The most common disorders were aggression, overweight/obesity, otitis externa and degenerative joint disease. Males were significantly heavier, shorter-lived and predisposed to aggression than females. These results can alert prospective owners to potential health issues and optimise sex selection decision-making.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
  • An autosomal recessive mutation in SCL24A4 causing enamel hypoplasia in
           Samoyed and its relationship to breed-wide genetic diversity

    • Abstract: Background Pure breeding of dogs has led to over 700 heritable disorders, of which almost 300 are Mendelian in nature. Seventy percent of the characterized mutations have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, indicative of positive selection during bouts of inbreeding primarily for new desired conformational traits. Samoyed suffer from several common complex genetic disorders, but up to this time only two X-linked and one autosomal dominant disorder have been identified. Previous studies based on pedigrees and SNP arrays have concluded that Samoyed breeders have done a good job in maintaining genetic diversity and avoiding excessive inbreeding. This may explain why autosomal recessive disorders have not occurred to the extent observed in many other breeds. However, an enamel hypoplasia analogous to a form of autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) in humans has been recently characterized in Samoyed, although the causative mutation appears to have existed for three or more decades. The rise of such a mutation indicates that bouts of inbreeding for desired conformational traits are still occurring despite an old and well-defined breed standard. Therefore, the present study has two objectives: 1) measure genetic diversity in the breed using DNA and short tandem repeats (STR), and 2) identify the exact mutation responsible for enamel hypoplasia in the breed, possible explanations for its recent spread, and the effect of eliminating the mutation on existing genetic diversity. Results The recent discovery of an autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) in Samoyed provides an opportunity to study the mutation as well as genetic factors that favored its occurrence and subsequent spread. The first step in the study was to use 33 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25/38 autosomes and seven STRs across the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II regions on CFA12 to determine the DNA-based genetic profile of 182 individuals from North America, Europe and Australia. Samoyed from the three continents constituted a single breed with only slight genetic differences. Breed-wide genetic diversity was low, most likely from a small founder population and subsequent artificial genetic bottlenecks. Two alleles at each autosome locus occurred in 70–95% of the dogs and 54% of alleles were homozygous. The number of DLA class I and II haplotypes was also low and three class I and two class II haplotypes occurred in 80–90% of individuals. Therefore, most Samoyed belong to two lines, with most dogs possessing a minority of existing genetic diversity and a minority of dogs containing a majority of diversity. Although contemporary Samoyed lack genetic diversity, the bulk of parents are as unrelated as possible with smaller subpopulations either more inbred or outbred than the total population. A familial disorder manifested by hypocalcification of enamel has been recently identified. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on seven affected and five unrelated healthy dogs pointed to a region of extended homozygosity on Canis familiaris autosome 8 (CFA8). The region contained a gene in the solute carrier 24 family (SCL24A4) that encodes a protein involved in potassium dependent sodium/calcium exchange and transport. Mutations in this gene were recently found to cause a similar type of enamel hypoplasia in people. Sequencing of this candidate gene revealed a 21 bp duplication in exon 17. A test for the duplication was in concordance with the disease phenotype. The exact incidence of affected dogs is unknown, but 12% of the 168 healthy dogs tested were heterozygous for the mutation. This population was biased toward close relatives, so a liberal estimate of the incidence of affected dogs in the breed would be around 3.6/1000. Theoretical calculations based on the comparison of the whole population with a population devoid of carriers indicated that eliminating the trait would not affect existing genetic diversity at this time. Conclusions The contemporary Samoyed, like many other breeds, has retained only a small portion of the genetic diversity that exists among all dogs. This limited genetic diversity along with positive genetic selection for desirable traits has led to at least three simple non-recessive genetic disorders and a low incidence of complex genetic traits such as autoimmune disease and hip dysplasia. Unlike many other pure breeds, the Samoyed has been spared the spate of deleterious autosomal recessive traits that have plagued many other pure breeds. However, ARAI due to a mutation in the SCL24A4 gene has apparently existed in the breed for several decades but is being increasingly diagnosed. The increase in diseased dogs is most likely due to a period of intensified positive selection for some desired conformational trait. A genetic test has been developed for identifying the mutation carriers which will enable the breeders to eliminate enamel hypoplasia in Samoyed by selective breeding and it appears that this mutation can be eliminated now without loss of genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
  • Population characteristics of golden retriever lifetime study enrollees

    • Abstract: Background Studying cancer and other diseases poses a problem due to their protracted and multifactorial nature. Prospective studies are useful to investigate chronic disease processes since collection of lifestyle information, exposure data and co-incident health issues are collected before the condition manifests. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study is one of the first prospective studies following privately-owned dogs throughout life to investigate the incidence and risk factors for disease outcomes, especially cancer. Owners of golden retrievers in the contiguous United States volunteered their dogs in early life. Owners and veterinarians complete online questionnaires about health status and lifestyle; dogs undergo a physical examination and collection of biological samples annually. The data presented summarize the initial study visits and the corresponding questionnaires for 3044 dogs in the cohort. Results The median age of dogs at enrollment was 14.0 months (interquartile range (IQR): 8–20 months). Approximately half of the population had undergone gonadectomy by their initial study visit. Medical conditions reported at enrollment consisted primarily of integumentary, gastrointestinal and urinary dysfunction. A large majority of the dogs have a record of having received preventive care (vaccines, parasiticides, flea and heartworm prevention) by the time of the initial study visit. Clinical pathology data were unremarkable. Conclusions This study represents one of the first lifetime observational investigations in veterinary medicine. The population characteristics reported here indicate a healthy cohort of golden retrievers cared for by owners committed to their dogs’ health. Data acquired over the study period will provide valuable information about genetic, dietary and environmental risk factors associated with disease in golden retrievers and a framework for future prospective studies in veterinary medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
  • Lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retriever military working dogs –
           an exomic exploratory study

    • Abstract: Background Canine lumbosacral stenosis is defined as narrowing of the caudal lumbar and/or sacral vertebral canal. A risk factor for neurologic problems in many large sized breeds, lumbosacral stenosis can also cause early retirement in Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though vital for conservative management of the condition, early detection is complicated by the ambiguous nature of clinical signs of lumbosacral stenosis in stoic and high-drive Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though clinical diagnoses of lumbosacral stenosis using CT imaging are standard, they are usually not performed unless dogs present with clinical symptoms. Understanding the underlying genomic mechanisms would be beneficial in developing early detection methods for lumbosacral stenosis, which could prevent premature retirement in working dogs. The exomes of 8 young Labrador retriever military working dogs (4 affected and 4 unaffected by lumbosacral stenosis, phenotypically selected by CT image analyses from 40 dogs with no reported clinical signs of the condition) were sequenced to identify and annotate exonic variants between dogs negative and positive for lumbosacral stenosis. Results Two-hundred and fifty-two variants were detected to be homozygous for the wild allele and either homozygous or heterozygous for the variant allele. Seventeen non-disruptive variants were detected that could affect protein effectiveness in 7 annotated (SCN1B, RGS9BP, ASXL3, TTR, LRRC16B, PTPRO, ZBBX) and 3 predicted genes (EEF1A1, DNAJA1, ZFX). No exonic variants were detected in any of the canine orthologues for human lumbar spinal stenosis candidate genes. Conclusions TTR (transthyretin) gene could be a possible candidate for lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retrievers based on previous human studies that have reported an association between human lumbar spinal stenosis and transthyretin protein amyloidosis. Other genes identified with exonic variants in this study but with no known published association with lumbosacral stenosis and/or lumbar spinal stenosis could also be candidate genes for future canine lumbosacral stenosis studies but their roles remain currently unknown. Human lumbar spinal stenosis candidate genes also cannot be ruled out as lumbosacral stenosis candidate genes. More definitive genetic investigations of this condition are needed before any genetic test for lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retriever can be developed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in the canine
           glutathione S-transferase pi 1 ( GSTP1 ) gene promoter

    • Abstract: Background Genetic polymorphisms within the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene affect the elimination of toxic xenobiotics by the GSTP1 enzyme. In dogs, exposure to environmental chemicals that may be GSTP1 substrates is associated with cancer. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability in the GSTP1 promoter in a diverse population of 278 purebred dogs, compare the incidence of any variants found between breeds, and predict their effects on gene expression. To provide information on ancestral alleles, a number of wolves, coyotes, and foxes were also sequenced. Results Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two microsatellites were discovered. Three of these loci were only polymorphic in dogs while three other SNPs were unique to wolves and coyotes. The major allele at c.-46 is T in dogs but is C in the wild canids. The c.-185 delT variant was unique to dogs. The microsatellite located in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) was a highly polymorphic GCC tandem repeat, consisting of simple and compound alleles that varied in size from 10 to 22-repeat units. The most common alleles consisted of 11, 16, and 17-repeats. The 11-repeat allele was found in 10% of dogs but not in the other canids. Unequal recombination and replication slippage between similar and distinct alleles may be the mechanism for the multiple microsatellites observed. Twenty-eight haplotypes were constructed in the dog, and an additional 8 were observed in wolves and coyotes. While the most common haplotype acrossbreeds was the wild-type *1A(17), other prevalent haplotypes included *3A(11) in Greyhounds, *6A(16) in Labrador Retrievers, *9A(16) in Golden Retrievers, and *8A(19) in Standard Poodles. Boxers and Siberian Huskies exhibited minimal haplotypic diversity. Compared to the simple 16*1 allele, the compound 16*2 allele (found in 12% of dogs) may interfere with transcription factor binding and/or the stability of the GSTP1 transcript. Conclusions Dogs and other canids exhibit extensive variation in the GSTP1 promoter. Genetic polymorphisms within distinct haplotypes prevalent in certain breeds can affect GSTP1 expression and carcinogen detoxification, and thus may be useful as genetic markers for cancer in dogs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
  • Obituary: professor sir Patrick Bateson FRS and dog welfare

    • PubDate: 2017-09-26
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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