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Publisher: Biomed Central Ltd.   (Total: 302 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 302 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Rheumatology     Open Access  
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access  
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access  
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 137, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 49, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 88, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 145, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 160, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access  
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Cilia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Sarcoma Research     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access  
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 56, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)
J. for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 2.798, CiteScore: 6)
J. of Angiogenesis Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.228, CiteScore: 3)
J. of Animal Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biological Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.34, CiteScore: 4)

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Journal Cover
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2052-6687
Published by Biomed Central Ltd. Homepage  [302 journals]
  • Assessing the relative importance of health and conformation traits in the
           cavalier king Charles spaniel

    • Abstract: Background The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed. Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score. This however requires a consideration of their relative value according to their economic weight, which is difficult to express in monetary units for health traits. The use of a choice experiment to derive non-market values might be a solution to this problem. This is a pilot study to assess the potential use of choice experiments to ascertain the public preference and relative importance attached to health- and conformation traits in the selection of a Cavalier King Charles spaniel. The focus was on two prevalent disorders, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, and on several important conformation traits such as muzzle length and eye shape. Based on available prior information, a Bayesian D-optimal design approach was used to develop a choice experiment and the resulting choice sets. Results Every participant (breeder or owner) in the choice experiment was presented with a total of 17 choice sets, in which at most four traits could vary to reduce the cognitive burden. A total of 114 respondents participated in the choice experiment and results showed that respondents (breeders/owners) current attitudes were directed towards health (syringomyelia and mitral valve disease), followed by eye shape and level of inbreeding. Conclusions This approach identifies the value breeders and owners attach to certain traits in the breeding objective. The resulting relative weights, represented as the logworths obtained from the choice experiment, could be an alternative to economic weights. They could be implemented as a weight when breeding values are available, but more study on this topic will be necessary. A challenge in this approach is to scale up the experiment with additional traits. Moreover, for other traits, the genetic parameters and correlations should be known first, in order to include them in the health selection index as well.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
  • Moving from information and collaboration to action: report from the 3rd
           International Dog Health Workshop, Paris in April 2017

    • Abstract: Background Breed-related health problems in dogs have received increased focus over the last decade. Responsibility for causing and/or solving these problems has been variously directed towards dog breeders and kennel clubs, the veterinary profession, welfare scientists, owners, regulators, insurance companies and the media. In reality, all these stakeholders are likely to share some responsibility and optimal progress on resolving these challenges requires all key stakeholders to work together. The International Partnership for Dogs (IPFD), together with an alternating host organization, holds biennial meetings called the International Dog Health Workshops (IDHW). The Société Centrale Canine (French Kennel Club) hosted the 3rd IDHW, in Paris, in April, 2017. These meetings bring together a wide range of stakeholders in dog health, science and welfare to improve international sharing of information and resources, to provide a forum for ongoing collaboration, and to identify specific needs and actions to improve health, well-being and welfare in dogs. Results The workshop included 140 participants from 23 countries and was structured around six important issues facing those who work to improve dog health. These included individualized breed-specific strategies for health and breeding, extreme conformations, education and communication in relation to antimicrobial resistance, behavior and welfare, genetic testing and population-based evidence. A number of exciting actions were agreed during the meeting. These included setting up working groups to create tools to help breed clubs accelerate the implementation of breed-health strategies, review aspects of extreme conformation and share useful information on behavior. The meeting also heralded the development of an online resource of relevant information describing quality measures for DNA testing. A demand for more and better data and evidence was a recurring message stressed across all themes. Conclusions The meeting confirmed the benefits from inclusion of a diverse range of stakeholders who all play relevant and collaborative parts to improve future canine health. Firm actions were set for progress towards improving breed-related welfare. The next international workshop will be in the UK in 2019 and will be organized by the UK Kennel Club.
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
  • Border Terriers under primary veterinary care in England: demography and

    • Abstract: Background The Border Terrier is a working terrier type that is generally considered to be a relatively healthy and hardy breed. This study aimed to characterise the demography and common disorders of Border Terriers receiving veterinary care in England using de-identified electronic patient record data within the VetCompass™ Programme. Results Annual birth proportion for Border Terriers showed a decreasing trend from 1.46% in 2005 to 0.78% in 2014. The median adult bodyweight for males (10.9 kg, IQR: 9.6–12.3, range: 6.3–25.0) was higher than for females (9.1 kg, IQR: 8.2–10.3, range: 5.2–21.6) (P < 0.001). The median longevity was 12.7 years (IQR 9.3–14.3, range 1.0–17.5). The most prevalent fine-level disorders recorded were periodontal disease (17.63%, 95% CI: 15.62–19.79), overweight/obesity (7.01%, 95% CI: 5.69–8.52) and otitis externa (6.71%, 95% CI: 5.42–8.19). The most prevalent grouped-level precision disorders were dental disorder (18.54%, 95% CI: 16.48–20.74), enteropathy (11.68%, 95% CI: 10.00–13.53), and skin disorder (10.17%, 95% CI: 8.60–11.93). Syndromic analysis showed that the most prevalent body locations affected were the head-and-neck (37.75%, 95% CI: 35.14–40.43), abdomen (18.61%, 95% CI: 16.55–20.81) and limb (11.53%, 95% CI: 9.86–13.37). At least one organ system was affected in 834 (62.85%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent organ systems affected were the digestive (32.03%, 95% CI: 29.52–34.61), integument (26.68%, 95% CI: 24.31–29.14), connective/soft tissue (11.15%, 95% CI: 9.51–12.97) and auditory (9.87%, 95% CI: 8.32–11.60). At least one affected pathophysiological process was described in 881 (66.39%) Border Terriers. The most prevalent pathophysiologic processes recorded were inflammation (31.65%, 95% CI: 29.15–34.23), nutritional (9.04%, 95% CI: 7.55–10.72), mass/swelling (8.89%, 95% CI: 7.42–10.55), traumatic (7.99%, 95% CI: 6.59–9.58) and infectious (7.76%, 95% CI: 6.38–9.33). Conclusions This study documented a trend towards reducing ownership and relatively long-livedness in the Border Terrier. The most common disorders were periodontal disease, overweight/obesity and otitis externa. Predisposition to dental and neurological disease was suggested. These results can provide a comprehensive evidence resource to support breed-based health plans that can contribute positively to reforms to improve health and welfare within the breed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
  • Rottweilers under primary veterinary care in the UK: demography, mortality
           and disorders

    • Abstract: Background Rottweilers are reportedly predisposed to many disorders but accurate prevalence information relating to the general population are lacking. This study aimed to describe demography, mortality and commonly recorded diseases in Rottweilers under UK veterinary care. Clinical health records within the VetCompass Programme were explored for disorders recorded during 2013. Results Rottweilers comprised 5321 (1.17%) of 455,557 dogs attending 304 clinics. Annual proportional birth rates dropped from 1.75% in 2006 to 1.07% in 2013. Median adult bodyweight overall was 44.9 kg (IQR 39.55–51.00, range 20.00–88.80). Median male adult bodyweight (48.5 kg, interquartile range [IQR] 43.0–54.0, range 20.0–88.8) was heavier than female (41.5 kg, IQR 37.0–46.4, range 21.1–73.5) (P < 0.001). Median longevity overall was 9.0 years (IQR 7.2–10.5, range 0.0–17.0). Median female longevity (9.5 years, IQR 7.8–11.0) was greater than male (8.7 years, IQR 6.8–10.1) (P = 0.002). The most common causes of death were neoplasia (33.0%), inability to stand (16.0%) and mass-associated disorder (7.1%). At least one disorder was recorded for 60.31% of Rottweilers. The most prevalent specific disorders recorded were aggression (7.46%, 95% CI 6.40–8.64), overweight/obesity (7.06%, 95% CI: 6.02–8.21), otitis externa (6.14%, 95% CI: 5.18–7.23) and degenerative joint disease (4.69%, 95% CI: 3.84–5.66). Male Rottweilers had higher prevalence than females for aggression (9.36% versus 5.47%, P = 0.001) and pyotraumatic dermatitis (4.05% versus 1.76%, P = 0.001). Aggression was more prevalent in neutered than entire females (7.5% versus 3.1%, P = 0.003) but did not differ between neutered and entire males (9.6% versus 9.0%, P = 0.773). The most frequent disorder groups were musculoskeletal (12.01%, 95% CI: 10.69–13.45), dermatological (10.96%, 95% CI: 9.69–12.35), gastro-intestinal (195, 8.87%, 95% CI: 7.72–10.14), undesirable behaviour (7.96%, 95% CI: 6.87–9.18) and neoplasia (7.96%, 95% CI: 6.87–9.18). Conclusions The current study assists prioritisation of health issues within Rottweilers. Rottweilers are relatively short-lived and neoplasia is a common cause of death. The most common disorders were aggression, overweight/obesity, otitis externa and degenerative joint disease. Males were significantly heavier, shorter-lived and predisposed to aggression than females. These results can alert prospective owners to potential health issues and optimise sex selection decision-making.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
  • An autosomal recessive mutation in SCL24A4 causing enamel hypoplasia in
           Samoyed and its relationship to breed-wide genetic diversity

    • Abstract: Background Pure breeding of dogs has led to over 700 heritable disorders, of which almost 300 are Mendelian in nature. Seventy percent of the characterized mutations have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, indicative of positive selection during bouts of inbreeding primarily for new desired conformational traits. Samoyed suffer from several common complex genetic disorders, but up to this time only two X-linked and one autosomal dominant disorder have been identified. Previous studies based on pedigrees and SNP arrays have concluded that Samoyed breeders have done a good job in maintaining genetic diversity and avoiding excessive inbreeding. This may explain why autosomal recessive disorders have not occurred to the extent observed in many other breeds. However, an enamel hypoplasia analogous to a form of autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) in humans has been recently characterized in Samoyed, although the causative mutation appears to have existed for three or more decades. The rise of such a mutation indicates that bouts of inbreeding for desired conformational traits are still occurring despite an old and well-defined breed standard. Therefore, the present study has two objectives: 1) measure genetic diversity in the breed using DNA and short tandem repeats (STR), and 2) identify the exact mutation responsible for enamel hypoplasia in the breed, possible explanations for its recent spread, and the effect of eliminating the mutation on existing genetic diversity. Results The recent discovery of an autosomal recessive amelogenesis imperfecta (ARAI) in Samoyed provides an opportunity to study the mutation as well as genetic factors that favored its occurrence and subsequent spread. The first step in the study was to use 33 short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25/38 autosomes and seven STRs across the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II regions on CFA12 to determine the DNA-based genetic profile of 182 individuals from North America, Europe and Australia. Samoyed from the three continents constituted a single breed with only slight genetic differences. Breed-wide genetic diversity was low, most likely from a small founder population and subsequent artificial genetic bottlenecks. Two alleles at each autosome locus occurred in 70–95% of the dogs and 54% of alleles were homozygous. The number of DLA class I and II haplotypes was also low and three class I and two class II haplotypes occurred in 80–90% of individuals. Therefore, most Samoyed belong to two lines, with most dogs possessing a minority of existing genetic diversity and a minority of dogs containing a majority of diversity. Although contemporary Samoyed lack genetic diversity, the bulk of parents are as unrelated as possible with smaller subpopulations either more inbred or outbred than the total population. A familial disorder manifested by hypocalcification of enamel has been recently identified. A genome wide association study (GWAS) on seven affected and five unrelated healthy dogs pointed to a region of extended homozygosity on Canis familiaris autosome 8 (CFA8). The region contained a gene in the solute carrier 24 family (SCL24A4) that encodes a protein involved in potassium dependent sodium/calcium exchange and transport. Mutations in this gene were recently found to cause a similar type of enamel hypoplasia in people. Sequencing of this candidate gene revealed a 21 bp duplication in exon 17. A test for the duplication was in concordance with the disease phenotype. The exact incidence of affected dogs is unknown, but 12% of the 168 healthy dogs tested were heterozygous for the mutation. This population was biased toward close relatives, so a liberal estimate of the incidence of affected dogs in the breed would be around 3.6/1000. Theoretical calculations based on the comparison of the whole population with a population devoid of carriers indicated that eliminating the trait would not affect existing genetic diversity at this time. Conclusions The contemporary Samoyed, like many other breeds, has retained only a small portion of the genetic diversity that exists among all dogs. This limited genetic diversity along with positive genetic selection for desirable traits has led to at least three simple non-recessive genetic disorders and a low incidence of complex genetic traits such as autoimmune disease and hip dysplasia. Unlike many other pure breeds, the Samoyed has been spared the spate of deleterious autosomal recessive traits that have plagued many other pure breeds. However, ARAI due to a mutation in the SCL24A4 gene has apparently existed in the breed for several decades but is being increasingly diagnosed. The increase in diseased dogs is most likely due to a period of intensified positive selection for some desired conformational trait. A genetic test has been developed for identifying the mutation carriers which will enable the breeders to eliminate enamel hypoplasia in Samoyed by selective breeding and it appears that this mutation can be eliminated now without loss of genetic diversity.
      PubDate: 2017-11-22
  • Population characteristics of golden retriever lifetime study enrollees

    • Abstract: Background Studying cancer and other diseases poses a problem due to their protracted and multifactorial nature. Prospective studies are useful to investigate chronic disease processes since collection of lifestyle information, exposure data and co-incident health issues are collected before the condition manifests. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study is one of the first prospective studies following privately-owned dogs throughout life to investigate the incidence and risk factors for disease outcomes, especially cancer. Owners of golden retrievers in the contiguous United States volunteered their dogs in early life. Owners and veterinarians complete online questionnaires about health status and lifestyle; dogs undergo a physical examination and collection of biological samples annually. The data presented summarize the initial study visits and the corresponding questionnaires for 3044 dogs in the cohort. Results The median age of dogs at enrollment was 14.0 months (interquartile range (IQR): 8–20 months). Approximately half of the population had undergone gonadectomy by their initial study visit. Medical conditions reported at enrollment consisted primarily of integumentary, gastrointestinal and urinary dysfunction. A large majority of the dogs have a record of having received preventive care (vaccines, parasiticides, flea and heartworm prevention) by the time of the initial study visit. Clinical pathology data were unremarkable. Conclusions This study represents one of the first lifetime observational investigations in veterinary medicine. The population characteristics reported here indicate a healthy cohort of golden retrievers cared for by owners committed to their dogs’ health. Data acquired over the study period will provide valuable information about genetic, dietary and environmental risk factors associated with disease in golden retrievers and a framework for future prospective studies in veterinary medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-11-15
  • Lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retriever military working dogs –
           an exomic exploratory study

    • Abstract: Background Canine lumbosacral stenosis is defined as narrowing of the caudal lumbar and/or sacral vertebral canal. A risk factor for neurologic problems in many large sized breeds, lumbosacral stenosis can also cause early retirement in Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though vital for conservative management of the condition, early detection is complicated by the ambiguous nature of clinical signs of lumbosacral stenosis in stoic and high-drive Labrador retriever military working dogs. Though clinical diagnoses of lumbosacral stenosis using CT imaging are standard, they are usually not performed unless dogs present with clinical symptoms. Understanding the underlying genomic mechanisms would be beneficial in developing early detection methods for lumbosacral stenosis, which could prevent premature retirement in working dogs. The exomes of 8 young Labrador retriever military working dogs (4 affected and 4 unaffected by lumbosacral stenosis, phenotypically selected by CT image analyses from 40 dogs with no reported clinical signs of the condition) were sequenced to identify and annotate exonic variants between dogs negative and positive for lumbosacral stenosis. Results Two-hundred and fifty-two variants were detected to be homozygous for the wild allele and either homozygous or heterozygous for the variant allele. Seventeen non-disruptive variants were detected that could affect protein effectiveness in 7 annotated (SCN1B, RGS9BP, ASXL3, TTR, LRRC16B, PTPRO, ZBBX) and 3 predicted genes (EEF1A1, DNAJA1, ZFX). No exonic variants were detected in any of the canine orthologues for human lumbar spinal stenosis candidate genes. Conclusions TTR (transthyretin) gene could be a possible candidate for lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retrievers based on previous human studies that have reported an association between human lumbar spinal stenosis and transthyretin protein amyloidosis. Other genes identified with exonic variants in this study but with no known published association with lumbosacral stenosis and/or lumbar spinal stenosis could also be candidate genes for future canine lumbosacral stenosis studies but their roles remain currently unknown. Human lumbar spinal stenosis candidate genes also cannot be ruled out as lumbosacral stenosis candidate genes. More definitive genetic investigations of this condition are needed before any genetic test for lumbosacral stenosis in Labrador retriever can be developed.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in the canine
           glutathione S-transferase pi 1 ( GSTP1 ) gene promoter

    • Abstract: Background Genetic polymorphisms within the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene affect the elimination of toxic xenobiotics by the GSTP1 enzyme. In dogs, exposure to environmental chemicals that may be GSTP1 substrates is associated with cancer. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability in the GSTP1 promoter in a diverse population of 278 purebred dogs, compare the incidence of any variants found between breeds, and predict their effects on gene expression. To provide information on ancestral alleles, a number of wolves, coyotes, and foxes were also sequenced. Results Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two microsatellites were discovered. Three of these loci were only polymorphic in dogs while three other SNPs were unique to wolves and coyotes. The major allele at c.-46 is T in dogs but is C in the wild canids. The c.-185 delT variant was unique to dogs. The microsatellite located in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) was a highly polymorphic GCC tandem repeat, consisting of simple and compound alleles that varied in size from 10 to 22-repeat units. The most common alleles consisted of 11, 16, and 17-repeats. The 11-repeat allele was found in 10% of dogs but not in the other canids. Unequal recombination and replication slippage between similar and distinct alleles may be the mechanism for the multiple microsatellites observed. Twenty-eight haplotypes were constructed in the dog, and an additional 8 were observed in wolves and coyotes. While the most common haplotype acrossbreeds was the wild-type *1A(17), other prevalent haplotypes included *3A(11) in Greyhounds, *6A(16) in Labrador Retrievers, *9A(16) in Golden Retrievers, and *8A(19) in Standard Poodles. Boxers and Siberian Huskies exhibited minimal haplotypic diversity. Compared to the simple 16*1 allele, the compound 16*2 allele (found in 12% of dogs) may interfere with transcription factor binding and/or the stability of the GSTP1 transcript. Conclusions Dogs and other canids exhibit extensive variation in the GSTP1 promoter. Genetic polymorphisms within distinct haplotypes prevalent in certain breeds can affect GSTP1 expression and carcinogen detoxification, and thus may be useful as genetic markers for cancer in dogs.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
  • Obituary: professor sir Patrick Bateson FRS and dog welfare

    • PubDate: 2017-09-26
  • Large-scale survey to estimate the prevalence of disorders for 192 Kennel
           Club registered breeds

    • Abstract: Background Pedigree or purebred dogs are often stated to have high prevalence of disorders which are commonly assumed to be a consequence of inbreeding and selection for exaggerated features. However, few studies empirically report and rank the prevalence of disorders across breeds although such data are of critical importance in the prioritisation of multiple health concerns, and to provide a baseline against which to explore changes over time. This paper reports an owner survey that gathered disorder information on Kennel Club registered pedigree dogs, regardless of whether these disorders received veterinary care. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of disorders among pedigree dogs overall and, where possible, determine any variation among breeds. Results This study included morbidity data on 43,005 live dogs registered with the Kennel Club. Just under two thirds of live dogs had no reported diseases/conditions. The most prevalent diseases/conditions overall were lipoma (4.3%; 95% confidence interval 4.13-4.52%), skin (cutaneous) cyst (3.1%; 2.94-3.27%) and hypersensitivity (allergic) skin disorder (2.7%; 2.52-2.82%). For the most common disorders in the most represented breeds, 90 significant differences between the within breed prevalence and the overall prevalence are reported. Conclusion The results from this study have added vital epidemiological data on disorders in UK dogs. It is anticipated that these results will contribute to the forthcoming Breed Health & Conservation Plans, a Kennel Club initiative aiming to assist in the identification and prioritisation of breeding selection objectives for health and provide advice to breeders/owners regarding steps that may be taken to minimise the risk of the disease/disorders. Future breed-specific studies are recommended to report more precise prevalence estimates within more breeds.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
  • Demography and disorders of German Shepherd Dogs under primary veterinary
           care in the UK

    • Abstract: Background The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) has been widely used for a variety of working roles. However, concerns for the health and welfare of the GSD have been widely aired and there is evidence that breed numbers are now in decline in the UK. Accurate demographic and disorder data could assist with breeding and clinical prioritisation. The VetCompassTM Programme collects clinical data on dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK. This study included all VetCompassTM dogs under veterinary care during 2013. Demographic, mortality and clinical diagnosis data on GSDs were extracted and reported. Results GSDs dropped from 3.5% of the annual birth cohort in 2005 to 2.2% in 2013. The median longevity of GSDs was 10.3 years (IQR 8.0–12.1, range 0.2–17.0). The most common causes of death were musculoskeletal disorder (16.3%) and inability to stand (14.9%). The most prevalent disorders recorded were otitis externa (n = 131, 7.89, 95% CI: 6.64–9.29), osteoarthritis (92, 5.54%, 95% CI: 4.49–6.75), diarrhoea (87, 5.24%, 95% CI: 4.22–6.42), overweight/obesity (86, 5.18%, 95% CI: 4.16–6.36) and aggression (79, 4.76%, 95% CI: 3.79–5.90). Conclusions This study identified that GSDs have been reducing in numbers in the UK in recent years. The most frequent disorders in GSDs were otitis externa, osteoarthritis, diarrhoea, overweight/obesity and aggression, whilst the most common causes of death were musculoskeletal disorders and inability to stand. Aggression was more prevalent in males than in females. These results may assist veterinarians to offer evidence-based advice at a breed level and help to identify priorities for GSD health that can improve the breed’s health and welfare.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
  • Corneal ulcerative disease in dogs under primary veterinary care in
           England: epidemiology and clinical management

    • Abstract: Background Corneal ulcerative disease (CUD) has the potential to adversely affect animal welfare by interfering with vision and causing pain. The study aimed to investigate for the first time the prevalence, breed-based risk factors and clinical management of CUD in the general population of dogs under primary veterinary care in England. Results Of 104,233 dogs attending 110 clinics participating within the VetCompass Programme from January 1st to December 31st 2013, there were 834 confirmed CUD cases (prevalence: 0.80%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75–0.86). Breeds with the highest prevalence included Pug (5.42% of the breed affected), Boxer (4.98%), Shih Tzu (3.45%), Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (2.49%) and Bulldog (2.41%). Purebred dogs had 2.23 times the odds (95% CI 1.84–2.87, P < 0.001) of CUD compared with crossbreds. Brachycephalic types had 11.18 (95% CI 8.72–14.32, P < 0.001) and spaniel types had 3.13 (95% CI 2.38–4.12, P < 0.001) times the odds for CUD compared with crossbreds. Pain was recorded in 385 (46.2%) cases and analgesia was used in 455 (54.6%) of dogs. Overall, 62 (7.4%) cases were referred for advanced management and CUD contributed to the euthanasia decision for 10 dogs. Conclusions Breeds such as the Pug and Boxer, and conformational types such as brachycephalic and spaniels, demonstrated predisposition to CUD in the general canine population. These results suggest that breeding focus on periocular conformation in predisposed breeds should be considered in order to reduce corneal disease.
      PubDate: 2017-06-15
  • Correlation of neuter status and expression of heritable disorders

    • Abstract: Background Gonadectomy, or neutering, is a very common surgery for dogs having many positive effects on behavior, health, and longevity. There are also certain risks associated with neutering including the development of orthopedic conditions, cognitive decline, and a predisposition to some neoplasias. This study was designed specifically to identify if a correlation exists between neuter status and inherited conditions in a large aggregate cohort of dogs representing many different breeds. Results Neutered dogs were at less risk for early and congenital conditions (aortic stenosis, early onset cataracts, mitral valve disease, patent ductus arteriosus, portosystemic shunt, and ventricular septal defect) than intact dogs. Neutering was also associated with reduced risk of dilated cardiomyopathy and gastric dilatation volvulus in males. Neutering was significantly associated with an increased risk for males and females for cancers (hemangiosarcoma, hyperadrenocorticism, lymphoma, mast cell tumor, and osteosarcoma), ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and epilepsy. Intervertebral disk disease was associated with increased risk in females only. For elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, lens luxation, and patellar luxation neutering had no significant effect on the risk for those conditions. Neutering was associated with a reduced risk of vehicular injury, a condition chosen as a control. Conclusions In this retrospective study, several conditions showed an increased risk associated with neutering whereas other conditions were less likely to be expressed in neutered dogs. The complexity of the interactions between neutering and inherited conditions underscores the need for reflective consultation between the client and the clinician when considering neutering. The convenience and advantages of neutering dogs that will not be included in a breeding program must be weighed against possible risk associated with neutering.
      PubDate: 2017-05-26
  • Genetic mapping of principal components of canine pelvic morphology

    • Abstract: Background Concentrated breeding effort to produce various body structures and behaviors of dogs to suit human demand has inadvertently produced unwanted traits and diseases that accompany the morphological and behavioral phenotypes. We explored the relationship between pelvic conformation and canine hip dysplasia (HD) because purebred dogs which are predisposed, or not, to HD share common morphologic features, respectively. Thirteen unique bilateral anatomical features of the pelvis were measured on 392 dogs of 51 breeds and 95 mixed breed dogs. Principal components (PCs) were derived to describe pelvic morphology. Dogs were genotyped at ~183,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms and their hip conformation was measured by the Norberg angle and angle of inclination between the femoral neck and diaphysis. Results No associations reached genome wide significance for the Norberg angle when averaged over both hips. PC1 was negatively correlated with the Norberg angle (r = -0.31; P < 0.05) but not the angle of inclination (r = -0.08; P > 0.05). PC1, 2, 4, and 5 differed significantly between male and female dogs confirming pelvic sexual dimorphism. With sex as a covariate, the eigenvector contribution to PC1 reflected the overall size of the pelvis and was significantly associated with the IGF-1 locus, a known contributor to canine body size. PC3, which represented a tradeoff between ilial length and ischial length in which a longer ischium is associated with a shorter ilium, was significantly associated with a marker on canine chromosome 16:5181388 bp. The closest candidate gene is TPK1, a thiamine-dependent enzyme and part of the PKA complex. Associations with the remaining PCs did not reach genome wide significance. Conclusion IGF-1 was associated with the overall size of the pelvis and sex is related to pelvic size. Ilial/ischial proportion is genetically controlled and the closest candidate gene is thiamine-dependent and affects birth weight and development of the nervous system. Dogs with larger pelves tend to have smaller NAs consistent with increased tendency toward HD in large breed dogs. Based on the current study, pelvic shape alone was not strongly associated with canine hip dysplasia.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24
  • Osteosarcoma inheritance in two families of Scottish deerhounds

    • Abstract: Background Osteosarcoma is the most common neoplastic disease in Scottish Deerhounds. For Deerhounds, a 2007 population-based study concluded that a single dominant genetic factor largely governed disease risk. For Greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish Wolfhounds, a 2013 genome-wide association study found multiple genetic markers in each breed, with each marker only weakly associated with the disease. We obtained from two breeders the pedigrees, age (if alive) or age at death, and osteosarcoma status for two families of Scottish Deerhounds, designated Cohorts K and T. A dog was considered unaffected only if it was osteosarcoma-free and at least 8.5 years old. We analyzed the data in two ways, by assuming either a single recessive genetic factor or a single dominant genetic factor with high penetrance. Results Cohort K contained 54 evaluable dogs representing 12 litters. Cohort T contained 56 evaluable dogs representing eight litters. Osteosarcoma seemed clearly heritable in both cohorts; however, having a parent with osteosarcoma raised a pup’s risk of developing osteosarcoma to 38% for Cohort K but 78% for Cohort T, suggesting the possibility of different genetic risk factors in each cohort. In Cohort K, osteosarcoma inheritance fit well with a single, recessive, autosomal risk factor, although we could not rule out the possibility of a single dominant risk factor with incomplete penetrance. In Cohort T, inheritance could be explained well by a single, dominant, autosomal risk factor but was inconsistent with recessive expression. Conclusions Inheritance of osteosarcoma in two Scottish Deerhound families could be explained well by a single genetic risk factor residing on an autosome, consistent with a 2007 report. In one family, inheritance was consistent with dominant expression, as previously reported. In the other family, inheritance fit better with recessive expression, although the possibility of a dominant genetic factor influenced by one or more other genetic factors could not be ruled out. In either case, the results suggest that there may be at least two different genetic risk factors for osteosarcoma in Deerhounds.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
  • DNM1 mutation status, sex, and sterilization status of a cohort of
           Labrador retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    • Abstract: Background Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) due to DNM1 mutation and rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament are both common syndromes in the Labrador retriever breed. A cohort of 313 Labradors was recruited based on their CCLR status and were subsequently genetically tested for EIC. Epidemiological aspects of the cohort were also described, including sex, sterilization status, and age at sterilization. Results No sex difference was observed in dogs susceptible to EIC (homozygous for the mutant genotype) compared to dogs not susceptible to EIC (heterozygotes and dogs homozygous for the normal genotype). No evidence for association was detected between CCLR status and EIC status (p =0.357), although the sample cohort was not of sufficient size to entirely rule out an association. A significant difference (p = 0.031) was observed in the sex distribution of dogs affected with CCLR compared to those without CCLR. An increased number of female CCLR cases were observed compared to the number of female controls; male CCLR cases and controls were approximately the same number. When CCLR status was examined in each sex, no significant differences were observed between those that were sterilized and those that weren’t. However, for female dogs that were sterilized, CCLR cases were significantly higher in dogs sterilized at one year of age or younger compared to those sterilized when over the age of one year (p = 0.0021, OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.55–12.72); for males, this finding was suggestive, but not statistically significant (p = 0.0913, OR 3.57, 95% CI 0.809–14.476). Conclusions CCLR is not associated with a large increase in EIC occurrence. Statistically, these two syndromes cannot be proven to be unrelated; however, concomitant occurrence of CCLR and EIC in Labrador retrievers is rare, despite the high prevalence of both syndromes in this breed. Epidemiological findings suggest that females may be over-represented in CCLR cases and that early sterilization (≤1 year) may increase the risk of Labradors developing CCLR later in life (particularly in females). These results should be considered preliminary and require confirmation in larger populations of Labrador retrievers.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
  • Polymorphisms in the canine monoamine oxidase a ( MAOA ) gene:
           identification and variation among five broad dog breed groups

    • Abstract: Background In humans, reduced activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) due to genetic polymorphisms within the MAOA gene leads to increased brain neurotransmitter levels associated with aggression. In order to study MAOA genetic diversity in dogs, we designed a preliminary study whose objectives were to identify novel alleles in functionally important regions of the canine MAOA gene, and to investigate whether the frequencies of these polymorphisms varied between five broad breed groups (ancient, herding, mastiff, modern European, and mountain). Fifty dogs representing these five breed groups were sequenced. Results A total of eleven polymorphisms were found. Seven were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; two exonic, two intronic and three in the promoter), while four were repeat intronic variations. The most polymorphic loci were repeat regions in introns 1, 2 (7 alleles) and 10 (3 alleles), while the exonic and the promoter regions were highly conserved. Comparison of the allele frequencies of certain microsatellite polymorphisms among the breed groups indicated a decreasing or increasing trend in the number of repeats at different microsatellite loci, as well as the highest genetic diversity for the ancient breeds and the lowest for the most recent mountain breeds, perhaps attributable to canine domestication and recent breed formation. While a specific promoter SNP (−212A > G) is rare in the dog, it is the major allele in wolves. Replacement of this ancestral allele in domestic dogs may lead to the deletion of heat shock factor binding sites on the MAOA promoter. Conclusions Dogs exhibit significant variation in certain intronic regions of the MAOA gene, while the coding and promoter regions are well-conserved. Distinct genetic differences were observed between breed groups. Further studies are now required to establish whether such polymorphisms are associated in any way with MAOA level and canine behaviour including aggression.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13
  • No evidence of prenatal diversifying selection at locus or supertype
           levels in the dog MHC class II loci

    • Abstract: Background Despite decades of studying, the mechanisms maintaining high diversity in the genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are still puzzling scientists. In addition to pathogen recognition and other functions, MHC molecules may act prenatally in mate choice and in maternal-foetal interactions. These interactions are potential selective mechanisms that increase genetic diversity in the MHC. During pregnancy, immune response has a dual role: the foetus represents foreign tissue compared to mother, but histo-incompatibility is required for successful pregnancy. We have studied the prenatal selection in MHC class II loci (DLA-DQA1, DLA-DQB1 and DLA-DRB1) in domestic dogs by comparing the observed and expected offspring genotype proportions in 110 dog families. Several potential selection targets were addressed, including the peptide-binding site, the MHC locus, three-locus haplotype and supertype levels. For the supertype analysis, the first canine supertype classification was created based on in silico analysis of peptide-binding amino-acid polymorphism. Results In most loci and levels, no deviation from the expected genotype frequencies was observed. However, one peptide-binding site in DLA-DRB1 had an excess of heterozygotes among the offspring. In addition, if the father shared a DLA-DRB1 allele with the mother, that allele was inherited by the offspring more frequently than expected, suggesting the selective advantage of a histo-compatible foetus, in contrast to our expectations. Conclusions We conclude that there is some evidence of post-copulatory selection at nucleotide site level in the MHC loci of pet dogs. But due to no indication of selection at locus, three-locus, or supertype levels, we estimated that the prenatal selection coefficient is less than 0.3 in domestic dogs and very likely other factors are more important in maintaining the genetic diversity in MHC loci.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18
  • DachsLife 2015: an investigation of lifestyle associations with the risk
           of intervertebral disc disease in Dachshunds

    • Abstract: Background Intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) represents a major problem in the Dachshund, with at a relative risk of IVDD 10–12 times higher than other breeds, and an estimated 19–24 % of Dachshunds showing clinical signs related to IVDD during their lifetime. A variety of genetic, physical and lifestyle-related risk factors for IVDD have previously been identified, with some conflicting findings. As such, advising owners and breeders regarding best-practice for IVDD prevention is challenging at present. This study aimed to (i) estimate prevalence of IVDD in six Dachshund varieties, and (ii) identify risk factors associated with IVDD diagnosis from a wide variety of demographic, conformational, dietary, activity and exercise-related variables. Results A web-based survey “Dachs-Life 2015” was carried out from January-April 2015, with responses received for 2031 individual Dachshunds. Three-hundred and ten dogs were classed as Cases based on veterinary-diagnosis of IVDD, and 56 dogs were excluded from further analyses due to a lack of veterinary-diagnosis of their clinical signs. The remaining1665 dogs with no previous signs of IVDD were classified as Non-Cases. The overall prevalence of IVDD was 15.7 % (95 % CI: 14.1–17.3). Breed variety was significantly associated with IVDD risk, with the highest prevalence seen in the Standard Smooth-Haired (24.4 %, 95 % CI: 22.5–26.3) and lowest in the Standard Wire-Haired (7.1 %, 95 % CI: 6.0–8.2). Older dogs and neutered dogs were at increased odds of IVDD. Of the lifestyle risk factors, univariable analysis identified dogs that exercised for <30 min per day, were not allowed to jump on and off furniture, or were supplemented with glucosamine or chondroitin were at increased odds of IVDD, whereas dogs that exercised for more than 1 h per day, that were considered highly or moderately active by their owners, and those that showed at Open or Championship shows were at decreased odds of IVDD. Conclusions In line with previous reports, IVDD is commonly diagnosed in the Dachshund, with significant differences in prevalence between Dachshund varieties. Lifestyle risk factors were identified which are hypothesis-generating for future prospective studies, and can inform an evidence-based approach to mitigating IVDD risk for Dachshund owners and breeders.
      PubDate: 2016-11-05
  • A genetic assessment of the English bulldog

    • Abstract: Background This study examines genetic diversity among 102 registered English Bulldogs used for breeding based on maternal and paternal haplotypes, allele frequencies in 33 highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci on 25 chromosomes, STR-linked dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class I and II haplotypes, and the number and size of genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) determined from high density SNP arrays. The objective was to assess whether the breed retains enough genetic diversity to correct the genotypic and phenotypic abnormalities associated with poor health, to allow for the elimination of deleterious recessive mutations, or to make further phenotypic changes in body structure or coat. An additional 37 English bulldogs presented to the UC Davis Veterinary Clinical Services for health problems were also genetically compared with the 102 registered dogs based on the perception that sickly English bulldogs are products of commercial breeders or puppy-mills and genetically different and inferior. Results Four paternal haplotypes, with one occurring in 93 % of dogs, were identified using six Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Three major and two minor matrilines were identified by mitochondrial D-loop sequencing. Heterozygosity was determined from allele frequencies at genomic loci; the average number of alleles per locus was 6.45, with only 2.7 accounting for a majority of the diversity. However, observed and expected heterozygosity values were nearly identical, indicating that the population as a whole was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). However, internal relatedness (IR) and adjusted IR (IRVD) values demonstrated that a number of individuals were the offspring of parents that were either more inbred or outbred than the population as a whole. The diversity of DLA class I and II haplotypes was low, with only 11 identified DLA class I and nine class II haplotypes. Forty one percent of the breed shared a single DLA class I and 62 % a single class II haplotype. Nineteen percent of the dogs were homozygous for the dominant DLA class I haplotype and 42 % for the dominant DLA class II haplotype. The extensive loss of genetic diversity is most likely the result of a small founder population and artificial genetic bottlenecks occurring in the past. The prominent phenotypic changes characteristic of the breed have also resulted in numerous large runs of homozygosity (ROH) throughout the genome compared to Standard Poodles, which were phenotypically more similar to indigenous-type dogs. Conclusions English bulldogs have very low genetic diversity resulting from a small founder population and artificial genetic bottlenecks. Although some phenotypic and genotypic diversity still exists within the breed, whether it is sufficient to use reverse selection to improve health, select against simple recessive deleterious traits, and/or to accommodate further genotypic/phenotypic manipulations without further decreasing existing genetic diversity is questionable.
      PubDate: 2016-07-29
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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