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Publisher: BMC (Biomed Central)   (Total: 308 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 308 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Neuropathologica Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.683, CiteScore: 5)
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.655, CiteScore: 1)
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.224, CiteScore: 3)
Advances in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Simulation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Agriculture & Food Security     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.575, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.08, CiteScore: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.333, CiteScore: 2)
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 2)
Alzheimer's Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.449, CiteScore: 6)
Animal Biotelemetry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.067, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.104, CiteScore: 3)
Annals of General Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.784, CiteScore: 2)
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.452, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Surgical Innovation and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.328, CiteScore: 1)
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.573, CiteScore: 3)
Applied Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Physiotherapy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archives of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.244, CiteScore: 3)
Arthritis Research & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 2.154, CiteScore: 4)
Asia Pacific Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.538, CiteScore: 1)
Asthma Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Basic and Clinical Andrology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.564, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioral and Brain Functions     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.986, CiteScore: 3)
Big Data Analytics     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
BioData Mining     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.982, CiteScore: 2)
Bioelectronic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological Procedures Online     Open Access   (SJR: 1.352, CiteScore: 4)
Biological Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.654, CiteScore: 2)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.694, CiteScore: 3)
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biology of Sex Differences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.902, CiteScore: 4)
Biomarker Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.735, CiteScore: 3)
Biomedical Dermatology     Open Access  
BioMedical Engineering OnLine     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.542, CiteScore: 2)
BioPsychoSocial Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.899, CiteScore: 6)
BMC Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.807, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.708, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 166, SJR: 1.479, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 64, SJR: 3.842, CiteScore: 5)
BMC Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.682, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 1.464, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.909, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Chemical Engineering     Open Access  
BMC Clinical Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.141, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.858, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.796, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.43, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 1.076, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.572, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Endocrine Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.965, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 1.656, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Family Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.137, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Gastroenterology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.231, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.16, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 88, SJR: 2.11, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.257, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Health Services Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.151, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.545, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.993, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 1.576, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Intl. Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.765, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 1.016, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.688, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.536, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Medical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
BMC Medical Research Methodology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.221, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 4.219, CiteScore: 7)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.242, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular and Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 46, SJR: 1.277, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 174, SJR: 1.216, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.951, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.098, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.006, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 1.12, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.766, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Nutrition     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
BMC Obesity     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BMC Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.921, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Oral Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 1.105, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.278, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.785, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.936, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Plant Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 1.427, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Proceedings     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
BMC Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 1.346, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Psychology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.817, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 192, SJR: 1.337, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Pulmonary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.373, CiteScore: 3)
BMC Research Notes     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.691, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.926, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Structural Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.024, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.693, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.109, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.853, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Veterinary Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.934, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Women's Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.931, CiteScore: 2)
BMC Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Breast Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 3.026, CiteScore: 6)
Burns & Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Cancer & Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cancer Cell Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.13, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Communications     Open Access  
Cancer Convergence     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Cancer Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.168, CiteScore: 4)
Cancers of the Head & Neck     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canine Genetics and Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbon Balance and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.977, CiteScore: 2)
Cardio-Oncology     Open Access  
Cardiovascular Diabetology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 2.157, CiteScore: 5)
Cardiovascular Ultrasound     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.812, CiteScore: 2)
Cell Communication and Signaling     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.211, CiteScore: 4)
Cell Division     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 2.445, CiteScore: 4)
Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cerebellum & Ataxias     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemistry Central J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 3)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.901, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.57, CiteScore: 2)
Chinese Neurosurgical J.     Open Access  
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.599, CiteScore: 2)
Cilia     Open Access   (SJR: 0.732, CiteScore: 1)
Clinical and Molecular Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.933, CiteScore: 3)
Clinical and Translational Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.425, CiteScore: 4)
Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Epigenetics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 2.435, CiteScore: 5)
Clinical Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Sarcoma Research     Open Access  
Conflict and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.851, CiteScore: 3)
Contraception and Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
COPD Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.755, CiteScore: 2)
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.888, CiteScore: 2)
Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 2.48, CiteScore: 5)
Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.943, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Prognostic Research     Open Access  
Diagnostic Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.818, CiteScore: 2)
Disaster and Military Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.003, CiteScore: 2)
Energy, Sustainability and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.607, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.662, CiteScore: 4)
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.5, CiteScore: 1)
Epigenetics & Chromatin     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 3.767, CiteScore: 5)
European J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.55, CiteScore: 1)
European Review of Aging and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.308, CiteScore: 4)
Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.98, CiteScore: 3)
Experimental Hematology & Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 2)
ExRNA     Open Access  
Eye and Vision     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fertility Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair     Open Access   (SJR: 1.531, CiteScore: 4)
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Flavour     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fluids and Barriers of the CNS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 2.054, CiteScore: 5)
Frontiers in Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.597, CiteScore: 3)
Genes and Environment     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.516, CiteScore: 1)
Genetics Selection Evolution     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.745, CiteScore: 4)
Genome Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Genome Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.537, CiteScore: 7)
Global Health Research and Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Globalization and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.262, CiteScore: 2)
Gut Pathogens     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.066, CiteScore: 3)
Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harm Reduction J.     Open Access   (SJR: 1.445, CiteScore: 3)
Head & Face Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.62, CiteScore: 2)
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.069, CiteScore: 3)
Health Research Policy and Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.11, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice     Open Access   (SJR: 0.848, CiteScore: 2)
Hereditas     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.278, CiteScore: 1)
Human Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.501, CiteScore: 3)
Human Resources for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.301, CiteScore: 2)
Immunity & Ageing     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.218, CiteScore: 3)
Implementation Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 2.443, CiteScore: 4)
Infectious Agents and Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.855, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases of Poverty     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.212, CiteScore: 3)
Inflammation and Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Breastfeeding J.     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.913, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. for Equity in Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 2.626, CiteScore: 6)
Intl. J. of Health Geographics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.385, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Mental Health Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.721, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatric Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Retina and Vitreous     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Investigative Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.809, CiteScore: 3)
Irish Veterinary J.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.657, CiteScore: 1)
Israel J. of Health Policy Research     Open Access   (SJR: 0.488, CiteScore: 1)
Italian J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.685, CiteScore: 2)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.888
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1478-7547
Published by BMC (Biomed Central) Homepage  [308 journals]
  • Cultural beliefs, utility values, and health technology assessment

    • Abstract: Background Health-care utilities differ considerably from country to country. Our objective was to examine the association of cultural values based on Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ theory with utility values that were identified using the time trade off method. Methods We performed a literature search to determine preference-based value algorithms in the general population of a given country. We then fitted a second-order quadratic function to assess the utility function curve that links health status with health-care utilities. We ranked the countries according to the concavity and convexity properties of their utility functions and compared this ranking with that of the Hofstede index to check if there were any similarities. Results We identified 10 countries with an EQ-5D-5L-based value set and 7 countries with an EQ-5D-3L-based value set. Japan’s degree of concavity was highest, while Germany’s was lowest, based on the EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L value sets. Japan also ranked first in the Hofstede long-term orientation index, and rankings related to the degree of concavity, indicating a low time preference rate. Conclusions This is the first evaluation to identify and report an association between different cultural beliefs and utility values. These findings underline the necessity to take local values into consideration when designing health technology assessment systems.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
       
  • Accounting for equity considerations in cost-effectiveness analysis: a
           systematic review of rotavirus vaccine in low- and middle-income countries
           

    • Abstract: Background Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is frequently used as an input for guiding priority setting in health. However, CEA seldom incorporates information about trade-offs between total health gains and equity impacts of interventions. This study investigates to what extent equity considerations have been taken into account in CEA in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), using rotavirus vaccination as a case study. Methods Specific equity-related indicators for vaccination were first mapped to the Guidance on Priority Setting in Health Care (GPS-Health) checklist criteria. Economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine in LMICs identified via a systematic review of the literature were assessed to explore the extent to which equity was considered in the research objectives and analysis, and whether it was reflected in the evaluation results. Results The mapping process resulted in 18 unique indicators. Under the ‘disease and intervention’ criteria, severity of illness was incorporated in 75% of the articles, age distribution of the disease in 70%, and presence of comorbidities in 5%. For the ‘social groups’ criteria, relative coverage reflecting wealth-based coverage inequality was taken into account in 30% of the articles, geographic location in 27%, household income level in 8%, and sex at birth in 5%. For the criteria of ‘protection against the financial and social effects of ill health’, age weighting was incorporated in 43% of the articles, societal perspective in 58%, caregiver’s loss of productivity in 45%, and financial risk protection in 5%. Overall, some articles incorporated the indicators in their model inputs (20%) while the majority (80%) presented results (costs, health outcomes, or incremental cost-effectiveness ratios) differentiated according to the indicators. Critically, less than a fifth (17%) of articles incorporating indicators did so due to an explicit study objective related to capturing equity considerations. Most indicators were increasingly incorporated over time, with a notable exception of age-weighting of DALYs. Conclusion Integrating equity criteria in CEA can help policy-makers better understand the distributional impact of health interventions. This study illustrates how equity considerations are currently being incorporated within CEA of rotavirus vaccination and highlights the components of equity that have been used in studies in LMICs. Areas for further improvement are identified.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
       
  • Cost-effectiveness of umeclidinium compared with tiotropium and
           glycopyrronium as monotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a
           UK perspective

    • Abstract: Background Cost-effectiveness of once-daily umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) was compared with once-daily tiotropium (TIO) and once-daily glycopyrronium (GLY) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) from a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Methods A linked-equation model was implemented to estimate COPD progression, associated healthcare costs, exacerbations rates, life years (LY) and quality-adjusted LY (QALYs). Statistical risk equations for endpoints and resource use were derived from the ECLIPSE and TORCH studies, respectively. Treatment effects [mean (standard error)] at 12 weeks on forced expiratory volume in 1 s and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire score were obtained from the intention-to-treat populations of two head-to-head studies [GSK study identifiers 201316 (NCT02207829) and 201315 (NCT02236611)] which compared UMEC 62.5 mcg with TIO 18 mcg and UMEC 62.5 mcg with GLY 50 mcg, respectively. Treatment costs reflect UK list prices (2016) and NHS unit costs; UMEC and GLY prices being equal and less than TIO. A lifetime horizon, discounted costs and effects at 3.5% were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of variations in input parameters and assumptions in the model. Results Over a lifetime horizon, UMEC was predicted to increase LYs (+ 0.195; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.069, 0.356) and QALYs (+ 0.118; 95% CI: 0.055, 0.191) and reduce the number of annual exacerbations (− 0.053; 95% CI: − 0.171, 0.028) compared with TIO, with incremental cost savings of £460/patient (95% CI: − £645, − £240). Compared with GLY, UMEC increased LYs (+ 0.124; 95% CI: 0.015, 0.281) and QALYs (+ 0.101; 95% CI: 0.043, 0.179) and reduced annual exacerbation (− 0.033; 95% CI: − 0.135, 0.017) at an additional cost of £132/patient (95% CI: £12, £330), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £1310/QALY (95% CI: £284, £2060). Similar results were observed in alternative time horizons and additional sensitivity analyses. Conclusions For treatment of patients with COPD in the UK over a lifetime horizon, treatment with UMEC dominates treatment with TIO, providing both improved health outcomes and cost savings. In comparison with GLY, treatment with UMEC achieved improved health outcomes but was associated with a higher cost. Trial registration 201316, NCT02207829; 201315, NCT02236611
      PubDate: 2018-05-10
       
  • Value judgment of health interventions from different perspectives:
           arguments and criteria

    • Abstract: Background The healthcare sector is evolving while life expectancy is increasing. These trends put greater pressure on healthcare resources, prompt healthcare reforms, and demand transparent arguments and criteria to assess the overall value of health interventions. There is no consensus on the core criteria by which to value and prioritize interventions, and individual stakeholders might value specific elements differently. The present study is based on a literature review that retrieved the most widely recognized arguments and criteria used in decision-making. The aim was to compile a smaller set of arguments and criteria that would seem most relevant to different stakeholders. Methods A literature review was performed in Medline and EMBASE. The initial search retrieved over 2000 articles and documents of relevant committees. A selection was made based on their reference to healthcare, policy issues, or social justice. Finally, 84 papers were included. Data extraction took place after appraisal of the articles. A full table was made, including all arguments and criteria found; next, identical or largely overlapping arguments were excluded. The remaining arguments and criteria were assessed for relevance and a reduced set was compiled. Results The final set included 25 arguments and criteria, categorized by type (clinical, social justice, ethical, and policy). For each argument and criterion, relevance to stakeholders was scored on three levels (not, partly, and completely relevant). Conclusions Many arguments and criteria play a role in making value judgments on health interventions, but not all are relevant to all interventions. Moreover, they may interact with each other. A viable way to deal with interacting and possibly conflicting arguments and criteria might be to arrange public discussions that would evoke different stakeholders’ perspectives.
      PubDate: 2018-04-17
       
  • Decision uncertainty and value of further research: a case-study in
           fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair for complex abdominal aortic
           aneurysms

    • Abstract: Background Fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (fEVAR) is a new approach for complex abdominal aortic aneurysms, limited to a few specialist centers, with limited evidence base. We developed a cost-effectiveness decision model of fEVAR compared to open surgical repair (OSR) to investigate the likely direction of costs and benefits and inform further research projects on this technology. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis and a four-state Markov model were used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of fEVAR versus OSR. We used a recent coverage with evidence development framework to characterize the main sources of uncertainty and inform decisions about the type of further research that would be most worthwhile and feasible. Results Seven observational comparative studies were identified, of which four presented odds ratios adjusted for confounders. The odds ratios for operative mortality varied widely between studies. Assuming a central estimate of the odds ratio of 0.54 (95% CI 0.05–6.24), the decision model estimated that the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was £74,580/QALY with a probability of 9 and 16% of being cost-effective at standard cost-effectiveness thresholds of £20,000/QALY and £30,000/QALY, respectively. The Expected Value of Perfect Information over 10 years at a threshold of £20,000/QALY was £11.2 million. Operative mortality contributed to most of the uncertainty in the decision model. Conclusions In the case of “maturing technologies”, decision modelling indicates the likely direction of costs and benefits and guides the development of further research projects. In our analysis of fEVAR versus OSR, decision uncertainty, particularly around operative mortality, might be effectively resolved by a short-term RCT, or possibly a well-conducted comparative observational study. Decision makers may consider that a conditional coverage decision is warranted with assessments required to make this type of recommendation depending on local priorities and circumstances.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
       
  • Economic evaluation of health promotion interventions for older people: do
           applied economic studies meet the methodological challenges'

    • Abstract: Background In the light of demographic developments health promotion interventions for older people are gaining importance. In addition to methodological challenges arising from the economic evaluation of health promotion interventions in general, there are specific methodological problems for the particular target group of older people. There are especially four main methodological challenges that are discussed in the literature. They concern measurement and valuation of informal caregiving, accounting for productivity costs, effects of unrelated cost in added life years and the inclusion of ‘beyond-health’ benefits. This paper focuses on the question whether and to what extent specific methodological requirements are actually met in applied health economic evaluations. Methods Following a systematic review of pertinent health economic evaluations, the included studies are analysed on the basis of four assessment criteria that are derived from methodological debates on the economic evaluation of health promotion interventions in general and economic evaluations targeting older people in particular. Results Of the 37 studies included in the systematic review, only very few include cost and outcome categories discussed as being of specific relevance to the assessment of health promotion interventions for older people. The few studies that consider these aspects use very heterogeneous methods, thus there is no common methodological standard. Conclusion There is a strong need for the development of guidelines to achieve better comparability and to include cost categories and outcomes that are relevant for older people. Disregarding these methodological obstacles could implicitly lead to discrimination against the elderly in terms of health promotion and disease prevention and, hence, an age-based rationing of public health care.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
       
  • Costs and cost-efficiency of a mobile cash transfer to prevent child
           undernutrition during the lean season in Burkina Faso: a mixed methods
           analysis from the MAM’Out randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: Background This study assessed the costs and cost-efficiency of a mobile cash transfer implemented in Tapoa Province, Burkina Faso in the MAM’Out randomized controlled trial from June 2013 to December 2014, using mixed methods and taking a societal perspective by including costs to implementing partners and beneficiary households. Methods Data were collected via interviews with implementing staff from the humanitarian agency and the private partner delivering the mobile money, focus group discussions with beneficiaries, and review of accounting databases. Costs were analyzed by input category and activity-based cost centers. cost-efficiency was analyzed by cost-transfer ratios (CTR) and cost per beneficiary. Qualitative analysis was conducted to identify themes related to implementing electronic cash transfers, and barriers to efficient implementation. Results The CTR was 0.82 from a societal perspective, within the same range as other humanitarian transfer programs; however the intervention did not achieve the same degree of cost-efficiency as other mobile transfer programs specifically. Challenges in coordination between humanitarian and private partners resulted in long wait times for beneficiaries, particularly in the first year of implementation. Sensitivity analyses indicated a potential 6% reduction in CTR through reducing beneficiary wait time by one-half. Actors reported that coordination challenges improved during the project, therefore inefficiencies likely would be resolved, and cost-efficiency improved, as the program passed the pilot phase. Conclusions Despite the time required to establish trusting relationships among actors, and to set up a network of cash points in remote areas, this analysis showed that mobile transfers hold promise as a cost-efficient method of delivering cash in this setting. Implementation by local government would likely reduce costs greatly compared to those found in this study context, and improve cost-efficiency especially by subsidizing expansion of mobile money network coverage and increasing cash distribution points in remote areas which are unprofitable for private partners.
      PubDate: 2018-04-13
       
  • Cost-effectiveness of the recommended medical intervention for the
           treatment of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis in Japan

    • Abstract: Background and objective This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of early physician consultation and guideline-based intervention to prevent endometriosis and/or disease progression using oral contraceptive (OC) and progestin compared to follow-up of self-care for dysmenorrhea in Japan. Methods A yearly-transmitted Markov model of five major health states with four sub-medical states was constructed. Transition probabilities among health and medical states were derived from Japanese epidemiological patient surveys and converted to appropriate parameters for inputting into the model. The dysmenorrhea and endometriosis-associated direct costs included inpatient, outpatient visit, surgery, and medication (OC agents, over-the-counter drugs), etc. The utility measure for patients with phase I–IV endometriosis comprised a visual analogue scale. We estimated the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) at a time horizon of 23 years. An annual discount rate at 3% for both cost and outcome was considered. Results The base case outcomes indicated that the intervention would be more cost-effective than self-care, as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) yielded 115,000 JPY per QALY gained from the healthcare payers’ perspective and the societal monetary value (SMV) was approximately positive 3,130,000 JPY, favoring the intervention in the cost–benefit estimate. A tornado diagram depicting the stochastic sensitivity analysis of the ICER and SMV from both the healthcare payers’ and societal perspectives confirmed the robustness of the base case. A probabilistic analysis resulting from 10,000-time Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated efficiency at willingness-to-pay thresholds in more than 90% of the iterations. Conclusions The present analysis demonstrated that early physician consultation and guideline-based intervention would be more cost-effective than self-care in preventing endometriosis and/or disease progression for patients with dysmenorrhea in Japan.
      PubDate: 2018-04-10
       
  • Econometric estimation of WHO-CHOICE country-specific costs for inpatient
           and outpatient health service delivery

    • Abstract: Background Policy makers require information on costs related to inpatient and outpatient health services to inform resource allocation decisions. Methods Country data sets were gathered in 2008–2010 through literature reviews, website searches and a public call for cost data. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore the determinants of variability in unit costs using data from 30 countries. Two models were designed, with the inpatient and outpatient models drawing upon 3407 and 9028 observations respectively. Cost estimates are produced at country and regional level, with 95% confidence intervals. Results Inpatient costs across 30 countries are significantly associated with the type of hospital, ownership, as well as bed occupancy rate, average length of stay, and total number of inpatient admissions. Changes in outpatient costs are significantly associated with location, facility ownership and the level of care, as well as to the number of outpatient visits and visits per provider per day. Conclusions These updated WHO-CHOICE service delivery unit costs are statistically robust and may be used by analysts as inputs for economic analysis. The models can predict country-specific unit costs at different capacity levels and in different settings.
      PubDate: 2018-03-19
       
  • Global health worker salary estimates: an econometric analysis of global
           earnings data

    • Abstract: Background Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states. Methods The ILO data contained 324 observations of earnings data across 4 skill levels for 193 countries. Using this data, along with the assumption that data were missing not at random, we used a Heckman two stage selection model to estimate earning data for each of the 4 skill levels for all WHO member states. Results It was possible to develop a prediction model for health worker earnings for all countries for which GDP data was available. Health worker earnings vary both within country due to skill level, as well as across countries. As a multiple of GDP per capita, earnings show a negative correlation with GDP—that is lower income countries pay their health workers relatively more than higher income countries. Conclusions Limited data on health worker earnings is a limiting factor in estimating the costs of global health programmes. It is hoped that these estimates will support robust health care intervention costings and projections of resources needs over the Sustainable Development Goal period.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
       
  • Financial risk of increasing the follow-up period of breast cancer
           treatment currently covered by the Social Protection System in Health in
           México

    • Abstract: Background The objective of this work is to estimate the financial impact of increasing the monitoring period for breast cancer, which is financed by the Sistema de Protección Social en Salud (SPSS—Social Protection System in Health). Methods A micro-simulation model was developed to monitor a cohort of patients with breast cancer, and also an estimation was made on the probability of surviving the monitoring period financed by the SPSS. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the maximum expected cost was estimated to broaden such monitoring. Morbimortality information of the Ministry of Health and cases of breast cancer treated by the SPSS were used. Results Between 2013 and 2026, the financial resources to provide monitoring during 10 years to women diagnosed with breast cancer would reach up to $3607.40 million pesos on a base scenario, $4151.79 million pesos on the pessimistic scenario and $3414.85 million pesos on an optimistic scenario. In the base scenario, additional expenditure represents an annual increase of 9.1% of resources allocated to treating this disease, and 3.0% of the availability of the resources for the Fondo de Protección contra Gastos Catastróficos (FPGC—Fund for Protection against Catastrophic Expenditure). Conclusions Increasing monitoring for patients with breast cancer would not represent a financial risk to the sustainability of the FPGC, and could increase patients survival and life quality.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
       
  • Higher pharmaceutical public expenditure after direct price control:
           improved access or induced demand' The Colombian case

    • Abstract: Background High pharmaceutical expenditure is one of the main concerns for policymakers worldwide. In Colombia, a middle-income country, outpatient prescription represents over 10% of total health expenditure in the mandatory benefits package (POS), and close to 90% in the complementary government fund (No POS). In order to control expenditure, since 2011, the Ministry of Health introduced price caps on inpatient drugs reimbursements by active ingredient. By 2013, more than 400 different products, covering 80% of public pharmaceutical expenditure were controlled. This paper investigates the effects of the Colombian policy efforts to control expenditure by controlling prices. Methods Using SISMED data, the official database for prices and quantities sold in the domestic market, we estimate a Laspeyres price index for 90 relevant markets in the period 2011–2015, and, then, we estimate real pharmaceutical expenditure. Results Results show that, after direct price controls were enacted, price inflation decreased almost − 43%, but real pharmaceutical expenditure almost doubled due mainly to an increase in units sold. Such disproportionate increase in units sold maybe attributable to better access to drugs due to lower prices, and/or to an increase in marketing efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to maintain profits. Conclusions We conclude that pricing interventions should be implemented along with a strong market monitoring to prevent market distortions such as inappropriate and unnecessary drug use.
      PubDate: 2018-03-02
       
  • Incorporating economies of scale in the cost estimation in economic
           evaluation of PCV and HPV vaccination programmes in the Philippines: a
           game changer'

    • Abstract: Background Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations. Methods The fixed and variable costs of providing partial (20% coverage) and universal (100% coverage) vaccination programs in the Philippines were estimated using various methods, including costs of conducting questionnaire survey, focus-group discussion, and analysis of secondary data. Costing parameters were utilised as inputs for the two economic evaluation models for PCV and HPV. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and 5-year budget impacts with and without applying economies of scale to the costing parameters for partial and universal coverage were compared in order to determine the effect of these different costing approaches. Results The program costs of the partial coverage for the two immunisation programs were not very different when applying and not applying the economies of scale concept. Nevertheless, the program costs for universal coverage were 0.26 and 0.32 times lower when applying economies of scale compared to not applying economies of scale for the pneumococcal and human papillomavirus vaccinations, respectively. ICERs varied by up to 98% for pneumococcal vaccinations, whereas the change in ICERs in the human papillomavirus vaccination depended on both the costs of cervical cancer screening and the vaccination program. This results in a significant difference in the 5-year budget impact, accounting for 30 and 40% of reduction in the 5-year budget impact for the pneumococcal and human papillomavirus vaccination programs. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility and importance of applying economies of scale in the cost estimation in economic evaluation, which would lead to different conclusions in terms of value for money regarding the interventions, particularly with population-wide interventions such as vaccination programs. The economies of scale approach to costing is recommended for the creation of methodological guidelines for conducting economic evaluations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
       
  • Cost-effectiveness of antiviral prophylaxis during pregnancy for the
           prevention of perinatal hepatitis B infection in South Korea

    • Abstract: Background In Korea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for approximately 65–75% of HBV-related diseases, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cancer, and mother-to-child transmission is presumed to be a major source of the infection. To tackle this issue, the Korean government launched the national Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (PHBPP) in 2002. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of the PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis compared with the current PHBPP and/or universal vaccination, as well as identified the optimal strategy to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Korea. Methods A decision tree model with the Markov process was developed and simulated over the lifetime of a birth cohort in Korea during the year 2014. The current PHBPP providing HBV vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin to neonates born to HBV positive mothers was compared against two other strategies, universal vaccination of HBV and PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis, with respect to their costs and health outcomes. The Korean National Health Insurance database was investigated to estimate the costs of HBV-related diseases and utilization of health resources. Costs were assessed from the health care system perspective and converted to 2014 US dollars. Health outcome measures were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and number of HBV-related diseases and deaths. Both costs and QALYs were discounted at 5%, following the recommendation of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service in Korea. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) obtained from the analysis was evaluated using the willingness-to-pay (WTP) in the Korean society. Results PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis in Korea was cost-effective compared with the current PHBPP. An introduction of antiviral prophylaxis to pregnant women with a high viral load of HBV averted 13 HBV-related deaths per 100,000 people and saved 82 QALYs in total (ICER: $16,159/QALY). Conclusions Considering that WTP in Korea is $29,000, PHBPP with antiviral prophylaxis appears to be a cost-effective strategy. To further decrease the burden of perinatal hepatitis B in Korea, adding antiviral prophylaxis to PHBPP is recommended.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
       
  • Factors associated with prescribing costs: analysis of a nationwide
           administrative database

    • Abstract: Objective All health care systems in the world struggle with rising costs for drugs. We sought to explore factors impacting on prescribing costs in a nationwide database of ambulatory care in Germany. Factors identified by this research can be used for adjustment in future profiling efforts. Methods We analysed nationwide prescription data of physicians having contractual relationships with statutory health insurance funds in 2014. Predictor and outcome variables were aggregated at the practice level. We performed analyses separately for primary care and specialties of cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology and psychiatry, pulmology as well as oncology and haematology. Bivariate robust regressions and Spearman rank correlations were computed in order to find meaningful predictors for our outcome variable prescription costs per patient. Results Median age of patients and proportion of DDD issued were substantial predictors for prescription costs per patient in Primary Care, Cardiology, and Pulmology with explained variances between 41 and 61%. In Neurology and Psychiatry only proportion of patients with polypharmacy ≥ 2 quarters was a significant predictor for prescription costs per patient, explaining 20% of the variance. For gastroenterologists, oncologists and haematologists no stable models could be established. Conclusions Any analysis of prescribing behaviour must take the degree into account to which an individual physician or practice is responsible for prescribing patients’ medication. Proportion of prescriptions/DDDs is an essential confounder for future studies of drug prescribing.
      PubDate: 2018-02-08
       
  • Improving the first-line treatment of febrile illnesses in Ghana:
           willingness to pay for malaria rapid diagnostic tests at licensed chemical
           shops in the Kintampo area

    • Abstract: Background Use of malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) enhances patient management and reduces costs associated with the inappropriate use of antimalarials. Despite its proven clinical effectiveness, mRDT is not readily available at licensed chemical shops in Ghana. Therefore, in order to improve the use of mRDT, there is the need to understand the willingness to pay for and sell mRDT. This study assessed patients’ willingness to pay and licensed chemical operators’ (LCS) willingness to sell mRDTs. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kintampo North Municipality and Kintampo South District of Ghana. Contingent valuation method using the dichotomous approach was applied to explore patient’s willingness to pay. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were used to obtain information from licensed chemical operators’ willingness to sell. Results Majority 161 (97%) of the customers were willing to pay for mRDT while 100% of licensed chemical operators were also willing to sell mRDT. The average lowest amount respondents were willing to pay was Ghana cedis (GH¢) 1.1 (US$ 0.26) and an average highest amount of GH¢ 2.1 (US$ 0.49). LCS operators were willing to sell the test kit at an average lowest price of GH¢1 (US$ 0.23) and average highest price of GH¢2 (US$ 0.47). Conclusion Community members were willing to pay for mRDT and LCS operators are willing to sell mRDTs. However, the high cost of the mRDT is likely to prevent the widespread use of mRDT. There is a clear need to find system-compatible ways to subsidize the use of mRDT via National Health Insurance scheme.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
       
  • Cost-effectiveness of tiotropium versus omalizumab for uncontrolled
           allergic asthma in US

    • Abstract: Background A significant minority of asthma patients remain uncontrolled despite the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA). A number of add-on therapies, including monoclonal antibodies (namely omalizumab) and more recently tiotropium bromide have been recommended for this subgroup of patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of tiotropium versus omalizumab as add-on therapies to ICS + LABA for patients with uncontrolled allergic asthma. Methods A probabilistic Markov model of asthma was created. Total costs (in 2013 US $) and health outcomes of three interventions including standard therapy (ICS + LABA), add-on therapy with tiotropium, and add-on therapy with omalizumab, were calculated over a 10-year time horizon. Future costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at the rate of 3%. Multiple sensitivity analyses were conducted. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated at willingness-to-pay value of $50,000. Results The 10-year discounted costs and QALYs for standard therapy were $38,432 and 6.79, respectively. The corresponding values for add-on therapy with tiotropium and with omalizumab were $41,535 and 6.88, and $217,847 and 7.17, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of add-on therapy with tiotropium versus standard therapy, and omalizumab versus tiotropium were $34,478/QALY, and $593,643/QALY, respectively. The model outcomes were most sensitive to the costs of omalizumab but were robust against other assumptions. Conclusions Although omalizumab had the best health outcomes, add-on therapy with tiotropium was a cost-effective alternative to omalizumab and standard therapy for uncontrolled allergic asthma at willingness-to-pay of $50,000/QALY.
      PubDate: 2018-01-30
       
  • Personalized medicine in colorectal cancer diagnosis and treatment: a
           systematic review of health economic evaluations

    • Abstract: Background Due to its epidemiological relevance, several studies have been performed to assess the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic tests and treatments in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Objective We reviewed economic evaluations on diagnosis of inherited CRC-syndromes and genetic tests for the detection of mutations associated with response to therapeutics. Methods A systematic literature review was performed by searching the main literature databases for relevant papers on the field, published in the last 5 years. Results 20 studies were included in the final analysis: 14 investigating the cost-effectiveness of hereditary-CRC screening; 5 evaluating the cost-effectiveness of KRAS mutation assessment before treatment; and 1 study analysing the cost-effectiveness of genetic tests for early-stage CRC patients prognosis. Overall, we found that: (a) screening strategies among CRC patients were more effective than no screening; (b) all the evaluated interventions were cost-saving for certain willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold; and (c) all new CRC patients diagnosed at age 70 or below should be screened. Regarding patients treatment, we found that KRAS testing is economically sustainable only if anticipated in patients with non-metastatic CRC (mCRC), while becoming unsustainable, due to an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) beyond the levels of WTP-threshold, in all others evaluated scenarios. Conclusions The poor evidence in the field, combined to the number of assumptions done to perform the models, lead us to a high level of uncertainty on the cost-effectiveness of genetic evaluations in CRC, suggesting that major research is required in order to assess the best combination among detection tests, type of genetic test screening and targeted-therapy.
      PubDate: 2018-01-22
       
  • Effects of prescription restrictive interventions on antibiotic
           procurement in primary care settings: a controlled interrupted time series
           study in China

    • Abstract: Background The overuse of antibiotics has been identified as a major challenge in regard to the rational prescription of medicines in low and middle income countries. Extensive studies on the effectiveness of persuasive interventions, such as guidelines have been undertaken. There is a dearth of research pertaining to the effects of restrictive interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of prescription restrictions in relation to types and administration routes of antibiotics on antibiotic procurement in primary care settings in China. Methods Data were drawn from the monthly procurement records of medicines for primary care institutions in Hubei province over a 31-month period from May 2011 to November 2013. We analyzed the monthly procurement volume and costs of antibiotics. Interrupted time series analyses with a difference-in-difference approach were performed to evaluate the effect of the restrictive intervention (started in August 2012) on antibiotic procurement in comparison with those for cardiovascular conditions. Sensitivity tests were performed by replacing outliers using a simple linear interpolation technique. Results Over the entire study period, antibiotics accounted for 33.65% of the total costs of medicines procured for primary care institutions: mostly non-restricted antibiotics (86.03%) and antibiotics administered through parenteral routes (79.59%). On average, 17.14 million defined daily doses (DDDs) of antibiotics were procured per month, with the majority (93.09%) for non-restricted antibiotics and over half (52.38%) for parenteral administered antibiotics. The restrictive intervention was associated with a decline in the secular trend of costs for non-restricted oral antibiotics (− 0.36 million Yuan per month, p = 0.029), and for parenteral administered restricted antibiotics (− 0.28 million Yuan per month, p = 0.019), as well as a decline in the secular trend of procurement volume for parenteral administered non-restricted antibiotics (− 0.038 million DDDs per month, p = 0.05). Conclusions Restrictive interventions are effective in reducing the procurement of antibiotics. However, the effect size is relatively small and antibiotic consumptions remain high, especially parenteral administered antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
       
  • Lifetime cost-effectiveness analysis of intraoperative radiation therapy
           versus external beam radiation therapy for early stage breast cancer

    • Abstract: Background To date no one has examined the quality of life and direct costs of care in treating early stage breast cancer with adjunct intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) over the life of the patient. As well no one has examined the effects of radiation exposure with both therapies on the longer term sequelae. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the cost-effectiveness of IORT vs. EBRT over the life of the patient. Methods A Markov decision-analytic model evaluated these treatment strategies in terms of the direct costs in treating patients over their lifetime (including the downstream costs associated with radiation exposure) and the resultant quality of life of these patients. Medicare reimbursement amounts in treating patients were used for acute, steady state, recurrent cancer(s), and complications associated with radiation exposure. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from the medical literature were assessed with each of these states. Life expectancies as well were derived from the medical literature. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated for dominance and net monetary benefit [at a willingness to pay (WTP)] of $50,000/QALY. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. Results IORT was the dominant (least costly with greater QALYs) versus EBRT: total costs over the life of the patient = $53,179 (IORT) vs. $63,828 (EBRT) and total QALYs: 17.86 (IORT) vs. 17.06 (EBRT). At a willingness to pay of $50,000 for each additional QALY, the net monetary benefit demonstrated that IORT was the most cost effective option: $839,815 vs. $789,092. The model was most sensitive to the probabilities of recurrent cancer and death for both IORT and EBRT. Conclusion IORT is the more valuable (lower cost with improved QALYs) strategy for use in patients presenting with early stage ER+ breast cancer. It should be used preferentially in these patients.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
       
 
 
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