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J. of Language Teaching and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Theory and Practice in Language Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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Journal of Language Teaching and Research
Number of Followers: 32  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1798-4769 - ISSN (Online) 2053-0684
Published by Academy Publisher Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Spanish Composition Errors from a Combined Classroom of Heritage (L1) and
           Non-heritage (L2) Learners: A Comparative Case Study

    • Authors: John M. Ryan
      Pages: 439 - 452
      Abstract: In a world of declining institutional budgets, decreasing student enrollments in departments that until now may have had the luxury of separate composition classrooms for heritage and non-heritage students, not to mention individual student schedule limitations, the steady increase in enrollment of L1 or heritage students in composition classrooms which were before primarily geared toward L2 learners has created a new reality and the urgency to rethink the organization, sequence, and emphasis placed on topics and structures in the classroom. The purpose of this case study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of L1 and L2 student composition error data collected from a sample of fifteen students enrolled in a Spanish Composition (SPAN 302) class at the University of Northern Colorado (UNC). Specific objectives for this project were to determine from the data collected: 1) the frequencies with which L1 and L2 student participants committed word- and sentence-level errors in their compositions; 2) how error frequencies compare between L1 and L2 students over a semester’s time, and in particular, with the writing of a series of five different compositions, each targeting a more advanced level of writing proficiency; and 3) how knowledge of both similarities and differences between these two groups might be applied to enhance the author’s current pedagogical model that could work for future students from both groups in a single classroom.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.01
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Vocabulary Skills and Online Dictionaries: A Study on EFL Learners’
           Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge and Success in Searching Electronic Sources
           for Information

    • Authors: Marja-Leena Niitemaa, Päivi Pietilä
      Pages: 453 - 462
      Abstract: The study reported in this article examined Finnish EFL learners’ ability to search for lexical items and information in online dictionaries and on websites. The study was conducted as part of a project investigating upper secondary school students’ digital skills in relation to language learning. The motivation behind the study was that in Finland, the high-stakes school-leaving examinations, including foreign language tests, are currently being digitalized. The aim of the study was to uncover the relationship between word recognition skills and the learners’ ability to find lexical items and information in a series of online vocabulary tasks when the choice of the digital sources was not controlled. The results showed, for example, that overall word recognition skills and recognition of low-frequency vocabulary correlated positively with success rates in finding individual words in online dictionaries and factually accurate information on webpages, but not with finding appropriate collocations. Moreover, to succeed in 50% of the look-ups required scoring a minimum of 60% in the vocabulary levels test.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.02
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Corpus-based Study of Lexis in L2 English Textbooks

    • Authors: Cathrine Norberg, Marie Nordlund
      Pages: 463 - 473
      Abstract: Despite the fact that textbooks are central in foreign language learning, only limited research has explored to what extent L2 textbooks support language learning and whether the content in them is relevant from a vocabulary perspective. This study investigates the vocabulary in seven English textbooks used in Swedish primary schools. A corpus has been constructed based on the words in the textbooks. By means of a concordancing software tool, the material has been analyzed by comparing the vocabulary between the books and to words on the New General Service List and in the VP-Kids corpus. The analysis shows that many words in the textbooks occur only occasionally in common everyday language use. It also demonstrates that there is great variation in the number and selection of words across the books indicating that there does not seem to be a common thought behind word selection in textbooks used in Swedish schools.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.03
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Scarlet Letter: Embroidering Transcendentalism and
           Anti-transcendentalism Thread for an Early American World

    • Authors: Ramtin Noor-Tehrani (Noor) Mahini, Erin Barth
      Pages: 474 - 479
      Abstract: Published in 1850 by Nathaniel Hawthorne, the dark romantic story of The Scarlet Letter was immediately met with success, and Hawthorne was recognized as the first fictional writer to truly represent American perspective and experience. At the time when most novelists focused on portraying the outside world, Hawthorne dwelled deeply in the innermost, hidden emotional and mental psyches of his characters. Despite being acquainted to both famed transcendentalists Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau and married to the transcendentalist painter Sophia Peabody, Hawthorne was often referred to as anti-transcendentalist or dark romantic writer in The Scarlet Letter. Is he also influenced by the transcendentalist movement in his famed novel'  Evidence shows that he is more transcendentalist than anti-transcendentalist in The Scarlet Letter.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.04
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Perception and Experience of Teacher Educators about Their Motivation: A
           Case Study Approach

    • Authors: Zafarullah Sahito, Pertti Vaisanen
      Pages: 480 - 490
      Abstract: This study was designed to explore the perception and experiences of motivation of teacher educators of the universities of Sindh province of Pakistan. The data was collected and analysed through case study approach, the qualitative research design and thematic-narrative analysis technique. The total twenty-one teacher educators revealed their stories in the form of narratives about their motivation. The findings of this article would be found suitable, authentic and reliable resource, which would be an excellent addition in to the existing literature of motivation in order to understand the phenomenon, its process and causations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.05
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Methods Used to Eliminate the Students’ Chintonglish Sentences in
           Their Writing

    • Authors: Xiaoying Zhou, Hangjie Liao
      Pages: 491 - 495
      Abstract: In this paper the authors discuss four types of English in Chinese students’ English writing. They are Pure English, China English, Sinicized English and Chinese Tone English (Chintonglish). As the Chintonglish (Chinese Tone English) sentences appear frequently in students writing, the authors will discuss this type of “English” from the psychological and cultural point of view, which may serve as a guide for the Chinese students’ writing of good English. In the authors’ opinion the methods used for the elimination of such Chintonglish sentences in the students’ English writing are to point out the cause of such Chintonglish mistakes to the students clearly, create an English communicative environment and choose some typical pieces of passages for the students to read and imitate.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.06
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Development and Validation of the EFL Learning Context Questionnaire

    • Authors: Weningtyas Parama Iswari, Haryanto Atmowardoyo, Muhammad Asfah Rahman, Susilo Susilo
      Pages: 496 - 503
      Abstract: A context where learning a language takes place may be one of many factors influencing the result of the learning. So far, there has been very few, if not at all, a ready-to-use instrument to examine systematically the condition of learning contexts, especially related to English as a foreign language. Therefore, this study intends to develop a self-reported questionnaire for that purpose, named the EFL Learning Context Questionnaire (ELCQ). The instrument was developed in reference to the existing theories and previous related studies. The development process started with writing the draft of the questionnaire in English and then translating into Indonesian language. The next stage would be validation the instrument, including: expert judgement for content validity and to gather constructive feedbacks (i.e. revisions and suggestions), initial piloting for analysing item validity and reliability (N = 64), and final piloting using Factor Analysis to obtain a stable self-reported instrument (N = 692). The validation result showed that the QELC has been proved to be a valid and reliable questionnaire. Since the ELCQ has been validated through some formal stages, it can be assumed that this instrument can be used in EFL contexts, especially in Indonesia. However, because this study took place in only one region, further studies across samples, time and countries are needed to improve the applicability of the ELCQ.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.07
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Note-taking in Persian-English Consecutive Interpreting: Considering
           Iranian Translation Teachers’ and Students’ Opinions

    • Authors: Rasoul Marani, Hossein Heidari Tabrizi
      Pages: 504 - 509
      Abstract: Note-taking is one of the essential skills which is used to facilitate the process of consecutive interpreting and the different aspects of the cited skill has been investigated in the history of interpreting. But despite of this significance, very little related research could be found about note-taking in Persian-English consecutive interpreting. Due to this paucity, the present study explored and examined the translation teachers’ and students’ opinions in this respect in order to identify the weaknesses of teaching and utilizing note-taking during the process of consecutive interpreting  particularly in Iranian academic contexts. For the purpose of this research, four interpreting teachers from different Iranian universities, besides 10 male and female undergraduate translation students of quoted academic context who had passed interpreting courses, were selected meticulously and by means of phone interview, the required data were collected. The results of this investigation clearly indicate that, as well as teaching interpreting courses by the non-qualified teachers more often than not, the used syllabuses for interpreting courses do not cover all aspects of the issue and should be redesigned according to the students’ future needs in the role of the professional interpreters. Additionally, while almost all general concepts, techniques and strategies are totally unfamiliar to translation students, they entirely acknowledge the necessity of learning much more about note-taking.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.08
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Relevance among Preservice English Teachers' Preparation Courses,
           Their Views about Teaching and Their Real Teaching Behaviors (A Case

    • Authors: Hosam ElDeen Ahmed El-Sawy
      Pages: 510 - 519
      Abstract: This study aims at investigating the relevance among three factors: preservice English teachers' preparation courses, their views about teaching and their real teaching behaviors. This is a case study focusing on three preservice teachers of English in Egypt. Data was collected through three tools: an observation sheet, a semi-structured interview and a focus group. Results of the study revealed that there is a gap between what preservice English teachers learn in their preparation courses, their views about effective teaching and their real behaviors in class. The reasons which the participants gave for not applying what they have learned theoretically include: insufficient preservice training, students' low level, insufficient class time, students' resistance of changing the way they are used to learn, insufficiency of equipment in schools, students' preference of using the native language in learning, and in one case the teacher herself preferred the traditional grammar translation method. The study recommends early coordination between teacher preparation institutions and schools. The study recommends the incorporation of senior teachers in teacher preparation programs to try to breach the theory-practice gap. The study also recommends that teacher educators should analyze the given causes of the theory-practice gap and develop the English teachers' preparation courses in accordance.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.09
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Study on the Spread of Chaozhou Opera in Thailand under the Strategy of
           Maritime Silk Road

    • Authors: Lei Miao, Qiuping Wang
      Pages: 520 - 524
      Abstract: Chaozhou Opera, selected in the first batch of national intangible cultural heritage protection list, is an ancient Chinese opera. It has been spread overseas with Chaozhou people and has become one of the most influential local opera in China, also homesickness sustenance for many overseas Chinese people. In 2013, the General Secretary Xi Jinping proposed the strategy on the construction of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road”, which has clearly pointed out to strengthen the cultural communication and cooperation in the “Maritime Silk Road” regions. Thailand is an important country on the Silk Road. Therefore, this article takes the development of Chaozhou Opera in Thailand as the research object, analyzes the present situation of Chaozhou Opera in Thailand, points out its bottleneck and puts forward the development strategy.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.10
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Evaluating a New Writing Material: Students’ Perception towards the Use
           of a Teacher-made Coursebook

    • Authors: Mansur Akil, Arifuddin Hamra, Haryanto Atmowardoyo, Magdahalena Tjalla
      Pages: 525 - 533
      Abstract: This study discusses an evaluation of a teacher-made coursebook for teaching essay writing course. Forty students were asked to give their perception of the use of the coursebook in terms of goal, contents, organization and design, and methodology. The analysis of the students’ answers showed that their perception towards the coursebook was positive. The majority of the students said  that the coursebook objective was relevant to their needs, the contents were complete, the topics were interesting and were relevant to their needs and interests as well as their sociocultural background, the explanation was easy to be understood, the tasks and activities were attracting and helped them expressed their knowledge, experiences, and interests in a variety of essay types. Similarly, the coursebook was well-arranged from unit to the subunit. Students also said that the methodology used by the  coursebook helped them expressed their knowledge, experiences, and interests accurately and fluently.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.11
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Toward the Use of Conceptual Metaphors of “Teacher” Perceived
           by High-school Students

    • Authors: Fariba Mansouri Koohestani, Narjes Banou Sabouri, Parisa Farrokh, Maryam Hessaby Dehbaneh
      Pages: 534 - 539
      Abstract: This study is an attempt to find out the use of conceptual metaphors of teachers by the high-school students based upon Oxford et al. taxonomy (1988). In so doing, seventy participants were randomly selected among the high-school students of both genders aged 15 to 18 in Rezvanshahr – A city in Guilan province. The questionnaires were distributed required them to jot down their own conceptual metaphor about their teachers. The gathered information was analyzed through SPSS software after codifying. The results showed that most frequent class of metaphors used by them were “Learner-Centered Growth”. It is meant that Iranian students like their teachers to be the facilitators who pave the way for them. On the other hand, there exists no significant relationship between gender and the type of metaphors that students use about their teachers.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.12
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Incorporating Intercultural Competences in Developing English Materials
           for Writing Classes

    • Authors: Haerazi Haerazi, Dedi Irwansyah, Juanda Juanda, Yek Amin Azis
      Pages: 540 - 547
      Abstract: Teaching English as a foreign language has been focused on cultural aspects. Teachers studied English from their cultures and then they compare those with the target cultures. This was aimed to facilitate English students to communicate orally and in written, linguistically accurate and culturally appropriate. Therefore, this research study was aimed at developing English materials based on intercultural language learning for writing classes. To reach the maximal materials, the researchers applied need analysis to identify cultural materials based learning model that feeds students’ needs and expectation. Based on the result of research study, students like cultural topics for their level, such as wedding ceremonies, historical buildings, and traditional music. These topics showed that the set of interculture-based instructional materials was appropriate to be utilized in the teaching of writing skills for English department students.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.13
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Pragmatic Strategies Adopted by an Advanced Chinese EFL Learner in
           Realization of Request Speech Act—A Case Study

    • Authors: Yanfei Su
      Pages: 548 - 554
      Abstract: Under the guidance of the analytical framework of speech act proposed by Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1984), the utterances, produced by a Chinese advanced EFL learner under four different situations in which the speech act of request was realized, are analyzed so as to examine the advanced EFL learner’s pragmatic awareness and corresponding features of pragmatic strategies adopted in realization of the request speech act. The findings of the study suggest that the Chinese advanced EFL learner does have certain pragmatic awareness and adopts different pragmatic strategies to realize the request speech act in different situations; however, her pragmatic strategies are comparatively limited to certain ones, showing no variety, which are likely to be impacted by various factors.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.14
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Learning Tasks Design in Improving Reading Comprehension Ability of
           Informational Text of 5th Grade in Indonesia: An Interactive-compensatory
           Model Use

    • Authors: Tri Indri Hardini, Ryan Dwi Puspita, Rully Agung Yudhiantara
      Pages: 555 - 560
      Abstract: In Indonesian context, based on the observation, 5th grade elementary school students in Bandung Regency had low reading comprehension ability for informational text. This can be seen from their low ability to express explicit meanings, define the main idea, search for keywords and retell the contents of the text with their own words. Given this circumstance, it is necessary to improve task design using particular learning models to improve students’ reading comprehension ability. Therefore this study was aimed at investigating the effect of the use of task design based on Interactive-Compensatory model to improve reading comprehension of 5th grade. The study used quasi experimental method. It applied observation, pre-test, post-test and interview to collect data. There were 136 samples of 5th grade participating in this study. The findings showed that there was a significant influence since there was a difference in sudents’ reading comprehension ability to read informational text before and after they were treated using task design based on the Interactive-Compensatory model.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.15
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Effect of Visual Contextual Support and Glossary of Words on Guessing
           Meaning of New Vocabulary Items in English by Pre-university Male EFL

    • Authors: Kamal Nasrollahi, Samran Daneshfar
      Pages: 561 - 572
      Abstract: The present study aims at investigating the impact of visual contextual support and Glossary of Words on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning. For this purpose, a total number of 60 male pre-university students were randomly selected after administering the English proficiency test to assure the homogeneity of the participants. The learners were assigned to three homogeneous groups, 2 experimental groups, namely, visual contextual support and glossary of words and one control group to highlight the comparative purposes.  During treatment, the first experimental group received a passage including new vocabulary items and visual contextual supports as treatment and the second experimental group received the same passage including new vocabulary items and the glossary of words as treatment. On the other hand, the control group received no treatment and they were just given the new vocabulary items of the same passages given to the experimental groups in order to guess the meaning of new words only by using their own vocabulary knowledge. To compare the probable differential impact of the study a pretest and posttest were applied to all three groups and the results of the tests were contrasted and analysed. For data analysis, the one-way ANOVA was administered for pretest and posttest. The results of the study demonstrated a significant improvement of vocabulary learning through utilizing visual contextual support in comparison to the glossary of words group and moreover than the control group.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.16
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Comparison of Corrective Feedback Used in International and EFL Contexts

    • Authors: Julia Simhony, Natthapong Chanyoo
      Pages: 573 - 582
      Abstract: The current study aims to investigate types of corrective feedback used in two classroom settings (i.e. EFL and international school classrooms) and to compare the frequency of corrective feedback types used in the two classrooms. The participants of this study were 31 students from two classrooms (6 international and 25 in EFL classrooms) and their respective teachers; one in each classroom. Data was collected through four classroom observations and one semi-structure interview conducted with the teacher from each classroom. The findings revealed that all six types of feedback were provided by the teachers in the two classrooms. A comparison of the frequency of the use of corrective feedback in two different classrooms revealed that recast was the most frequently used type of feedback in the EFL classroom while metalinguistic clues were used the most in the international school classroom. Data from the interviews suggested that teachers from both classrooms provided the feedback to students without awareness of how the feedback types should be used appropriately for different foci of the content. This study recommends the need for teacher training on corrective feedback so that the teachers will be able to analyze, select, and provide appropriate feedback types to learners.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.17
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • A Study of the Transitive Construction of Chinese Dream

    • Authors: Min Lian
      Pages: 583 - 590
      Abstract: The paper chooses General Secretary Xi’s series of speech on Chinese dream as research material, and conducts a systematic analysis to the transitivity construction of the Chinese dream. The study shows that firstly the phrase Chinese dream can serve as a participant directly, and also constitute a participant or a circumstance in transitivity processes; Secondly, Chinese dream serves as a goal collocated with the verb realize in material processes; Thirdly, it mainly serves as a carrier or constitutes the identified in relational processes collocated with the verb be; Lastly, there is a systematic relationship between the construction of Chinese dream and the transitive process types. Based on material processes, Chinese dream is constructed as a process with characteristics of creativity, intentionality and abstraction. And based on relational processes, Chinese dream is constructed as an entity unifying the characteristics of collectivism, individualism, temporality and essentialism.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.18
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Developing Authentic-based Instructional Materials for Writing Skill

    • Authors: Andi Kamariah, Djamiah Husain, Haryanto Atmowardoyo, Kisman Salija
      Pages: 591 - 599
      Abstract: The overall aim of this study is to develop an authentic-based instructional material for writing skill. Therefore, the research applied Research and Development design and used ADDIE model which consists of five stages namely Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. A Questionnaire was given to the third-semester students in Education Department of UIN Alauddin Makassar as the instrument to find out the students’ need analysis. After designing the product, the material was validated by two experts and then implemented to the students. The implementation process of the authentic-based instructional materials was done twice in a small number of students consisted 10 students as the first try out and in a large number of students consisted of 30 students as the second try out. Then, evaluation of the materials was given by the experts, the lecturers, and the students. Data were analyzed using percentages and charts. In addition, the analysis of the data shows that most students, lecturers, and the experts gave positive responses towards the developed materials. The material was revised three times by considering the comments and suggestions by the experts, lecturers, and the students. The model of the developed materials consisted of some aspects namely goal, topic, activities, approach, media, genres, content, and testing strategy. Moreover, the learning process consisted of four parts namely discussion, pre-writing, writing, and post-writing.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.19
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Dynamic Assessment in Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory: Origins and
           Main Concepts

    • Authors: Samran Daneshfar, Mehdi Moharami
      Pages: 600 - 607
      Abstract: Language assessment is the significant component of foreign language learning/ teaching. An aim of language assessment is to find about how much the process of education improves learners’ knowledge of the target language. One alternative to standardized testing, Dynamic Assessment derived from Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory offers a new insight into the field of assessment through integrating instruction and assessment. Dynamic assessment is a method of conducting a language testing to investigate and highlight the individual learner's possessed skills and potential development. The present study is going to display an overview of the importance of dynamic assessment in L2 learning, emphasizing the origins and principal concepts involved in the process. The study highlights the derivation of dynamic assessment from Vygotsky’s prominent sociocultural theory. Then it brings about an introduction to zone of proximal development the concept of which learner's cognitive development results through the application of dynamic assessment. Later the study discusses dynamic assessment in detail and introduces its differences with the traditional testing formats as well as introducing forms of dynamic assessment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.20
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Teachers’ Beliefs of Authentic Materials for Teaching Reading in
           Indonesian EFL Classrooms

    • Authors: Desy Rusmawaty, Haryanto Atmowardoyo, Arifuddin Hamra, Nurdin Noni
      Pages: 608 - 613
      Abstract: It is believed that authentic reading materials can link students to contextual use of English, as they can improve students’ communicative and cultural competences. Related to point, this is very important to highlight the investigation on teachers’ beliefs about authentic reading materials as it is reflected through the teachers’ expectation and how they manifest them in classroom practices. This is a case study of four teachers who teach English at public senior high school in Samarinda, East Kalimantan. The study explores the beliefs of these teachers about authentic reading materials in their classroom practices. The data were taken from a semi structured interview, classroom observation, and teachers’ written documents. The study revealed that there were three themes of teachers’ beliefs emerged, (1) types of authentic reading materials, (2) skills to be improved after reading, and (3) teachers’ challenges of using authentic reading materials for the classroom-bases. It is noted that teachers did self-adjustment when manifesting their beliefs in classroom activities. In addition, Teachers needs self-management when utilizing authentic materials.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.21
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • From Differentiation of the Expressive Effects to Conscious Use of
           Rhetorical Language

    • Authors: Yulan Gu
      Pages: 614 - 619
      Abstract: The double predicate structures in English are examples of rhetorical use of language. The differentiation between the distinctive double predicate structure “verb + adjective” and the normal predicate structure “verb + adverb” and the subsequent choice in specific contexts is thus not only a matter of grammar rules on the surface, but, more substantively, a matter of conscious use of rhetorical language. The survey conducted among college English teachers in China into their differentiation between “verb + adjective” and “verb + adverb” showed that most respondents didn’t distinguish very well the differing expressive effects caused by the choice of the adjectives or the adjectives’ derivative adverbs in these two types of structures, and that the majority of the respondents had difficulty in making proper choices between them for specific contexts. Since the identification of a language structure is the prerequisite for its appropriate use, due attention in English teaching and learning should be paid to the delicate differences among similar language items and to their differing expressive effects to cultivate awareness and competence of conscious use of rhetorical language, enhancing overall language performance.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.22
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Bilingual-based Instruction in Teaching English for Academic Purposes at
           Islamic University

    • Authors: Sitti Nurpahmi, Muhammad Asfah Rahman, Kisman Salija
      Pages: 620 - 628
      Abstract: This paper investigates the implementation of bilingual based instruction in teaching English for Academic purposes at Islamic University. It was investigated by using case study with single case study at Indonesian Islamic University. The findings showed that the lecturer used English and Indonesian as a language interaction. The functions of Indonesian used by the lecturer were to translate, clarify, explain, lexical gap, address specification, and address affection. The lecturer sometimes alternated her language unconsciously. Lecturer’s language functions not only as language instruction but also as language source. This bilingual based instruction facilitated more exposure to the students; therefore the students can imitate lecturer’s language, then they can practice the language, finally, they can acquire the language.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.23
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Effect of Using Fun Activities on Learning Vocabulary at the
           Elementary Level

    • Authors: Farideh Bavi
      Pages: 629 - 639
      Abstract: The current study investigated the effect of using fun activity on learning vocabulary at the Elementary level in Ahvaz. The participants were 40 female students who were selected among 80 learners. They were studying English at an English institute. Their age was ranging from 8 to15. In order to have homogeneous groups, the learners were given an Oxford Quick Placement Test to determine their proficiency level. The teacher made test based on Hill's book given to them as the pre-test. Then they were divided into two equal groups of experimental and control groups. The experimental group received instruction and the control group was taught in the traditional way of teaching vocabulary including the uses of both groups 12 sessions of treatment, each 45 minutes with the same materials; and then they took a post-test at the end of the course. Data were analyzed through Independent and Paired samples test. Results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control one (p<0). Implications of the study suggest learners using fun activity on learning vocabulary to provide them with effective learning.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.24
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Vietnamese Voices: A Project for Activating Student Autonomy

    • Authors: Nguyễn Ngọc Lưu Ly
      Pages: 640 - 649
      Abstract: For foreign language education in Vietnam, passive teaching and learning with limited materials is thought to be associated with low achievement. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an innovative approach to guide students to build a Fun Reading Corner in foreign language using an autonomous-based approach in a Vietnam university. Survey data were collected before and after the project and from a focus group’s writing samples. The findings indicated that students’attitudes towards reading in French changed and their personal qualities and skills improved during the course. The paper concludes by explaining the significance of the results and implications for other Vietnamese foreign language programs.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.25
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • The Cultural Factors in Postcolonial Theories and Applications

    • Authors: Yufeng Wang
      Pages: 650 - 654
      Abstract: This article focuses on the introduction of postcolonial theories and applications, aiming to stress the close relations between literature and cultural studies. The definitions of imperialism, colonialism, neocolonialism, and postcolonialism are discussed one by one in order to highlight the cultural factors of postcolonialism. Then Edward Said’s Orientalism, Gayatri Spivak’s subaltern voice, and Homi Bhabha’s hybridity are mentioned together with the cultural factors in their postcolonial theories. Finally the author takes George Bryon’s Don Juan, Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, and Vladimir Nabokov’s diasporic literature as specific samples for the three respective postcolonial theories, with the purpose to demonstrate the importance of cultural factors in literature studies.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.26
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
  • Do Cultural Intelligence and Language Learning Strategies Influence
           Students’ English Language Proficiency'

    • Authors: Noor Rachmawaty, M. Basri Wello, Mansur Akil, Syarifuddin Dollah
      Pages: 655 - 663
      Abstract: Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is believed as an additional type to the existing forms of intelligence (IQ, EQ). It also explains why some individuals are more effective than others in culturally diverse situations. Studies have documented how successful language learners seem to use wider variety of language learning strategies than unsuccessful learners. Having these two important aspects in relation to the successfulness of acquiring foreign language thus this study is intended to explore the relationship of Cultural Intelligence, Language Learning Strategy and English Language proficiency. The study involved 87 second-year students of English Department, Mulawarman University. Data were gathered using The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS), The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and TOEFL. Descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS 20 were used in the process of data analysis. The result reveals that CQ level of the students is medium (M=51.984) with metacognitive and motivational as dominant factors for both male and female students. The data shows that there is a significant relationship between CQ and LLS (F= 13.082, p= 0.001). This result confirms the previous studies that culture influences the frequency and type of LLS use. As for strategy categories, metacognitive is the most frequently used strategy (M=3.704) and affective is the least frequently used (M=3.080). The students’ proficiency level is ranging from elementary (25.29%) to advanced (8.05%). The dominant level is low intermediate. The data recorded that there is no correlation among cultural intelligence, language learning strategies and English language proficiency (F=1.208, p= 0.304).
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.17507/jltr.0903.27
      Issue No: Vol. 9, No. 3 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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