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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 354 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Mycobacteriology
  [SJR: 0.239]   [H-I: 4]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2212-5531 - ISSN (Online) 2212-554X
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [354 journals]
  • Tuberculosis serodiagnostics: Ban and after

    • Authors: Bhaskar C Harinath
      Pages: 323 - 325
      Abstract: Bhaskar C Harinath
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):323-325

      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):323-325
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_144_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Risk factors for tuberculosis and beyond

    • Authors: Sahal A Al-Hajoj
      Pages: 326 - 327
      Abstract: Sahal A Al-Hajoj
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):326-327

      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):326-327
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_145_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Role of Vitamins B, C, and D in the fight against tuberculosis

    • Authors: Gaurav Tyagi, Pooja Singh, Mandira Varma-Basil, Mridula Bose
      Pages: 328 - 332
      Abstract: Gaurav Tyagi, Pooja Singh, Mandira Varma-Basil, Mridula Bose
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):328-332
      Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is still a serious and significant health concern, more so with the emergence of multidrug-resistant-TB. The inability of mankind to control this infection stems from the fact that the vaccines and drugs that were once effective against TB are no longer efficacious. This has led to a search for new antituberculous agents and adjuvant therapy. Vitamins are being revisited for their role in pathogenicity as well as for their antimycobacterial properties. Vitamins such as biotin and thiamin are essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are required for establishment of infection. On the other hand, vitamins such as Vitamin C and Vitamin D have been shown to possess antimycobacterial properties. To combat M. tuberculosis, innovative strategies need to be devised, keeping in mind the efficacy of the agent to be used. Vitamins can prove to be useful agents capable of modifying the life cycle and biology of M. tuberculosis. We present here a brief overview of the available knowledge on thiamin, biotin, Vitamin C, and Vitamin D, keeping TB treatment and control in perspective.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):328-332
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_80_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The epidemiology of tuberculous dactylitis: A case report and review of
           literature

    • Authors: Hana Sahli, Leila Roueched, Mohamed Ali Sbai, Asma Bachali, Rawdha Tekaya
      Pages: 333 - 335
      Abstract: Hana Sahli, Leila Roueched, Mohamed Ali Sbai, Asma Bachali, Rawdha Tekaya
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):333-335
      The literature on tuberculous dactylitis is poor, and most literature consists of isolated case reports. The aim of this case series is to study the particularities and the epidemiological aspects of tuberculous dactylitis in Tunisian patients. Google and Medline search was done using key words “tuberculous dactylitis” and “spina ventosa.” Only Tunisian reports in adult patients were included. Eleven cases including this mentioned case were included in this review. There was a female predominance, high frequency of trauma before disease installation, rarity of predisposing factors, and less inflammation in blood tests when comparing with other cases in literature.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):333-335
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_122_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Do infections with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex precede
           sweet's syndrome? A case report and literature review

    • Authors: Kenji Hibiya, Kazuya Miyagi, Maki Tamayose, Daijiro Nabeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Syo Takeshima, Nanae Ikemiyagi, Keisuke Yamada, Akane Fujita, Hiroe Hashioka, Wakaki Kami, Morifumi Inamine, Daisuke Shibahara, Hideta Nakamura, Makoto Furugen, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
      Pages: 336 - 343
      Abstract: Kenji Hibiya, Kazuya Miyagi, Maki Tamayose, Daijiro Nabeya, Takeshi Kinjo, Syo Takeshima, Nanae Ikemiyagi, Keisuke Yamada, Akane Fujita, Hiroe Hashioka, Wakaki Kami, Morifumi Inamine, Daisuke Shibahara, Hideta Nakamura, Makoto Furugen, Shusaku Haranaga, Futoshi Higa, Masao Tateyama, Jiro Fujita
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):336-343
      Sweet's syndrome is reportedly associated with preceding nontuberculous mycobacterial infections (NTMIs). Here, we report on a systemic Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a patient on corticoid therapy for Sweet's syndrome. Literature searches show that 69.1% of patients with Sweet's syndrome and NTMIs developed this syndrome later than NTMIs and 89.3% of them developed during the clinical course of a rapidly growing mycobacterial infection. The residual cases were associated with slow-growing mycobacteria (14.3%), but only three cases of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections before the onset of Sweet's syndrome have been reported, and all of them were caused by disseminated MAC disease. One of these cases developed during corticoid therapy for Sweet's syndrome, while another case had underlying diabetes mellitus. Hence, the occurrence of systemic MAC disease may be an inevitable consequence of long-term steroid use and underlying diseases. Literature searches also show that cervical lymphadenitis was a predominant symptom in NTMIs (90.5%). The present case did not have cervical lymphadenitis although the previously reported MAC cases did experience it. Therefore, lymphadenitis from NTMIs may be related to the pathogenesis of Sweet's syndrome. Hence, should a patient have systemic infection without lymphadenitis, it will be more difficult to clinically confirm that MAC disease is a predisposing factor for Sweet's syndrome.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):336-343
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_172_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Nontuberculous mycobacteria in a tertiary Hospital in Portugal: A clinical
           review

    • Authors: Rogério Ruas, Isabel Abreu, João Nuak, Angélica Ramos, Teresa Carvalho, Manuela Ribeiro, João Tiago Guimarães, António Sarmento
      Pages: 344 - 348
      Abstract: Rogério Ruas, Isabel Abreu, João Nuak, Angélica Ramos, Teresa Carvalho, Manuela Ribeiro, João Tiago Guimarães, António Sarmento
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):344-348
      Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) form a heterogeneous group regarding their ability to cause disease. To further understand their clinical relevance, the characteristics of patients who had positive cultures for NTM at a tertiary hospital in Portugal were reviewed. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients assessed at the Infectious Diseases (ID) Department of the São João Hospital Center, from January 2007 to December 2014, from whom at least one biological sample was tested culture positive for NTM. Results: A total of 74 patients with at least one positive culture for NTM were identified. Forty-nine (66.2%) were infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, 4 (5.4%) had cancer, and 7 (9.5%) were under immunosuppressive medication. A total of 13 patients (17.6%) fulfilled the American Thoracic Society/ID Society of America criteria for pulmonary NTM disease and treatment was initiated in 12 other patients (16.2%), all of which were immunocompromised. Mycobacterium avium complex was more frequently associated with disease, responsible for 56% of the patients treated. Patients were treated with antituberculosis drugs adjusted for the species isolated, and cure was achieved in 13 patients (52%). Conclusion: The present study highlights the importance of understanding the epidemiology of NTM to better comprehend their clinical impact.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):344-348
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_177_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Vitamin D, cell death pathways, and tuberculosis

    • Authors: Manik Retno Wahyunitisari, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Muhammad Amin, Wayan T Artama, Eko B Koendhori
      Pages: 349 - 355
      Abstract: Manik Retno Wahyunitisari, Ni Made Mertaniasih, Muhammad Amin, Wayan T Artama, Eko B Koendhori
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):349-355
      Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces cellular necrosis that could promote spread of infection. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of Vitamin D3 supplementation to improve the effectiveness of 2nd-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug therapy, especially in relation with cell death pathways. Methods: Mus musculus C3HeB/FeJ was randomly divided into four groups containing eight animals each. The 1st group (G1), consisting of mice that were intratracheally infected with multidrug-resistant strain of M. tuberculosis and sacrificed on 2-week postinfection to confirm successful infection. (G2) was a group of TB mice without therapy. Then, (G3) was a group of mice with the 2nd-line anti-TB therapy. The last group (G4) was a group of mice receiving not only the 2nd-line anti-TB therapy but also daily oral Vitamin D3 supplementation. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure expression of nuclear Vitamin D receptor, apoptosis marker cleaved caspase-3, cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) and LC3B autophagy markers, necrosis marker RIPK3, and collagenase matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). The number of bacteria in the lung was calculated by colony forming units. The partial least square structural equation modeling with SmartPLS 3.2.6 software was used to analyze structural models among the variables. Results: Supplementation of Vitamin D3 on the 2nd-line anti-TB therapy increases Vitamin D3 receptor, CRAMP, LC3B, caspase-3 (P = 0.026, P = 0.000, P= 0.001), presses MMP1, and the number of bacteria (P = 0.010 and P= 0.000, respectively). The structural equation modeling analysis shows that increasing autophagy pathways reduces necrosis by lowering MMP1, whereas apoptosis reduces necrosis by decreasing the number of bacteria (each with indirect effects − 0.543 and − 0.544). Conclusion: A comprehensive analysis with the partial least square structural equation modeling shows decreasing necrosis requires increasing autophagy and apoptosis.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):349-355
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_120_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Risk factors for tuberculosis mortality in a tertiary care center in Oman,
           2006–2016

    • Authors: Zied A Gaifer
      Pages: 356 - 359
      Abstract: Zied A Gaifer
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):356-359
      Background: Mortality from tuberculosis (TB) remains high despite its declining global incidence. Host risk factors of TB death have not been fully identified. The aim of this study is to explore some of the host risk factors associated with TB mortality. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional review of patients with TB admitted to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Oman from July 2006 to February 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the risk factors for TB mortality. Results: Of the 205 TB cases reviewed, we identified 31 (15%) TB deaths during TB treatment. The median time of death from starting TB drugs was 30 days. Fifty-one percent of the TB deaths occurred in the 1st month of TB diagnosis. The main risk factors for TB mortality were advanced age, low body weight, negative sputum TB smear, pulmonary involvement, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and noncitizen status. Conclusion: To improve TB outcome in this high-risk group, abrupt clinical management approaches should be applied when TB is suspected. Public health measures that increase community awareness of TB mortality and reduce barriers to TB care are crucial to reducing TB mortality.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):356-359
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_123_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients under directly observed
           treatment short course and its determinants in Shangla,
           Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A retrospective study

    • Authors: Tauseef Ahmad, Haroon, Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz Khan, Eyasu Ejeta, Manoochehr Karami, Chinenyenwa Ohia
      Pages: 360 - 364
      Abstract: Tauseef Ahmad, Haroon , Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz Khan, Eyasu Ejeta, Manoochehr Karami, Chinenyenwa Ohia
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):360-364
      Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Even though Pakistan ranks 5th among the 22 high-TB burden countries, there are no available data in this regard. Methods: Institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate associated risk factors at District Head Quarter Hospital Shangla, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Two-year record (January 2011 to December 2012) of TB clinic of the hospital was reviewed. A total of 493 patients' complete information was reviewed in the study period. Results: Of these, 42.19% were smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 35.09% were smear-negative PTB, and 22.72% were extra-PTB (EPTB). The overall prevalence of smear-positive PTB was 42.19% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9–46.2). Records of the treatment outcome showed that 192 (38.94%) were cured, 276 (55.98%) completed treatment, 13 (2.6%) defaulted, 9 (1.8%) died, 1 (0.2%) treatment failure, and 1 (0.2%) had transferred to other facilities. The overall mean treatment success rate of the TB patients was 94.93%. TB age and TB form or baseline smear were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment outcome. The risk of unsuccessful outcome was significantly lower among TB patients age
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):360-364
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_69_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sequence homology and expression profile of genes associated with dna
           repair pathways in Mycobacterium leprae

    • Authors: Mukul Sharma, Sundeep Chaitanya Vedithi, Madhusmita Das, Anindya Roy, Mannam Ebenezer
      Pages: 365 - 378
      Abstract: Mukul Sharma, Sundeep Chaitanya Vedithi, Madhusmita Das, Anindya Roy, Mannam Ebenezer
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):365-378
      Background: Survival of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative bacteria for leprosy, in the human host is dependent to an extent on the ways in which its genome integrity is retained. DNA repair mechanisms protect bacterial DNA from damage induced by various stress factors. The current study is aimed at understanding the sequence and functional annotation of DNA repair genes in M. leprae. Methods: T he genome of M. leprae was annotated using sequence alignment tools to identify DNA repair genes that have homologs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli. A set of 96 genes known to be involved in DNA repair mechanisms in E. coli and Mycobacteriaceae were chosen as a reference. Among these, 61 were identified in M. leprae based on sequence similarity and domain architecture. The 61 were classified into 36 characterized gene products (59%), 11 hypothetical proteins (18%), and 14 pseudogenes (23%). All these genes have homologs in M. tuberculosis and 49 (80.32%) in E. coli. A set of 12 genes which are absent in E. coli were present in M. leprae and in Mycobacteriaceae. These 61 genes were further investigated for their expression profiles in the whole transcriptome microarray data of M. leprae which was obtained from the signal intensities of 60bp probes, tiling the entire genome with 10bp overlaps. Results: It was noted that transcripts corresponding to all the 61 genes were identified in the transcriptome data with varying expression levels ranging from 0.18 to 2.47 fold (normalized with 16SrRNA). The mRNA expression levels of a representative set of seven genes ( four annotated and three hypothetical protein coding genes) were analyzed using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays with RNA extracted from skin biopsies of 10 newly diagnosed, untreated leprosy cases. It was noted that RNA expression levels were higher for genes involved in homologous recombination whereas the genes with a low level of expression are involved in the direct repair pathway. Conclusion: This study provided preliminary information on the potential DNA repair pathways that are extant in M. leprae and the associated genes.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):365-378
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_111_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • The most frequent Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex families in mali
           (2006–2016) based on spoligotyping

    • Authors: Antieme Combo Georges Togo, Ousmane Kodio, Bassirou Diarra, Moumine Sanogo, Gagni Coulibaly, Sidy Bane, Fatimata Diallo, Anou M Somboro, Aissata B Cisse, Bocar Baya, Drissa Goita, Seydou Diabate, Bourahima Kone, Yeya dit Sadio Sarro, Mamoudou Maiga, Yacouba Toloba, Michael Belson, Susan Orsega, Sounkalo Dao, Robert Leo Murphy, Sophia Siddiqui, Seydou Doumbia, Souleymane Diallo
      Pages: 379 - 386
      Abstract: Antieme Combo Georges Togo, Ousmane Kodio, Bassirou Diarra, Moumine Sanogo, Gagni Coulibaly, Sidy Bane, Fatimata Diallo, Anou M Somboro, Aissata B Cisse, Bocar Baya, Drissa Goita, Seydou Diabate, Bourahima Kone, Yeya dit Sadio Sarro, Mamoudou Maiga, Yacouba Toloba, Michael Belson, Susan Orsega, Sounkalo Dao, Robert Leo Murphy, Sophia Siddiqui, Seydou Doumbia, Souleymane Diallo
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):379-386
      Background: To identify strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) circulating in Bamako region during the past 10 years. Methods: From 2006 to 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study to identify with spoligotyping, clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB)-infected patients at different stages of their treatments in Bamako, Mali. Results: Among the 904 suspected TB patients included in the study and thereafter tested in our BSL-3 laboratory, 492 (54.4%) had MTBc and therefore underwent spoligotyping. Overall, three subspecies, i.e., MTB T1 (31.9%) and MTB LAM10 (15.3%) from lineage 4 and M. africanum 2 (16.8%) from lineage 6 were the leading causes of TB in Bamako region during the past 10 years. Other spoligotypes such as MTB T3, MTB Haarlem 2, MTB EAI3, and MTB family 33 were also commonly seen from 2010 to 2016. Conclusion: This study showed a high genetic diversity of strains isolated in Bamako region and highlights that M. tuberculosis T1 strain was the most prevalent. Furthermore, the data indicate an increasing proportion of primary drug resistance overtime in Bamako.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):379-386
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_140_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium Abscessus and Mycobacterium
           Fortuitum isolates from Malaysian patients

    • Authors: Sharmilla Devi Jayasingam, Thaw Zin, Yun Fong Ngeow
      Pages: 387 - 390
      Abstract: Sharmilla Devi Jayasingam, Thaw Zin, Yun Fong Ngeow
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):387-390
      Background: Rapidly growing mycobacterial species (RGM) are increasingly being recognized as the cause of various superficial and deep infections in humans. Two of the species most frequently isolated from clinical specimens are Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Both species are associated with antibiotic resistances that may complicate therapy. This paper describes the pattern of resistance to five antibiotics commonly prescribed for RGM infections, in M. abscessus and M. fortuitum isolated from Malaysian patients. Methods: The bacterial strains studied were examined with Etest strips to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) toward amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, and linezolid. Results: Among 51 M. abscessus isolates examined by the Etest, the overall MICs of ciprofloxacin, imipenem, amikacin, clarithromycin, and linezolid showed resistance rates of 33.3%, 31.4%, 2.0%, 5.9%, and 21.6%, to the five antibiotics, respectively. M. abscessus subspecies abscessus was more resistant than M. abscessus subsp. massilience to ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and linezolid but was more susceptible to clarithromycin and amikacin. M. fortuitum isolates were significantly less resistant than M. abscessus to ciprofloxacin (3.6%) and imipenem (7.1%) but more resistant to clarithromycin (42.9%) and linezolid (39.3%). Conclusion: A suitable combination therapy for Malaysian patients would be amikacin plus clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin, to cover infections by all three M. abscessus subspecies and M. fortuitum.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):387-390
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_152_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Nontuberculous mycobacteria in clinical samples with negative acid-fast
           bacilli

    • Authors: Alejandro Hernandez-Solís, Raúl Cicero-Sabido, Maribel González-Villa, Isaura Isabel Martínez-Rivera, América del Pilar Mandujano-Martínez, Benita Pilar Torres-Mazadiego, Claudia Elena Wong-Arámbula, Abril Paulina Rodríguez-Maldonado, Lucia Hernández-Rivas, Heleodora González-González, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
      Pages: 391 - 395
      Abstract: Alejandro Hernandez-Solís, Raúl Cicero-Sabido, Maribel González-Villa, Isaura Isabel Martínez-Rivera, América del Pilar Mandujano-Martínez, Benita Pilar Torres-Mazadiego, Claudia Elena Wong-Arámbula, Abril Paulina Rodríguez-Maldonado, Lucia Hernández-Rivas, Heleodora González-González, José Ernesto Ramírez-González
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):391-395
      Background: There is a progressive increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections that might cause confusion with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To determine the frequency of finding NTM in clinical samples from patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis, with negative acid-alcohol-resistant bacilli (acid-fast bacillus [AFB]) in a third-level specialty hospital's mycobacterial laboratory between January 2013 and December 2014. Methods: This is a prospective, descriptive study where isolated strains of biological material were studied in Lowenstein–Jensen and BACTEC MGIT 960 cultures. Results: Clinical samples of 120 patients were studied, with pulmonary samples of 99/120 (82%) and extrapulmonary samples of 21/120 (18%). We identified NTM in 37/120 samples (30.8%), of which 16 in pulmonary, 13 in genitourinary, 3 in bone marrow, and 5 in various specimens. Mycobacterium avium was isolated in 20 samples, Mycobacterium intracellulare in seven samples, and various other species of NTM in the other 10 samples. Conclusion: To establish adequate treatment, we point out the importance of identifying the presence of NTM in the clinical samples of active tuberculosis patients with negative AFB, as possibly becoming confused with M. tuberculosis and which is essential in deciding which treatment is the most adequate.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):391-395
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_160_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Association between effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment and cytochrome
           P-4502E1 polymorphism of the patients

    • Authors: Petro Antonenko, Dmytro Butov, Valentyn Kresyun, Kateryna Antonenko, Tetiana Butova
      Pages: 396 - 400
      Abstract: Petro Antonenko, Dmytro Butov, Valentyn Kresyun, Kateryna Antonenko, Tetiana Butova
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):396-400
      Context: The risk of antituberculosis (TB) drug-induced liver injury could be determined by patients' genotype polymorphism of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. To find the meaning of cytochrome P-4502E1 (CYP2E1) polymorphism in TB patients. Corresponding of CYP2E1 polymorphism in TB patients with the level of isoniazid and rifampicin as well as for the outcome and toxicity development during inpatient TB treatment. Methods: CYP2E1 genotype was detected with the help of polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease analysis. The level of rifampicin, isoniazid, diene conjugates (DC), and catalase activity in the blood was determined spectrophotometrically. We have considered medical records at the beginning and at the end of inpatient treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis, ANOVA, and Chi-square tests were used in this study. Results: The concentration of rifampicin 6 h after its intake was 17.6% higher in carriers of slow metabolizer (SM) CYP2E1 genotype than in patients with rapid metabolizer (RM) genotype that proved a participation of hepatic enzyme CYP2E1 in metabolism of rifampicin. According to obtained results in TB patients with RM genotype, the indexes of cytolysis (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) and bile stasis (gamma-glutathione transferase) were higher comparatively to SM genotype both before and after inpatient treatment. This correlated with a higher concentration of DC in the blood (+8.6%) and lower plasma catalase activity (−50.0%) in the patients with RM genotype comparatively with the patients with SM genotypes. Conclusion: Polymorphism of CYP2E1 genotype is an important criterion for the development of hepatotoxicity before and during TB treatment while increased rifampicin level has no influence on it.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):396-400
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_168_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Mycobacterium Interjectum isolated from an immunocompetent host with lung
           infection

    • Authors: Yatin N Dholakia
      Pages: 401 - 403
      Abstract: Yatin N Dholakia
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):401-403
      Improved molecular diagnostic techniques have resulted in increased reporting of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. A 40-year-old male immunocompetent individual presented with cough and fever of 2-week duration. His chest X-ray showed cavities in the left upper zone and fibrosis in the right upper zone. His sputum was positive for AFB on Ziehl–Neelsen staining and showed slow-growing mycobacteria in mycobacteria growth indicator tube. The isolate was identified as Mycobacterium interjectum using GenoType® Mycobacterium CM assay (Hain Lifescience, GmBH, Nehren, Germany). At the end of a year's treatment, this first case from India has shown good progress.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):401-403
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_112_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Tubercular colitis masquerading as ischemic colitis: An unusual
           presentation

    • Authors: Vishal Sharma, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Kaushal K Prasad, Harjeet Singh, Usha Dutta
      Pages: 404 - 406
      Abstract: Vishal Sharma, Harshal S Mandavdhare, Kaushal K Prasad, Harjeet Singh, Usha Dutta
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):404-406
      Tuberculosis is a common clinical problem which can involve virtually any organ and mimic a multitude of clinical conditions. Colonic tuberculosis is a type of intestinal tuberculosis which involves the colon and mimics inflammatory bowel disease. Occasionally, it is also confused with colonic malignancy. We report the case of a young female who presented with abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum. Abdominal X-ray showed evidence of thumb-printing. A possibility of ischemic colitis was entertained. However, further investigation unraveled the presence of tubercular colitis. The patient improved with anti-tubercular therapy. Colonic tuberculosis can mimic a number of clinical entities and should be considered in differential diagnosis of colonic lesions in endemic areas.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):404-406
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_132_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Symmetrical peripheral gangrene and tuberculosis: A rare kinship

    • Authors: Tushar Patial, Kanika Sharma, Aditya Singh Jaswal, Vikrant Thakur, Sunil Negi
      Pages: 407 - 409
      Abstract: Tushar Patial, Kanika Sharma, Aditya Singh Jaswal, Vikrant Thakur, Sunil Negi
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):407-409
      Symmetrical peripheral gangrene (SPG) is a rare clinical syndrome characterized by ischemic necrosis of 2 or more limbs, without involvement of large vessels. It is often associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and septic shock. Usually caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, tuberculosis as a cause is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old man, who initially presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis but later developed SPG along with septic shock after his initial visit. The case highlights the progression of this dreaded complication and touches upon recent developments in its etiology as well as pathogenesis.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):407-409
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_153_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy presenting as tuberculosis in a case of
           carcinoma rectum

    • Authors: Sunil Vyas, Narendra Umashankar, Nirupama Kothari, Vinay Vyas
      Pages: 410 - 411
      Abstract: Sunil Vyas, Narendra Umashankar, Nirupama Kothari, Vinay Vyas
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):410-411
      Isolated bilateral inguinal tubercular lymphadenitis is a very rare presentation. A 59-year-old male, on treatment for Carcinoma rectum (T3 N1 M0) presented with bilateral inguinal lymphadenopathy. Metastasis and tuberculosis were considered for differentials. FNAC of the lesion showed Necrotizing granulomatous lymphadenitis. There was regression of the lesion on both sides after two months of Anti-tubercular Therapy. Even though Metastasis is the commonest cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy in a case of carcinoma rectum, Tuberculosis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis in our country. FNAC/Biopsy can be considered in those patients to confirm the diagnosis.
      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):410-411
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_134_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Knowledge on tuberculosis in rural Myanmar

    • Authors: Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Pages: 412 - 413
      Abstract: Sora Yasri, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):412-413

      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):412-413
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_135_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Quality assurance training course on chest radiography in Laos

    • Authors: Pathum Sookaromdee, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      Pages: 414 - 414
      Abstract: Pathum Sookaromdee, Viroj Wiwanitkit
      International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):414-414

      Citation: International Journal of Mycobacteriology 2017 6(4):414-414
      PubDate: Fri,17 Nov 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_139_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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