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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2277-9183
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Relationship of duration of work exposure and feeling of subjective
           fatigue: A case study on jewelry manufacturing workers in India

    • Authors: Urmi Ravindra Salve
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Urmi Ravindra Salve
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2017 6(1):1-1
      Aims: Fatigue can be defined in various conditions. In literature it has been defined and explored by various researches through different aspects. This study was conducted to establish the relationship between the duration of work exposure and feeling of subjective fatigue. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one jewelry manufacturing workers as study group and 27 students as control group participated with their signed informed consent. The daily diary method and feeling of subjective fatigue evaluation questionnaire were used as a tool in this study. Three categories of feeling of subjective fatigue were considered in this study. The study was conducted mainly in the middle of the week. The data regarding feeling of subjective fatigue were collected before starting of work and after completion of the work day. Results: The results showed that The time spent on the job by the workers engaged in jewelry manufacturing was 670 min and were in four slots with the longest work period being 240 min. Sleeping time was found to be around 480 min. Conclusion: The study revealed that all three dimensions (general, mental, and physical) were affected by the whole day work exposure. Among three types of fatigues, general fatigue was observed at the beginning and end of the work shift.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2017 6(1):1-1
      PubDate: Wed,27 Sep 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijehe.ijehe_10_15
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biochemical and hematological changes among saudi firefighters in the
           eastern province

    • Authors: Khaled Fikry Salama, Layla Abdullmohsen Bashawri
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Khaled Fikry Salama, Layla Abdullmohsen Bashawri
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2017 6(1):2-2
      Aims: This study aimed to evaluate some relevant serum biochemical and hematological changes in concentration level involved firefighters in comparison to normal controls. Materials and Methods: This study involved two groups of male firefighters to participate in the study. The first group included 50 firefighters from Dammam while the second group included 50 firefighters from Khobar. An additional control group of 50 male nonfirefighters from both cities was included in the study. Blood samples were collected from all participants and investigated for some relevant biochemical, hematological differences and blood heavy metals between the three studied groups. Results: The results obtained showed that there were statistically significant differences in liver function, serum lipid profile, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, iron and ferritin, and blood picture in firefighters as compared with normal control group, while there were no statistically significant differences in the levels of blood heavy metals in firefighters as compared to normal controls. These results indicate that fire smoke mainly affects serum biochemical and hematological parameters but does not affect serum heavy metals levels. Conclusion: Such results might point out to the need for more health protective and prophylactic measures to try to avoid such hazardous health effects that might endanger firefighters under their highly drastic working conditions, and firefighters must be under continuous medical follow-up through a standard timetabled medical laboratory investigations to allow for the early detection of any biochemical or hematological changes.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2017 6(1):2-2
      PubDate: Wed,27 Sep 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijehe.ijehe_12_15
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Water quality in relation to plankton abundance and diversity in river
           Ogun, Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

    • Authors: Dominic Olaniyi Odulate, Isaac Tunde Omoniyi, Wilfred Oluwasegun Alegbeleye, Francisca Adebukola George, Benjamin Onozeyi Dimowo
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Dominic Olaniyi Odulate, Isaac Tunde Omoniyi, Wilfred Oluwasegun Alegbeleye, Francisca Adebukola George, Benjamin Onozeyi Dimowo
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2017 6(1):3-3
      Aims: Plankton abundance and diversity are governed by certain aquatic environmental factors which collectively determine the health of the aquatic ecosystem. This study was aimed at investigating the water quality of lower Ogun River, Abeokuta, in relation to plankton abundance and diversity. Materials and Methods: The dataset consists of physicochemical and plankton data collected for 7 months within the period of December 2011 and June 2012 in four stations. Spatial correlations were determined between physicochemical parameters, plankton abundance, and diversity. Physicochemical parameters that exhibited strong correlation with plankton abundance and diversity were used in the calculation of a water quality index (WQI) for the protection of aquatic life. Results: Results showed highly significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between plankton abundance, diversity, and the physicochemical parameters monitored during the study period excluding alkalinity and phosphates. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI showed that the river water quality in all the sampled stations (A, 63; B, 63; C, 56; and D, 64) was marginal in classification. Conclusion: It was concluded that River Ogun is polluted beyond doubt. Hence, corrective measures should be put in place so as to prevent total ecological collapse.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2017 6(1):3-3
      PubDate: Wed,27 Sep 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ijehe.ijehe_31_13
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Health problems from radiation of high-voltage facilities

    • Authors: Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi, Habibolah Dehghan
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi, Habibolah Dehghan
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):1-1
      Aims: The aim of this study was to survey the health problems caused by exposure to high-voltage facility radiation. Materials and Methods: Sampling included workers exposed to electromagnetic fields at high-voltage facilities. The strength of the electric and magnetic fields was determined by a field meter. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of subjective and psychological symptoms. Statistical descriptive used and data analyzed by a Student's t-tests. Results: This study indicates that increased symptoms among the exposed workers including depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoia, inter-sensitivity, and obsession-compulsion. Some of the self-reported symptoms were, headache (53.5%), fatigue (35.6%), difficulties in concentration (32.5%), vertigo/dizziness (30.4%), attention disorders (28.8%), nervousness (28.1%), and palpitations (14.7%). A significant relationship was observed between the exposure to the electromagnetic field and psychological symptoms (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Radiation of high-voltage facilities probably increased the risk of mental disorders and intensified them in susceptible workers, especially depression. This finding confirmed the results obtained in provocative studies that indicated an increase in the risk of psychological symptoms, which was put forth by several investigators Observation of occupational health and other control measures play an important role in decreasing the symptoms.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):1-1
      PubDate: Thu,31 Jan 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.106632
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Effect of industrial wastewater effluent containing heavy metals and
           phosphate on the bed soil of the zayandehrood river

    • Authors: Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi, Mohammad Reza Shahmansouri, Saeed Shanbehzadeh, Asadolah Zahab Sanee
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi, Mohammad Reza Shahmansouri, Saeed Shanbehzadeh, Asadolah Zahab Sanee
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):2-2
      Aims: This research was conducted to determine the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and orthophosphates in the soil of the river bed from Zayandehrood dam to Gavkhoni wetland. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Zayandehrood river of Isfahan, central area of Iran. Seventeen points were sampled through the upstream, Zayandehrood Dam, and downstream, Gavkhooni Wetland, of the river. The samples were selected from soil of the river bed at certain locations during 6 months. Heavy metals and orthophosphates analysis was done by Atomic Absorption and Spectrophotometry methods, respectively. Results: The results indicated that concentration of heavy metals and orthophosphates increased from upstream to Choom bridge in downstream of the river and then decreased from this point to Govkhooni wetland. In the first sampling point, the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and orthophosphates were 29, 9, 51, 83, 49, and 570 mg/kg (dried weight). For Choom bridge it were 1413, 406, 289, 123, 86, and 104 mg/kg and in the wetland were 820, 24, 49, 68, 87, and 88 mg/kg (dried weight), respectively. Conclusion: The metal concentration from the first point to Choom bridge has been increased and then has been decreased in the wetland. The maximum amount of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb in the river bed was higher than and closer to maximum allowed concentration of heavy metals in soil (mg/kg dried weight) and for Cr was within normal limits. Industrial plants located on the banks of the river, widening of the river in downstream and entering the drainages to the river are among effective factors in these changes.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):2-2
      PubDate: Thu,31 Jan 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.106634
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) concentration in
           Khorramabad city

    • Authors: Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini, Mehdi Birjandi, Mohammad Reza Zare, Ali Fatehizadeh
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini, Mehdi Birjandi, Mohammad Reza Zare, Ali Fatehizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):3-3
      Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed. Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 ) and fine particle (PM 2.5 ) were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 ) in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration. Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):3-3
      PubDate: Thu,31 Jan 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.106635
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • A mathematical model for predicting 24-h variations of BTEX concentrations
           in ambient air of Tehran

    • Authors: Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil, Kazem Naddafi, Roohollah Rostami, Ahmad Zarei, Moghgan Feizizadeh
      Pages: 4 - 4
      Abstract: Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil, Kazem Naddafi, Roohollah Rostami, Ahmad Zarei, Moghgan Feizizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):4-4
      Aims: In this study, the temporal variations of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene and Xylene (BTEX) in the atmosphere of Tehran city was investigated. Materials and Methods: Two air quality monitoring stations, Aghdasieh and Ray, in different locations of the city were selected. Sampling was carried out hourly from Nov 23, 2007 to Dec 22, 2007 in Aghdasieh air monitoring station and from Dec 10, 2007 to Jan 9, 2008, in Ray's air monitoring station by an online BTEX monitoring system. The correlations, repeated measures variance and regressions tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Results indicated that, concentrations of these compounds were sometimes higher than standard limits and were significantly different in selected stations. However, an approximately similar increasing and decreasing trend was seen among them. In most cases, equations for concentration variations were sinusoidal or fourth-order.Conclusion: According to the results, sinusoidal and fourth-order are most suitable equations for BTEX concentration variations in the ambient air of the city, and the trends of variations are similar in different places of the city.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):4-4
      PubDate: Thu,28 Feb 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.107910
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Application of coagulation process reactive blue 19 dye removal from
           textile industry wastewater

    • Authors: Ali Assadi, Roya Nateghi, Gholam Reza Bonyadinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Ali Assadi, Roya Nateghi, Gholam Reza Bonyadinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):5-5
      Aim: This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of the coagulation process for reactive blue 19 dye (RB19) removal from textile industry wastewater. Materials and Methods: In this research, coagulation process using three coagulants poly aluminum chloride (PACl), alum, and ferric chloride in the presence of anionic polyelectrolyte and kaolin as coagulants aid were studied for the removal of RB19 dye from synthetic wastewater. The influence of effective parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, initial dye concentration, and addition of coagulants aid was investigated. Results: The results showed that the best dye removal efficiency using three coagulants was archived in neutral pH. Under this condition, the optimum dose of PACl, alum, and ferric chloride was 200, 300, and 400 mg/L and corresponding to dye removal efficiency of 91%, 92%, and 81%, respectively. Addition of polyelectrolyte as a coagulant aid with ferric chloride slightly increased process efficiency, whereas adding polyelectrolyte with alum and PACl slightly decreased dye removal efficiency. By addition of kaolin as a coagulant aid with PACl increased dye removal efficiency about 5%, whereas adding kaolin with alum slightly decreased removal efficiency and can be ignored also, in the case of ferric chloride no significant effect on process efficiency observed in the presence of kaolin.Conclusion: Regarding to obtained results, coagulation can be a robust treatment method for the management of wastewater containing reactive dye.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):5-5
      PubDate: Thu,28 Feb 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.107913
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution by modified zeolite with FeCl 3

    • Authors: Ghorban Asgari, Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Edriss Hosseinzadeh
      Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Ghorban Asgari, Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Edriss Hosseinzadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):6-6
      Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate phenol removal from a synthetic solution using modified zeolite (clinoptilolite) with FeCl 3 as an adsorbent. Materials and Methods: The zeolite samples were crushed and granulated using standard ASTM sieves (mesh size of 20). The prepared zeolite then was modified by FeCl 3 . The chemical composition and the surface area of the zeolite were analyzed using XRF and N 2 gas via BET isotherm and Belsorb software. In this study, different parameters including pH (3, 7, and 12), initial concentration of phenol (25-200 mg/l), contact time (20-240 min) and the amount of modified zeolite (0.25-3 g/l) were examined in a batch reactor. The concentration of phenol was measured at wavelength of 500 nm by a spectrophotometer. Results: The results of this study showed that as the initial concentration of phenol, the adsorbent dose and the pH in the range of 3-12 increased the adsorption / removal of phenol increased. Phenol adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 100 min contact time and the optimum pH for adsorption of phenol using zeolite was found as 3. The adsorption data complied with Langmuir isotherm (r 2 =0.98).Conclusions: The results showed that modified zeolite can be used effectively in removing phenol. The removal efficiency of phenol in lower pH was more than in higher pH. Also, due to the low price of the zeolite and its simple modification, it can be used for removing hazardous pollutants in water and wastewater.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):6-6
      PubDate: Thu,28 Feb 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.107915
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Comparison of the efficiencies of modified clay with polyethylene glycol
           and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide for BTEX removal

    • Authors: Heshmatollah Nourmoradi, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Hamidreza Pourzamani, Mehdi Hajian Nejad
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Heshmatollah Nourmoradi, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Hamidreza Pourzamani, Mehdi Hajian Nejad
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):7-7
      Aims: In this study, the effectiveness of modified clay [montmorillonite (Mt)] with polyethylene glycol (PWG) and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (TTAB) on the benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) removal from aqueous solution was investigated.Materials and Methods: The batch adsorption experiments including surfactant loading rates (0.2-4 cation exchange capacity [CEC] of the clay), contact time (0-24 h), pH (4-12) and adsorbate concentration (10-200 mg/L) were conducted at room temperature (25°C) with 100 mL of BTEX solution into a 200-mL conical flask and mixed by an orbital shaker (250 rpm for 24 h). Results: It was found that the optimum adsorption condition obtains for the surfactant loading rate of 200% clay CEC for both the adsorbents at the contact time of 24 h. The sorption capacity of BTEX by both the adsorbents was in order of benzene toluene ethylbenzene xylene. The results of both the adsorbents also showed that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model fitted the experimental data better than of other kinetic and isotherm models, respectively.Conclusion: The adsorption capacity of TTAB-Mt (22.11 mg/g) was slightly higher than PEG-Mt (18.77 mg/g). With regard to lower toxic effects and lower cost of nonionic surfactants than the cationic type, using the nonionic modified Mt is preferred than cationic modified Mt for the removal of BTEX from aqueous solution.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):7-7
      PubDate: Thu,28 Feb 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.108011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Inhibition and anaerobic biodegradation of benz[a]anthracene-7,12- dione
           via the specific methanogenic activity test

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mehdi Hajian Nezhad, Marzieh Farhadkhani, Mahnaz Heidari, Fazel Mohammadi Moghadam
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mehdi Hajian Nezhad, Marzieh Farhadkhani, Mahnaz Heidari, Fazel Mohammadi Moghadam
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):8-8
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition and anaerobic biodegradation of benz[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione (BaAQ) via the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test. Materials and Methods: In this study, 120 mL vials were filled with given concentration of BaAQ, anaerobic biomass and substrate. Each batch experiment was lasted 13 to 26 days. The inhibition effects of BaAQ with concentrations of 0.5, 5, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg/L on the methanogenic process was investigated in the presence of volatile fatty acids including acetic, butyric and propionic acids. Results: In some eatch test, the gas production was stopped after 13 days (312 h). Therefore, 312 h was considered as compared base of gas production. After this time, methane production cumulative rate was calculated for the each SMA. After 13 days (312 h) the lowest and the highest cumulative methane has been produced (per mL) at the presence of concentrations of 250 and 0.5 mg/L of BaAQ, respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the BaAQ with concentration of 250 mg/L has more inhibition effect on methane production rather than other concentrations (even of 500 mg/L). Therefore, we should not always expect that higher concentrations of toxic compounds had more inhibitory effects than low concentrations of them.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):8-8
      PubDate: Thu,28 Feb 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.107920
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural products irrigated with
           treated municipal wastewater

    • Authors: Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Bijan Bina
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Bijan Bina
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):9-9
      Aims : The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni in the effluent of Isfahan north wastewater treatment plant as well as in the soils and agricultural products irrigated with that effluent.Material and Methods: In the selected area around of the treatment plant, treated wastewater, soil, wheat, wheat stem, and corn were sampled. The samples were digested with nitric acid procedure and analyzed with a flameless atomic absorption spectrometer.Results: The results shows the average concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni was 0.02, 0.006, and 0.062 mg/1 in the effluent; 13.9, 1.67, and 2.23 μg/g in the deep soil; 0.366, 1.02, and 0.79 μg/g in the wheat; 0.67, 0.86, and 1.32 μg/g in the wheat stem; and 6.37, 0.62, and 0.52 μg/g in the corn, respectively.Conclusion: The average concentration of Pb, Cd, and Ni were less than the critical limits in the effluent (0.01, 0.2, and 5 mg/1) and the amounts were currently within the permitted range for soil (2-100, 10-1000, and 10-7 mg/g). In some farming lands, the amounts were beyond the permitted range for plants (1-10, 1-10, and 0.2-0.8 mg/g). There was a meaningful relationship between the average concentration of these metals and the kind of sample. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals in all samples irrigated with wastewater was more compared to samples irrigated with groundwater. So irrigation of farmland with effluent should be monitored. Farmers in the area must be advised to grow shrubs with smaller roots rather than big-rooted plants like sugar beet.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):9-9
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110128
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Activated carbon production from RDF and its use for dioxin removal from
           flue gas of waste incinerators

    • Authors: Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Paul T Williams
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Paul T Williams
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):10-10
      Aims: The aims of this study were to produce activated carbon from refuse derived fuel (RDF) and to examine its efficiency in dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) removal for application in the adsorptive processes of waste incineration.Materials and Methods: In the present study the RDF was carbonized at 600°C to produce char and the char was then steam activated at 900°C to generate activated carbon (AC). The efficiency of the produced AC in PCDD/F removal from simulated flue gas was investigated using a bench scale static-bed reactor. Experiments were conducted under flue gas stream at 275°C using a standard flyash (BCR-490) as a source of PCDD/F. The PCDD/F content of the exhaust gas was trapped by XAD-II resin, and after extraction and clean-up processes, were analyzed using a GC coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrophotometer (MS).Results: The results showed an overall reduction of 85% and 43% in the flue gas concentration of PCDD and PCDF, respectively, which compared favourably with a commercial AC. In addition, reduction was varied throughout the congener groups of these compounds.Conclusions: The AC derived from the pyrolysis of RDF therefore shows potential as a control material for dioxins and furans in waste combustion process.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):10-10
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110131
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Investigation of chlorine decay of water resource in khanbebein city,
           Golestan, Iran

    • Authors: Kourosh Rahmani, Seyed Mohammad Reza Seyed Khademi, Ayat Rahmani, Kazem Godini, Yousuf Dadban Shahamat
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Kourosh Rahmani, Seyed Mohammad Reza Seyed Khademi, Ayat Rahmani, Kazem Godini, Yousuf Dadban Shahamat
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):11-11
      Aims: The object of the study was to identify chlorine demand factorsin water and chlorine in Kanbebein City water and eliminating of them.Materials and Methods: Concentration of free and combined residual chlorine with the methods presented in the book "Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater Examination" were measured. Other parameters such as: Temperature, TOC, TDS, pH, EC, nitrate, ammonia, total hardness, alkalinity, iron and manganese were also examined before and after of chlorination.Results: The Highest chlorine decay constant in the short time were in water well was 0.895 mgL -1 h -1 and the least amount of it was 0.0097 mgL -1 h -1 and the Highest chlorine decay constant in the long time were in water well was-0.092Lmg -1 h -1 and the least amount of it was-0.0017 Lmg -1 h -1 that correlated with nitrite, ammonia and iron concentration.Conclusion: The factors that affected short-time chlorine decay constant (k 2 ) were nitrite, ammonia and iron and The factors that affected on long-time chlorine decay constant (k 2 ) were Nitrite, ammonia and iron. The material removal techniques for them were the use of natural resins, zeolite, ion exchange, membrane and aeration methods, oxidation and sedimentation, and filtration.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):11-11
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110137
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Prediction of effluent COD concentration of UASB reactor using kinetic
           

    • Authors: Seyyed Mehran Abtahi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Roya Nateghi, Ali Vosoogh, Mehdi Gholizadeh Dooranmahalleh
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Seyyed Mehran Abtahi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Roya Nateghi, Ali Vosoogh, Mehdi Gholizadeh Dooranmahalleh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):12-12
      Aims: The aim of this study is predicting the effluent COD of UASB reactors with flowing mathematical models.Materials and Methods: Weak industrial wastewater of the township, after passing screening unit, grit removal chamber and equalization tank, entered UASB reactor with volume of 144 m 3 (Length and width: 6 m; useful depth: 4 m). Analyses of laboratory parameters were done in accordance with water and wastewater standards.Results: The reactor start-up started with hydraulic retention time of 14.4 d and organic loading rate of 0.04 Kg COD/m 3 .d or 0.02 Kg BOD 5 /m 3 .d which in 200 days, hydraulic retention time reached to 0.9 d and organic loading rate reached to 0.85 Kg COD/m 3 .d or 0.45 Kg BOD 5 /m 3 .d eventually, that the highest COD and BOD 5 removal efficiencies were observed up to 70% and 64%, respectively in the hydraulic retention time of 0.9 d. In the kinetic evaluation, the equations for effluent COD concentration prediction were obtained after calculating kinetic coefficients of Y, K d , K, K S and μmax in the Monod model; β and μmax in the Contois model; α, β and K 2(S) in the second-order Grau model and K B and U max in the modified Stover-Kincannon model.Conclusion: The effluent COD concentration of reactor is a function of influent COD concentration of reactor in the modified Stover-Kincannon and second-order Grau models that have highest correlation coefficients while, it is a function of reactor's solids retention time in Contois and Monod models.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):12-12
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110149
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Effect of contaminated soils with lead, zinc, and cadmium and their
           related dust effect on air pollution in Isfahan (Iran)

    • Authors: Akbar Ghazifard
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Akbar Ghazifard
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):13-13
      Aims: The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of soils contaminated with lead, zinc and cadmium on the high concentration of these metals in the urban air.Materials and Methods: In this regard 63 samples of soil and 18 air samples were taken at sampling grids from various regions of the city. After digestion of samples, the extracted liquids were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy.Results: The concentration of lead, zinc, and cadmium in the soil samples were not higher than international standards, but was two to three times as high in the air as that found in European countries and U.S. Results also showed a correlation between concentration of these metals in the city soils and their increased level in the city air through dust and wind, particularly in the northern parts of the city, whilst no such correlation is found in the southern parts, which could be due to wind blowing dust polluted with these metals from heavy industries located at south-west of Isfahan.Conclusion: As, at present time, there is a ban on consumption of leaded petrol throughout the city, two main probable sources of lead pollution in the air of the city of Isfahan are dust from contaminated soil and also, presence of a large steelworks industry in the south-west of Isfahan which is in the direction of south-west to north-westerly winds.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):13-13
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110153
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Assessment of physical risk factors among artisans using occupational
           repetitive actions and Nordic questionnaire

    • Authors: Ehsanollah Habibi, Mohsen Zare, Azam Haghi, Peymaneh Habibi, Akbar Hassanzadeh
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Ehsanollah Habibi, Mohsen Zare, Azam Haghi, Peymaneh Habibi, Akbar Hassanzadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):14-14
      Aims: The aims of present study is to determine the level of exposure to physical risk factors of work related repetitive movements in the upper limbs among the artisans in Isfahan, using occupational repetitive actions index and the Nordic Questionnaire.Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the study population consisted of 94 males employed in Artisan production. The tools that be used for assessing physical ergonomic risk factors among artisans was Nordic Questionnaire and OCRA index. The different handicraft tasks and work activities included: Simple etching, embossing, reticular embossing, enameling, tiling, illumination, inlay, copper smithing and, miniature painting have been chosen for the study. The Study was carried out on the both left and right hands. The results were analyzed by statistical tests included Chi square, Kruskal Wallis and one-way variance analysis.Results: The highest OCRA index score was related to simple etching job, and the other tasks such as embossing, copper smithing, reticular embossing, tiling, miniature painting, and illumination were in lower risk category. Our finding showed that there are a significant difference between OCRA scores of the various jobs (P value < 0.001), and also the relationship between OCRA index and the type of jobs was statistically significant (P value < 0.001). Risk level in the right hand was significantly higher than the left hand (P value < 0.001). Moreover, in both right and left hands, OCRA index was different among several types of jobs (P value < 0.001).Conclusion: Our assessment showed that in overall there are different physical risk factors among artisans which make them susceptible to musculoskeletal disorders.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):14-14
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110158
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Drinking water fluoride concentration and its relationship with decayed,
           missing, and filled teeth index in Mianeh, Iran

    • Authors: Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil, Sajad Mazloomi, Behzad Heibati, Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Mohsen Heidari
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil, Sajad Mazloomi, Behzad Heibati, Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Mohsen Heidari
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):15-15
      Aims: The aim of this study was to determine fluoride levels in drinking water of Mianeh city and to evaluate decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index in children between 6 and 9 years old.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional research was carried out on all sources of drinking water including 14 groundwater sources in Mianeh city. A total of 56 samples were taken from all wells during four seasons of 2009 and analyzed with colorimeter "SPADNS" method with DR 2500 spectrophotometer set17.Results: The results show that the means of source fluoride concentration in spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons were 0.295 ΁ 0.039 mg/l, 0.47 ΁ 0.17 mg/l, 0.48 ΁ 0.18 mg/l, and 0.4 ΁ 0.06 mg/l, respectively. This means that the concentration of fluoride in all sources was below national standards, but they were in permissible range proposed by WHO. In addition, the DMFT index of the children between 6 and 9 years old in Mianeh city was higher than national mean.Conclusions: Considering the low fluoride concentration in water sources of Mianeh, it was proposed that a chemical compound such as sodium fluoride be added to provide fluoride ion. It seems that the low fluoride levels in supplied water have a significant effect on higher DMFT index in children of the subjected community.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):15-15
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110163
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Disinfection of water and wastewater of Isfahan water and wastewater
           treatment plants by gamma irradiation

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hassan Hashemi, Bijan Bina, Maryam Hatamzadeh, Mohammad Abdellahi
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hassan Hashemi, Bijan Bina, Maryam Hatamzadeh, Mohammad Abdellahi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):16-16
      Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on the disinfection of the water and wastewater from Isfahan wastewater treatment plants.Materials and Methods : Using a 60 CO gamma radiation machine with emission rate of 405.38 CGy/min, water and wastewater samples were irradiated at doses of 20-160 Gy and 80-240 Gy, respectively. Microbial cultures were performed on the samples to assess the pre- and post-irradiation coliforms content.Results : The results of microbial tests showed that approximately 100% of the total and fecal coliforms in water samples were inactive at 160 Gy dose of gamma radiation. At a dose of 240 Gy, gamma-ray efficiency for inactivation of the total coliforms in the effluent was different, considering the sample quality. The efficiency for secondary effluent, polished, and filtered samples was 56, 83, and 64%, respectively. In this case, reduction of fecal coliforms was 46, 58, and 81%, respectively. The effective reduction of the coliforms in the effluent samples (80-50%) was also observed at doses of 120-240 Gy. According to the dose-response curves, as the radiation dose increases, the inactivation of the coliforms increases linearly.Conclusion: At gamma doses used in this study, the coliforms were removed completely. But for wastewater samples, although the removal efficiencies were above 80%, the environmental standards related to microbial parameters were not satisfied. Therefore, it is necessary to use higher doses of gamma radiation.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):16-16
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110167
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Arsenic removal by coagulation using ferric chloride and chitosan from
           water

    • Authors: Farid Hesami, Bijan Bina, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Abstract: Farid Hesami, Bijan Bina, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):17-17
      Aims: In this study, the effect of arsenite and arsenate removal in synthetic water by coagulation using ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) as coagulant and chitosan as coagulant aid were investigated.b>Materials and Methods: A conventional jar test apparatus was used to evaluate the coagulation process. The effects of different conditions of pH (5.5-9), coagulant doses of FeCl 3 0-60 mg/l), Arsenic speciation (As (V) and As (III)), Chitosan as coagulant aid, and initial arsenic concentrations (0.2-2 mg/l) to Arsenic removal was investigated by considering the residual arsenic and iron after coagulation.Results: The finding showed that the optimum pH for FeCl 3 as a coagulant to As (V) and As (III) removal was 7. As (V) removal efficiency of 90% or higher by FeCl 3 alone were achieved for initial As (V) concentration 0.2-2 mg/l at optimum dosages (15-30 mg/l). In contrast with As (V) removal, about 60% of the As (III) were removed in comparable conditions. The optimal dosage of chitosan was determined to be 0.5 mg/l. When chitosan (0.5 mg/l) was used as coagulant aid with FeCl 3 , the efficiency removal was enhanced almost to 100% and 80% for As (V) and As (III) removal, respectively. The optimum dosage of FeCl 3 was reduced, especially at low initial concentration of arsenic.Conclusions: Chitosan as natural coagulant aid improved arsenic removal efficiency by coagulation process using FeCl 3 . This method can be used for regions with drinking water contaminated with initial arsenic concentration less than 1 000 μg/l.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):17-17
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110170
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Disinfection of stabilization pond effluent by peracetic acid and sodium
           hypochlorite

    • Authors: Negar Rezania, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Afshin Takdastan, Farhad Keramati
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Abstract: Negar Rezania, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Afshin Takdastan, Farhad Keramati
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):18-18
      Aims: In this study, the efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and combination of both disinfectants for disinfection of stabilization pond effluent was assessed.Materials and Methods: The samples was collected during four months. All samples were analyzed as triplicate according to the Standard Methods. Microbial tests were carried out to total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC) and fecal streptococci (FS) . Also, the physical characteristics such as the total suspended solids, and also chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were analyzed.Results : In this study, the application of combined disinfectants lead to reduction of total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci from 2.8×10 5 , 2.2×10 5 and 7.1×10 4 to 1.6×10 3 , 5×10 1 and 1.9×10 2 MPN/100 ml, correspondence to 2.55, 3.64 and 1.83 log removal value (LRV), respectively.Conclusions: The study demonstrated that application of combined PAA and NaOCl in disinfecting the effluent of the stabilization pond will promote the efficiency of disinfection process in inactivating the coliform group bacteria and fecal streptococci.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):18-18
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110172
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Biodegradation performance of anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor
           for oil with polychlorinated biphenyls

    • Authors: Heshmatollah Moradpour, Ali Fatehizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Arash Shafiea, Reza Molayi, Amin Sabouri, Mohammad Ghasemian, Hossien Farokhzaddeh
      Pages: 19 - 19
      Abstract: Heshmatollah Moradpour, Ali Fatehizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Arash Shafiea, Reza Molayi, Amin Sabouri, Mohammad Ghasemian, Hossien Farokhzaddeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):19-19
      Aims: The biodegradability of oil containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from electrical transformer by the anaerobic sequencing biofilm batch reactor (ASBBR) with was assessed.Materials and Methods: Two anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) containing polyurethane foam cubes as inert support was used. The reactors were operated for 310 days at 35 ± 2°C. The reactors with a total volume of 7 L, 5 L effective volume and 3.5 L for gas production, were operated in a cycle per day. The effect of operational parameters including organic loading rate, PCBs loading rate, co-substrate type, initial PCBs and COD concentration was evaluated.Results: The results point to admirable reactors stability and over 95% efficiency in PCBs removal, with effluent PCBs concentration of lower than 10 mg/L. However, degradation rates increased as the initial concentration of PCBs as increased. The average of COD removal efficiency by two ASBBR reactors was more than 92% that corresponding to> 9 μg/L of effluent COD. In over all operation, average of biogas production in R1 was 5.7 ± 2.2 L/d and maximum produced biogas was 8.02 L/d at 310 day. The kinetic studies revealed that second - order kinetic model described the COD removal by ASBBR reactors from synthetic wastewater better than two other kinetic model.Conclusion: Therefore, this investigation demonstrated that the ASBBR have good potential for biodegradation of oil containing PCBs, despite variation of influent PCBs and organic loading rate (OLR).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):19-19
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110175
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • The investigation of humic acid adsorption from aqueous solutions onto
           modified pumice with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide

    • Authors: Ghorban Asgari, Afshin Ebrahimi, Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Ghader Ghanizadeh
      Pages: 20 - 20
      Abstract: Ghorban Asgari, Afshin Ebrahimi, Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Ghader Ghanizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):20-20
      Aims: This study was conducted to evaluation humic acid adsorption from aqueous solution using pumice modified with cationic surfactant.Materials and Methods: The pumice modification was carried out with cationic surfactant of hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) with a concentration of 3 mmol/l for 48 h using a 150 rpm shaker. The chemical structure of pumice was determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For evaluation of the effective parameters, the adsorption of humic acid onto modified pumice was conducted with batch experiments. Humic acid concentration was determined by photometry on 254 nm. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models and pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order kinetics were used for adsorption isotherm and kinetics studies.Results: The results showed that humic acid adsorption increased as its initial concentration, the adsorbent dosage, and the contact time increased. Increase in pH within the regions 3-12 resulted in the reduction of adsorption efficiency while the optimum adsorption occurred at pH = 3. The adsorption data followed the Langmuir model (R2 = 0.99) and second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.99). Maximum experimental adsorption and theoretical adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were 22.5 and 29 mg/g, respectively. The Langmuir constant coefficient (b) was determined as 0.8 L/mg.Conclusions: It was understood from the results of this study that adsorption onto modified pumice is efficient in performance and thus affordable technology for the elimination of humic acid from the polluted water supply.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):20-20
      PubDate: Sat,6 Apr 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.110176
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Evaluation of biological and physico-chemical quality of public swimming
           pools, Hamadan (Iran)

    • Authors: Edris Hoseinzadeh, Farshid Mohammady, Reza Shokouhi, Seyed Amir Ghiasian, Ghodratollah Roshanaie, Ali Toolabi, Salah Azizi
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: Edris Hoseinzadeh, Farshid Mohammady, Reza Shokouhi, Seyed Amir Ghiasian, Ghodratollah Roshanaie, Ali Toolabi, Salah Azizi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):21-21
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the types of fungal contamination and evaluation the fecal Streptococcus, total coliform and some physical and chemical parameters of swimming pool waters in Hamadan (Iran) Materials and Methods: In this study, biological and physico-chemical quality were evaluated. Bacterial and fungal contamination of four public indoor swimming pools was evaluated by standard total coliforms fermentation and using membrane filtration and carpet and swab sampling method with a month interval. In addition, physical and chemical parameters such as residual chlorine, temperature and pH were measured. Results: Results showed that the mean water temperature pH and residual chlorine were 29.3±1.3, 7.38±0.5 and 0.84±0.5 mg/L, respectively. Mean of total coliform was 1.8±7.7 MPN/100ml and its maximum and minimum were 43 and 0 MPN/100ml, respectively. Mean of fecal streptococcus was 0.3±1.6 MPN/100ml and its maximum and minimum were 9 and 9 MPN/100ml, respectively. In the environment of pools, fungi were isolated in order of Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus.niger spp., Rhodotorula spp and Phoma spp. In the collected water sample, no fungal growths were seen. In the studied pools, the microbial and fungi contamination showed significant and insignificant difference, respectively.Conclusion: As results showed the residual chlorine in pools water was lower than standard level and as regard to microbial contamination in pool water, it can be concluded that the disinfection system has been impaired.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):21-21
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113207
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • A review on wastewater disinfection

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hassan Hashemi, Amir Mohammadi Bovini, Yung Tse Hung
      Pages: 22 - 22
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hassan Hashemi, Amir Mohammadi Bovini, Yung Tse Hung
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):22-22
      Changes in regulations and development of new technologies have affected the selection of alternative for treated wastewater disinfection. Disinfection is the last barrier of wastewater reclamation process to protect ecosystem safety and human health. Driving forces include water scarcity and drinking water supply, irrigation, rapid industrialization, using reclaimed water, source protection, overpopulation, and environmental protection. The safe operation of water reuse depends on effluent disinfection. Understanding the differences in inactivation mechanisms is critical to identify rate-limiting steps involved in the inactivation process as well as to develop more effective disinfection strategies. Disinfection byproducts discharged from wastewater treatment plants may impair aquatic ecosystems and downstream drinking-water quality. Numerous inorganic and organic micropollutants can undergo reactions with disinfectants. Therefore, to mitigate the adverse effects and also to enhance that efficiency, the use of alternative oxidation/disinfection systems should be evaluated as possible alternative to chlorine. This review gives a summary of the traditional, innovative, and combined disinfection alternatives and also disinfection byproducts for effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):22-22
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113209
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard
           quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    • Authors: Zohreh Abdi Moghadam, Hamidreza Pourzamani, Akbar Malekpour, Maryam Mirlohi, Zohreh Amininoor
      Pages: 23 - 23
      Abstract: Zohreh Abdi Moghadam, Hamidreza Pourzamani, Akbar Malekpour, Maryam Mirlohi, Zohreh Amininoor
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):23-23
      Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA) intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33) and drug stores ( n = 7) in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI) for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):23-23
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113211
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Coliforms removal by an integrated activated sludge-maturation pond system

    • Authors: Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Rohullah Dehghani, Mahmoud Bigdeli, Ashraf Mazaheri Tehrani, Mohsen Heidari
      Pages: 24 - 24
      Abstract: Mohammad Bagher Miranzadeh, Rohullah Dehghani, Mahmoud Bigdeli, Ashraf Mazaheri Tehrani, Mohsen Heidari
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):24-24
      Aims: This study assesses the removal of fecal indicators (i.e., total coliforms, fecal coliforms) in a full-scale activated sludge and maturation pond system with primary screening facility that is operating in center of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 grab samples for microbiological test were collected from the inlet and outlet of activated sludge (AS) and maturation pond (MP) during the winter and summer 2010 (3 sample per month in 3 locations). Collected samples were sent to laboratory and were analyzed for total coliformbacteria (TCB) and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) according to Standard Methods. Results: The results of this study show that the maximum TCB removal in AS (92.2%) and MP (99.2%) were occurred in summer. Also, for FCB, the highest removal rate (99.7%) was recorded during the summer. The mean winter TCB numbers for AS and MP effluents were 2.7 × 10 7 and 2.3 × 10 6 (MPN per 100 ml), respectively. However, the effluent still contained a significant number of coliforms, which was greater than the permissible limit for unrestricted irrigation as prescribed by Iranian and WHO guidelines. Conclusion: Removal efficiencies of fecal indicator bacteria were maximum during summer and minimum during winter. Statistical analysis indicated that TCB and FCB removal in MP is significantly affected by ambient temperature, whereas there was weak correlation between ambient temperature and coliform removal in AS system.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):24-24
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113213
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Human error assessment in Isfahan oil refinery's work station
           operators using systematic human error reduction prediction approach
           technique

    • Authors: Ehsanollah Habibi, Seifolah Gharib, Iraj Mohammadfam, Masoud Rismanchian
      Pages: 25 - 25
      Abstract: Ehsanollah Habibi, Seifolah Gharib, Iraj Mohammadfam, Masoud Rismanchian
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):25-25
      Aims: The objective of this study was to identify operators' error in distillation units of Isfahan oil refinery. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through task observation and interviewing with safety authorities, the unit and the shift supervisors and operators to identify and analyze critical tasks hierarchically (hierarchical task analysis). Then, human errors of each critical task were identified using systematic human error reduction prediction approach (SHERPA) technique. Results: Analysis of the SHERPA work sheets revealed 198 human errors of which 134 (67.64%), 23 (11.61%), 11 (5.6%), 24 (12.12%), and 6 (3.03%) were action, checking, communication, retrieval, and selection errors, respectively. Critical tasks of "performance monitoring" and "communication" were the main tasks of control room operators (C.R.O's). Low occurrence probability and medium occurrence probability were estimated 64% and 36%, respectively. Furthermore, 59% of the identified errors of C.R.O's had no required recovery of which only 29% had critical consequences. Conclusions: The results showed SHERPA technique can be used as an effective technique to detect human errors in petrochemical and oil refineries.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):25-25
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113214
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Effect of respiratory protection equipments wear on heart rate in
           different workload

    • Authors: Behnam Khodarahmi, Habibollah Dehghan, Majid Motamedzadeh, Mohammad Zeinodini, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini
      Pages: 26 - 26
      Abstract: Behnam Khodarahmi, Habibollah Dehghan, Majid Motamedzadeh, Mohammad Zeinodini, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):26-26
      Aims: This study was done to evaluate the effect of three kinds of respiratory protective equipments (RPE) on the heart rate in light, moderate and heavy workload. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on eleven healthy university students (male) under controlled thermal conditions in a climatic chamber. The mean (SD) of age, height and body mass index (BMI) were 24.1 (2.34) years, 172 (4.2) cm and 22.4 (1.1) Kg/m2, respectively. Subjects were participated in the four intermittent exercises experiments (without RPE, valve, half-face and full-face) on a treadmill in light, moderate and heavy workload. Duration of light, moderate and heavy activities was 30, 30 and 20 min, respectively. Heart rate was recorded every 5 min. Results: The mean of heart rate in 11 subjects for without RPE trial in light, moderate and high workload was 93.5±13.1, 109.7±18.1 and 119.6±25.8 beats per min (bpm), for valve RPE was 102.8±9.7, 116.7±16.0 and 132.1±23.2 bpm, for half-face RPE was 102.4±11.42, 117.3±15.8 and 132.0±23.1 bpm and for full-face RPE was 109.3±14.7, 125±17.4 and 140.1±23.1 bpm, respectively. In three work load, significant differences between the mean of heart rate by using three kinds of RPE trials showed with without RPE trial were observed (P-value < 0.001). Also, mean of heart rate in three workload levels when using full-face RPE trial was significantly higher than valve and half-face RPE trials. In the valve and half-face RPE trials, significant differences were not detected Conclusions: The results demonstrated that heart rate were significantly increased with wearing of three kinds of RPE. Full-face RPE have a higher effect on increasing heart rate than half-face RPE.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):26-26
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113216
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plant for removal of
           Listeria monocytogenes

    • Authors: Nahid Navidjouy, Mohammad Jalali, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Hajar Aghili
      Pages: 27 - 27
      Abstract: Nahid Navidjouy, Mohammad Jalali, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Hajar Aghili
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):27-27
      Aims: The aim of present study was determination of occurrence of Listeria Listeria spp. in various point of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Materials and Methods: The samples were collected of influent, effluent, raw sludge, stabilized sludge and dried sludge from north wastewater treatment plant Isfahan, Iran. The presence of Listeria spp. was determined using USDA procedure and enumerated by a three-tube most probable number assay using Fraser enrichment broth. Then, biochemically identified Listeria monocytogenes was further confirmed by PCR amplification. Results: L. monocytogenes, L. innocua and L. seeligeri were isolated from 76.9%, 23.1% and 23.1% of influent, 38.5%, 46.2% and 7.7% of effluent, 84.6%, 69.2% and 46.2% of raw sludge, 69.2%, 76.9% and 0% of stabilized sludge and 46.2%, 7.7% and 0% of dried sludge samples, respectively. The efficiency of wastewater treatment processes, digester tank and drying bed in removal of L. monocytogenes were 69.6%, 64.7% and 73.4%, respectively. All phenotypically identified L. monocytogenes were further confirmed by PCR method. Conclusion: Application of sewage sludge in agricultural farms as fertilizer may result in bacteria spreading in agriculture fields and contaminated foods with plant origin. This may cause a risk of spreading disease to human and animals. Using parameters such as BOD 5 is not sufficient standard for the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):27-27
      PubDate: Mon,10 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.113221
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Measurement of used oil rancidity indexes in the confectioneries and food
           shops

    • Authors: Hossein Farrokhzadeh, Ebrahim Ghorbani, Hassan Hashemi, Leili Mohebat, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Mahmoud Yahay, Fatemeh Samadanian, Hossein Jaberi
      Pages: 28 - 28
      Abstract: Hossein Farrokhzadeh, Ebrahim Ghorbani, Hassan Hashemi, Leili Mohebat, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Mahmoud Yahay, Fatemeh Samadanian, Hossein Jaberi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):28-28
      Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the peroxide value, acid value and rancidity of edible oil which are used in sweet pancake, samosa, confectionery and sandwich shop. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out on all sandwich shops and sweet pancake at north region of Isfahan city. The peroxide value, acid value and rancidity were determined based on national standard procedure number 4179, on thirty samples. Results: The average of peroxide and acid value was 5.2 and 0.5, respectively. Around 7.4 percent of tested oil has a non permissible rancidity value. Also, 87 percent of samples were healthy. In general, 98.1 percent of oil samples were unusable.Conclusion: The acid and peroxide numbers was in acceptable range, however, the rancidity or oil chemicals corruption caused by inappropriate conservation conditions. This type of fast food, have adverse effects on consumers' health.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):28-28
      PubDate: Sat,29 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.114188
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Determination of BTEX concentration in the groundwater of east region of
           Isfahan using passive sampling method

    • Authors: Afshin Ebrahimi, Maryam Faraji, Mohsen Sadani, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mehdi Hajian, Hamid Reza Pourzamani
      Pages: 29 - 29
      Abstract: Afshin Ebrahimi, Maryam Faraji, Mohsen Sadani, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mehdi Hajian, Hamid Reza Pourzamani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):29-29
      Aims: This study was conducted to determine Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) concentration regarding broken petroleum transmission pipeline in the east region of Isfahan, using passive sampling method. Materials and Methods: Dialysis bags as passive sampling devices with molecular cut-off diameter of 12000 Dalton, 3.2 cm width and around 12 cm lengths were used that contain 2 ml of olive oil as an absorbent. These devices were placed, in 10 sampling wells for 45 days. In order to determine the absorption efficiency of these devices, laboratory calibration operations were performed at the same time. Nitrate as an indicator of contamination of groundwater with chemical fertilizers and also electrical conductivity (EC) as an indicator for cations and anions concentration was measured. Results: The laboratory absorption efficiencies of BTEX were found to be 90%, 85%, 79%, and 81%, respectively. Concentration of these compounds in field samples were less than 10 μg/l. Nitrate concentration varied between 2.1 to 69.2 mg/l, and EC varied between 1.7 to 15.1 mS/cm.Conclusion: BTEX compounds were absorbed with high efficiency in the laboratory test, but their concentrations in wells were found to be negligible. Average concentration of nitrate in the wells was less than water quality guidelines, and had no relation with the direction of movement or depth of water. EC tended to increase in the direction of groundwater movement, but there were no correlations among depth of water, nitrate concentration, and mean of EC.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):29-29
      PubDate: Sat,29 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.114191
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Multivariate poisson-lognormal model for modeling related factors in crash
           frequency by severity

    • Authors: Mehdi Tazhibi, Iraj Kazemi, Somaye Momenyan, Hossein Haghshenas
      Pages: 30 - 30
      Abstract: Mehdi Tazhibi, Iraj Kazemi, Somaye Momenyan, Hossein Haghshenas
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):30-30
      Aims: Traditionally, roadway safety analyses have used univariate distributions to model crash data for each level of severity separately. This paper uses the multivariate Poisson lognormal (MVPLN) models to estimate the expected crash frequency by two levels of severity and then compares those estimates with the univariate Poisson-lognormal (UVPLN) and the univariate Poisson (UVP) models. Materials and Methods: The parameters estimation is done by Bayesian method for crash data at two levels of severity at the intersection of Isfahan city for 6 months. Results: The results showed that there was over-dispersion issue in data. The UVP model is not able to overcome this problem while the MVPLN model can account for over-dispersion. Also, the estimates of the extra Poisson variation parameters in the MVPLN model were smaller than the UVPLN model that causes improvement in the precision of the MNPLN model. Hence, the MVPLN model is better fitted to the data set. Also, results showed effect of the total Average annual daily traffic (AADT) on the property damage only crash was significant in the all of models but effect of the total left turn AADT on the injuries and fatalities crash was significant just in the UVP model. Hence, holding all other factors fixed more property damage only crashes were expected on more the total AADT. For example, under MVPLN model an increase of 1000 vehicles in (average) the total AADT was predicted to result in 31% more property damage only crash. Conclusion: Hence, reduction of total AADT was predicted to be highly cost-effective, in terms of the crash cost reductions over the long run.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):30-30
      PubDate: Sat,29 Jun 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.114193
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Treatment of synthetic urban runoff using manganese oxide-coated sand in
           the presence of magnetic field

    • Authors: Maryam Foroughi, Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamid Reza Pourzamani, Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi
      Pages: 31 - 31
      Abstract: Maryam Foroughi, Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamid Reza Pourzamani, Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):31-31
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of manganese oxide-coated sand in the presence of magnetic field to treat urban runoff. Materials and Methods: A flow-through column having a diameter of 50 mm was filled with coated sand and used to conduct the experiments in this study. Atomic absorption, turbidimeter, pH meter, and spectrophotometer DR5000 were used to measure heavy metals, turbidity, pH, phosphate, and nitrate, respectively. The surface of coated sand was assessed by SEM. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) analysis was used to determine percentage of sand components. Results: SEM and EDAX analyses confirmed that the sand has been coated with manganese oxide successfully. Results indicated that turbidity, Pb, Zn, and PO 4 removal efficiency by the coated sand in the presence of magnetic field were 89.6%, 65.9%, 81.1% and 67%, respectively. The results indicated that the coated sand is not able to remove NO 3 .Conclusion: Manganese oxide-coated sand filter in the presence of magnetic field improve the quality of urban runoff significantly.
      Authors believe that this approach is simple, economical and efficient as in comparison to other existing methods. This could be a promising treatment technology that can enhance quality of urban runoff and industrial wastewaters.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):31-31
      PubDate: Tue,30 Jul 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.115794
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Influence of baseline weight on relationship between shift work and
           longitudinal changes of cholesterol

    • Authors: Mohammad Salehi-Marzijarani, Ghasem Yadegarfar, Iraj Kazemi, Javad Sanati, Akbar Hassanzadeh
      Pages: 32 - 32
      Abstract: Mohammad Salehi-Marzijarani, Ghasem Yadegarfar, Iraj Kazemi, Javad Sanati, Akbar Hassanzadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):32-32
      Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between longitudinal change in total cholesterol as a main cardiovascular disease risk factor and shift work, controlling for the effect of the weight at baseline of recruitment. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study consists of 674 employees of Iranian Corporation Polyacril from 1992 to 2009. Stratified analysis of the relationship between shift work and cholesterol based on weight status at baseline of recruitment controlled for the effect of confounders including age, body mass index, pre-employment cholesterol, glucose, triglyceride, urea, work types, education, and marital status. A linear mixed model used for analyzing the data. Estimation of parameters has done by Bayesian approaches using Winbugs statistical software. Bayesian confidence interval (CI) was used for testing regression coefficients. Results: Average age mean at employment was 25 years (standard deviation [SD] =3.3); the average number of measurement for each individual was 3.7 times (SD = 0.6). In this model, relationship between shift work and cholesterol changes controlled for confounding factors was significant in whom overweight was at baseline (beta = 2.25, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.67-3.88) but was not significant for whom overweight was at baseline of employment.Conclusions : The rate of cholesterol changes was higher for normal weight shift workers compared with workers who were overweight at baseline of recruitment.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):32-32
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122406
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Evaluation of new location of Isfahan's sanitary landfill site with
           Oleckno method

    • Authors: Maryam Salimi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Afsane Salimi
      Pages: 33 - 33
      Abstract: Maryam Salimi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Afsane Salimi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):33-33
      Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS) based on the Oleckno index method (OIM). Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI) score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan's sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):33-33
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122408
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Investigation on the solid waste recovery in the industrial unites of
           Isfahan, Iran

    • Authors: Saeid Samani Majd, Hossein Measami, Saeid Gitipour, Mahya Kondori, Hamidreza Pourzamani
      Pages: 34 - 34
      Abstract: Saeid Samani Majd, Hossein Measami, Saeid Gitipour, Mahya Kondori, Hamidreza Pourzamani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):34-34
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the professional attraction rates on solid waste recovery area, current recovery market in the study area, and to determine their activity index. Materials and Methods: The recovery of materials in the active industrial units of Isfahan industrial parks, central area of Iran, were classified and analyzed. The quantitative and experimental studies were used. In each recovery area, employment, investment rate, and production capacity of industrial units were specified and the activity index was prescribed. Results: The highest activity index in the province relates to paper and metal with 17 and 16 units, respectively. In the study area, no study has been carried out about electronic waste and old cars recovery. Also employment in paper and metal recovery industrials are more than another with 385 and 221 persons per year, respectively. Conclusion: The recovery of solid waste and distribution of solid waste production in Isfahan showed that planning of solid waste recovery industry can be developed in future.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):34-34
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122411
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Assessment of airborne bacteria of milk processing unit complex associated
           environment

    • Authors: Apurva K Pathak, Karuna S Verma
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: Apurva K Pathak, Karuna S Verma
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):35-35
      Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the sources of airborne contaminants in milk processing units. Materials and Methods: The aero-bacteriological investigation has been done fortnightly for a period of 1 year extramurally within the premises of milk processing unit complex with the help of modified two-stage Andersen Sampler. The raw milk samples were analyzed for total plate count and total coliform count. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of bioload of total coliform/mL, total plate count in million/mL, total airborne viable cultivable bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae recorded were 3193.6 ± 220, 1673.33 ± 229.8, 3117.96 ± 1678.1, 46.33 ± 28.874, and 47.92 ± 33.5, respectively. Seasonal variations in airborne bacterial population were reported for this environment, high humidity and moderate temperature were the major factors for dissemination and distribution of Gram-negative bacilli. The temperature was positively and humidity was negatively significantly correlated with total airborne viable cultivable bacteria of this environment. There was no correlation established between bioload of milk and bioload of airborne bacteria. Conclusion: The airborne bacterial bioload in milk processing unit complex environment areas were higher than the acceptable limit, with temporal and spatial variations. Mechanical activities were supposed to be the key factor governing aerosolization of potentially harmful bacteria which could contaminate the products. These results could be useful to establish a standard to the small-scale dairy processing units where monitoring of airborne bacteria were rarely adopted by dairy manufacturers in their routine quality control.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):35-35
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122417
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Heavy metal distribution frequency in Iranian and imported rice varieties
           marketed in central Iran, Yazd, 2012

    • Authors: Reza Morekian, Maryam Mirlohi, Leila Azadbakht, Mohammad Reza Maracy
      Pages: 36 - 36
      Abstract: Reza Morekian, Maryam Mirlohi, Leila Azadbakht, Mohammad Reza Maracy
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):36-36
      Aims: This study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) in rice samples in Yazd markets. Materials and Methods: In this study, 108 rice samples were collected from 36 different brands including 26 imported and 10 Iranian rice varieties from July-December 2011. Determination of heavy metals was carried out by wet ashing and digestion methods following graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The average concentrations of lead in both Iranian and imported samples were 328.3 ± 81.44 and 254.55 ± 77.2 μg/kg, respectively, well above the safe limit set by Iranian standard, whereas mean concentrations of cadmium and arsenic were both below their permissible limit. In homemade rice samples, their concentration levels were shown to be 37.25 ± 23.39 and 33.5 ± 18.35 μg/kg, respectively. However, for imported products, their levels were 43.71 ± 13.74 and 87.55 ± 72.99 μg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: Deterministic estimation of exposure to heavy metals from rice showed that there was no health issue concerning exposure to toxic metals through rice intake in Iran when potential risk of each heavy metal is considered individually, cumulative risk assessment must be applied in future studies.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):36-36
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122419
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids,
           nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    • Authors: Mohammad Reza Zare, Yousef Poureshgh, Ali Fatehizadeh, Ali Shahriary, Ali Toolabi, Mohsen Rezaei
      Pages: 37 - 37
      Abstract: Mohammad Reza Zare, Yousef Poureshgh, Ali Fatehizadeh, Ali Shahriary, Ali Toolabi, Mohsen Rezaei
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):37-37
      Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS), nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP), Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples' turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO) or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):37-37
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122421
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Application of several advanced oxidation processes for degradation of
           4-chlorophenol from aqueous solution

    • Authors: Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Ghorban Asgari, Afshin Ebrahimi, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Zahra Sharifi
      Pages: 38 - 38
      Abstract: Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Ghorban Asgari, Afshin Ebrahimi, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Zahra Sharifi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):38-38
      Aims: In this work, degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was investigated in aqueous solutions using several oxidation systems involving ultraviolet/(UV)/H 2 O 2 , microwave (MW)/H 2 O 2 , and ultrasonic (US)/Fenton systems. Materials and Methods: Three pilot plant reactors consist of a photolytic reactor, a modified domestic MW, and an US bath reactor of 22 kHz frequency were constructed and separately used in batch mode. The effects of several operation parameters such as pH of the solution ranging 3-10, H 2 O 2 initial concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.2 mol/l, and reaction time were examined. Concentration changes of 4-CP were determined using a spectrophotometer at an absorption wavelength of 500 nm. Results: The results show that the oxidation rate was influenced by many factors, such as the pH value, reaction times, and the amount of H 2 O 2 concentration. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation rate were pH = 7, H 2 O 2 concentration of about 0.05 mol/l and pH = 10, H 2 O 2 concentration of about 0.1 mol/l for UV/H 2 O 2 and MW/H 2 O 2 system, respectively. For US/Fenton system, the highest 4-CP degradation was achieved in pH = 3, H 2 O 2 concentration of about 0.05 mol/l in the percent of 0.025 mmol Fe/l. The highest 4-CP removal rate in optimum conditions of pH and concentration of H 2 O 2 , in UV/H 2 O 2 , MW/H 2 O 2 , and US/Fenton systems was>99% over the retention time of 40 min, 85% after 180 min, and>99% after 40 min, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the UV/H 2 O 2 and US/H 2 O 2 are successfully applicable for degradation of 4-CP in aqueous solution. Also, the kinetic study represented that the US/H 2 O 2 is capable of removing 4-CP slightly rather than UV/H 2 O 2 process.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):38-38
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122423
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Evaluation of physical health and its relation with history of work
           accidents in workers of the Central Iron Ore Company of Iran

    • Authors: Gholam Hossein Halvani, Reza Dehnavieh, Ibrahim Salmani Nodoushan, Hossein Fallah, Reza Jafari Nodoushan
      Pages: 39 - 39
      Abstract: Gholam Hossein Halvani, Reza Dehnavieh, Ibrahim Salmani Nodoushan, Hossein Fallah, Reza Jafari Nodoushan
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):39-39
      Aims: This study was conducted to determine the state of physical symptoms of the Iranian Central Iron Ore Company workers and its relation with history of work accidents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed at the Iranian Central Iron Ore Company and included 388 workers sampled randomly out of 2100 workers. Research tool was a two-part questionnaire that its reliability was determined by some of researchers. Data was analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) software and statistical tests included variance analysis and Pearson' correlation tests. Results: According to the findings, 80.9% had favorable physical health conditions and there was a significant relationship between physical health condition, history of work accidents, cigarette smoking and type of work. Conclusion: Considering the strong relationship between physical health and history of work accidents, it is proposed that high-level managers of the Central Iron Ore Company of Iran should pay special attention to the improvement of physical health, psychological, social, and welfare levels.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):39-39
      PubDate: Sat,30 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122424
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration in eight
           brands of black tea which are used more in Iran

    • Authors: Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Fariborz Momen Beik, Afshin Ebrahimi, Marziyeh Farhadkhani, Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam
      Pages: 40 - 40
      Abstract: Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Fariborz Momen Beik, Afshin Ebrahimi, Marziyeh Farhadkhani, Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):40-40
      Aims : The objective of this study was investigation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentration in eight brands of black tea which is used more in Iran. Materials and Methods : In the present study, PAHs content of eight brands of black tea were extracted and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) equipped with Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) technique. Results: The average of total PAHs compounds in analyzed teas was in the range of 139 to 2082 μg kg ?−1 . PAHs with 5 to 6 rings were not found in the teas samples. Four rings PAHs compounds composed 46% of the total PAHs compounds and were the most dominant compounds. The same compounds were also dominant in tea bags. Conclusion: In the tea liquor, after brewing times of 10 and 120 minutes, the maximum and minimum releasing percentage of PAHs was observed, respectively. The result of this study confirmed the presence of PAHs in the tea leaves and tea liquor. Assuming that every person use 10 g of tea leaves every day and 10 minutes take for brewing time, the daily uptake of 16 PAHs will be 1.2 μg.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):40-40
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122427
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Prevalence of antibiotic residues in commercial milk and its variation by
           season and thermal processing methods

    • Authors: Fathollah Aalipour, Maryam Mirlohi, Mohammd Jalali
      Pages: 41 - 41
      Abstract: Fathollah Aalipour, Maryam Mirlohi, Mohammd Jalali
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):41-41
      Aims: In this study, the prevalence of antibiotic residues in pasteurized and sterilized commercial milk available in Shahre-kourd, Iran, was investigated. In addition, the influence of seasonal temperature changes on the prevalence of contamination was studied. Materials and Methods: Commercial milk samples of 187, including 154 pasteurized and 33 sterilized, milk samples were collected from the market between early January 2012 and late July of the same year. The presence of antibiotic residues was detected using the microbiological detection test kit, Eclipse 100, as a semi-quantitative method. Results: The results showed that 37 of the samples (19.8%) have contained antibiotic residues above the European Union Maximum Residues Limits (EU-MRLs), of which 28 samples (14.97%) were found to be contaminated but at the concentrations below the EU-MRLs. There was no significant difference between the contamination rate of pasteurized and Ultra High Temperature (UHT)-sterilized samples. Similarly, variation of weather temperature with seasons had no effect on the contamination prevalence of milk samples ( P> 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, antibiotics residues were present in the majority of milk samples. Neither the season nor the type of thermal processing of the commercial milks had noticeable impact on the prevalence level of the milk samples. However, an increasing trend of prevalence level for antibiotic residues was observed with increasing the temperature through the warm season.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):41-41
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122429
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Occupational health problems of municipal solid waste management workers
           in India

    • Authors: Thayyil Jayakrishnan, Mathummal Cherumanalil Jeeja, Rao Bhaskar
      Pages: 42 - 42
      Abstract: Thayyil Jayakrishnan, Mathummal Cherumanalil Jeeja, Rao Bhaskar
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):42-42
      Aims: The present study aimed to assess the occupational health problems of municipal solid waste management workers. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among solid waste management workers of Kerala, India. All workers (408) were included the study of which 313 (77%) participated. Data were collected by direct interview and clinical examination using a structured questionnaire. The observed morbidity like respiratory diseases, eye diseases, dermatological problems and nail infections were elicited by clinical examination. The point prevalence of other occupational related health events present either during the study time or during 1 month recall period and that occurred ever after entry in present occupation was collected by self-reported complaints and doctors diagnoses. Results: The mean age was 42.5 ± 7.2 years. The observed morbidity like respiratory diseases, eye diseases, dermatological problems, nail infections were high ranged from 21% to 47%. The reported prevalence of occupation related morbidities like falls (63.6%), accidents (22%), injuries (73.2%), and water-vector borne disease (7.1%) were high. The current prevalence of musculoskeletal morbidities showing that all major joints are involved (17-39%). Conclusions: The work related health-problems were reported to be high. The prevalence of Respiratory, dermatological, eye problems and injury, musculoskeletal problems were reported to be high among municipal solid work handlers. Measures are needed to improve the work environment of waste handlers by ensuring availability protective gears based on ergonomic principles, clean drinking water and washing and sanitation facilities during working hours.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):42-42
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122430
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Effects of vehicle ventilation system, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking on
           the concentration of toluene and ethylbenzene in Pride cars

    • Authors: Masoud Rismanchian, Massomeh Garsivaz, Hamidreza Porzamani, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mahnaz Shakerian, Mohammad Heidari
      Pages: 43 - 43
      Abstract: Masoud Rismanchian, Massomeh Garsivaz, Hamidreza Porzamani, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mahnaz Shakerian, Mohammad Heidari
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):43-43
      Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the concentrations of toluene and ethylbenzene inside the Pride cars and to investigate the effects of the vehicle ventilation system, fule type, and interior smoking on their concentration. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 152 different models of Pride cars, stopped in parking [classified into three groups including: Pride KIA (Group I), Saba (Group II) 131, 141, 132, LX111, SX, and Nasim (Group III)] were sampled using activated carbon sorbent tube. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The vehicle ventilation, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking were recorded. Results: The average concentrations of toluene and ethylbenzene were 105.4 ± 270.5 and 19.09 ± 33.97 μg/m 3 , respectively. The average concentration of toluene was higher than that of ethylbenzene. The concentration differences of both toluene and ethylbenzen among the studied groups were not statistically significant.Conclusion: The ventilation condition, fuel type, and in-cabin smoking were not significantly impressive on the toluene and ethylbenzene concentrations inside the cars. However, simultaneous usage of the vehicle ventilation system and natural ventilation (windows) could lead to little decrease in toluene concentration levels inside the car, while smoking consumption by passengers can increase them.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):43-43
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122437
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Relative risk of metabolic syndrome among Iran Polyacryl Corporation shift
           workers: A retrospective cohort study

    • Authors: Mehri Rejali, Ali Hosseinzade, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Javad Sanati
      Pages: 44 - 44
      Abstract: Mehri Rejali, Ali Hosseinzade, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Javad Sanati
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):44-44
      Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of shift work on metabolic syndrome in Iran Polyacryl Corporation workers. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted on Iran Polyacryl Corporation workers for 10 years. The incidence of metabolic syndrome was assessed between shift workers and day workers. For analysis of the effects of shift work on six different combinations of metabolic syndrome, Logistic regression was used, and information was analyzed with using Statistical Package for Social Science-SPSS version 18. Results: The mean triglyceride, body mass index, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure was higher in the day workers than rotating shift workers, but the difference was not significant (P value> 0.05). Logistic regression showed a significant inverse relationship between shift work and combination of three metabolic syndromes with a relative risk (RR) and %95 confidence interval (CI) of 0.24 and (0.06-0.94), respectively. Although shifts work increased risk of combination of numbers 2 (IFG, BP, and BMI) and 4 (IFG,TG, and BMI) metabolic syndrome 66% and 6%. These differences were not significant (RR = 1.66, %95 CI ; 0.81-3.37 and RR = 1.06, %95 CI ; 0.72-1.58 respectively). Other combinations of metabolic syndrome had a non-significant inverse relationship with shift work (P value> 0.05).Conclusion: Our findings indicate that rotating shift work not increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and different combinations. However, significantly decreased risk for developing combination 3 (Impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, and positive micro albuminuria).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):44-44
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122438
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Vibration characteristics of mining equipment used in Indian mines and
           their vibration hazard potential

    • Authors: Bibhuti Bhusan Mandal, Asim Kumar Pal, Prahlad Kumar Sishodiya
      Pages: 45 - 45
      Abstract: Bibhuti Bhusan Mandal, Asim Kumar Pal, Prahlad Kumar Sishodiya
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):45-45
      Aims: This study aimed to monitor the vibration levels of mining machinery and duration of exposure to vibration; to study work practices of operators of mining machineries and to predict health risk from vibration exposure to operators. Materials and Methods: Vibration levels of 157 mining equipment including dumpers, dozers, etc. in 10 opencast mines were measured through accelerometer and recorded in vibration analyzer. Root mean square (RMS) values of acceleration as well as vibration dose values along with duration of exposures per day were used to predict health risk in accordance with ISO 2631-1:1997 standard. Video records of equipment operation were used to analyze job components. Results: Health risk was evaluated using RMS acceleration (0.21-1.82 m/s 2 ) and corresponding daily durations of exposure (2-7.5 h). Forty two (27%) of the equipment showed minimal health risk, 83 (53%) equipment showed moderate and 32 (20%) equipment showed high health risk to operators. While shovels and excavators showed minimal health risk, dozers and dumpers showed high health risk potential. x-axis was the dominant axis of vibration for loaders and dozers, whereas for the majority of dumpers and tippers, z-axis was dominant. Conclusion: Dumpers require engineering control for reducing the vibration in z-axis while measures are required for x-axis in loaders or dozers. Shovels or excavators do not require immediate attention except regular monitoring. Improvement in work practices are required to safeguard the workers from vibration related illness. It is recommended that proper guidelines for measurement and control of vibration at workplace should be formulated.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):45-45
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122440
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Nitrate and nitrite in leek and spinach from Urmia district and their
           changes as affected by boiling

    • Authors: Fatemeh Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fathollah Gholami-Borujeni
      Pages: 46 - 46
      Abstract: Fatemeh Nejatzadeh-Barandozi, Fathollah Gholami-Borujeni
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):46-46
      Aims: This study was carried out to determine nitrite and nitrate levels in fresh leek and spinach from different greengrocers' shops of Urmia (Iran) and then the effect of boiling and the effect of aqueous boiling pH were studied. Materials and Methods: Nitrite and nitrate content of 15 market samples of leek and spinach from Urmia region were determined by spectrophotometric method. Effect of boiling and their pH levels at home processing condition were studied. Results: Results showed that the fresh vegetables had only traces of nitrite and the level of nitrate was 36-328 ppm KNO 3 . In the most of samples, nitrite and nitrate contents in spinach were greater than in leek, but lower than standard International Organization for Standardization levels in Iran. Boiling process was carried out, according to home conditions and it caused a decrease in nitrate levels between 23% and 61% in leak and spinach samples, respectively. T-test analysis of the boiled vegetables showed a significant reduction about 75% in nitrate content (in dry weight vegetable content), in the samples, but an increase in nitrate content in the boiled water of the sample was observed. The effect pH of boiling (4-8) shows that with an increase in pH, there was a decrease in nitrate contents of boiled water. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the leek and spinach marketed in Urmia region were safe for consumption and boiling of vegetables caused the release of nitrates from vegetables to water after the cooking process. It is of particular importance not to use the vegetable cooking water for use in pureeing homemade baby foods.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):46-46
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122442
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls
           degrading bacteria

    • Authors: Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Maryam Hatamzadeh
      Pages: 47 - 47
      Abstract: Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Maryam Hatamzadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):47-47
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l) and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):47-47
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122443
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • The application of the Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) in Sour Water
           Refinery Process

    • Authors: Ehsanollah Habibi, Saeed Zare, Mehrzad Keshavarzi, Maryam Mousavi, Hossein Ali Yousefi
      Pages: 48 - 48
      Abstract: Ehsanollah Habibi, Saeed Zare, Mehrzad Keshavarzi, Maryam Mousavi, Hossein Ali Yousefi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):48-48
      Aims: The objective of this study was to analyze major accidents take place in sour water refineries, and to assess the adequacy of safeguard layers in the system. Also it has been provided safety recommendations in regarding to our analysis. Materials and Methods: Using the layer of protection analysis (LOPA), the role of protective layers in controlling the potential risks in Sour Water Recycling Unit is determined and required recommendations to reduce risk are provided. Results: This study showed that there are 49 high risk areas in Sour Water Recycling Unit. Moreover, Excessive flow rate in pipelines, Excessive temperature, Reverse flow, H 2 S leakage, Flow interruption, and Corrosion are the main identified hazards. Conclusion: It can be conclude that the effectiveness of protective layers is not enough and additional protective layers are required to improve the process safety system. Furthermore, LOPA is an improved technique when use the output of hazard and operability study (HAZOP) and it has some advantages due to its semi-quantitative nature in estimating hazards.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):48-48
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122445
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the river receiving the effluent
           of municipal wastewater treatment plant

    • Authors: Atefeh Taherkhani, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Mohammad Mehdi Ahmad Moazzam, Seyyed Abbas Mirzaee, Mohammad Jalali
      Pages: 49 - 49
      Abstract: Atefeh Taherkhani, Hossein Movahedian Attar, Mohammad Mehdi Ahmad Moazzam, Seyyed Abbas Mirzaee, Mohammad Jalali
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):49-49
      Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Listeria spp. in the river water before and after discharge of the effluent of the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected bi-weekly over 4 months from eleven discrete sampling locations in Zayandehrood River, Iran. Three sampling sites were located above the discharge point and five sites were located after the discharge point of WWTP. Samples were also collected from the influent and the effluent of WWTP. Listeria spp. were isolated using a selective enrichment procedure and a subculture onto polymyxin-acriflavine-lithium chloride-ceftazidime-esculin-mannitol Agar. All isolates were subjected to standard biochemical tests. Results: L. monocytogenes was isolated from influent (83%), effluent (50%) and (18.5%) river water. Listeria spp. was not found before the discharge point in river water. However, L. monocytogenes was isolated in samples collected from 200 m (33%), 500 m (33%), 2 km (16.5%), 5 km (16.5%) and 10 km (16.5%) downstream from the WWTP. Listeria innocua (9%) and Listeria seeligeri (10%) were the second most frequently isolated species. Conclusion: During the wastewater treatment, Listeria spp. is not removed completely. L. monocytogenes is widely distributed in the Zayandehrood river. L. monocytogenes released into surface water demonstrates a potential risk for public health. These results indicate the need for appropriate water management in order to reduce human and animal exposure to such pathogens.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2013 2(1):49-49
      PubDate: Fri,29 Nov 2013
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.122447
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2013)
       
  • Performance evaluation of an Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor in the
           biodegradation of perchloroethylene from industrial wastewaters

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Maryam Faraji, Fariborz Momenbeik, Akbar Hasanzadeh, Mohsen Sadani
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Maryam Faraji, Fariborz Momenbeik, Akbar Hasanzadeh, Mohsen Sadani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):1-1
      Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the PCE biodegradation potential in an Anaerobic Migrating Blanket Reactor (AMBR) that has not been used so far for the bioremediation of this compound, in high concentration, and to evaluate the system performance. Materials and Methods: This study was an Experimental - Interventional study that was done from April 2010 to March 2011, in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The AMBR was used in a type of laboratory scale, with a volume of 10 L, which was divided into four compartments, for the biological degradation of PCE in a synthetic substrate. The startup was done using anaerobic digested sewage sludge. The performance of the reactor was evaluated during four periods, with a PCE loading rate of 3.75 until 75 mg PCE/L.d. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 32 hours. Results: Optimum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was obtained, 98%, with an organic loading rate (OLR) equal to 3.1 g COD/L.d. For PCE removal, the optimum efficiency was observed to be 99.8%, with a PCE loading rate equal to 37.5 mg PCE/L.d. The average COD and PCE removal rates for the whole activity period of the reactor were 91.4 and 99.5%, respectively; 1.1 ± 0.7% from the influent PCE was adsorbed on the biomass and 20% was found in the headspace. Conclusions: The AMBR reactor, which provides full-scale studies and uses real industrial wastewater polluted with PCE, is a simple, efficient, and reliable method for the treatment of PCE.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):1-1
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Isotherms and kinetics studies of biosorption nickel (II) and chromium
           (VI) from aqueous solution by dried activated sludge

    • Authors: Mohammad Malakootian, Seyed Kamal Ghadiri, Nader Yousefi, Ali Fatehizadeh
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Mohammad Malakootian, Seyed Kamal Ghadiri, Nader Yousefi, Ali Fatehizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):2-2
      Aims: The aim of this study is the recovery of municipal refuse and using it as a biosorbent for Nickel (II) and Chromium (VI) (Ni 2+ an d Cr 6+ )removal from aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: Activated sludge was obtained from the wastewater treatment plant in a dairy industry. All experiments were performed in the batch system and effective parameters such as the pH, adsorbent dosage, and the initial concentration and contact time of Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ were investigated. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were evaluated to describe the metal uptake and dynamic reactions. Results: The results of this study showed that with an increasing adsorbent dose and contact time, Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ removal efficiency increased. The maximum adsorption of Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ was obtained in pH 6 and 2, respectively. Meanwhile, with increasing Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ concentration, the removal efficiency decreased. The results best fitted the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum absorption capacity of Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ onto dry activated sludge (DAS) were 2.17 and 2.23 mg/g, respectively. Analysis of the adsorption kinetics showed that the intraparticle diffusion kinetic had been good and presented Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ uptake onto DAS, and the intraparticle diffusion rate constant of Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ were 0.044 and 0.042 (mg/g min 0.5 ), respectively. Conclusions: According to the results, dry activated sludge is suggested as a low cost and available adsorbent for removing Ni 2+ and Cr 6+ from aqueous solutions.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):2-2
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Effectiveness of nanozeolite modified by cationic surfactant in the
           removal of disinfection by-product precursors from water solution

    • Authors: Amir Mohammadi, Bijan Bina, Afshin Ebrahimi, Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamidreza Pourzamani
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Amir Mohammadi, Bijan Bina, Afshin Ebrahimi, Yaghoub Hajizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamidreza Pourzamani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):3-3
      Aim: In this study the performance of a natural nanozeolite, modified with a cationic surfactant, on the adsorption of humic acid from water was investigated in a batch system. Materials and Methods: Clinoptilolite as a natural nanozeolite was modified with different doses of a cationic surfactant solution, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br), at dosages from 0.5 to 10 g/l. The modified adsorbents were individually added to synthetic water samples containing a known amount of humic acid and put on the shaker for two hours, at room temperature. Humic acid (HA) concentrations, turbidity, and pH were measured before and after the adsorption process. Results: According to the results obtained, and based on the statistical analysis (Pearson correlation statistical test), there was a clear correlation between the cationic surfactant dosage and HA removal (Pvalue
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):3-3
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Performance of raw and regenerated multi- and single-walled carbon
           nanotubes in xylene removal from aqueous solutions

    • Authors: Hamidreza Pourzamani, Bijan Bina, Alimorad Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 4 - 4
      Abstract: Hamidreza Pourzamani, Bijan Bina, Alimorad Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):4-4
      Aims: The ability of raw and recycled multi- and single-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT and SWCNT) for xylene adsorption from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Batch adsorption experiments were conducted in 110 ml glass bottles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for xylene measurement and the carbon nanotube characteristics were evaluated with the help of a transmission electron microscope. Results: With a carbon nanotube dose of 1 g/l, xylene concentration of 10 mg/l, pH 7, and a contact time of 10 minutes, the equilibrium adsorption capacity (q e (mg/g)) of SWCNT was 9.2 mg/g, which was higher than that for MWCNT (8.9 mg/g). The SWCNT revealed a better performance for xylene sorption than the MWCNT. Results of a desorption study showed that xylene adsorbed onto the SWCNT and MWCNT can be easily desorbed at 105 ± 2°C.Conclusions: It is concluded that recycled carbon nanotubes on heating for the first time, show a better performance for xylene adsorption than when they are raw. The SWCNT are efficient as xylene adsorbents in an environmental pollution cleanup.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):4-4
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • The effect of the waste separation policy in municipal solid waste
           management using the system dynamic approach

    • Authors: Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani, Mohsen Saeedi, Behdad kiani, Ali Vosoogh
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Ahmad Jamshidi Zanjani, Mohsen Saeedi, Behdad kiani, Ali Vosoogh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):5-5
      Aims: In the present study, Vensim was used to simulate waste management system of Tehran, the capital of Iran, with the system dynamic approach. Materials and Methods: The environmental system dynamic modeling is one of the comprehensive simulation tools capable of simulating and analyzing complex systems. In this approach, the model is developed based on the existing realities and userâ€'comments. User participation to develop the model could increase the reliability of the results. Results: The simulation results revealed good conformity with the statistical data. Waste production prediction in the model with real data was more than 95%. Moreover, the effect of applying an encouraging policy for people to separate their waste was considered. The result indicated that applying a new policy, and the economic benefit through this policy would prevent getting a loan from the government after 20 years. Conclusions: It could be concluded that public participation in waste separation was an effective policy to help in the financial independence of the municipality in terms of urban waste management. Moreover, conformity between the simulation results and real data revealed an appropriate capability of the simulated model to predict Tehran waste generation.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):5-5
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Detection of E. coli O157: H7 by immunological and real-time PCR methods
           in the water treatment plant

    • Authors: Peymaneh Atabakhsh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hossein Mortazavi, Parinaz Poursafa, Majid Yaran, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Mohammad Jalali, Ashraf Al sadat Noohi
      Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Peymaneh Atabakhsh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hossein Mortazavi, Parinaz Poursafa, Majid Yaran, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Mohammad Jalali, Ashraf Al sadat Noohi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):6-6
      Aims: There is limited data on the occurrence of E. Coli O157: H7 in water. Therefore, this study aims to detect E. Coli O157: H7 in the Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Isfahan WTP, central of Iran. Immunological methods were implemented with anti-serum kits and the molecular method of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect E. Coli O157: H7 in eight locations of the WTP; the sludge of the sedimentation basin and filter backwash water were also monitored. The survival of E. Coli O157: H7 in the sludge samples of the sedimentation basin was indicated by the formation of agglutination particles using the immunological method, and through indicator probes using the RT-PCR method.Results: E. Coli O157: H7 was not detected in the water samples from the WTP units. The removal percent of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC), respectively, were as follows: 59.5, 49, and 54.8% in the sedimentation basin; 66, 45.8, and 57% in the ozonation system; 98.8, 98, and 78.8% in the filtration system; and 96, 100, 91% in the disinfection system. Conclusions: This study revealed the existence of the pathogenic coliform of E. Coli O157: H7 in the sludge of the sedimentation basin. The absence of E. Coli O157: H7 in the finished water indicated that the WTP units were able to eliminate these pathogenic bacteria before reaching the final units of the plant, including the filtration and disinfection systems.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):6-6
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Treating municipal solid waste leachate in a pilot scale upflow anaerobic
           sludge blanket reactor under tropical temperature

    • Authors: Abbas Alizadeh Shooshtari, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Ramin Nabizadeh, Nemat Jaafarzadeh
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Abbas Alizadeh Shooshtari, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Ramin Nabizadeh, Nemat Jaafarzadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):7-7
      Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor efficiency in treating municipal landfill leachate, under tropical temperature. Materials and Methods: A 30-liter pilot-scale UASB reactor was used to treat the municipal solid waste leachate, under tropical temperature, for 230 days. The reactor was inoculated with 10 liters of anaerobic sludge from an anaerobic digester, in an agro industry's wastewater treatment plant. The Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) of sludge were 65 g/L, with volatile suspended solids to suspended solids (VSS/SS) ratio of 0.74. The reactor was operated in mesophilic (34 - 39°C) temperature. Results: After reaching a stable operation, the reactor was exposed to raw leachate, with mean chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 35 g/L. The leachate was diluted to 9 - 10 g/L at Organic Loading Rates (OLRs) of 2, 6, 12, 15 g COD/L.d and decreased again to 12 g COD/L.d, resulting in 45, 76, 84, 68, and 79% removal efficiency and increased again to 87% removal efficiency for COD, at Hydraulic Retention Times (HRTs) of 6, 1.6, 0.83, and 0.67 days, respectively, in the UASB. In the reactor used in this study, the heavy metals were removed by adsorption on biomass, and the maximum removal rate was 68% for Zinc (Zn). Conclusions: It was concluded that the optimum OLR for diluted leachate up to 10 g COD/l, was 12 g COD/L.d at an HRT of 0.67 day (16 hours).
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):7-7
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Heavy metal content in edible salts in Isfahan and estimation of their
           daily intake via salt consumption

    • Authors: Hajar Pourgheysari, Malihe Moazeni, Afshin Ebrahimi
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Hajar Pourgheysari, Malihe Moazeni, Afshin Ebrahimi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):8-8
      Aims: In this study, the heavy metal contamination of consumable table salt, both unrefined and refined, was investigated. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of heavy metals just by edible salt, of the Isfahan population, was also estimated. Materials and Methods: Twenty samples of salt, including 15 refined and five unrefined were analyzed. Precision of the analysis was assured through repeated analysis of the five samples, which had a great demand in the city. The heavy metal content in the samples was analyzed with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). The PTWI of the metals was calculated by a formula and by using the Iranian average body weight. Results: The mean and standard deviations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), in refined table salts were 0.15 ± 0.02, 0.57 ± 0.1, 0.69 ± 0.09, 0.061 ± 0.008, 0.87 ± 0.11, and 6.34 ± 1.08 μg/g, and those in the unrefined ones were 0.16 ± 0.02, 0.61 ± 0.13, 0.63 ± 0.07, 0.058 ± 0.004, 0.86 ± 0.06, and 7.53 ± 2.93 μg/g, respectively. A PTWI via salt consumption was in the range of 0.8 - 3.1 percent.Conclusions: There was a significant difference between the heavy metal concentrations and their guideline values. Estimation of the health risk due to heavy metals was not possible as PTWI showed total intake of a metal by total food consumption during a week. Therefore, it was important to assess the public health risks arising from the presence of these toxic contaminants in the foods consumed by the population of Iran.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):8-8
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Outdoor investigation of air quality around Bandar Abbas - Iran oil
           refinery

    • Authors: Mehdi Zare, Ali Toolabi, Mohammad Reza Zare, Maryam Sarkhosh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ayat Rahmani, Ali Fatehizadeh
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Mehdi Zare, Ali Toolabi, Mohammad Reza Zare, Maryam Sarkhosh, Amir Hossein Mahvi, Ayat Rahmani, Ali Fatehizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):9-9
      Aims: This study has been conducted to assess air pollution, with respect to particulate matter less than 10 μm in diameter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and the Air Quality Index (AQI), in a location at close proximity to the Bandar Abbas-Iran oil refinery. Materials and Methods: In this study, a location with close proximity to Bandar Abbas oil refinery was selected as the sampling station. The Air Sampling period was from June to September 2010. In order to assess PM 10 concentrations, the samples were collected using a high volume sampler with fiberglass filters. To measure the concentrations of other air pollutants, including, SO 2 , CO, H 2 S, and NO 2 , real-time instruments were used. With regard to air pollutant concentrations, the AQI values were calculated and for the wind rose, the effect of the oil refinery on Bandar Abbas was evaluated. Results: According to the results from the present study, PM 10 , SO 2 , nd NO 2 concentrations were higher than the recommended values of the national ambient air standards. The maximum PM 10 and SO 2 concentrations and their resultant AQI values were observed in August and September, respectively. Other air pollutants had their highest concentrations in July and September, but in no case did they exceed the standard values.Conclusion: The three most significant outdoor problems with the air quality around Bandar Abbas oil refinery were the NO 2 , SO 2 , and PM 10 levels.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):9-9
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Determination of malachite green in trout tissue and effluent water from
           fish farms

    • Authors: Abbas Khodabakhshi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Abbas Khodabakhshi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):10-10
      Aims: The objective of this study was to determine the malachite green (MG) concentration in trout tissue and the effluent water of fish farms, at one of the largest trout fishery industries in Iran. Materiels and Methods: Twelve samples of water and fish tissue were collected from fish farms placed at the upstream ends of two large rivers in the study area. The samples, after extraction, were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The effluent water samples were also analyzed by the spectrophotometric method after cloud point extraction using the anionic surfactant Triton X-100. Results: The concentration of malachite green in the fish samples ranged from 265.2 to 1663 μg/kg, which is more than the recommended maximum allowable concentration by the Codex standards. MG in the water samples ranged from 5.65 ng/L to 384 μg/L. The equivalent concentrations of MG in the two large rivers in the study area were 1.78 and 0.62 ng/L, and the total MG load for these two rivers, with a fish production rate of 10,000 tons per year, was around 644 kg/d. Conclusion: We concluded that the concentration of MG used as an antimicrobial chemical in trout fish tissues and water samples in this study were out of compliance with the existing standards. Therefore, the fish products of these farms could cause serious public health hazards, and the discharge of the effluent from these farms, without treatment, posed potential environmental problems.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):10-10
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Influence of electrical conductivity on the phytoremediation of
           contaminated soils to Cd 2+ and Zn 2+

    • Authors: Maryam Salimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Afshin Ebrahimi, Akbar Ghazifard, Payam Najafi
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Maryam Salimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Afshin Ebrahimi, Akbar Ghazifard, Payam Najafi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):11-11
      Aims: This research was conducted to study the effects of the electrical conductivity (EC) of irrigation water and compost on the Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) uptake by sunflower, Helianthus annuus. The transfer of Cd and Zn from soils close to the Zn mine, to the sunflower tissues, and the interactions between the two concerned metals, were also investigated. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 10% weight/weight from municipal composts was applied to raw soils that were randomly collected from the mine region. Series analyses were also implemented by irrigation water, with EC values in the range of 0, 2, 4, and 6 dS/m. Results: The maximum uptake rate of Cd, with EC levels of 6 dS/m, in plant samples was 4.82 μg/g for the roots, 6.14 μg/g for the stems, and 5.4 μg/g for the leaves; and the maximum uptake of Zn, in plants irrigated with tap water, was 241 μg/g by the roots, 624 μg/g by the stems, and 229 μg/g by the leaves, respectively.Conclusions: Results showed that high EC levels of irrigation water increased Cd accumulation and decreased Zn accumulation in the shoots. The presence of high EC levels in irrigation water negatively affected biomass production by plants. Chlorine ion (Cl-) had a positive influence on Cd accumulation in the harvestable parts of the plant.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):11-11
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • An investigation on the lead and cadmium content in vegetables and
           irrigating water in some farms in Gorgan, Iran

    • Authors: Ali Shahryari, Yousef Dadban Shehamat
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Ali Shahryari, Yousef Dadban Shehamat
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):12-12
      Aims: The objective of this study is to investigate the levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in the vegetables from the farms of Gorgan, Iran, and compare them with the permissible levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) standard. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 40 samples of irrigating water and vegetables were collected, between the periods of August and December 2008. The Polarography apparatus was used to determine the amount of cadmium and lead after sample preparation. The level of significance was set at 5% for all the tests Result: The cadmium concentrations in spinach, garden cress, and radish were 0, 0.085, and 1.56 μg.kg -1 , respectively. The lead concentrations in spinach, garden cress, and Radish were 51.21, 40.13, and 87.27 μg.kg -1 , respectively. The cadmium concentration in irrigating water was not detectable with the Polarography apparatus. However, the lead concentration in water was 26.75 μg.kg -1. There was no significant variation between the cadmium levels in spinach and garden cress (P
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):12-12
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Determination of design parameters of urban wastewater treatment plants in
           the cold regions of Iran

    • Authors: Mehraban Sadeghi, Hassan Hashemi, Fahimeh Teimouri
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Mehraban Sadeghi, Hassan Hashemi, Fahimeh Teimouri
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):13-13
      Aims: This study has been conducted to focus on the localization of the design parameters used for the design of wastewater treatment plants in a region of Iran. Materials and Methods: Three wastewater treatment plants were selected (as models) in a cold weather region of Iran. The main characteristics of the wastewater, such as, flow rate and its fluctuations, total solids, and the organic and nutrient contents, which play an important role in the design and operation of the wastewater treatment facilities, were measured for the selected plants during a year. Results: The averages of the design parameters for the investigated plants, including, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorous (TP) were, 41, 60, 65, 47, 8.3, and 0.93 g/capita, respectively. Wastewater production was 177 lit/cap-day with a maximum and minimum coefficient of 1.76 and 0.29, respectively.Conclusions: Using design parameters based on the local characteristics and the real-world conditions of the wastewater, can result in more+operational efficiency in the wastewater plants. It is suggested that the results of this study can be applied to the design of wastewater facilities throughout Iran, with the same local conditions.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):13-13
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Feasibility energy recovery potential of municipal solid waste in
           Northwest of Iran

    • Authors: Amir Mohammadi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Amir Mohammadi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):14-14
      Aims: The goal of this study was the ultimate analysis and chemical composition of SW for energy recovery in Urmia city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was done on municipal SW in Urmia city, northwest of Iran. The samples were collected during the four seasons of a year. Experiments were analyzed according to the American Society for testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D 5231-92. The chemical composition of the SW was calculated, to determine the quantity of produced biogas and heat value. Results: The findings showed that food waste percent had been 68.9%, carbon/nitrogen (C/N) 18.33, containing 10.4% ash and 54% moisture. The calculated chemical composition of organic SW was (C27.7 H43.1O15.3 N1S0,065) with a heat value of the 2.2 × 104 Kj/Kg. The produced methane and heat value of the biodegradable organic SW, chemical formula C 23.63 H 37.52 O 14.65 N 1 S 0.069 , were 212 liters (151 g) and 9992 Kj per 1 Kg of SW.Conclusions: The recovery of SW energy through incineration was a better choice, due to the high heat value. However, it would produce more than 300 tons/day of greenhouse and poison gases, but land filling produced 200 tons/day of different gases. Thus, on the basis of the calculated SW composition in this research, it seemed that energy recovery through methane collection was a better option for this study area.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):14-14
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Catalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide and the adsorption combinatory
           process in leachate waste pretreatment from composting factory

    • Authors: Behrooze Karimi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Asghar Ebrahimi, Mehdi Mokhtari, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 15 - 15
      Abstract: Behrooze Karimi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Asghar Ebrahimi, Mehdi Mokhtari, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):15-15
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to use a combinational process of catalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide (CWPO) and activated carbon for improving the removal efficiency of organic matter. Materials and Methods: The effect of the operational parameters such as residence time (30 - 90 minutes), reaction temperature (100-300°C) in the pressure 10 bar, and catalytic iron concentration were investigated. The effect of the catalytic method, catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO), along with the absorption process, on granular activated carbon (GAC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), PAC/Cl 2 , and GAC/Fe were considered; oxygen is used to supply pressure and H 2 O 2 is applied as the main oxidant in various concentrations. Results: The removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was over 35%, obtained in one hour of retention time, with the wet air oxidation (WAO) process, and the removal efficiencies of GAC, PAC, and PAC/Cl 2 , at a temperature of 300°C, and activated carbon concentration of 2 g/l, were 43.4, 38.9, and 33.6%, respectively.Conclusion: These results indicate that the reaction temperature, residence time, and H2O2 dose are the most important factors affecting the degradation of organic matter. The GAC/Fe catalyst process had a higher efficiency than other absorbents for organic matter oxidation.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):15-15
      PubDate: Wed,28 Mar 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Effects of sequential ozonation and adsorption in the removal of
           water-soluble fraction of crude oil, leading to total organic carbon and
           toxicity reduction for rainbow trout larvae

    • Authors: Mohsen Sadani, Hossein Movahedian, Maryam Faraji, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
      Pages: 16 - 16
      Abstract: Mohsen Sadani, Hossein Movahedian, Maryam Faraji, Yaghoub Hajizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):16-16
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the sequential application of ozonation and activated carbon processes in the elimination of water-soluble crude oil and thereby reducing total organic carbon (TOC) and toxicity for the rainbow trout larvae.Materials and Methods: A series of water-soluble fractions of crude oil, 5-100 ml/l, were prepared. Groups of ten rainbow trout fish larvae were exposed to the solution for 24, 48, and 96 hours. Toxicity (LC 50 : Median lethal concentration) and TOC tests were performed for the solutions before and after their treatment by sequential ozonation and activated carbon adsorption.Results: The LC 50 (96 hours) and TOC of the sample before the treatment process were 60 mg/l and 55 mg/l, respectively. After adsorption by 10 mg/l activated carbon, followed by ozonation with a concentration of 1 mg/l, the LC 50 increased to 145 mg/l and TOC reduced to 36 mg/l. Those values, after treatment with 30 mg/l activated carbon, followed by 7 mg/l ozone, reached 196 mg/l and 28 mg/l, respectively. In the experiment, ozonation by 1 mg/l ozone was applied, and then adsorption was carried out by 10 mg/l activated carbon, and the LC 50 was 149 and TOC was 35 mg/l. In the experiments with 7 mg/l ozone followed by 30 mg/l activated carbon, LC 50 reached 204 mg/l and TOC reduced to 28.5 mg/l.Conclusions: Primarily ozonation of crude oil polluted waters followed by adsorption by activated carbon can increase the removal efficiency of the process, which results in significant TOC and toxicity reduction.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):16-16
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96003
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Ability of phytoremediation for absorption of strontium and cesium from
           soils using Cannabis sativa

    • Authors: Parisa Seyed Hoseini, Parinaz Poursafa, Faramarz Moattar, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Amir Hossein Rezaei
      Pages: 17 - 17
      Abstract: Parisa Seyed Hoseini, Parinaz Poursafa, Faramarz Moattar, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Amir Hossein Rezaei
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):17-17
      Aims: This study is aimed at assessing the effectiveness of Cannabis sativa in the absorption of cesium and strontium elements from the soil.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2011, in Tehran, Iran. We employed the phytoremediation technology to refine the contamination of soil with radioactive material such as cesium and strontium. Cannabis sativa was selected because of its capability for potential radioactive absorption. It was planted in various soils with different concentrations of cesium and strontium (20 ppm, 40 ppm, 60 ppm, and 80 ppm), and after sufficient growth for about six months, it was separated into root, stem, and leaves for measuring the absorption of these elements in the main parts of the plant. The samples were measured by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) method.Results: Strontium absorption and the main parts of the plant showed a significant relationship. The percentage of strontium absorption was 45% in the root, 40% in the stem, and the minimum absorption was found in the leaves (15%), but the corresponding figure was not significant for the cesium element. A strontium concentration of 60 ppm was possibly the maximum absorption concentration by Cannabis.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that strontium can be absorbed by Cannabis sativa, with the highest absorption by the roots, stems, and leaves. However, cesium does not reach the plant because of its single capacity and inactive complex formation.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):17-17
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96004
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Combination of wet bulb globe temperature and heart rate in hot climatic
           conditions: The practical guidance for a better estimation of the heat
           strain

    • Authors: Habibollah Dehghan, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Mohammad Reza Maracy
      Pages: 18 - 18
      Abstract: Habibollah Dehghan, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Mohammad Reza Maracy
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):18-18
      Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the combined application of wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and physiological strain Iindices based on heart rate (PSI HR ) for the estimation of heat strain, in hot climatic conditions.Materials and Methods: This cross - sectional study was conducted on 122 men including 71 and 51 workers from the Assaluyeh National Petrochemical Company and Isfahan Steel Company in the center and south of Iran, respectively. The WBGT index, heart rate, and auditory canal temperature were measured at rest and when working. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression.Results: The results of the logistic regression indicated that the WBGT index was a poor predictor of heat strain and its sensitivity and specificity were 53 and 65%, respectively. However, the combined application of the WBGT and PSI HR indices was a better predictor of heat strain, and the sensitivity and specificity of this combination were 75 and 69%, respectively.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the combined application of the WBGT and PSI HR indices can be used as a valid estimator of heat strain in hot climatic conditions in the center and south of Iran.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):18-18
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96006
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Evaluation of flat sheet membrane bioreactor efficiency for municipal
           wastewater treatment

    • Authors: Somayeh Fazeli, Ali Fatehizadeh, Amir Hesam Hassani, Ali Torabian, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 19 - 19
      Abstract: Somayeh Fazeli, Ali Fatehizadeh, Amir Hesam Hassani, Ali Torabian, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):19-19
      Aim: In this paper, the feasibility of flat-sheet membrane bioreactor (FS-MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment was studied.Materials and Methods: In this study, treatment of municipal wastewater in a submerged FS-MBR was investigated under different aeration time and flux. A bioreactor consist of microfiltration membrane (MF) and actual municipal wastewater as influent stream. The FS-MBR was operated during 161 days.Results: The result showed that average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) were obtained>90% and with variation of influent COD, BOD 5 , TSS and VSS, the removal efficiency no significantly change. The mixed liquor-suspended solids (MLSS) and mixed liquor volatile-suspended solids (MLVSS) concentration during experiment increases from low concentration to about 7.9 and 6.5 g/L, respectively. The average of PO4 3+ -P, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia and fecal coliform (FC) removal efficiency during the operation period was 62, 98, 70% and 8 log, respectively.Conclusion: It is concluded that FS-MBR can be used in the large scale municipal wastewater treatment plants to improve effluent quality due to high removal of COD, BOD 5 , TSS and VSS to meet effluent discharge standards.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):19-19
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96008
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Noise pollution of air compressor and its noise reduction procedures by
           using an enclosure

    • Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Parvin Nassiri, Mohammad Reza Monazzam
      Pages: 20 - 20
      Abstract: Farhad Forouharmajd, Parvin Nassiri, Mohammad Reza Monazzam
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):20-20
      Aims: The aim of this study is to find manners of noise abatement to reach to its allowable values by which the noise caused by compressors can be reduced, and if use of enclosure is an effective alternative. Materials and Methods: In the study, analysis of noise caused by the compressor and how distribution of sound frequencies with and without the use of enclosure was done, and then compared with standard values to help choose the best absorber material. This method is in accordance with the in situ assessment techniques for noise generated by different sources. A second order analyzer was use to study the recorded sound pressure level (SPL) values, and to demonstrate which frequencies can be more important in designing the enclosure. A sheet metal was used for enclosing the compressor, and this was lined with an absorber material to achieve a better sound reduction. SPL levels, before and after the enclosure of the compressor with the sheet material, were measured and compared. Results: There was a reduction in the level of noise produced for all frequencies due to use of the enclosure, a difference of 10 to 50 dB of reduction was recorded for all the frequencies. For higher frequencies in the range of 500 Hz to 4000 H, the SPL showed a similar reduction. A reduction of 50 dB in the produced noise below the standard was seen for the frequency of 63.5 Hz in octave band frequencies. There was also a permissible limit for higher frequencies of noise produced by the compressor, but with a gap of 10 dB of its standard limit at the frequency of 500 Hz.Conclusions: An overall noise reduction by 25 dB with the use of mineral wool as an extra liner on the inside of the enclosure, suggests that the effectiveness of the enclosure can be increased by using such absorber materials.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):20-20
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96143
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • The evaluation of heat stress through monitoring environmental factors and
           physiological responses in melting and casting industries workers

    • Authors: Habibollah Dehghan, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mahdi Jahangiri
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: Habibollah Dehghan, Seyed Bagher Mortazavi, Mohammad Javad Jafari, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mahdi Jahangiri
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):21-21
      Aims: Evaluation of heat stress in workers exposed to hot/dry conditions of melting and casting industry is imperative for management of heat stress. This study aims to compare results of heat strain evaluation by monitoring environmental factors and physiological responses. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted on 51 workers of a large melting and casting company in 2010. Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index, heart rate and ear canal temperature were measured by WBGT meter, heart rate monitor and personal heat stress monitor, respectively. Physical activity intensity was assessed based on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test. Results: WBGT index in 64.7% of workstations exceeded 30°C and in 41.2% was over 32°C. The value of WBGT index in 69% of work stations exceeded the threshold limit of the ACGIH standard. The physiological strain index (PSI) in 31% of worker was higher than 5, although its mean measured at 3.8 (1.8). Increase in the ear canal temperature in 64.7% of cases (33 persons) was over 1°C. Correlation between WBGT index with ear canal temperature and PSI index, adjusted body mass index and age, was 0.67 and 0.69 (P < 0.0001).Conclusion: In hot/dry conditions of melting and casting processes, despite moderate correlation between WBGT index with ear canal temperature and PSI index, work-rest cycles of WBGT index is not applicable for many of the workstations. Therefore, heat stress evaluation based on physiological variables probably has higher validity and is more appropriate.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):21-21
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96144
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Biodegradation of benzene-toluene-xylene in petrochemical industries
           wastewater through anaerobic sequencing biofilm batch reactor in bench
           scale

    • Authors: Maryam Estebar, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Parinaz Poursafa, Mohammad Ghasemian, Neamat Jaafarzadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Ali Fatehizadeh
      Pages: 22 - 22
      Abstract: Maryam Estebar, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Parinaz Poursafa, Mohammad Ghasemian, Neamat Jaafarzadeh, Hassan Hashemi, Ali Fatehizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):22-22
      Aims: This study aims to evaluate the performance of the anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) for biodegradation of Benzene-Toluene-Xylene (BTX) that is present in petrochemical synthetic wastewater. Materials and Methods: A laboratory-scale ASBBR was used to treat a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater that contained BTX. The operation schedule was: Fill time: 10 minutes, reaction time: 22.8 hours, settling time: 60 minutes, and decant time: 10 minutes, at 35΀C. The BTX samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) equipped with head space. Results: After reaching to stable operation, the reactor was exposed to influent BTX concentrations of 5, 20, and 50 mg/l, with overall organic loading rate of 3 g COD/l.d resulting in 61, 79, and 50% removal efficiencies for the BTX, respectively. At this time, the removal efficiencies for COD were 75, 90, and 70%.Conclusions: The optimum BTX removal of 79% was achieved in 3 g COD/l.d and HRT of 3.8 days, at influent BTX concentration of 20 mg/l. Thus, it could be concluded that ASBBR was a feasible, efficient, and consistent technology for treatment of petrochemical wastewaters containing BTX. The ASBBR might be an alternative to intermittent systems as well as batch systems due to its superior operational flexibility.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):22-22
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96145
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Antibacterial effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver composition on
           selected pathogenic enterobacteriaceae

    • Authors: Mojtaba Davoudi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Tahereh Vakili, Abdorrahim Absalan, Asghar Ebrahimi
      Pages: 23 - 23
      Abstract: Mojtaba Davoudi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Tahereh Vakili, Abdorrahim Absalan, Asghar Ebrahimi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):23-23
      Aims: Antibacterial effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver composition on selected pathogenic enterobacteriaceae was investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: The efficacy of 30 ppb silver in 0.3% hydrogen peroxide solution for inactivation of selected Enterobacteriaceae, including Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was assessed for 72 hours in a designated nutrient broth medium and steel surface. The bactericidal growth ability was determined for each bacterium genus by the conventional colony count method and turbidimetry via an optical density (OD) assay at 450 nm in a time interval of 24 hours. Results: Suspensions of K.pneumoniae, and P.mirabilis showed a significant OD reduction at three 24-hour intervals (CI = 0.95; P < 0.05, for both), along with blocked growth in a designated broth medium during 24 to 48 hours of exposure. The disinfectant was also significantly efficient for inactivating of the mentioned bacteria on steel surfaces after a 15-minute time exposure (CI = 0.95; P < 0.05). For E.coli, the OD decreased slightly during the initial exposure time, but increased after 24 hours. Viable E.coli cells were proved by colonies grown on the plate. A qualitative surface decontamination test showed that three pathogenic bacteria were inactivated significantly after disinfectant exposure (CI = 0.95, P < 0.05). Conclusions: In conclusion, a combination of hydrogen peroxide and silver ions was proposed as a strong disinfecting agent both in suspensions and on the surfaces against these three important human pathogens.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):23-23
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96148
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Active noise cancellation of low frequency noise propagating in a duct

    • Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Parvin Nassiri, Masoumeh Ahmadvand, Farshad Forouharmajd
      Pages: 24 - 24
      Abstract: Farhad Forouharmajd, Parvin Nassiri, Masoumeh Ahmadvand, Farshad Forouharmajd
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):24-24
      Aims: The object is to find a manner of reduction primary noise from a source by an electro acoustic device that cancels unwanted sound by generating an anti sound (anti noise) of equal amplitude and an opposite phase is described as an active noise control system.Materials and Methods: In this method, the primary noise is acquired via a microphone, and the anti noise propagates with the same amplitude and the reverse phase at the primary noise path via a speaker to cancel the original noise. The effectiveness of cancellation of the primary noise depends on the accuracy of the amplitude and phase of the generated anti noise.Results: The results present a noise reduction of 16 dB until 20 dB overall. A change in the system setup and noise power can reach a noise reduction up to 25 dB. Perhaps, this is due to the background noise and primary noise differences that create a powerful anti noise for canceling the original noise.Conclusions: With regard to the wide range of frequencies of different noise sources, having optimized circumstances in the duct, microphone location on the duct body or even the distance of the speakers may be important in signal processing, noise sampling and anti noise production.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):24-24
      PubDate: Tue,15 May 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.96005
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Decolorization of synthetic wastewaters by nickel oxide nanoparticle

    • Authors: Roya Nateghi, Gholam Reza Bonyadinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamed Mohammadi
      Pages: 25 - 25
      Abstract: Roya Nateghi, Gholam Reza Bonyadinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hamed Mohammadi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):25-25
      Aims: In this study, the adsorption process using nickel oxide nanoparticles was studied in a laboratory scale for wastewater treatment containing mono azo Orange II dye. Materials and Methods: The effect of various parameters such as initial dye concentration, pH, contact time and different concentrations of nickel oxide was investigated. The adsorption experiments were done with different concentrations of dye in a solution using a specific amount of nickel oxide nanoparticle with different pH values and a agitator speed of 100 revolutions per minute (rpm) for about 2 hours. Samples were centrifuged and the concentration of each dye was determined by ultraviolet (UV)-Vis spectrophotometer (DR 5000). Results: Based on obtained results, the optimum pH range to dye removal is acidic pH, and under lab conditions, 0.6 g/L of nickel oxide can completely remove the 50 mg/L of dye. Although increasing the dye concentration resulted in decreased process efficiency, up to 100 mg/L of dye concentration, considerable efficiency was obtained.Conclusions: The data showed that the nickel oxide nanoparticles could be used as an efficient adsorbent for decolorization of azo dyes.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):25-25
      PubDate: Thu,12 Jul 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.98384
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Isotherms and kinetics of lead and cadmium uptake from the waste leachate
           by natural and modified clinoptilolite

    • Authors: Maryam Faraji, Ehsan Abooi Mehrizi, Mohsen Sadani, Mostafa Karimaei, Esmaeil Ghahramani, Kamal Ghadiri, Mohammad Sadegh Taghizadeh
      Pages: 26 - 26
      Abstract: Maryam Faraji, Ehsan Abooi Mehrizi, Mohsen Sadani, Mostafa Karimaei, Esmaeil Ghahramani, Kamal Ghadiri, Mohammad Sadegh Taghizadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):26-26
      Aims: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the absorption of lead and cadmium from the leachate, by natural zeolite clinoptilolite and improving the zeolite ability by a modified surface. Materials and Methods: To examine the absorption ability of these two metals (lead and cadmium), the variables, such as, type of sorbent, sorbent concentration, and contact time were studied. Zeolite samples were analyzed by X-ray florescence, the spectrum of X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Results: The absorption efficiency of the modified zeolites were increased from 4.2 and 5.3 percent to 71.6 and 75.2 percent for lead and cadmium, respectively. With increasing the surfactant concentration from 2 to 20 mmol/L, the absorption efficiency of modified zeolite for lead and cadmium was increased to 71 and 74%, respectively. The best isotherm model for lead adsorption was Freundlich model, with a determination coefficient equal to 0.99, and for cadmium it was Langmuir model with a determination coefficient equal to 0.99.Conclusions: The modified zeolite with surfactant can be used as an appropriate adsorbent for the separation of heavy metals from waste Leachate. Lead and cadmium were absorbed in a single layer on the surface of the modified zeolite with surfactant, comparing different isoterm models, indicated that the capacity of the modified zeolite for lead adsorption was more than cadmium adsorption, but cadmium was absorbed with higher energy.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):26-26
      PubDate: Thu,12 Jul 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.98385
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Inhibition effects of antibiotics ampicillin and gentamycin on the
           methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    • Authors: Mahnaz Heidari, BiBi Fatemeh Nabavi, Hajar Saffari Khouzani, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 27 - 27
      Abstract: Mahnaz Heidari, BiBi Fatemeh Nabavi, Hajar Saffari Khouzani, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):27-27
      Aims: Inhibition behavior of two types of antibiotics including Ampicillin and Gentamicin on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass has been investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Specific Methanogenic Activity (SMA) tests were conducted in 120-ml vials containing 40 v/v% substrate, 37 v/v% biomass and 23 v/v% biogas in batch mode for 20-25 days. Produced methane was measured by gas replacement with 2N KOH solution as CO 2 absorbent. Three volatile fatty acids (VFAs) including acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were used as co-substrate. Results: In the tests with 200, 500 and 1000 mg/l of ampicillin at presence of acetic acid, the cumulative SMA were 66, 101, and 154 ml CH 4 /g VSS.d, those of with propionic acid were 25, 35, and 46 ml CH 4 /g VSS.d, and with butyric acid the values of 198,140, and 245 ml CH 4 /g VSS.d were obtained respectively. In the experiments with 100, 500 and 1000 mg/l of gentamicin the cumulative SMA were 141, 204, and 257 ml CH 4 /g VSS.d for acetic acid as a substrate, 54, 72 and 71 ml CH 4 /g VSS.d for propionic acid, and 139, 74, and 85.5 ml CH 4 /g VSS.d for butyric acid, respectively.Conclusion: At the same concentrations, ampicillin showed more inhibitory effect than gentamicin on anaerobic decomposition of biomass. Within the used VFAs, the inhibitory effects of propionic acid was greater than acetic acid and butyric acid.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):27-27
      PubDate: Fri,3 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.99318
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Evaluation of UV/O 3 process for removal of methyl tertiary-butyl ether in
           aqueous solutions

    • Authors: Ali Assadi, Mojgan Alighardashi, Simin Nasseri, Foad Kazemi, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi
      Pages: 28 - 28
      Abstract: Ali Assadi, Mojgan Alighardashi, Simin Nasseri, Foad Kazemi, Mohammad Reza Mehrasbi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):28-28
      Aims: In the present investigation, the methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) removal efficiency from the synthetic solutions by the means of advanced oxidation process of UV/O 3 was studied. Materials and Methods: To study the efficiency of process, the following variables were studied: ozone concentration, pH, MTBE initial concentration, and radiation duration. As The radiation source, a Mercury vapor UV lamp with moderate pressure (400W) was used which was immersed vertically in the solution containing MTBE, in a glass reactor (Volume: 2 L). Results: The results showed that the efficiency of UV radiation and ozone alone in 50 mg/L concentration and pH: 7 on MTBE removal was 4 and 53%, respectively. The UV/O 3 compound process removal efficiency in 60 minutes was 63%. The pH played a significant role in the process, as with the increase in pH, the removal rate increased as well. The removal rates for the initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L of MTBE were 98, 81.5, 72.8, and 63.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present survey indicated that the efficiency of the UV/O 3 combination process was more than ultraviolet (UV) and Ozone alone. In the UV/O 3 combination process, the MTBE removal efficiency increased as the O 3 concentration and pH increased, while the efficiency decreased as the MTBE concentration decreased.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):28-28
      PubDate: Fri,3 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.99320
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Feasibility of humic substances removal by enhanced coagulation process in
           surface water

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mahdi Safari, Afshin Maleki, Mohammad Ghasemian, Reza Rezaee, Hassan Hashemi
      Pages: 29 - 29
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mahdi Safari, Afshin Maleki, Mohammad Ghasemian, Reza Rezaee, Hassan Hashemi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):29-29
      Aims: This study evaluates the effectiveness of polyaluminium chloride (PACl)as a coagulant for enhanced coagulation (EC) of humic substances (HS) in surface water. Materials and Methods: Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV 254 ), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), and humic acid (HA) were determined as the HS indices. HS was extracted by Amberlit XAD-7HP from water and HA was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HS index was determined in raw water and after clarification and filtration in all seasons. The efficiency of PACl for removal of HS, both in the jar test and pilot scale were determined. Results: The average extraction efficiency for XAD-7HP was 77%, and the HA concentration was determined in all seasons ranging from 0.15 to 0.29 mg/ L in raw water. The DOC in raw water was in the range of 1.5 to 4mg/L, in all seasons. The average removal efficiency of PACl for EC was 52% for HA in the pilot scale. Also the average removal efficiencies of PACl EC for DOC and UV 254 were 43 and 57% on the pilot scale and 38 and 41% in the jar test, respectively. The optimum pH for removal of HS was 7.5 ± 0.2 and the optimum PACl dose was 12 ± 0.5 mg/L. Conclusions: After EC, the aluminum concentration was lower than the maximum concentration level (MCL) of aluminum in drinking water (< 0.05 mg/L). The efficiency of PACl EC was more effective in the high molecular weight fraction of HS and UV 254 . In addition, PACl EC was more affected by the increasing coagulant dose than the pH decrease. The removal efficiency of PACl EC at high pH> 8.5 was very poor for the HS index and turbidity.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):29-29
      PubDate: Fri,3 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.99323
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Performance of the catalytic ozonation process with pumice in removal of
           humic acids from aqueous solutions

    • Authors: Ghorban Asgari, Abdolmotaleb Seyd Mohammadi, Afshin Ebrahimi
      Pages: 30 - 30
      Abstract: Ghorban Asgari, Abdolmotaleb Seyd Mohammadi, Afshin Ebrahimi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):30-30
      Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of applying pumice as a catalyst in the ozonation process for removal of humic acids from aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: The molecular structure and chemical composition of pumice were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The catalytic ozonation experiments were performed in a semi-batch reactor and the mass of ozone produced was measured by means of iodometric titration methods. Concentration changes in humic acid were determined using a spectrophotometer, at an absorption wavelength of 254 nm. To evaluate the performance of catalytic ozonation in humic acid removal, effects of different parameters including pH, contact time, pumice dosage, and t-butyl alcohol (TBA) were examined. Results: The catalytic ozonation results showed that the use of pumice as a catalyst increased the decomposition of humic acid eight times, and the removal efficiency increased as the pH changed from 4 to 12 and catalyst dosage changed from 0.25 to 10 g/l. The catalytic ozonation with considerable efficiency (90%) removed humic acid in less time (10 minutes) than the sole ozonation process (SOP). Moreover; the results indicated that the catalytic ozonation process (COP), compared to conventional SOP, was less affected by the radical scavenger. Conclusions: Due to the low cost, easy access, and remarkable performance of pumice as a catalyst, it can be used in conventional sole ozonation processes for removing organic pollutants.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):30-30
      PubDate: Fri,3 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.99327
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Decolorization of direct poly azo dye with nanophotocatalytic UV/NiO
           process

    • Authors: Ali Assadi, Roya Nateghi, Gholam Reza Bonyadinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 31 - 31
      Abstract: Ali Assadi, Roya Nateghi, Gholam Reza Bonyadinejad, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):31-31
      Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficiency of ultraviolet/ nickel oxide (UV/NiO) system as one form of advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for decolorization of red poly azo. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a laboratory scale in a batch mode. Ultraviolet radiation was provided by a low pressure (11 W) UV lamp. Effects of various factors including pH, different irradiation durations, different concentration of nickel oxide, and initial dye concentration were evaluated. Results: The results of the UV/NiO system's assessment showed that UV light alone cannot remove DR 80 dye. Nickel oxide is an effective catalyst in the decolorization of dye with the nanophotocatalytic process. The decolorization efficiency increases with decreasing pH value and the optimum pH value is 4. Fainally, the highest removal efficiency achieved by UV/NiO process for DR 80 dye with concentrations of 25 mg/l and 50 mg/l was 94.3% and 82.2%, respectively. UV/NiO-based decolorization process follows pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics. Conclusions: From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that UV/NiO process is an effective technique for decolorization of poly azo dye, DR 80, in aqueous solutions.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):31-31
      PubDate: Fri,3 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.99331
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points in the
           drinking water supply system

    • Authors: Asghar Tavasolifar, Bijan Bina, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Jalali
      Pages: 32 - 32
      Abstract: Asghar Tavasolifar, Bijan Bina, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohammad Jalali
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):32-32
      Aims: This study was aimed to design comprehensive risk management based on hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in the Isfahan drinking water system. Materials and Methods: Data obtained from field inspections and through related organizations of Isfahan, Iran. The most important risks and risky events of water quality in all sources of raw water in the study area including the Zayanderoud river, the water treatment plant, and the distribution system were identified and analyzed. Practical measures for the protection, control, and limitation of the risks in different phases, from water supply to consumption point, were presented in the form of seven principles of the HACCP system. Results: It was found that there was a potential of hazards during the treatment process of water because of seasonal changes and discharge of various pollutants. Water contamination could occur in eight identified critical control points (CCP). River water could be contaminated by rural communities on the banks of the river, by natural and sudden accidents, by subversive accidents, by incomplete operation, by lack of proportionate of the current treatment process, and by the high extent of antiquity of the Isfahan water distribution system. Conclusions: In order to provide safe drinking water, it is necessary to implement a modern risk management system such as the HACCP approach. The increasing trend of the Zayandehroud river pollution needs urgent attention. Therefore, the role of the government in developing and mandating the HACCP system in water industries is essential.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):32-32
      PubDate: Fri,3 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.99334
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Kinetic and isotherm studies of humic acid adsorption onto iron oxide
           magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous solutions

    • Authors: Hamzeh Esmaeili, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mehdi Hajian, Hamid Reza Pourzamani
      Pages: 33 - 33
      Abstract: Hamzeh Esmaeili, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mehdi Hajian, Hamid Reza Pourzamani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):33-33
      Aims: In this study, humic acid (HA) removal by iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IOMNPs) was surveyed in aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: Batch adsorption technique was used to determine kinetic and isotherm parameters. The effects of pH value, agitation rate, adsorbent dose, contact times and the adsorbate concentrations on the adsorption efficiency were studied as critical parameters. The IOMNPs was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Results: HA adsorption on the IOMNPs was fitted with Freundlich isotherm model and followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Results revealed that at HA concentration of 10 mg/L, pH 4.5, adsorbent dose of 2.7 g/L, agitation rate of 250 rpm and contact time of 90 min at presence of 0.1 M NaCl as an ionic strength agent, the HA removal reached to about 98%. Also, the turbidity of treated samples was increased with increasing of HA loading.Conclusions: With increasing HA concentrations, adsorption capacity of IOMNPs was increased and HA removal efficiency was decreased. By adding ionic strength, HA removal was improved and turbidity of treated samples was reduced.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):33-33
      PubDate: Mon,27 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.100133
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Macroergonomic conditions and job satisfaction among employees of an
           industry

    • Authors: Ehsanollah Habibi, Mohsen Zare, Navid Reza Amini, Syamak Pourabdian, Masoud Rismanchian
      Pages: 34 - 34
      Abstract: Ehsanollah Habibi, Mohsen Zare, Navid Reza Amini, Syamak Pourabdian, Masoud Rismanchian
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):34-34
      Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between macroergonomics score and job satisfaction among industrial employees. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among 83 employees from a factory affiliated with Iran Khodro Company. Two questionnaires including Minnesota Job Satisfaction and Macroergonomics Condition have been used. Finally, the collected data was evaluated and analyzed through SPSS 10 software program. Results: The mean age of the subjects in this study was 30.8 and the work experience of 56.6% of them was between 4 and 7 years. The average macroergonomics score in the whole group in this study was 59.8. The maximum score given to this condition was 85, and the minimum score was 30. Also, the mean of job satisfaction score among the subjects was 60.5. The highest job satisfaction score was related to supervisors, which was about 69.2. There was a significant relationship between the general area of macroergonomics and job satisfaction. (r = 0.638, P-value
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):34-34
      PubDate: Mon,27 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.100135
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Anaerobic biodegradation of ethylene dichloride in an anaerobic sequential
           batch reactor

    • Authors: Asadollah Nadi, Ali Fatehizadeh, Amir Hesam Hassani, Mohammad Reza Marasy, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 35 - 35
      Abstract: Asadollah Nadi, Ali Fatehizadeh, Amir Hesam Hassani, Mohammad Reza Marasy, Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):35-35
      Aims: The efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) in ethylene dichloride ( EDC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal at different operational conditions was evaluated.Materials and Methods: Biological EDC and COD removal was studied in a laboratory scale ASBR. The ASBR was seeded at the start-up with granular anaerobic sludge of sugarcane industry and operated at different organic loading rates (OLR), EDC loading rates, and influent concentration of COD and EDC.Results: During start-up period, COD removal efficiencies of above 80% were selected for reactor adaptation to achieve steady state during 48 days of operation. Maximum COD removal efficiency was 95% with an influent COD concentration of 1700 mg/L at 0.5 gCOD/L.d, and the efficiency rapidly dropped with increasing influent COD concentrations and OLR. When the EDC loading rate was adjusted between 0.6 to 4.7 gCOD/L.d, the EDC removal efficiencies were 95% and 46%, respectively, with influent EDC concentrations of 2000 and 16000 mg/L at the end of EDC loading stage. The kinetic study showed that the EDC and COD removal by ASBR followed the second order kinetic.Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, the ASBR process is successfully applicable for biodegradation of the COD and EDC (>90%) in wastewater treatment. The kinetic study showed that, at same time, ASBR capable to removing COD rather than EDC.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):35-35
      PubDate: Mon,27 Aug 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.100137
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Molecular genetic identification and metal biosorption by a Geobacillus
           genospecies IRKM1 isolated from Deeymand hot spring, Kerman, Iran

    • Authors: Asieh Dokhani, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Azita Khosravan, Zinat Asgarani, Majid Moghbeli
      Pages: 36 - 36
      Abstract: Asieh Dokhani, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Azita Khosravan, Zinat Asgarani, Majid Moghbeli
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):36-36
      Aims: This study deals with molecular identification, susceptibility, and metal biosorption of a Geobacillus genospecies isolated from Deeymand hot spring at the south east region of Kerman, Iran. Materials and Methods: Two samples were collected from water and sediment of the hot spring. Genomic DNA was extracted by sucrose lysis technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using the universal primers corresponding to Escherichia coli 16S rRNA gene. Both strands of the PCR product were sequenced by dideoxy chain termination method. The susceptibility of the isolate to Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ was determined by broth dilution method. Biosorption of dried biomass for the metal solutions was measured at different time intervals (5-300 min). Effect of temperature on biosorption of Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ was also determined. Results: Temperature of hot spring was 73°C and pH was 8. As result of sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, it was found that the organism had 99.8% similarity with member of genus Geobacillus. Phylogenetic tree and neighbor-joining phylogeny revealed that the isolate had 99.22% sequence similarity with Geobacillus uzenensis and 99.15% with Geobacillus jurassicus. The isolate exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 mM to Cu 2+ and 5 mM to Ni 2+ . Minimum biosorption of Ni 2+ occurred at 5 min (0.07%/0.1 g biomass) and maximum biosorption occurred at 120 min (29.6%/0.1 g biomass), while minimum biosorption of Cu 2+ ion occurred within 5 min (16.6%/0.1 g biomass) and maximum occurred at 210 min (77.8%/0.1 g biomass) (P < 0.05). Biosorption of Ni 2+ was the highest at 27°C (89.8%) and Cu 2+ biosorption occurred at 65°C (77.8%). Geobacillus genospecies IRKM1 did not carry any plasmid.Conclusions: The above results showed that the isolate was a member of Geobacillus spp. and the thermophilic bacteria was moderately resistant to Cu and Ni metals even though there was not any previous contamination of that biological niche. The organism exhibited highest biosorption of Cu 2+ at 65°C and Ni 2+ at 27°C. No plasmid was detected in the Geobacillus isolate.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):36-36
      PubDate: Sat,6 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102089
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin antibiotics on
           specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hassan Hashemi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Asghar Ebrahimi
      Pages: 37 - 37
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hassan Hashemi, Afshin Ebrahimi, Asghar Ebrahimi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):37-37
      Aims: The purpose of this study was to survey the antibiotics effects of oxytetracycline, tylosin, and amoxicillin on anerobic wastewater treatment process.Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibitory antibiotics amoxicillin, tetracycline, and tylosin on biomass activity, specific methanogenic activity (SMA) using anerobic biomass batch; into 120 ml vials: 30 ml biomass and 70 ml substrate including volatile fatty acids, mainly acetic acid and various concentrations of antibiotics were added. Methane gas production replacement through solution of KOH (2 N) as an absorber of CO 2 and bromine thymol blue as indicator was measured. Each batch was tested for 10 days. Results: Based on the findings, inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and tylosin were 8000, 9000, and 9000 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that with increasing concentrations of antibiotics, the produced biogas volume from biomass per unit weight is decreased. COD removal was 42-82 % due to long retention time and adsorption to flocks.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):37-37
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102356
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Comparison of conventional activated sludge system and stabilization pond
           in removal of chemical and biological parameters

    • Authors: Kiomars Sharafi, Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil, Mohsen Heidari, Ali Almasi, Hossein Taheri
      Pages: 38 - 38
      Abstract: Kiomars Sharafi, Mehdi Fazlzadeh Davil, Mohsen Heidari, Ali Almasi, Hossein Taheri
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):38-38
      Aims: The aims of this study were to determine the efficiency of Kermanshah wastewater treatment plant (conventional activated sludge) and Gilan-e-Gharb wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds) in removal of organic matters (BOD 5 and COD), suspended solids, total coliform, protozoan cyst, and parasitic eggs in order to reuse their effluent for agriculture. Materials and Methods: In this study, the samples were taken every five days from both inlet and outlet of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for five months. Identification and counting of the protozoa cysts and parasitic eggs was carried out using McMaster slide according to Bailenger method. Other parameters were determined according to standard methods. Appropriate statistical techniques (T-test, Kolmogorov Smirnov test, and Mann-Whitney U test, Using SPSS ver. 16) were applied to interpret data. Results: The efficiencies of Kermanshah wastewater treatment plant in removing BOD 5 , COD, TSS, total coliform, parasitic eggs, and protozoan cyst were 82 ± 4%, 83 ± 2%, 78 ± 5%, 66.2 ± 4.2%, 97-99%, and 99-100%, respectively. The respective efficiencies for Gilan-e-Gharb stabilization ponds were determined as % 84 ± 3, %82 ± 8, %84 ± 5.3, %75 ± 6, %100, and %100. Conclusions: According to the results, the removal efficiencies of all parameters except COD in stabilization ponds are higher than those in the activated sludge. Effluent quality in both plants met agricultural effluent reuse standards in view of all studied parameters except total coliform.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):38-38
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102360
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Evaluation of SO 2 level in the ambient air of Khark Island

    • Authors: Taghi Aliyan, Mohammad Javad Daryalal, Hamidreza Pourzamani
      Pages: 39 - 39
      Abstract: Taghi Aliyan, Mohammad Javad Daryalal, Hamidreza Pourzamani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):39-39
      Aims: In this study the concentration of SO 2 in Khark Island was evaluated via passive sampling. Materials and Methods: The climate of the region and SO 2 level were investigated during one year. For SO 2 sampling, sulphatation pages was used and SO 2 was determined by PbO 2 method monthly. The climate data was obtained from Khark airport meteorology station. Results: For SO 2 sampling, the sulphatation pages were installed at six locations in the region for a month. The results indicate the level of this gas is more than air standard. So that, SO 2 concentration in residential Khark area was more than 8.5 ΅g/cm 2 day. Conclusions: High gas concentrations and climate conditions can cause accelerated corrosion of facilities and can have adverse effects on human and natural resources of the island.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):39-39
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102368
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Relation between road accidents and sleep quality of heavy vehicle drivers
           in Yazd

    • Authors: Gholam Hossein Halvani, Reza Jafari Nodoushan, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh
      Pages: 40 - 40
      Abstract: Gholam Hossein Halvani, Reza Jafari Nodoushan, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):40-40
      Aims: The aim of this study was to study the sleep quality of truck and trailer drivers in Yazd and its relation with traffic accidents and associated expenses. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included nonrandom simple method including 200 truck and trailer drivers. A two-sectional questionnaire was used: the first section included the standard Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire, while the second section included demographic characteristics of the subjects. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical method and T-test analysis through SPSS 17 software. Findings: The mean daily sleep period of the subjects under study was 6.46 ± 1.8 h and the mean of sleep quality score was 7.22 ± 2.72 h. Of the total, 75.5% had a sleep quality score greater than 5 that depicts the low quality of sleep in them. 29.5% had suffered from accidents in the last decade and 28% of those were due to sleepiness. The distribution of the sleep quality score on basis of sleep duration and falling sleep time was meaningful. The distribution of history of cigarettes smoking, narcotics abuse, and use of sedatives on basis of sleep quality score was also significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that 75.5% of the truck and trailer drivers had sleep quality disorders and accidents resulting in injuries. Sleep quality in drivers who had precedence of accidents was lower than the drivers without any accidents so sleepiness can be one of the main causes of accidents among the professional drivers in Iran.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):40-40
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102374
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Measurement and simulation of dissolved oxygen in Zayandehrood river

    • Authors: Ahmad Reza Rahsepar, Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      Pages: 41 - 41
      Abstract: Ahmad Reza Rahsepar, Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Mohammad Mehdi Amin
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):41-41
      Aims: This study aims to simulate dissolved oxygen of Zayandehrood river from regulating dam to Polle-Kalleh bridge using MIKE11 software that is a hydrodynamics and water quality model. Materials and Methods: During 5 months the samples were taken from four hydrometric stations and water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH, BOD (1 day, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days), NH 4 , NO 3 - phosphate (PO4 3- ), and temperature were measured. Morphological and hydrological data were provided and introduced into the model. The model was calibrated and its accuracy was investigated. Results: The results indicated that concentration of PO4 3- , BOD5 , COD, NH 4 , and NO3 - exceeded surface water standards from regulating dam to Pole-Kalleh bridge. The results of the prediction for the next 25 years indicated that due to growth of population and industries along the river, concentration of some pollutants will be increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that although the current DO level is suitable for aquatic environment, this is not adequate for fish reproduction and migration. Prediction of the river water quality parameters for the future conditions showed that discharge of urban and rural wastewater to river should be avoided. In situations where release of effluent into the river is inevitable, nitrification process should be added to wastewater treatment processes.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):41-41
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102376
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Evaluation of photoionization detector performance in photocatalytic
           studies for removing volatile organic compounds

    • Authors: Masoud Rismanchian, Farideh Golbabaei, Yadollah Mortazavi, Gholamhossein Pourtaghi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
      Pages: 42 - 42
      Abstract: Masoud Rismanchian, Farideh Golbabaei, Yadollah Mortazavi, Gholamhossein Pourtaghi, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):42-42
      Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of photoionization detector (PID) system as a substitution for gas chromatography in the measurement of a 3 xylene isomer mixtures as a representative of the volatile organic compounds in photocatalytic studies. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out by using test setup for generating known concentrations from equal ratio of 3 xylene isomers. The concentration values to be evaluated were classified into 4 concentration ranges from 0.1 of threshold limit values (TLV) to 2 of TLV to evaluate the PID system appliance compared with that in the reference method. The test was done 4 times for each evaluation concentration in 3 relative humidity levels (0%, 20%, and 80%). Results: The correlation between the PID results and the National Institue of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reference method results in an atmosphere with relative humidity of 0%, 20%, and 80% were good and, respectively, were 0.993, 0.992, and 0.991 and total correlation was 0.989. The paired t test indicates a significant difference between actual concentrations in reference method and the extracted concentration from PID. Conclusions: Although the results presented by PID in the present study are different from those extracted from the reference method (from 10 to 260 ppm), the equipment response is linear. So, the results are acceptable in photocatalytic studies in case the contaminant concentration is measured by the same equipment either before or after the reactor for calculation of the removal efficiency. PID calibration with the test material(s) is recommended.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):42-42
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102383
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • An ergonomic study in building demolition: Assessment of musculoskeletal
           disorders risk factors by PATH method

    • Authors: Mohammad Hajaghazadeh, Yosef Mohammadian, Mohammad Normohammadi, Mehdi Zare
      Pages: 43 - 43
      Abstract: Mohammad Hajaghazadeh, Yosef Mohammadian, Mohammad Normohammadi, Mehdi Zare
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):43-43
      Aims: The aim of this study was the investigation of musculoskeletal disorders risk factors among building demolition workers. Materials and Methods: Posture, activity, tools, and handling (PATH) method as a work sampling method was applied to record the postures, activities, and handling of building demolition workers in four tasks. The percentage of working time is reported for each item to compare the risk factors in tasks. Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire also was used to study the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders over 12 months. Results: Trunk, leg(s), and arm(s) postures differed significantly among tasks. Neutral arm posture and non-neutral leg(s) and trunk postures were observed frequently. Manual materials handling (MMH) activities are distributed differently among tasks. Moving was the most observed (35%) and carrying was the less observed (11.8%) MMH activity. Gross grasp was the most observed (78.5%) hand activity in building demolition workers. The most observed weight category was 0 kg≤load
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):43-43
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102386
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic
           hydrocarbons in Iranian carbon anode plant workers

    • Authors: Mehdi Zare, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri, Parvin Mehdipur, Mohammad Shekari, Mohammad Hajaghazadeh, Ali Shahriary, Masume Abedinejad
      Pages: 44 - 44
      Abstract: Mehdi Zare, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri, Parvin Mehdipur, Mohammad Shekari, Mohammad Hajaghazadeh, Ali Shahriary, Masume Abedinejad
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):44-44
      Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the validity of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker in carcinogenic PAHs (cPAHs) exposed Iranian carbon anode plant workers. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 42 workers working in a carbon anode plant and control group consisted of 43 office workers. Personal air sampling was performed to assess workers atmospheric exposure to carcinogenic PAHs . Urine samples were collected for analysis of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16 software. Results: The mean concentration of occupational exposure to cPAHs in the exposed group was 11.42±7.56 ΅g/m 3 . Mean level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in the exposed and control groups were 6.32±4.9 and 0.54±.48 ΅mole/mole creatinine, respectively . Urinary level of 1-hydroxypyrene in the exposed group was significantly higher than the control group (P
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):44-44
      PubDate: Sat,13 Oct 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.102390
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Prediction of the energy content of the municipal solid waste

    • Authors: Asghar Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Bijan Bina, Mehdi Mokhtari, Hamid Reza Alaghebandan, Mohammad Reza Samaei, Hassan Hashemi
      Pages: 45 - 45
      Abstract: Asghar Ebrahimi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Bijan Bina, Mehdi Mokhtari, Hamid Reza Alaghebandan, Mohammad Reza Samaei, Hassan Hashemi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):45-45
      Aims: In this study, the amount, composition, and energy content of waste in Isfahan, Iran, were examined. Materials and Methods: A time series model was used to predict the amount of waste generation in the future. The past waste changes was the basis for predicting how and to what extent the components will chnage. The energy content of mixed waste was calculated by the common heating value of each component and Dulonge's formula. Results: The estimation of the amount of waste generated in Isfahan showed that the amount of organic materials would reduce to 59.1% and plastic materials would increase to 24.44%. Heating values of mixed waste, coarse, and fine reject based on dry weight were estimated in the first method as 3230, 1911, and 370 MWh per day, respectively, and as 2656, 1160, and 329 MWh per day, respectively, using Dulong's formula for the year 2019.Conclusions: The results showed that by separating the combustible part of the waste and incinerating it, a remarkable amount of energy would be produced from waste in Isfahan resulting in the reduction of required landfill space and greenhouse gas emissions.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):45-45
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105344
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • 4-Chlorophenol degradation with modified domestic microwave and hydrogen
           peroxide in aqueous solution

    • Authors: Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Ghorban Asgari, Afshin Ebrahimi, Zahra Sharifi, Hossein Movahedian Attar
      Pages: 46 - 46
      Abstract: Abdolmotaleb Seid Mohammadi, Ghorban Asgari, Afshin Ebrahimi, Zahra Sharifi, Hossein Movahedian Attar
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):46-46
      Aims: This study was conducted for degradation of 4-chlorophenol by microwave (MW) radiations alone and in combination with hydrogen peroxide from aqueous solution. Materials and Methods: A modified domestic microwave oven was used alone and in combination with hydrogen peroxide for removing 4-chlorophenol. Furthermore, the influences of pH value, irradiation time, the power of MW radiations, and the initial concentration of 4-chlorophenol were studied. Results: It was shown that 4-chlorophenol removal efficiency extremely depend on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, pH value, MW irradiation power and initial 4-chlorophenol concentration. The optimum conditions obtained for the best degradation rate were pH = 10.5, H 2 O 2 concentration of about 0.1 mol/l, and MW irradiation power of about 600 W. Other result shows that the best degradation rate of 4-chlorophenol was obtained when initial 4-chlorophenol concentration was 50 mg/l. Also the amount of the specific energy consumption in this method was 17460 kwh/kg of the removed organic compound. Conclusion: This result shows that MW irradiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide can greatly enhance the degradation of 4-chlorophenol. However, the high consumption of energy for this method must be taken into consideration.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):46-46
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105345
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Evaluation of bio-aerosols concentration in the different wards of three
           educational hospitals in Iran

    • Authors: Heshmatollah Nourmoradi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Maryam Hatamzadeh, Mahnaz Nikaeen
      Pages: 47 - 47
      Abstract: Heshmatollah Nourmoradi, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Maryam Hatamzadeh, Mahnaz Nikaeen
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):47-47
      Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioaerosols level in the various parts of three educational hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: The collection of bioaerosols (including bacterial and fungal microorganisms) was carried out with one-stage Anderson sampler. The sampling was carried out at the height of 1.5 m from the floor of various hospitals wards (infectious, surgery, urology wards, and operating room). The volume of each sample was determined based on pre-tests carried and was about 50 L. After sampling, the samples were incubated and analyzed. The effect of various environmental conditions including humidity, temperature, and outdoor bioaerosol levels was also investigated. Results: The lowest numbers of fungal and bacterial concentration were obtained in operating rooms of the hospitals and the highest concentration was observed in infectious disease wards of hospital 1 and 2 and surgery ward of hospital 3. The bacterial concentration was observed to be higher in hospital wards than outdoor, except hospitals' operating rooms. Conclusion: The findings showed that the bioaerosols level in the hospitals was relatively high. The higher levels of indoor bacteria than outdoor might be associated with the presence of patients, their activity, unsuitable ventilation, and disinfection. Therefore, environmental monitoring and control measures are required to improve hospital environmental quality especially in the wards with immune deficiency patients.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):47-47
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105346
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Microbial quality and prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in eggs

    • Authors: Manijeh Mahdavi, Mohammad Jalali, Hjieh Ghasemian Safaei, Ehsan Shamloo
      Pages: 48 - 48
      Abstract: Manijeh Mahdavi, Mohammad Jalali, Hjieh Ghasemian Safaei, Ehsan Shamloo
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):48-48
      Aims: This study was undertaken to determine the microbial quality and the prevalence of Salmonella and Listeria in table eggs in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 samples were randomly collected from various shops in Isfahan, Iran. Microbial quality of eggs evaluated by coliform count and total bacterial viable counts. Also, detection of Listeria and Salmonella in egg contents and on eggs shells was performed. Results: The mean of total viable bacteria and coliform counts in the egg contents were 3.95 × 10 4 CFU/g and 4.94 × 10 3 CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria were not found on the shell or content of eggs. Enterobacteriaceae families were found in 357 of 525 (68.28%) and 276 of 525 (52.44%) of egg shell and egg content samples, respectively. Moreover, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from 175 (33.41%) and 144 (25.37%) of egg shell and egg content, respectively. The isolated Enterobacteriaceae were included: Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Buttiauxella agrestis, Cedecea lapagei, Cedecea davisae and Erwinia herbicola. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate although Salmonella and Listeria were not found in egg samples; however, there is an urgent need to improve the hygienic level of consumed eggs.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):48-48
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105347
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Optimization of SBR system for enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen
           removal

    • Authors: Mohsen Arbabi, Abbas Akbarzadeh, Abbas Khodabakhshi
      Pages: 49 - 49
      Abstract: Mohsen Arbabi, Abbas Akbarzadeh, Abbas Khodabakhshi
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):49-49
      Aims: The aim of this study was the optimization of the SBR system for enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal. Materials And Methods: A lab-scale SBR consisting filling, pre-anoxic, anerobic, anoxic, aerobic, settling, decanting, and idle phases was proposed for simultaneous enhanced biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal (SEBPNR) from wastewater. Synthetic wastewater was used in this research. Glucose was used as a carbon source. The SBR was seeded with sludge from a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results: The results indicates that the lab-scale SBR was capable to remove soluble phosphorus (SP), SCOD, TCOD, and ammonia, with efficiencies of around 92%, 95%, 80%, and 85%, respectively. Optimized lab-scale SBR operational condition for SEBPNR consists of a fill (15 min), pre-anoxic (30 min), anerobic (90 min), 1st aerobic (210 min), 2nd anoxic (55 min), 2nd aerobic (10 min), settling (90 min), decant (10 min), and idle (10 min) phases. Conclusion: This study concludes that effective biological removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from wastewater using SBR occurs in sufficient HRT in the anaerobic and aerobic stages, adequate COD/TP ratios (up to 35). This system is suitable for high removal of P and N in both municipal and industrial wastewater.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):49-49
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105348
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Necessity for replacing the filter media in the water treatment plant
           based on effective size and uniformity coefficient

    • Authors: Mohsen Memarzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hossein Mostafavi, Reza Kolivand, Mohsen Heidari
      Pages: 50 - 50
      Abstract: Mohsen Memarzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Hossein Mostafavi, Reza Kolivand, Mohsen Heidari
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):50-50
      Aims: This study aims to compare the parameters in filtration unit of the plant with international guidelines. The results of this study would determine the necessity for replacing or renewing the anthracite and sand filter beds in phase I of IWTP. Materials and Methods: In this field study, a total of 11 samples with a mass of 5 kg sand and anthracite media were analyzed. The media samples were evaluated in view of uniformity coefficient and effective size according to international soil classification. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using t-test at significance level (P < 0.05). Results: Results of this study showed that the uniformity coefficients of anthracite and sand media were 3.6 ± 0.4 and 1.93 ± 0.11 mm, respectively. Also, the effective sizes of anthracite and sand media were 0.68 ± 0.08 and 0.63 ± 0.05 mm, respectively. These values exceeded the international guidelines and had a significance difference with them (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion: The results were shown that the uniformity coefficient and effective size of sand and anthracite media in the filters used in phase I of IWTP exceeded the guidelines and they need to be replaced with new media. Finally, based on the current study, filter beds were renewed.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):50-50
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105352
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Relationship between road vehicle traffic and noise pollution of Khojir
           National Park in the viewpoint of feasibility of fencing and soundproofing
           

    • Authors: Minoo Moshtaghie, Mohammad Kaboli, Pedram Malekpouri
      Pages: 51 - 51
      Abstract: Minoo Moshtaghie, Mohammad Kaboli, Pedram Malekpouri
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):51-51
      Aims: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the amount of noise pollution and traffic rates in Khojir National park and regarding that finding a suitable distance for installing fencing according to the standard level of noise pollution. Materials and Methods: Eight stations located exactly above channels have been selected. In each station, three different substations including near the road, 25, and 50 m from the road were chosen. For determining the essentiality of soundproof installation, noise levels were measured at the opening and in the middle of the channel. Traffic rates have been measured daily from 6 AM to 6 PM for two continuous weeks and noise levels were then determined in three different days according to the traffic peak. Results: Results obtained showed a significant relationship between traffic rates and noise levels in near-road stations (R 2 linear = 0.341). The relationship between interval and noise level was also significant (R 2 quadratic = 0.701, P < 0.05). Furthermore, a distance with 55 dB (A) (i.e., 50 m in this study) was achieved as a proper site for fencing. Conclusion: Although the amount of noise levels in the middle of channels were less than the standard level, this amount in some channel throats were higher and need to be considered for soundproof installation as well. In addition to finding an area for fencing, using solution(s) for reducing either noise pollution or its impact at this area should be taken into consideration.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):51-51
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105357
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • THMs assessment in Khuzestan rural water treatment plants

    • Authors: Mehdi Ahmadi, Alidad Keyani, Hoda Amiri, Amir Hesam Hasani, Mohammad Sadegh Sekhavatjoo, Afshin Takdastan
      Pages: 52 - 52
      Abstract: Mehdi Ahmadi, Alidad Keyani, Hoda Amiri, Amir Hesam Hasani, Mohammad Sadegh Sekhavatjoo, Afshin Takdastan
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):52-52
      Aims: The trihalomethanes (THMs) concentration was investigated in some of rural water treatment plants in Khuzestan. Materials and Methods: Fifteen of the water treatment plants with the same drinking water source (Karoon river) were selected for analysis of THMs to assess the levels and the relationship between THMs and total organic carbon (TOC), pH, temperature, chlorination dose, and free chlorine residue. Results: THMs ranged from 1.8 to 219 mg/l in winter and 1.7 to 98 in summer, where the level in some treatment plants is higher than the Maximum Concentration Level (MCL). The ratio of total THMs levels was significantly correlated with temperature, pH, chlorination dose, and free chlorine residue, but negative correlation with TOC. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies using total THMs levels should be considered in the analysis of water treatment plant's results, and regulatory check of this parameter with drinking water guidelines.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):52-52
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Modeling an integrated Health, Safety, Environment and Ergonomic system
           for performance assessment

    • Authors: Iraj Mohammadfam, Masoud Rismanchian, Mahnaz Shakerian
      Pages: 53 - 53
      Abstract: Iraj Mohammadfam, Masoud Rismanchian, Mahnaz Shakerian
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):53-53
      Aims: The main goal of this study was to present a reference model for the Health, Safety, Environment and Ergonomic HSEE performance measurement system. Materials And Methods: This study was done in a petrochemical unit in Iran during the year 2009. In first step, the existing information systems and their effect on personals were evaluated. Then the HSEE performance indicators were determined. The number of indicators were 244. After designing and implementing of the continuous monitoring system, the mentioned indicators were measured and controlled, continually. Results: In cases that the indicators showed deviation from defined criteria, corrective actions can be done with forecasting and introducing some suitable techniques for hazard identification and problem solving. With implementation of the integrated performance measuring system unsafe behavior, musculoskeletal disorder and suitability of HSEE committee discussions were improved 12%, 7.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study emphasis on the need to conduct further research on the continuous monitoring of mentioned system in future years and performing necessary corrections. To improve the system performance, the continuous correction of indicators and related decision criteria, regular training of personal and implementation of award system are suggested.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2012 1(1):53-53
      PubDate: Mon,31 Dec 2012
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.105343
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
       
  • Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime
           between vapor extraction and bioventing

    • Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mohammad Sadegh Hatamipour, Fariborz Momenbeik, Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Mohammad Mehdi Amin, Mohammad Sadegh Hatamipour, Fariborz Momenbeik, Mehdi Khiadani (Hajian), Fazel Mohammadi-Moghadam
      International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2014 3(1):1-1
      Aims: The main objectives of this study were evaluation of the efficiencies of bioventing (BV), soil vapor extraction (SVE) and transition regime between BV and SVE (air injection bioventing [AIBV]) for benzene and toluene removal from polluted sandy soils. Materials and Methods: Laboratory-scale set-up consisted of three cylindrical units (with 29 cm in length with a 7.29 cm i.d.) was conducted to study the removal efficiency of three in-situ remediation technologies. Results: The results showed that, after 48-h air injection with constant air flow rate of 250 mL/min, benzene (initial concentration of 1 mg/g of soil) removal efficiency in BV, SVE and AIBV reactors were almost 84, 98 and>99.5%, respectively. Also results indicated that, toluene with a similar concentration was successfully (>99.5%) reduced via AIBV technology, after 72-h continuous air injection.Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.
      Citation: International Journal of Environmental Health Engineering 2014 3(1):1-1
      PubDate: Mon,1 Jan 1900
      DOI: 10.4103/2277-9183.131798
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (1900)
       
 
 
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