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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 429 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 429 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Medica Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria J. of Pediatrics     Open Access  
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Indian Psychiatry     Open Access  
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Tropical Pathology     Open Access  
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.856, CiteScore: 2)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Reproduction     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.491, CiteScore: 2)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 2)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian J. of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access  
Chinese Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Cancer Investigation J.     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.811, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.242, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.799, CiteScore: 2)
Egyptian J. of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.127, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Nursing J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian J. of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.12, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Glioma     Open Access  
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Hamdan Medical J.     Open Access  
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ibnosina J. of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Imam J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.468, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Respiratory Care     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Spine J.     Open Access  
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Clinicopathological Correlation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.623, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.4, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.491
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2221-1691 - ISSN (Online) 2588-9222
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [429 journals]
  • Phytochemical and antioxidant activities of Rumex crispus L. in treatment
           of gastrointestinal helminths in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    • Authors: Oladayo Amed Idris; Olubunmi Abosede Wintola; Anthony Jide Afolayan
      Pages: 1071 - 1078
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Oladayo Amed Idris, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
      Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activities and phytochemical content of the leaf and root extracts of Rumex crispus using the solvents extraction; methanol extract, ethanol extract, acetone extract (ACE), and water extract. Methods Total flavonoids content, total phenolic content, and total proanthocyanidin were evaluated using spectrophotometric equivalents of the standards, quercetin, gallic acid and catechin respectively. The antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were determined using ABTS, DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide scavenging assays. Results The flavonoids and phenols contents of the extracts were in the range of (19.39 ± 4.08) to (526.23 ± 17.52) mg QE/g and (16.95 ± 12.03) to (240.68 ± 3.50) mg GAE/g, respectively. ACE of the leaf has the highest value of total flavonoids content (526.23 ± 17.52) mg QE/g while ACE of the root has the highest value of total phenolic content (240.68 ± 3.50) mg GAE/g. The highest content of total proanthocyanidin (645.38 ± 1.33) mg CE/g was in ACE of the root. Significant amounts of saponin and alkaloid were also present in the root and leaf extracts. All solvent fractions showed significant antioxidant activities (P < 0.05) with ACE of the root having the highest scavenging value as shown in DPPH, ABTS, total antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide and ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50 = 0.014 mg/mL, <0.005 mg/mL, 0.048 mg/mL, 0.067 mg/mL, and 0.075 mg/mL, respectively). Conclusions In this study, the mean phytochemical content of the root of R . crispus is higher than that of the leaf and this may have contributed to its high antioxidant activities. This may also justify the frequent use of the root more than the leaves in traditional medicine for the cure of helminthic infections.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T06:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • Determination of hydrophilic–lipophilic balance value and emulsion
           properties of sacha inchi oil

    • Authors: Kiattiphumi Saengsorn; Ampa Jimtaisong
      Pages: 1092 - 1096
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Kiattiphumi Saengsorn, Ampa Jimtaisong
      Objective To determine hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) value, stability of formulate emulsion and properties of sacha inchi oil. Methods The physiochemical characteristics of sacha inchi oil were first investigated. Free radical scavenging property was studied by DPPH assay. HLB value of sacha inchi oil was experimentally determined by preparing the emulsion using emulsifiers at different HLB value. Sacha inchi oil emulsion was prepared using the obtained HLB and its stability was conducted by centrifugation, temperature cycling, and accelerated stability test. The efficiency of the prepared emulsion was clinically investigated by 15 volunteers. The primary skin irritation was performed using closed patch test. Subjective sensory assessment was evaluated by using 5-point hedonic scale method. Results Peroxide value of sacha inchi oil was 18.40 meq O2/kg oil and acid value was 1.86 KOH/g oil. The major fatty acids are omega-3 (44%), omega-6 (35%) and omega-9 (9%). The vitamin E content was 226 mg/100 g oil. Moreover, sacha inchi oil (167 ppm) and its emulsion showed 85% and 89% DPPH inhibition, respectively. The experimental HLB value of sacha inchi oil was 8.5. The sacha inchi oil emulsion exhibited good stability after stability test. The emulsion was classified as non-irritant after tested by primary skin irritation method. The skin hydration value significantly increased from 38.59 to 45.21 (P < 0.05) after applying sacha inchi oil emulsion for 1 month and the overall product satisfaction of volunteers after use was with score of 4.2. Conclusions This work provides information on HLB value and emulsion properties of sacha inchi oil which is useful for cosmetic and pharmaceutical application.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T06:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.011
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • Activity of a lipid synthesis inhibitor (spiromesifen) in Culiseta
           longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae)

    • Authors: Hayette Bouabida; Fouzia Tine-djebbar; Samir Tine; Noureddine Soltani
      Pages: 1120 - 1124
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Hayette Bouabida, Fouzia Tine-djebbar, Samir Tine, Noureddine Soltani
      Objective To evaluate the activity of spiromesifen against the most abundant and investigated mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata Aitken, 1954 (Diptera, Culicidae). Methods Culiseta longiareolata larvae were collected from untreated areas located at Tébessa (Northeast Algeria). A commercial formulation of spiromesifen (Oberon® 240 SC) was tested at different concentrations ranging between 238 and 1428 μg/L on newly molted fourth-instar larvae under standard laboratory conditions according to Word Health Organization recommendations. The effects were examined on the mortality, the morphometric measurements, two biomarkers (catalase and malondialdehyde), and the biochemical composition of larvae, respectively. Results The compound exhibited insecticidal activity. Moreover, it disturbed growth and several morphological aberrations were observed. It also affected body volume, biomarkers and contents of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. A marked effect on lipids and malondialdehyde was noted, confirming its primary mode of action on lipid synthesis. Conclusions Spiromesifen appears less potent than other insecticides tested such as the insect growth disruptors.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T06:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.015
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • Plant-derived anticancer agents: A green anticancer approach

    • Authors: Javed Iqbal; Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi; Tariq Mahmood; Sobia Kanwal; Barkat Ali; Sayed Afzal Shah; Ali Talha Khalil
      Pages: 1129 - 1150
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Javed Iqbal, Banzeer Ahsan Abbasi, Tariq Mahmood, Sobia Kanwal, Barkat Ali, Ali Talha Khalil
      Cancer is a frightful disease and represents one of the biggest health-care issues for the human race and demands a proactive strategy for cure. Plants are reservoirs for novel chemical entities and provide a promising line for research on cancer. Hitherto, being effective, chemotherapy is accompanied by certain unbearable side effects. Nevertheless, plants and plant derived products is a revolutionizing field as these are Simple, safer, eco-friendly, low-cost, fast, and less toxic as compared with conventional treatment methods. Phytochemicals are selective in their functions and acts specifically on tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Carcinogenesis is complex phenomena that involves many signaling cascades. Phytochemicals are considered suitable candidates for anticancer drug development due to their pleiotropic actions on target events with multiple manners. The research is in progress for developing potential candidates (those can block or slow down the growth of cancer cells without any side effects) from these phytochemicals. Many phytochemicals and their derived analogs have been identified as potential candidates for anticancer therapy. Effort has been made through this comprehensive review to highlight the recent developments and milestones achieved in cancer therapies using phytomolecules with their mechanism of action on nuclear and cellular factors. Furthermore, drugs for cancer treatment and their limitations have also been discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T06:34:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.016
      Issue No: Vol. 7, No. 12 (2017)
       
  • Adulticidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of
           essential oil from Zanthoxylum limonella Alston (Rutaceae) against Aedes
           aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

    • Authors: Mayura Soonwera; Siriporn Phasomkusolsil
      Pages: 967 - 978
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 7, Issue 11
      Author(s): Mayura Soonwera, Siriporn Phasomkusolsil
      Objective To evaluate adulticidal, larvicidal and oviposition deterrent response of the essential oil from dried Zanthoxylum limonella (Z. limonella) fruit against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods Z. limonella oil was tested by biological assays at 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations in ethanol. Adulticidal efficacy was tested against the 2–3 day old adult females. Larvicidal activity was tested against immature stage of mosquitoes. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females. Results The adult mortality was observed after 24 h with the LC50 of 6.0% for Ae. aegypti, and 5.7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Larvicidal bioassay was carried out with the 10% Z. limonella oil against immature stages of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, which caused 100% mortality after 12 h and 24 h. In the larvicidal experiment, Z. limonella showed effective result at 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations with the values of LT50  Ae. aegypti = 9.78, 5.61, 0.24 h for larvae and LT50 = 64.08, 21.23 h for pupae; Cx. quinquefasciatus had LT50 = 28.46, 20.25, 1.01 h for larvae and LT50 = 67.52, 27.96, 4.11 h for pupae, respectively. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females. In the study, 10% Z. limonella showed 100% repellency for Ae. aegypti and 99.53% for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Likewise, oviposition activity indexes of these oil concentrations were all negative values ranging from–0.89 to −1.00 for Ae. aegypti and–0.64 to–0.99 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The oviposition activity indexes values revealed that Z. limonella oil has deterrent effect, and it caused a remarkable negative response resulting in very few eggs. Conclusions This result indicates that Z. limonella oil can be used as an effective adulticide, larvicide and oviposition deterrent against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.019
       
  • Physicochemical and elemental studies of Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. for
           standardization as herbal drug

    • Authors: Manab Mandal; Debabrata Misra; Narendra Nath Ghosh; Vivekananda Mandal
      Pages: 979 - 986
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Manab Mandal, Debabrata Misra, Narendra Nath Ghosh, Vivekananda Mandal
      Objective To explore the leaves of Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. as a source of safe and effective antibacterial herbal medicine. Methods The standardization was validated by stepwise physicochemical studies, element analysis, determination of ash values, fluorescence analysis, assessment of moisture content, extractive values in different solvent systems and extraction methods. Heavy metal contents, mineral and element contents were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and CHNS/O analyser, respectively. Results The methanol extract of the folklore medicinal plant having antibacterial efficacy contained flavonoids and phenolic OH groups. The ICP multi standard indicated the presence of three major compounds with molecular mass of 161,190 and 221 Da. Heavy metals viz. lead, mercury and copper content were 4.38 ppm, <0.05 ppm and 24.70 ppm, respectively. Minerals content of calcium, phosphorus, potassium and iron were1 190.94 mg/100 g, 375.57 mg/100 g, 2820 mg/100 g and 340.20 mg/100 g of plant sample, respectively. Elements like carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur contents were 38.18%, 5.67%, 2.23%and 0.51%, respectively. Heavy metal profile of the tested plant was within the permissible limits of the regulatory authorities. Conclusions Hence the present physicochemical and elements studies reveals that the plant Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. could be a potent source of herbal preparation as well as a safe and novel synthetic antibacterial drug.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.001
       
  • Molecular study of astrovirus, adenovirus and norovirus in community
           acquired diarrhea in children: One Egyptian center study

    • Authors: Maysaa El Sayed Zaki; Nermen Abo El Kheir
      Pages: 987 - 990
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Nermen Abo El Kheir
      Objective To determine the prevalence of astrovirus, norovirus, adenovirus in children below five years old with diarrhea by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) along with rotavirus antigen detection by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. Methods The study was conducted on children below five years old complaining of acute diarrhea. The study included stool examination by molecular method for detection of norovirus, adenovirus and astrovirus by multiplex RT-PCR. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the stool by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay. Results The study included 100 children below 5 years old with acute diarrhea. Multiplex RT-PCR was positive in 34% of the children. The most frequently detected virus was rotavirus (44%), followed by norovirus (30%), adenovirus (20%) and astrovirus (14%).The clinical symptoms were more significantly associated with viral diarrhea such as fever (P=0.03), bloody diarrhea (P=0.025), vomiting (P=0.000 1) and watery diarrheas (P=0.05). The frequency of diarrhea with viral pathogen was significantly presented in winter season (39.7%). There were significant frequencies of norovirus and adenovirus in age ranging 1-2 years old (P=0.04, P=0.01 respectively). Conclusions The present study spotlights on the prevalence of viral pathogens as an important etiology in diarrhea in children below five years old. Astrovirus, norovirus and adenovirus are common along with rotavirus in this group of patients. Multiplex PCR leads to improve the laboratory diagnosis of these viruses along with antigen detection method. Further longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the epidemiological data associated with these viruses and for proper management of such drastic infection.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.003
       
  • Antifouling evaluation of extracts from Red Sea soft corals against
           primary biofilm and biofouling

    • Authors: Yosry Abdel Aziz Soliman; Ahmed Mohammed Brahim; Ahmed Hussein Moustafa; Mohamed Abdel Fattah Hamed
      Pages: 991 - 997
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 7, Issue 11
      Author(s): Yosry Abdel Aziz Soliman, Ahmed Mohammed Brahim, Ahmed Hussein Moustafa, Mohamed Abdel Fattah Hamed
      Objectives To evaluate antifouling property of extracts from Red Sea soft corals against primary biofilm and biofouling. Methods Seven species of soft corals Sarcophyton glaucum (a), Sinularia compressa, Sinularia cruciata (a), Heteroxenia fuscescens (a), Sarcophyton glaucum (b), Heteroxenia fuscescens (b) and Sinularia cruciata (b) were chosen to test their extracts as antibacterial and antifouling agents in Eastern Harbour of Alexandria, Mediterranean Sea. Bioactive compounds of soft corals were extracted by using methanol and concentrated under vacuum. The residues of extracts were mixed in formulation of inert paint which consisted of rosin, chlorinated rubber and ferrous oxide against micro and macro fouling organisms. The formulated paints were then applied on PVC panels twice by brush, hanged in a steel frame and immersed in Eastern Harbour of Alexandria Mediterranean Sea followed by visual inspection and photographic recordings. Results After 185 days of immersion in seawater, the antifouling results agreed with the antibacterial results where extracts of Sinularia compressa and Heteroxenia fuscescens (b) gave the best activity against marine fouling tubeworms and barnacles. The inhibition activity was correlated with the major functional groups (hydroxyl, amino, carbonyl, aliphatic (fatty acids), CC of alkene or aromatic rings and CCl of aryl halides) of the extracts. Conclusions The strong antifouling activity makes them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. After the screening and application of natural organic compounds from soft corals, marine organisms show activity against micro and macro fouling organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.016
       
  • Sulforaphene in Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus Alef increased in
           late-bolting stage as well as anticancer activity

    • Authors: Piman Pocasap; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Waraporn Tanthanuch; Kanjana Thumanu
      Pages: 998 - 1004
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Piman Pocasap, Natthida Weerapreeyakul, Waraporn Tanthanuch, Kanjana Thumanu
      Objectives To evaluate the concentration differences of sulforaphene and sulforaphane at various ages and in different parts of Raphanus sativus L. var. caudatus with respect to their potential cancer preventive effect on HCT116 colon cancer cells. Methods FTIR-ATR and GC-MS were used to characterize the isothiocyanates in the plant extracts followed by HPLC for quantification. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induction were determined by using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results The respective rank of anticancer activity of Raphanus sativus were as follows: vegetative (3 week) < older rosette (4 week) < early-bolting (5 week) < senescence (7 week) < late-bolting (6 week). The low to high concentration of sulforaphene and sulforaphane occurred in the same stage order. Conclusions The reproductive parts (flower, pod, and dry seed) of Raphanus sativus have the greatest isothiocyanate concentration, evidenced by a sulforaphene concentration higher than the sulforaphane. This result should inform the selection of the most appropriate harvesting stage and plant part for use as a potential chemopreventive agent.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.022
       
  • Anti-inflammatory properties of oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) ethanol
           extract and epigallocatechin gallate in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells

    • Authors: Arina Novilla; Dedi Somantri Djamhuri; Betty Nurhayati; Dwi Davidson Rihibiha; Ervi Afifah; Wahyu Widowati
      Pages: 1005 - 1009
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Arina Novilla, Dedi Somantri Djamhuri, Betty Nurhayati, Dwi Davidson Rihibiha, Ervi Afifah, Wahyu Widowati
      Objective To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of oolong tea ethanolic extract (OTEE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on lipopolysaccharide-induced murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7). Methods A cytotoxic assay using MTS tetrazolium was conducted to find a nontoxic level of OTEE and EGCG toward RAW 264.7 cells. Interleukins (IL-6, IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) levels were measured by ELISA, and nitrite oxide (NO) levels measured by a nitrate/nitrite colorimetric assay to determine the inhibition activity of OTEE and EGCG. Results lipopolysaccharideinduction increases NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels compared with the untreated cell (negative control). The positive control, lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 without treatments showed the highest level of all pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulators tested in this study. The positive control was used as standard to obtain OTEE and EGCG inhibition activity toward NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. OTEE had a higher inhibition activity toward NO, COX-2, IL-6, and IL-1β than EGCG; the reverse was seen for TNF-α. However, both OTEE and EGCG suppressed production of NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α. Conclusions Oolong tea ethanol extract and EGCG have the potential for use as anti-inflammatory drugs, which is shown by their ability to reduce the production of NO, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in active macrophages.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.002
       
  • Impact of maternal HBsAg carrier status on pregnancy outcomes in Duhok
           city, Iraq

    • Authors: Amira S. Khalil; Nawfal R. Hussein; Maida Y. Shamdeen
      Pages: 1010 - 1013
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Amira S. Khalil, Nawfal R. Hussein, Maida Y. Shamdeen
      Objective To investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) positivity and pregnancy outcomes. Also, the association between HBV-related risk factors and HBV status was studied. Methods A total of 100 HBV positive pregnant women were recruited and the pregnancy outcomes were compared with 301 HBV negative women. Blood samples were collected and tested for HBV by HBsAg ELISA. Data were collected for recruited subjects using interview questionnaire. Results Data analysis showed that 51/100 (51%) of the HBV-positive subjects gave a history of HBV in the family which was significantly higher than that of HBV-negative patients [41/301 (13.6%) P=0.001]. A significant association was found between positive history of surgery and HBsAg positivity (P=0.009). Then, pregnancy outcomes were stratified according to the HBV positivity. No significant association was found between HBV status and pregnancy outcomes (P>0.05 for all). Conclusions Positive family history of HBV and previous surgical procedures are associated with higher rate of HBV positivity. No association is found between HBV positivity and pregnancy outcomes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.023
       
  • Anti-hypercholesterolemic and anti-hyperglycaemic effects of conventional
           and supercritical extracts of black cumin (Nigella sativa)

    • Authors: Muhammad Jawad Iqbal; Masood Sadiq Butt; Mir Muhammad Nasir Qayyum; Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
      Pages: 1014 - 1022
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 7, Issue 11
      Author(s): Muhammad Jawad Iqbal, Masood Sadiq Butt, Mir Muhammad Nasir Qayyum, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
      Objective To explore the hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of conventional and supercritical extracts of black cumin. Methods Purposely, rat modelling was carried out for 2 months by designing three studies i.e. study I (normal rats), study II (hyperglycaemic rats) and study III (hypercholesterolemic rats). Each study was further divided into three groups based on diet i.e. control, functional diet (contained extract of black cumin prepared by using conventional solvent) and nutraceutical diet (contained extract of black cumin prepared by supercritical fluid extraction system). Results During whole trial, an abating trend was observed in the level of serum cholesterol with maximum reduction (12.8%) in nutraceutical group of study III. Low density lipoprotein and triglyceride level was also lowered maximum in study III as 17.1% and 11.6%, respectively. Whereas, highest decline in glucose level was in nutraceutical group of study II as 11.2%. Conclusions Inclusion of black cumin extracts in diet significantly lowers the occurrence of hyperglycaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Furthermore, hypoglycaemic and hypocholesterolemic potential of nutraceutical diet is more prominent as compared to functional diet.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.005
       
  • Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Are we targeting old devil with
           new problems'

    • Authors: Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda; Kanchan Choudhary; Vijay Kranti Matety
      Pages: 1023 - 1024
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Venu Gopal Jonnalagadda, Kanchan Choudhary, Vijay Kranti Matety
      Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder due to disturbances in anabolic and catabolic chemistry of body organs. The advent of modern molecular mechanism’s approach to disease treatment is highly advancing to mitigate/normalize the symptoms of disease i.e. hyperglycemia by targeting at least eight different pathophysiological approaches popularly known as omnious octet. Oral hypoglycaemics are indicated in type 2 diabetes, in addition to diet and exercise. Recently, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin) are emerging as a new therapeutic in the management of type 2 diabetes by lowering glycaemia, body weight and blood pressure. As per the data of 12 years reported by US Food and Drug Administration and EMA data issued recently in 2017, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have shown serious side effects like elevated blood or urine ketones, acute kidney injury, and lower limb risk amputations. Considering predisposing factors to maximize the benefits and avoid the established safety signals, care should be taken while prescribing sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.025
       
  • Fern extracts potentiate fluconazole activity and inhibit morphological
           changes in Candida species

    • Authors: Maria A. Freitas; Antonia T.L. Santos; Antonio J.T. Machado; Ana Raquel P. Silva; Fábia F. Campina; Maria S. Costa; Gioconda M.A.B. Martins; Maria Flaviana B. Morais-Braga; Saulo R. Tintino; Irwin R.A. Menezes; Jaime Ribeiro-Filho; Altevir P. Medeiros; Adeliana S. Oliveira; Patrício B. Maracajá; Henrique D.M. Coutinho
      Pages: 1025 - 1030
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 7, Issue 11
      Author(s): Maria A. Freitas, Antonia T.L. Santos, Antonio J.T. Machado, Ana Raquel P. Silva, Fábia F. Campina, Maria S. Costa, Gioconda M.A.B. Martins, Maria Flaviana B. Morais-Braga, Saulo R. Tintino, Irwin R.A. Menezes, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Altevir P. Medeiros, Adeliana S. Oliveira, Patrício B. Maracajá, Henrique D.M. Coutinho
      Objective To investigate the antifungal activity of the fern species Lygodium venustum (L. venustum) and Pityrogramma calomelanos (P. calomelanos) against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. Methods The microdilution method was used to evaluate the antifungal activity, as well as the modulating effects of ethanolic extracts of these plants in combination with fluconazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicide concentration and morphological changes were also determined. Results The extract obtained from L. venustum presented a MIC > 8192 μg/mL, while the extract obtained from and P. calomelanos presented a MIC = 8192 μg/mL, indicating that they present weak antifungal activity. However, combination of the extracts with Fluconazole potentiated the antifungal activity of this drug. At different experimental conditions, such as concentration of the extract and type of strain, the extracts inhibited hyphae and pseudohyphae formation, indicating that these fern species can affect the morphology of the fungi. Conclusions The extracts obtained from the fern species L. venustum and P. calomelanos dose not present significant antifungal activity. However, P. calomelanos potentiates the activity of fluconazole and both extracts inhibits the morphological changes in Candida species, indicating that they have potential pharmacological activity as modulators of fungal biology. Therefore, novel studies are required to characterize the interference of these extracts in the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida species as well as the potential of fern species to treat fungal infections.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.018
       
  • Differential effect of aqueous Desmodium gangeticum root extract mediated
           TiO2 nanoparticles on isolated mitochondria, cells and Wistar rats

    • Authors: Mahalakshmi Ansari; Gino A. Kurian
      Pages: 1031 - 1035
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Mahalakshmi Ansari, Gino A. Kurian
      Objective To study the renal toxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiNPs) prepared by chemical and green route. Methods TiNPs were prepared by chemical (sol gel technique) and green route (using aqueous extract of Desmodium gangeticum root by using titanium tetraisopropoxide as precursor). Thus prepared TiNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffractometry and evaluated its renal toxic impact in different experimental models viz., Wistar rats (100 mg/kg b.wt.; oral), LLC-PK1 cells (100 mg/mL) and isolated renal mitochondria (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL). Results Compared to the chemically synthesized TiNPs, Desmodium gangeticum synthesized nanoparticles showed less nephrotoxicity, determined by elevated serum renal markers like urea (62%), creatinine (35%), aspartate aminotransferase (61%) and alanine transaminase (37%) and the result was in agreement with cellular toxicity (measured by MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase activity). Further toxicity evaluation at the level of mitochondria showed not much significant difference in TiNPs effect between two synthetic routes. Conclusions The biochemical findings in renal tissue and epithelial cell (LLC-PK1) supported by histopathology examination and isolated mitochondrial activity showed minor toxicity with TiNPs prepared by green route (TiNP DG) than TiNP Chem.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.020
       
  • Anti-hyperglycemic property of Hericium erinaceus-A mini review

    • Authors: Chaiyavat Chaiyasut; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
      Pages: 1036 - 1040
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi
      Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is one of the widely used edible mushrooms around the world, primarily in Asian countries. H. erinaceus is used in traditional medicines, and mushroom based foods. The fruiting body and mycelia of H. erinaceus are extracted using the solvents, and several bioactive compounds were identified. Several studies have reported that those bioactive compounds exhibit many health benefits such as hemagglutinating, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-aging activities, etc. This manuscript consciously updated the information about the composition of H. erinaceus, H. erinaceus based foods, and anti-hyperglycemic property of H. erinaceus.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.024
       
  • Adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy can serve as a model for diabetic
           cardiomyopathy-A hypothesis

    • Authors: Kaviyarasi Renu; V.G. Abilash; P.B. Tirupathi Pichiah; Thabassum Akthar Syeda; Sankarganesh Arunachalam
      Pages: 1041 - 1045
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Kaviyarasi Renu, V.G. Abilash, P.B. Tirupathi Pichiah, Thabassum Akthar Syeda, Sankarganesh Arunachalam
      Diabetic cardiomyopathy is one of the life threatening complications of diabetes. A number of animal models are being used for studying diabetic cardiomyopathy. In laboratory animal models, induction of cardiomyopathy happens in two stages: first being the induction of diabetic condition and the second being the induction of cardiomyopathy by prolonging diabetic condition. It takes a longer time to develop diabetes with the limited success rate for development of cardiomyopathy. Adriamycin is an effective anti-cancer drug limited by its major side-effect cardiomyopathy. A number of features of Adriamycin treatment mimics diabetes. We postulate that Adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy might be used as a model system to study diabetic cardiomyopathy in rodents since a number of features of both the cardiomyopathies overlap. Left ventricular hypertrophy, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, myofibrillar loss, and fibrosis are hallmarks of both of the cardiomyopathies. At the molecular level, calcium signaling, endoplasmic reticulum stress, AGE activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, lipotoxicity and oxidative stress are similar in both the cardiomyopathies. The signature profile of both the cardiomyopathies shares commonalities. In conclusion, we suggest that Adriamycin induced cardiomyopathic animal model can be used for studying diabetic cardiomyopathy and would save time for researchers working on cardiomyopathy developed in rodent using the traditional method.

      PubDate: 2017-10-11T01:52:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.021
       
  • An updated review on pharmacological activities and phytochemical
           constituents of evening primrose (genus Oenothera)

    • Authors: Rebecca Munir; Nabil Semmar; Muhammad Farman; Naseem Saud Ahmad
      Pages: 1046 - 1054
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 7, Issue 11
      Author(s): Rebecca Munir, Nabil Semmar, Muhammad Farman, Naseem Saud Ahmad
      Genus Oenothera includes medicinal plants that are distributed throughout the world and are known since ancient times. Popular indications of different species of this genus include treatment of inflammations, diabetes, microbial infections, ulcers, tumors, kidney and liver problems. The plants of this genus are a botanical source for various pharmaceutically active components like sterols, alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, biflavonols and tocopherols. This review article is a compilation of chemical composition and biological activities of the various species of the genus Oenothera.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.004
       
  • Anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of the aglycones of phenolic glycosides
           isolated from Leonurus japonicus

    • Authors: Agung Nugroho; Jae Sue Choi; Joon-Pyo Hong; Hee-Juhn Park
      Pages: 849 - 854
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Agung Nugroho, Jae Sue Choi, Joon-Pyo Hong, Hee-Juhn Park
      Objective This research aimed to find the genuine structure with anti-acetylcholinesterase (anti-AChE) from the phenolic glycosides abundant in Leonurus japonicus (Lamiaceae). The assay for anti-AChE activity is often used to lead anti-Alzheimer’s drugs. Methods The five phenolic glycosides, tiliroside, leonurusoside C, 2'''-syringoylrutin, rutin, and lavanduliofolioside were isolated from L. japonicus. The activities of the glycosides were relatively low. Seven compounds including p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, hydroxytyrosol, salidroside, syringic acid, kaempferol, and quercetin, which are produced by the hydrolysis of the five glycosides, were also assayed for anti-AChE activity. Results Of those seven compounds, the five compounds other than salidroside and syringic acid exhibited potent anti-AChE activities. In particular, the IC50s of caffeic acid and quercetin were 1.05 ± 0.19 and 3.58 ± 0.02 μg/mL, respectively. Rutin was the most abundant flavonoid in the extract (9.18 mg/g as measured by HPLC). Conclusion The substances with potent anti-AChE were caffeic acid, quercetin, p-coumaric acid, kaempferol, and hydroxytyrosol that can be produced from their glycosides.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T17:23:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.013
       
  • Alginate encapsulation in Glycyrrhiza glabra L. with phyto-chemical
           profiling of root extracts of in vitro converted plants using GC-MS
           analysis

    • Authors: Rakhshanda Akhtar; Anwar Shahzad
      Pages: 855 - 861
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Rakhshanda Akhtar, Anwar Shahzad
      Objective To investigate the conversion potential of alginate encapsulated nodes of Glycyrrhiza glabra with phyto-chemical evaluation of root extract of field transferred plants. Methods The excised axenic nodal segments were encapsulated in alginate matrix planted on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) with different supplementation and formulations of PGRs. The two year old field transferred plants were evaluated for phyto-compounds analysis using GC-MS technique. Results Varied responses were observed during the study, maximum conversion 95.83% ± 2.40% was obtained in these encapsulates when planted on MS medium containing 2.5 μM Kinetin (Kn) and 0.5 μM α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), which eventually developed into complete plantlets in a single step. Further, GC-MS analysis showed the presence of different phyto-compounds in the methanolic root extracts of in vitro converted plants. The results obtained revealed the presence of about 47 phyto-compounds along with various potential bioactive compounds useful for industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. Conclusions This study investigates high frequency regeneration and conversion of Glycyrrhiza glabra in a single step in short time. Also, the in vitro raised plants are analysed for bioactive compounds after field transfer, which shows the presence of numerous compounds useful for commercial and pharmacological purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T20:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.010
       
  • Spatiotemporal clustering of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Fars province,
           Iran

    • Authors: Marjan Zare; Abbas Rezaianzadeh; Hamidreza Tabatabaee; Mohsen Aliakbarpoor; Hossein Faramarzi; Mostafa Ebrahimi
      Pages: 862 - 869
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 7, Issue 10
      Author(s): Marjan Zare, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Hamidreza Tabatabaee, Mohsen Aliakbarpoor, Hossein Faramarzi, Mostafa Ebrahimi
      Objective To assess the spatiotemporal trait of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Fars province, Iran. Methods Spatiotemporal cluster analysis was conducted retrospectively to find spatiotemporal clusters of CL cases. Time-series data were recorded from 29201 cases in Fars province, Iran from 2010 to 2015, which were used to verify if the cases were distributed randomly over time and place. Then, subgroup analysis was applied to find significant sub-clusters within large clusters. Spatiotemporal permutation scans statistics in addition to subgroup analysis were implemented using SaTScan software. Results This study resulted in statistically significant spatiotemporal clusters of CL (P < 0.05). The most likely cluster contained 350 cases from 1 July 2010 to 30 November 2010. Besides, 5 secondary clusters were detected in different periods of time. Finally, statistically significant sub-clusters were found within the three large clusters (P < 0.05). Conclusions Transmission of CL followed spatiotemporal pattern in Fars province, Iran. This can have an important effect on future studies on prediction and prevention of CL.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T02:44:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.011
       
  • Citrus peel extract and powder attenuate hypercholesterolemia and
           hyperglycemia using rodent experimental modeling

    • Authors: Humaira Ashraf; Masood Sadiq Butt; Muhammad Jawad Iqbal; Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
      Pages: 870 - 880
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Humaira Ashraf, Masood Sadiq Butt, Muhammad Jawad Iqbal, Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria
      Objective To investigate hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic potential of citrus peel extract and powder using rodent experimental modeling. Methods Considering the fact, model feeding trial was carried out for a period of 56 d to access the prophylaxis of citrus peel flavonoids by employing normal (study I), hyperglycemic (study II) and hypercholesterolemic (study III) rats. Each study was further divided into three groups to ensure the provision of selected diets, i.e., control, functional and nutraceutical diets. Results Declining trend for total cholesterol was observed in all studies with maximum reduction (8.55%) in rat group fed on nutraceutical diet in study III. Likewise, levels of LDL and triglycerides reduced 11.39% and 7.89% respectively in hypercholesterolemic rats. Moreover, nutraceutical diet alleviated the sera glucose level by 8.96% in study II. Conclusions Conclusively, inclusion of citrus peel bioflavonoids in dietary therapies is a promising strategy to modulate lipidemic and glycemic attributes without imparting any deleterious effect on hematological parameters.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T20:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.012
       
  • Chemical profiling and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from
           Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma glans K. Larsen & J. Mood and
           Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza Roxb. collected in Thailand

    • Authors: Nararat Akarchariya; Sasithorn Sirilun; Jakaphun Julsrigival; Sunee Chansakaowa
      Pages: 881 - 885
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Nararat Akarchariya, Sasithorn Sirilun, Jakaphun Julsrigival, Sunee Chansakaowa
      Objective To investigate chemical constituents and new antimicrobial agents among essential oils from the rhizomes of Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa) Roxb., Curcuma glans K. Larsen & J. Mood and Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza Roxb. Methods The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Agar-well diffusion assay was used to study the anti-microbial activity and also broth-micro dilution techniques were examined for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against four bacterial strains and yeast. Results The GC-MS analysis showed monoterpenes predominantly (88.53%) in the rhizome oil of Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza. Sesquiterpenes (50.10%) was the most abundant component in the essential oil of Curcuma glans, while monoterpenes (45.55%) and sesquiterpenes (45.81%) were found in C. aeruginosa with a significant amount. The major components of C. aeruginosa were characterized as camphor (29.39%) and germacrone (21.21%). Germacrone (15.76%), β-pinene (9.97%) and camphor (9.96%) were found as major compounds in the rhizome oils of Curcuma glans while α- terpinolene (24.86%) and p-cymen-7-ol (12.17%) were found as major compositions in Curcuma cf. xanthorrhiza. The essential oils were tested against four bacterial strains and yeast. As a result, the rhizome oil of C. aeruginosa exhibited potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus [inhibition zone (21.94 ± 0.24) mm, MIC 125 μg/mL], Bacillus cereus [inhibition zone (20.83 ± 0.36) mm, MIC 125 μg/mL], and Candida albicans [inhibition zone (11.60 ± 0.30) mm, MIC 250 μg/mL]. Conclusions The essential oils from three Curcuma species possessed greater activity against the gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) than gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The results suggest that the essential oils from the fresh rhizome of Curcuma spp. might be a potential source of natural antimicrobial substances.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T20:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.009
       
  • Inhibition of two stages of melanin synthesis by sesamol, sesamin and
           sesamolin

    • Authors: Montra Srisayam; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul
      Pages: 886 - 895
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Montra Srisayam, Natthida Weerapreeyakul, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul
      Objective To investigate the antimelanogenesis properties of three sesame lignans-sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin via two stages of melanin synthesis vis-à-vis sunscreen function and enzyme inhibition in melanoma cell line in order to search for alternative depigmenting agents. Methods Antimelanogenic effects of sesame lignans were assessed in SK-MEL2 compared with the reference depigmenting agents, kojic acid and β-arbutin, in order to evaluate: (a) the depigmenting activities of sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin by measurement of sunscreen function; (b) the inhibition of tyrosinase activity through mushroom and cellular tyrosinase; and (c) the effect on melanin content and melanogenic protein expression (tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2) by Western blot analysis; and (d) the toxicity of sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin to cells using cell cytotoxicity assay. Results The results showed that sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol exerted satisfiable sunscreen function by absorbed UVB at 290 nm. Sesamol exhibited the highest inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity, but lipophilic sesamolin exhibited the highest cellular tyrosinase inhibition (IC50 of 1.6 μM) followed by sesamin, sesamol, and kojic acid, respectively. The order from high to low inhibition of melanin pigment was detected in the SK-MEL2 treated with sesamolin, sesamin, sesamol, kojic acid, and β-arbutin, respectively. Sesamolin and sesamin successfully inhibited cellular tyrosinase activity and respectively decreased TRP-1/TRP-2 (36%/15%) and TRP-1 levels (16%), thereby inhibiting melanogenesis via antityrosinase activity. No cytotoxicity to SK-MEL2 or Vero (normal) cell lines was observed at the lignan concentrations that exerted an antimelanogenic effect. Conclusions Three sesame lignans prevented melanin synthesis through 2 stages: (a) by blocking melanin-induction and (b) by interrupting melanogenic enzyme production. This study provided evidence that sesamol, sesamin and sesamolin are potential for antimelanogenesis agents.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T20:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.013
       
  • Yeast-generated CO2: A convenient source of carbon dioxide for mosquito
           trapping using the BG-Sentinel® traps

    • Authors: Dhanique C.T. Jerry; Terry Mohammed; Azad Mohammed
      Pages: 896 - 900
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Dhanique C.T. Jerry, Terry Mohammed, Azad Mohammed
      Objectives To evaluates carbon dioxide (CO2) production from yeast/sugar mixtures and its efficiency as an attractant in BG-Sentinel traps. Methods The rate of CO2 production was optimized for different yeast/sugar mixtures. The optimized mixture was then used as bait in BG-Sentinel traps. The efficiency of this bait was then compared to octenol baited traps. Results The yeast/sugar (5 g: 280 g) in 300 mL water generated the highest volume of CO2. The CO2 baited traps caught significantly more mosquitoes than octenol baited traps. Conclusions Yeast-produced CO2 can effectively replace octenol baits in BG traps. This will significantly reduce costs and allow sustainable mass-application of the CO2 baited traps in large scale surveillance programs

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T20:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.014
       
  • Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and
           antimicrobial activities of Kedrostis africana (L.) Cogn

    • Authors: Jeremiah Oshiomame Unuofin; Gloria Aderonke Otunola; Anthony Jide Afolayan
      Pages: 901 - 908
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Jeremiah Oshiomame Unuofin, Gloria Aderonke Otunola, Anthony Jide Afolayan
      Objective To investigate phytochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Kedrostis africana . Methods Dried tubers of Kedrostis africana were extracted in acetone, water and ethanol. The total phenol content, total flavonoid content, proanthocyanidin content and tannin content were determined spectrometrically. The antioxidant activity was examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2̍-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide assays. The antimicrobial activity was determined by agar dilution method using minimum inhibitory concentration against three gram positive and three negative strains while four fungal strains were also investigated. Results Total phenol content, total flavonoid content,proanthocyanidin and tannins ranged from (5.32 ± 0.01) mg GAE/g to (10.51 ± 0.01) mg GAE/g, (42.58 ± 0.02) mg QE/g to (529.23 ± 0.01) mg QE/g, (15.05 ± 0.00) mg CE/g to (585.64 ± 0.00) mg CE/g, (0.301 ± 0.010) mg TAE/g to (0.937 ± 0.000) mg TAE/g, respectively. The IC50 values of the ethanol extract for ABTS and hydrogen peroxide were 0.054 0 and 0.057 0 mg/mL, respectively, aqueous extract had an IC50 value of 0.135 7 mg/mL for nitric oxide while the acetone extract had an IC50 value of 0.300 0 mg/mL for DPPH. The ethanol extract demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic species with minimum inhibitory concentrations values ranging 2.5-5.0 mg/mL for bacteria and 0.312 5-5.000 0 mg/mL for fungi, respectively. Conclusions The tuber of Kedrostis africana showed potent free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.008
       
  • Phyto-metals screening of selected anti-diabetic herbs and infused
           concoctions

    • Authors: Olanrewaju O. Olujimi; Olusegun N. Onifade; Adeleke T. Towolawi; Temilade F. Akinhanmi; Adeniyi A. Afolabi; Kabir A. Olanite
      Pages: 909 - 914
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Olanrewaju O. Olujimi, Olusegun N. Onifade, Adeleke T. Towolawi, Temilade F. Akinhanmi, Adeniyi A. Afolabi, Kabir A. Olanite
      Objective To determine the levels of some selected heavy metals in both the selected anti-diabetic herbal plants and infused concoctions for diabetes treatment. Methods Ten anti-diabetic plant samples: pawpaw leaves (Carica papaya), bitter melon leaves (Momardica charranta), holy basel leaves (Ocimum santum), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale), garlic (Allium sativum), African red pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), negro pepper grain (Xylopia aethiopica), cashew leaves (Anacardium occidentale) and onion bulb (Allium cepa) were evaluated for heavy metals. These were digested using standard methods and analysed for manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, zinc, cadmium and lead using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The infused concoctions (I and II) prepared from these medicinal herbs administered to diabetic patients were also analysed for these heavy metals. Concoction I contained all the plants and honey with the exception of Momardica charranta and Ocimum santum which constituted concoction II with water only. The data obtained were subject to descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential (ANOVA and DMRT) statistics. Results Chromium and nickel levels were below detection limits in concoction I while manganese [(0.11±0.01) μg/g] and zinc [(0.09±0.01) μg/g] were detected in concoction II. Honey contained manganese [(0.10±0.01) μg/g] and nickel [(0.70±0.01) μg/g]. The anti-diabetic medicinal herbs and infused concoctions (I and II) were observed to contain heavy metals below the compared limits. Conclusions The study thus shows that the herbs and concoctions are safe from the heavy metals considered. However, right dosage of the anti-diabetic concoctions should always be considered to prevent possible chronic side effects from bio-accumulation of heavy metals.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.003
       
  • Ameliorating effects of Raphanus sativus leaves on sodium arsenite-induced
           perturbation of blood indices in Swiss albino mice

    • Authors: Sayada Dilruba; M.M. Hasibuzzaman; Mashiur Rahman; Nayan Chandra Mohanto; Sharmin Aktar; Atiqur Rahman; Md Imam Hossain; Abu Shadat Mohammod Noman; Farjana Nikkon; Zahangir Alam Saud; Khaled Hossain
      Pages: 915 - 920
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Sayada Dilruba, M.M. Hasibuzzaman, Mashiur Rahman, Nayan Chandra Mohanto, Sharmin Aktar, Atiqur Rahman, Md Imam Hossain, Abu Shadat Mohammod Noman, Farjana Nikkon, Zahangir Alam Saud, Khaled Hossain
      Objective To evaluate the ameliorating effects of Raphanus sativus leaves (RSL) against sodium arsenite (Sa)-induced adverse effects through mice experiments. Methods Swiss albino mice were divided into four equal groups: control, Sa, RSL, RSL+Sa. Sa (10 mg/kg body weight/day), and powder form of RSL (50 mg/kg body weight/day) were provided as food supplement orallty. Results It was observed that lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher in Sa-treated mice than those in the control group. RSL significantly reduced Sa-induced elevation of the activities of these enzymes in serum significantly (P<0.05). Serum butyryl cholinesterase activity and high density lipoproteins cholesterol levels in Sa-treated mice were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control group, and the food supplementation of RSL could significantly (P<0.05) prevent the reduction of Sa-mediated serum butyryl cholinesterase activity and high density lipoproteins cholesterol levels. RSL could also reduce the Sa-induced elevation of serum urea level significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions Results of this study suggest the protective or ameliorating effects of RSL on Sa-induced perturbation of blood indices are related to the hepatic, cardiovascular and kidney dysfunction. Therefore, RSL may be useful to reduce arsenic toxicity in human in the future.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.001
       
  • Survivability of freeze-dried probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strains
           GS4, GS17 and Lactobacillus gasseri (ATCC 19992) during storage with
           commonly used pharmaceutical excipients within a period of 120 days

    • Authors: Mayur Bagad; Ram Pande; Vinay Dubey; Asit Ranjan Ghosh
      Pages: 921 - 929
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Mayur Bagad, Ram Pande, Vinay Dubey, Asit Ranjan Ghosh
      Objective To examine the survivability and stability of probiotic strains in presence and absence of pharmaceutical excipients for a long period of time at (4±1) °C . Methods The survival rates of probiotic strains, Pediococcus pentosaceus GS4 (MTCC12683) (NCBI HM044322), GS17 (NCBI KJ608061) and Lactobacillus gasseri (ATCC 19992), were evaluated. Probiotic strains were lyophilized individually and in combination of excipients (sorbitol, ascorbic acid, fructose and skim milk). The preparation was monitored for 120 d storing at (4±1) °C. During storage, all the preparations were evaluated for viability and stability of probiotic properties like lactic acid production, antimicrobial effect, water activity, and adherence to epithelial cells. Results Sorbitol, ascorbic acid and skim milk favoured the viability of freeze-dried cells and sustained probiotic properties during storage. Without excipients (control group), strains showed percentage of survivability not more than 70% while strains with excipients survived for 73%-93% for a long period of time. Conclusions Commonly used excipients can be considered as a vehicle for delivering active principle in probiotic formulation and for sustaining the viability and stability of probiotic strains for a period of 120 d.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.005
       
  • Lactic acid bacteria mediated fermented soybean as a potent nutraceutical
           candidate

    • Authors: Sasithorn Sirilun; Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi; Periyanaina Kesika; Sartjin Peerajan; Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
      Pages: 930 - 936
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Sasithorn Sirilun, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Periyanaina Kesika, Sartjin Peerajan, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut
      Objective To study some soybean cultivars commonly used in Northern Thailand that exhibit high nutritional profile and to investigate the changes in bioactive principles and antioxidant capacity of the fermented soy broth that was prepared using the selected soybean cultivar and Lactobacillus paracasei HII02 mediated fermentation process. Methods The best soybean cultivar was subjected to fermentation, and then analysed the phychemical, antioxidant and nutrtional changes by high performance liquid chromatographyand spectophotometric analysis. Results Sor Jor 2 soybean cultivar showed rich nutritional profile and was subjected to fermentation process. Lactobacillus paracasei HII02 mediated fermentation of Sor Jor 2 soybean exhibited stable physical and chemical characteristics. Lactic acid bacteria mediated fermentation also increased the aglycone forms of isoflavone content, exhibited antioxidant capacity and thereby enhanced the quality of the fermented soy broth. It also prevented the growth of coliforms in fermented soybean Conclusions The study results suggest that fermented soybean is rich in nutrition and considered to be safe for consumption for the improvement of health and to treat the malnutrition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.007
       
  • Comparing invasive effects of five foodborne bacterial pathogens in human
           embryonic intestine 407 cells and human ileocecum HCT-8 cells

    • Authors: Lan Hu; Tint T. Wai
      Pages: 937 - 944
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Lan Hu, Tint T. Wai
      Objective To refine the infectious doses of enteric bacterial pathogens in animal assays and vaccine clinical trials by studying the invasion kinetics of five bacterial pathogens with human intestinal cells. Methods Utilizing in vitro cultured cell invasion assays with gentamicin-killing step, the invasive effects were analyzed in foodborne pathogens including Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 and opportunistic pathogens Citrobacter in human embryonic intestine 407 cells and ileocecum HCT-8 cells at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) of 0.04 to 4 000 E. coli HS served as a noninvasive control. Results The study results showed that the bacterial invasive efficiency and the average number of internalized bacteria per host cell changed with different starting MOIs. Higher starting MOIs did not always produce more bacterial internalization. The bacterial invasion effects varied with different bacterial strains and host cell lines. E. coli O157:H7 did invade human ileocecum HCT-8 cells. Conclusions This study shows that these bacteria possess different invasive patterns at various starting MOIs and also in different cell lines. The results could help to figure out the appropriate infectious doses of the bacteria in animal assays and in vaccine clinical trials. The bacterial invasion kinetics is also valuable in evaluating the safety and efficacy of live attenuated bacterial vaccines.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.004
       
  • Antibacterial enhancement of antibiotic activity by Enterolobium
           contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong

    • Authors: Zildene de Sousa Silveira; Nair Silva Macêdo; Thiago Sampaio de Freitas; Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva; Joycy Francely Sampaio dos Santos; Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga; José Galberto Martins da Costa; Raimundo Nonato Pereira Teixeira; Jean Paul Kamdem; Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho; Francisco Assis Bezerra da Cunha
      Pages: 945 - 949
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Zildene de Sousa Silveira, Nair Silva Macêdo, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Ana Raquel Pereira da Silva, Joycy Francely Sampaio dos Santos, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Morais-Braga, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Raimundo Nonato Pereira Teixeira, Jean Paul Kamdem, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, Francisco Assis Bezerra da Cunha
      Objective To identify the main chemical classes of compounds from aqueous extract of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (E. contortisiliquum) seed bark and to evaluate its antibacterial activity, as well as its potential to increase the activity of antibiotics against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Methods Different classes of compounds in the aqueous extract of E. contortisiliquum were evaluated based on the visual changes in the coloration and the formation of precipitate after the addition of specific reagents. The antibacterial activity of the extract and its potential to increase of antibiotic activity of antiboitics drugs, gentamicin and norfloxacin was determined by using the microdilution method. Results Our results demonstrated that the following secondary metabolites were presented in E. contortisiliquum seed bark: flavones, flavonols, xanthones, flavononols, chalcones, aurones, flavones and catechins. The extract itself had very low antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains tested (MIC ≥ 1 024 μg/mL), but there was an increase in the antibiotic activity of gentamicin and norfloxacin when combined in the sub-inhibitory concentration (i.e., MIC/8). Conclusions Our data suggests that E. contortisiliquum seed bark may be an alternative source for new drugs with the potential to increase antibiotic activity against different strains of bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.006
       
  • Phytopharmacological potential of different species of Morus alba and
           their bioactive phytochemicals: A review

    • Authors: Fahad Hussain; Zohaib Rana; Hassan Shafique; Arif Malik; Zahid Hussain
      Pages: 950 - 956
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Fahad Hussain, Zohaib Rana, Hassan Shafique, Zahid Hussain
      Medicinal plants of Moraceae family have been well-recognized traditionally due to their versatile applications in various fields including agriculture, cosmetic and food industries as well as in pharmaceutical industries. Their biomedical and medicinal importance is reflected from their broad range of pharmacological activities for treatment of various inflammatory conditions, cancer, infectious diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. The present review was aimed to summarize and critically discuss the biomedical implications of Morus species, their bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals. Bioactivity guided fractionation of these medicinal plants revealed that different types of bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites such as steroids, saponins, alkaloids, glycosides and phenolic compounds including terpenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins were present. The critical analysis of the literature revealed that the extracts (aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic) of Morus species and their bioactive compounds exhibit remarkable anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anticancer, anxiolytic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, immune-modulatory and cholesterol lowering effects. Based on the literature review and bioactivity guided investigation of Morus species and their phytomedicinal effects, we anticipate that these herbal products hold excellent potential for future research.

      PubDate: 2017-09-25T20:39:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.015
       
  • Protective effect of natural products and hormones in colon cancer using
           metabolome: A physiological overview

    • Authors: Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem
      Pages: 957 - 966
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 September 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Khaled M.M. Koriem
      Globally, the third cause of males cancer and the fourth cause of females cancer is colon cancer (CC). In Egypt, high CC percentage occurs in children and in individuals below 40 years of age. The complete loss of biological enzyme function is the main cause of CC and consequently CC increased in smoking and pollution exposure. The aim of this review is to focus on the application of metabolome as a physiological tool that can play an important role in preventing CC incidence by natural products and hormones. The dietary factors, intestinal micro-flora and endogenously produced metabolites are the main three causes that produce free radicals in the colon. A correlation occurs between the enzyme activity and CC polymorphisms or property. Nowadays metabolome is applied with the progress of different analytical methods, data bases and tools for cancer predication and stimulation especially in CC cases. Metabolism is defined as intracellular chemical reactions that produce chemical substances and energies sustaining life. Metabolic pathway networks are also composed of links that are defined as transformation of chemical structures between two metabolites and an enzyme reaction. The most important advantage of metabolome is its ability to analyze metabolites from any source, regardless of origin, where the application of liquid chromatography combined with mass spectra in metabolome analysis to a series of cancer cell lines that were progressively more tumorigenic due to the induction of 1,2,3 or 4 oncogenes to cell lines could be a metabolome example application. In conclusion, natural products and hormones are very important in preventing CC in humans and animal models where both natural products and hormones play a significant and important effect in regulating physiological process especially in CC cases. In this situation, metabolome must increase in its application in the future for the diagnosis of CC cases.

      PubDate: 2017-09-13T18:06:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.002
       
  • Influence of biofilm-forming lactic acid bacteria against
           methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA S547)

    • Authors: Laavanya M. Kumar; Wan Zuhainis Saad; Rosfarizan Mohamad; Raha Abdul Rahim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Laavanya M. Kumar, Wan Zuhainis Saad, Rosfarizan Mohamad, Raha Abdul Rahim
      Objective To investigate the antibacterial effect of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) biofilms on the planktonic and biofilm population of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (S547). Methods In this study, biofilm-forming LAB were isolated from tairu and kefir. Isolate Y1 and isolate KF were selected based on their prominent inhibition against test pathogens (using spot-on-agar method and agar-well-diffusion assay) and efficient biofilm production (using tissue culture plate method). They were then identified as Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) Y1 and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) KF, respectively using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The influence of incubation time, temperature and aeration on the biofilm production of L. casei Y1 and L. plantarum KF was also investigated using tissue culture plate method. The inhibitory activity of both the selected LAB biofilms was evaluated against MRSA (Institute for Medical Research code: S547) using L. plantarum ATCC 8014 as the reference strain. Results L. casei Y1 showed the highest reduction of MRSA biofilms, by 3.53 log at 48 h while L. plantarum KF records the highest reduction of 2.64 log at 36 h. In inhibiting planktonic population of MRSA (S547), both L. casei Y1 and L. plantarum KF biofilms recorded their maximum reduction of 4.13 log and 3.41 log at 24 h, respectively. Despite their inhibitory effects being time-dependent, both LAB biofilms exhibited good potential in controlling the biofilm and planktonic population of MRSA (S547). Conclusions The results from this study could highlight the importance of analysing biofilms of LAB to enhance their antibacterial efficacy. Preferably, these protective biofilms of LAB could also be a better alternative to control the formation of biofilms by pathogens such as MRSA.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.013
       
  • Evaluation of teaching-in-English reform in five-year clinical tropical
           medicine program – Case analysis of curriculum reform of clinical
           medicine in Hainan Medical University

    • Authors: Shi-Jiao Yan; Yun-Qiang Chen; Jiao Chen; Chuan-Zhu Lv
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Shi-Jiao Yan, Yun-Qiang Chen, Jiao Chen, Chuan-Zhu Lv
      Objective To investigate the model, quality as well as effect of teaching-in-English in five-year clinical medicine program of Hainan Medical University. Methods The questionnaire was carried out among clinical medicine undergraduates of 2012–2015 grades in Hainan Medical University, to investigate studying time, studying habits and the impact of teaching in English. Additionally results of CET-4, CET-6 and overseas internship from undergraduates of 2012–2015 grade, as well as the result of phased medical licensing examination and post-graduate entrance examination from undergraduates of 2012 were accordingly collected from the Teaching Management Department. Results For the Chinese students in international classes, the average time of self-study was 161.49 min, 58.3% had preview before classes, and 90.7% had habit of review after classes. Thus the first time pass rate, total pass rate, first time excellent rate and total excellent rate of CET-4 and CET-6 of international classes were significantly higher than those of regular classes. The result of post-graduate entrance examination in 2016 showed that the score, pass rate and acceptance rate of international classes of 2012 grade were significantly higher those of regular classes (P < 0.01). Conclusions Teaching-in-English reform in Hainan Medical University has achieved initial success. Chinese students from international classes are superior to those from regular classes in many aspects. However, there are still many problems, and effective measures should be implemented to promote teaching quality continuously.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.017
       
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Triognella foenum graecum Linn
           seeds: Determination of bioactive compounds and pharmacological analysis

    • Authors: Ola Basa'ar; Samreen Fatema; Ali Alrabie; Mohammed Mohsin; Mazahar Farooqui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Ola Basa'ar, Samreen Fatema, Ali Alrabie, Mohammed Mohsin, Mazahar Farooqui
      Objective To investigate the effect of temperature and pressure on supercritical CO2 extraction of Triognella foenum graecum Linn seeds, to determine the optimal condition which leads to highest percentage of the accumulative yield and revealing the chemical composition of supercritical CO2 extract. Methods Temperatures in the range of 40–60 °C and pressures in the range of 10–25 MPa were used. FTIR and GC–MS analysis were used to detect the bioactive compounds present in the extract. The broth dilution method and slope method were used to evaluate the anti-microbial and anti-tuberculosis activities and the in vitro anti-malarial assay was carried out according to the micro assay protocol of Rieckmann and his co-workers. Results The temperature was more affected than the pressure on the extraction performance and the highest yield of the extract (3.111%) was attained at 60 °C and 10 MPa. FTIR and GC–MS showed that the chemical composition of the extract included conjugated linoleic acid methyl ester as the major active principle (with concentration of 72.28%), followed by saturated fatty acid methyl esters (16.03%), steroids (8.09%) and organic siloxane compound (3.61%). The extract showed moderate anti-bacterial activity with MIC values 100, 250, 125 μg/mL towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenus respectively. It exhibited high inhibition effect towards the fungi Candida albican with MFC value (250 μg/mL). The extract had low anti-tuberculosis activity with MIC value (100 μg/mL) and comparable MIC value (0.29 μg/mL) towards Plasmodium flaciparum. Conclusions Supercritical CO2 extraction as alternate and green technology is performed successfully to extract the bioactive compounds from the seeds of T . foenum graecum Linn and it is concluded that this extract can be used as an alternate source of synthetic anti-biotic drugs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.010
       
  • Feasibility of iFISH patterns in hematologic malignancies among Congolese
           patients at Kinshasa University clinics

    • Authors: Mireille Solange Nganga Nkanga; Benjamin Longo-Mbenza; Peter Vandenberghe; Fons Verdonck; Venant Tchokonte-Nana; Nkama Claude Nlandu; Roth Laure Mapapa Miakassissa; Paul Roger Beia Kazadi; Antoine Lufimbo Katawandja; Jacques Bikaula Ngwidiwo; Ntolo Jean-Pierre Mufuta; Kuanda Thomas Solo; Mbombo Aurore Cecilia Orphée Beia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Mireille Solange Nganga Nkanga, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, Peter Vandenberghe, Fons Verdonck, Venant Tchokonte-Nana, Nkama Claude Nlandu, Roth Laure Mapapa Miakassissa, Paul Roger Beia Kazadi, Antoine Lufimbo Katawandja, Jacques Bikaula Ngwidiwo, Ntolo Jean-Pierre Mufuta, Kuanda Thomas Solo, Mbombo Aurore Cecilia Orphée Beia
      Objective To analyze the feasibility of detecting Ph1 in leukemia patients in the Kinshasa University Clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo, at KU Leuven, Belgium. Methods Bone marrow and peripheral blood samples with chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia or acute leukocytes leukemia were obtained from 32 patients in Kinshasa University clinics in the Democratic Republic of Congo and transferred to KU Leuven in Belgium for iFISH feasibility. Ph1 was detected by using a remote analysis of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). Results Out of the 32 patients involved in this study, 65.6% (n = 21) of the cases were successfully tested, of which 52.4% (n = 11) were iFISH positives for the variant t(9;22) (presence of Ph1) in chronic myeloid leukemia samples and 47.6% (n = 10) negatives in all subtypes of hematological malignancies. However, there was a female predominance in chronic myeloid leukemia samples Ph1-positives by iFISH, whereas no sexual influence was observed on acute subtypes of leukemia. Conclusions iFISH analysis is feasible on samples obtained from remote sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, the optimization of the sample storage is necessary to further improve iFISH's performance.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.014
       
  • Bioactive compounds fractionated from endophyte Streptomyces SUK 08 with
           promising ex-vivo antimalarial activity

    • Authors: Noraziah Mohamad Zin; Juwairiah Remali; Mohd Nazir Nasrom; Shafariatul Akmar Ishak; Mohd Shukri Baba; Juriyati Jalil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Juwairiah Remali, Mohd Nazir Nasrom, Shafariatul Akmar Ishak, Mohd Shukri Baba, Juriyati Jalil
      Objective To determine ex vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytic Streptomyces SUK 08 as well as the main core structure fractionated from its crude extract. Methods The activities of SUK 08 crude extract were evaluated by using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase assay and synchronization test against rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei, instead of human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The cytotoxicity of the crude extract was determined by MTT assay. The crude extract was analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry. Results The ethyl acetate crude extract showed very promising antimalarial activity with IC50 of 1.25 mg/mL. The synchronization tests showed that ethyl acetate extraction could inhibit all stages of the Plasmodium life cycle, but it was most effective at the Plasmodium ring stage. On the basis of a MTT assay on Chang Liver cells, ethyl acetate and ethanol demonstrated IC50 values of >1.0 mg/mL. The IC50 of parasitemia at 5% and 30% for this extract was lower than chloroquine. Thin-layer chromatography, with 1: 9 ratio of ethyl acetate: hexane, was used to isolate several distinct compounds. Based on gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry analysis, three core structures were identified as cyclohexane, butyl propyl ester, and 2,3-heptanedione. Structurally, these compounds were similar to currently available antimalarial drugs. Conclusions The results suggest that compounds isolated from Streptomyces SUK 08 are viable antimalarial drug candidates that require further investigations.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.006
       
  • First investigation of deltamethrin pyrethroid susceptibility and
           resistance status of Anopheles labranchiae (Falleroni, 1926), potential
           malaria vector in Tunisia

    • Authors: Ahmed Tabbabi; Jabeur Daaboub
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Ahmed Tabbabi, Jabeur Daaboub
      Objective To evaluate the deltamethrin pyrethroid insecticides against Anopheles labranchiae, potential malaria vector in Tunisia. Methods Six field populations of Anopheles labranchiae mosquitoes were collected from six localities in Northern and Central Tunisia between October and November 2016. Different bioassays were performed to estimate the level of resistance in each collected population. Two synergists were used to estimate the involvement of detoxification enzymes in insecticide resistance. Results All studied strains were resistant and the RR50 ranged from 12.5 in sample #1 to 72.5 in sample #6. Synergist tests using piperonyl butoxide indicated the involvement of monoxygenases enzymes in the recorded resistance. In contrast, the increase of deltamethrin mortality was not significant in presence of S,S,sributyl phosphorothioate (0.8 < SR < 1.2), suggesting no role of esterases (and/or GST) in the resistance phenotype. The correlation recorded between mortality due to DDT and the LC50 of deltamethrin insecticide indicated an insensitive sodium channel affected by Kdr mutation (Spearman rank correlation, r = −0.59, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results should be considered in the current mosquitoes control programs in Tunisia. The use of pesticides and insecticides by both agricultural and public health departments in Tunisia should be more rational to reduce the development of resistance in populations. Different insecticide applications should be implemented alternately.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.007
       
  • “Evaluation of L-DOPA, proximate composition with in vitro anti-
           inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Mucuna macrocarpa beans: A future
           drug for Parkinson’s treatment”

    • Authors: Chetan Aware; Ravishankar Patil; Swaroopsingh Gaikwad; Shrirang Yadav; Vishwas Bapat; Jyoti Jadhav
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Chetan Aware, Ravishankar Patil, Swaroopsingh Gaikwad, Shrirang Yadav, Vishwas Bapat, Jyoti Jadhav
      Objective To investigate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA anti-Parkinson drug) anti-inflammatory activity, proximate nutritional composition and antioxidant potential of M. macrocarpa (MM) beans. Methods L-DOPA content was determined and quantified by HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by protein denaturation and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization methods. Proximate composition and elemental analysis were investigated. The antioxidant potential (DPPH, DMPD and FRAP) were evaluated by using different extraction solvents. Major phenolics such as tannic acid, gallic acid, p -hydroxy benzoic acid and p -coumaric acid were quantified using RP-HPLC. Results RP-HPLC quantification revealed that MM beans contain high level of L-DOPA (115.41±0.985 mg g-1) which is the highest among the Mucuna species from Indian sub-continent. Water extract of seed powder showed strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential. Proximate composition of MM beans revealed numerous nutritional and anti-nutritional components. RP-HPLC analysis of major phenolics such as tannic acid (43.795 mg g-1), gallic acid (0.864 mg g-1), p-coumaric acid (0.364 mg g-1) and p-hydroxy benzoic acid (0.036 mg g-1) quantified from MM beans respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that M. macrocarpa is a potential source of L-DOPA with promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and nutritional benefits.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.012
       
  • Mobola plum seed methanolic extracts exhibit mixed type inhibition of
           angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme in vitro

    • Authors: Olamide Olajusi Crown; Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju; Ayodele Oluwaseyi Kolawole; Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun; Mary Tolulope Olaleye; Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Olamide Olajusi Crown, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ayodele Oluwaseyi Kolawole, Afolabi Clement Akinmoladun, Mary Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi
      Objective To explore the possible inhibitory potentials and mechanism by Mobola plum (Parinari curatellifolia) seeds crude methanol (CE) and flavonoid-rich (FE) extracts on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE Ⅰ). Methods The sensitivity and kinetic model of inhibition of CE and FE on ACE Ⅰ using N-[3-(2-furyl)-acryloyl]-Phe-Gly-Gly as enzyme substrate for ACE Ⅰ was evaluated by Michealis Menten approach. The inhibition mechanism was explored from Lineweaver–Burk model and IC50 was determined from Cheng–Prusoff empirical analysis. Results The IC50 of CE and FE were 13.54 and 39.38 μg/mL, respectively. Both extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition with the inhibitory constant (K i ) of CE was between 0.38 and 0.37 μg/mL while that of FE showed a two-fold increase (1.62 μg/mL and 0.28 μg/mL). FE on ACE Ⅰ demonstrated positive cooperativity with a Hill's coefficient of 1.89. Conclusions The study reveals the superior ACE Ⅰ inhibitory potential of CE over FE and suggest that mixed inhibition pattern of the enzyme might be the underlying mechanism of antihypertensive activity.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.10.009
       
  • Acquisition of naturally acquired antibody response to Plasmodium
           falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1-DBLα and differential
           regulation of IgG subclasses in severe and uncomplicated malaria

    • Authors: Natharinee Horata; Kiattawee Choowongkomon; Siriluk Ratanabunyong; Jarinee Tongshoob; Srisin Khusmith
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Natharinee Horata, Kiattawee Choowongkomon, Siriluk Ratanabunyong, Jarinee Tongshoob, Srisin Khusmith
      Objectives To explore whether individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) develop antibodies directed against PfEMP1-DBLα, and to assess their IgG subclass distribution in severe and uncomplicated malaria. Methods The anti-PfDBLα IgG and their IgG subclass distributions in plasma of severe (SM) and uncomplicated malaria (UCM) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The antibody profiles to P. falciparum blood stage antigens were evaluated. CD36 binding ability was determined by static receptor-binding assays. Rosette formation was performed by staining with acridine orange. Results Significantly higher number of UCM (86.48%) than SM (57.78%) plasma contained total acquisition of specific IgG to P. falciparum antigens (P = 0.000). Similar manners were seen in response to P. falciparum DBLα with significant difference (UCM, 59.46% vs SM, 40.00%; P = 0.014). Anti-PfDBLα-IgG1 and -IgG3 were the predominant subclasses. Similar percentage of UCM (31.82%) and SM (33.33%) plasma contained only IgG1, while 13.64% of UCM and 27.78% of SM plasma contained only IgG3. Anti-PfDBLα-IgG1 coexpressed with more than one subclass was noted (UCM, 27.27%; SM, 16.67%). Obviously, IgG1 coexpressed with IgG3 (9.09%) was observed in only UCM plasma. IgG1 was coexpressed with IgG2 in UCM (9.09%) and SM (11.11%) plasma, while IgG1 was coexpressed with IgG4 only in UCM plasma (4.55%). IgG subclasses to P. falciparum antigens were distributed in a similar manner. Only the levels of IgG1, but not IgG3 were significantly higher in UCM than in SM. Conclusions These data suggest that individuals infected with P. falciparum can develop the anti-PfEMP1 antibodies with the major contribution of specific IgG subclasses. The balance and the levels of anti-PfDBLα IgG subclasses play a crucial role in antibody mediated protection against severe malaria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T05:00:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.09.017
       
  • Comparison of electrochemiluminescence and ELISA methods in the detection
           of blood borne pathogens in Gabon

    • Authors: Cyrille Bisseye; Jophrette Mireille Ntsame Ndong; Anicet Mouity Matoumba; Calixte Bengone; Guy Mouelet Migolet; Bolni Marius Nagalo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Cyrille Bisseye, Jophrette Mireille Ntsame Ndong, Anicet Mouity Matoumba, Calixte Bengone, Guy Mouelet Migolet, Bolni Marius Nagalo
      Objective To assess the performances of Cobas 6000 e601 and EVOLIS BioRad in the detection of HIV, HBV and HCV in blood donors in Libreville (Gabon). Methods A cross-sectional investigation was conducted in July 2017 in a total of 2 000 blood donors recruited at the National Blood transfusion Center (NBTC), Libreville Gabon. Among them, 363 donors were selected to compare the performances of COBAS 6000 e601 (electro-chemiluminescence) and EVOLIS BioRad in detecting HIV, HBV and HCV using Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results Both methods yielded similar results for the detection of HIV and HBsAg. A very good agreement of 93.39% and an excellent agreement of 98.90% were obtained for the detection of HIV and HbsAg, with kappa values of 0.80 and 0.98, respectively. The observed agreement of 91.86% was found for the detection of HCV, which gave a fair agreement between the two methods with kappa = 0.33. Conclusions The two evaluation methods showed a similar performance in the detection of HIV, HBV. However, given the high rate of intra and inter-genotypes recombination known for HIV and HBV, more robust techniques of detection such as polymerase chain reaction should be used to prevent post-transfusion contaminations.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.008
       
  • An in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of
           Sutherlandia montana E.Phillips & R.A.Dyer leaf extracts

    • Authors: Afolakemi Abibat Alimi; Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Afolakemi Abibat Alimi, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
      Objective To evaluate the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Sutherlandia montana E. Phillips & R.A.Dyer leaf extracts using the in vitro model. Methods The antioxidant activities of aqueous, decoction, ethanol and hydro-ethanol extracts of the plant were determined using seven different assays; the antidiabetic potential was evaluated through the inhibition of key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (ᾳ-amylase and ᾳ-glucosidase), while the modes of the enzymes inhibition were assessed using enzyme kinetic analysis. Results The ethanol extract exhibited the best scavenging activity (IC50: 0.47, 0.36, 0.20, 0.29 and 0.01 mg/mL) against the tested radicals like 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2’-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6sulfonic acid) (ABTS), nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide anion, respectively. It also showed the best reducing power efficiency when compared with the standard (silymarin), while the decoction extract displayed the strongest metal chelating potential (IC50: 0.71 mg/mL). The ethanol (IC50: 5.52 mg/mL) and decoction (IC50: 0.05 mg/mL) extracts exhibited mild and strong inhibitory effects on the specific activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively, through an uncompetitive and non-competitive mode of action. Conclusions The observed properties might be linked to the presence of active principles as shown by the results of the phytochemical analyses of the extracts. Although, in vivo studies are vital to complement present findings. This research has validated the folkloric application of Sutherlandia montana as a potential antidiabetic agent, which is evident from the inhibition of specific activities of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.004
       
  • In vitro assessment on medicinal properties and chemical composition of
           Michelia nilagirica bark

    • Authors: Babu Venkatadri; Ameer Khusro; Chirom Aarti; Marimuthu Ragavan Rameshkumar; Paul Agastian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Babu Venkatadri, Ameer Khusro, Chirom Aarti, Marimuthu Ragavan Rameshkumar, Paul Agastian
      Objective To outline the antibacterial, antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibition and anticancer properties of Michelia nilagirica (M. nilagirica) bark extract. Methods The antibacterial activity of bark extracts against human pathogens was assessed by disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical screening, total phenols, flavonoids content, antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition properties of bark extracts were investigated by standard methods. In vitro anticancer activity of ethyl acetate extract at various concentrations was observed against HepG2 cells using MTT[3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. The presence of diverse bioactive constituents in the ethyl acetate extract was identified using FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. Results Ethyl acetate extract was found to be the promising agent against human pathogens tested. The ethyl acetate extracts showed the presence of various phytochemicals and comprised the substantial content of phenolics and flavonoids. The ethyl acetate extract showed better antioxidant activities and also revealed remarkable reducing power ability and α-glucosidase inhibition property. The dose dependent assay of extract showed remarkable cancer cell death with IC50 value of (303.26 ± 2.30) μg/mL. FTIR and GC-MS results indicated the presence of major bioactive constituents in the ethyl acetate extract of M. nilagirica bark. Conclusions Revealing the first report on in vitro biological properties and chemical composition analysis of M. nilagirica bark extract, our study implied that this plant could be of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.003
       
  • Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid induced sperm abnormalities and
           histopathological changes in mice

    • Authors: Maha A. Fahmy; Ayman A. Farghaly; Enayat A. Omara; Zeinab M. Hassan; Fawzia A.E. Aly; Souria M. Donya; Aziza A.E. Ibrahim; Elsayed M. Bayoumy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Maha A. Fahmy, Ayman A. Farghaly, Enayat A. Omara, Zeinab M. Hassan, Fawzia A.E. Aly, Souria M. Donya, Aziza A.E. Ibrahim, Elsayed M. Bayoumy
      Objective To explore the genotoxic potential and histopathological changes induced in liver, kidney, testis, brain and heart after using the antibiotic drug amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (4: 1). Methods The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in bone-marrow and mouse spermatocytes, induction of sperm morphological abnormalities and histopathological changes in different body organs. The drug was administrated orally at a dose of 81 mg/kg body weight twice daily (Total = 162 mg/kg/day) for various periods of time equivalent to 625 mg/men (twice daily). Results The results revealed non-significant chromosomal aberrations induced after treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AC) in both bone marrow and mouse spermatocytes after 7 and 10 days treatment. On the other hand, statistically significant percentages of sperm morphological abnormalities were recorded. Such percentage reached 8.10 ± 0.55, 9.86 ± 0.63 and 12.12 ± 0.58 at the three time intervals tested (7, 14 and 35 days after the 1st treatment respectively) (treatment performed for 5 successive days) compared with 2.78 ± 0.48 for the control. The results also revealed histopathological changes in different body organs after AC treatment which increased with the prolongation of the period of therapy. Congestion of central vain, liver hemorrhage and hydropic changes in hepatocytes were noticed in the liver. Degenerative changes were found in kidney glomerulus and tubules while testis showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules, and reduction of spermatogenesis. AC also induced neurotoxicity and altered brain neurotransmitter levels. Hemorrhage in the myocardium, disruption of cardiac muscle fibers and piknotic nuclei in cardiomyocytes were recorded as side effects of AC in heart tissue. Conclusions The results concluded that AC treatment induced sperm morphological abnormalities and histopathological changes in different body organs. Clinicians must be aware of such results while describing the drug.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.002
       
  • Identification of phytochemical compounds in Calophyllum inophyllum leaves

    • Authors: David Febrilliant Susanto; Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta; Arief Widjaja; Setiyo Gunawan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): David Febrilliant Susanto, Hakun Wirawasista Aparamarta, Arief Widjaja, Setiyo Gunawan
      Objectives To investigate the proximate composition, mineral content, and phytochemical compounds in Calophylum inophyllum (C. inophyllum) leaves. Moreover, isolation and identification of pyrene were also performed. Methods C. inophyllum leaves were extracted with methanol by percolation methods. The proximate composition of C. inophyllum leaves was analyzed by standard methods. Mineral contents in this plant were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening and analysis of this plant were performed by spectrophotometric method. Washing method with Carbon Disulfide (CS2) was used for isolating dihydropyrene compound from C. inophyllum leaves extracts. Results The result revealed that C. inophyllum leaves contained 11.24% moisture, 4.75% ash, 6.43% crude protein, 23.96% crude fiber, 9.91% carbohydrate, and energy (79.17 kcal/100 g). The leaves also contained 0.007% iron, 1.240% calcium, 0.075% sodium, 0.195% magnesium, 0.100% ppm potassium, and 0.040% phosphorus. Moreover, 11.51% alkaloid, 2.48% triterpenoid, 2.37% flavonoid, 7.68% tannin, 2.16% saponin, 2.53% polyphenol, were identified in the methanolic crude extracts of C. inophyllum leaves. It was found that trans-2-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-10b,10c-dimethyl-10b,10c-dihydropyrene was obtained at purity of 79.18 % (22.17% yield) from C. inophyllum leaves. Conclusions C. inophyllum leaves may be used as a good source of fiber. It was found that C. inophyllum leaves have the potential as herbal drugs due to their phytochemical content. The separation, isolation, and purification of bioactive compounds from this methanolic crude extract and their biological activity are under further investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.001
       
  • Acaricidal activity of Derris floribunda essential oil and its main
           constituent

    • Authors: Ana Claudia Fernandes Amaral; Aline de S. Ramos; Márcia Reis Pena; José Luiz Pinto Ferreira; Jean Michel S. Menezes; Geraldo J.N. Vasconcelos; Neliton Marques da Silva; Jefferson Rocha de Andrade Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Ana Claudia Fernandes Amaral, Aline de S. Ramos, Márcia Reis Pena, José Luiz Pinto Ferreira, Jean Michel S. Menezes, Geraldo J.N. Vasconcelos, Neliton Marques da Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade Silva
      Objective To evaluate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil obtained from roots of Derris floribunda (D. floribunda) (Miq.) Benth, and its main constituent nerolidol against the Mexican mite Tetranychus mexicanus (T. mexicanus) (McGregor). Methods The essential oil from the roots of D. floribunda collected in the Amazon region (Brazil) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS analysis. The acaricidal activities of this essential oil and nerolidol, were evaluated by recording the number of dead females (mortality) and eggs (fertility). Results The essential oil showed sesquiterpenes as major volatile components. Nerolidol, the main component, represented 68.5% of the total composition of the essential oil. D. floribunda essential oil and nerolidol showed acaricidal activity, with LC50 of 9.61 μg/mL air and 9.2 μg/mL air, respectively, over a 72 h period. In addition, both the essential oil and nerolidol significantly reduced the fecundity of T. mexicanus. Conclusions Due to the economic importance of T. mexicanus and the lack of new pesticides, our data are very promising in the search for efficient and safer acaricidal products. Furthermore, this is the first report about the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil of the Amazon plant species D. floribunda.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.006
       
  • Nrf2 activator Corosolic acid meliorates alloxan induced diabetic
           nephropathy in mice

    • Authors: Priti S. Tidke; Chandragouda R. Patil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine
      Author(s): Priti S. Tidke, Chandragouda R. Patil
      Objective To determine whether Corosolic acid (CA) targeting nuclear protein expression of Nrf2 activation can be used to attenuate renal damage and preserve renal function in alloxan diabetic mice. Methods A mouse model with diabetic nephropathy was established to examine the Nrf2 expression. Mice were randomly divided into control, diabetic control, and CA groups treated at 0.4 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg p.o. for 8 weeks. Diabetes was induced in mice by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan 200 mg/kg in all groups except the control. The mice with fasting blood glucose level over 200 mg/dL were considered as diabetic and were employed in the study. After 4th and 8th weeks, urine samples were collected (using metabolic cages) to measure protein and urea. Animals were euthanized, and serum samples were collected to estimate the glucose, creatinine, total protein, urea and blood urea nitrogen. Kidney was isolated at the end of experiment for histology to evaluate anti-oxidant parameters. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the Nrf2 expression. Results CA treatment showed dose dependent reduction in level of biochemical parameters in serum and urine. CA group (10 mg/kg) showed significantly higher body weight and reduced kidney weight. Histopathological examination revealed reduced inflammation, collagen deposition and glomerulosclerosis in renal tissue. CA attenuated renal dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammatory pro-cytokine levels. Conclusions CA treatment exhibited ameliorative effect on kidney in mice with its enhanced Nrf2 expression.

      PubDate: 2017-08-21T12:42:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.08.010
       
 
 
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