Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 427 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 427 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Medica Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Indian Psychiatry     Open Access  
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Tropical Pathology     Open Access  
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.856, CiteScore: 2)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Reproduction     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.491, CiteScore: 2)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 2)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Cancer Investigation J.     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.811, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.242, CiteScore: 0)
Education in the Health Professions     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.799, CiteScore: 2)
Egyptian J. of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Nursing J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Eurasian J. of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.12, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Glioma     Open Access  
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Hamdan Medical J.     Open Access  
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ibnosina J. of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Imam J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.468, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Respiratory Care     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Spine J.     Open Access  
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Clinicopathological Correlation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.623, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.4, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Indian Journal of Public Health
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0019-557X - ISSN (Online) 2229-7693
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [427 journals]
  • The big picture – An IPHA initiative

    • Authors: Sanjay K Rai, Sanghamitra Ghosh
      Pages: 83 - 83
      Abstract: Sanjay K Rai, Sanghamitra Ghosh
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):83-83

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):83-83
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.285635
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Second joint statement of the IPHA, IAPSM and IAE- Public health approach
           for COVID-19 pandemic control in India

    • Pages: 84 - 86
      Abstract:
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):84-86

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):84-86
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.285636
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Science, policy, people, and public health: What Is COVID-19 teaching
           us?

    • Authors: Anand Krishnan, Rajib Dasgupta
      Pages: 87 - 89
      Abstract: Anand Krishnan, Rajib Dasgupta
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):87-89

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):87-89
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_540_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • A science-based response to COVID-19

    • Authors: JP Muliyil
      Pages: 90 - 90
      Abstract: JP Muliyil
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):90-90
      The COVID-19 pandemic behaves like many other viruses spread through respiratory routes. This is generally a mild disease for those aged less than 50 years. A complete and prolonged lockdown will reduce COVID-19 mortality but simultaneously lead to a graver public health, social, and economic disaster. The focus has to be based on the reality that exists in an area.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):90-90
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_530_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Health systems preparedness for COVID-19 pandemic

    • Authors: T Sundararaman
      Pages: 91 - 93
      Abstract: T Sundararaman
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):91-93
      Some nations in the world and some states in India have had more success in containing this pandemic. Recent efforts in strengthening the health sector have focused largely on reforms in modes of financing, but as the pandemic brings home to us, the main challenge in India remains the challenge of the organization of public services using a health systems understanding. A close to community comprehensive primary health care, quality assurance, and planned excess capacity in public health systems, a more robust disease surveillance systems that can integrate data on new outbreaks and the indigenous technological capacity to scale up innovation and manufacture of essential health commodities are some of our most important requirements for both epidemic preparedness and response.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):91-93
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_507_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • The armed forces medical services response to COVID-19

    • Authors: Anup Banerji
      Pages: 94 - 95
      Abstract: Anup Banerji
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):94-95
      The Indian Armed Forces have always responded to the Nation's call and the COVID-19 pandemic response has been no different. On instructions from the Government of India, the Armed Forces Medical Services (AFMS) pitched in right from the initial stages of the epidemic in India as part of a coordinated national response. Be it the execution of medical quarantine for Indian citizens evacuated from China and other COVID affected countries or establishing dedicated and mixed COVID hospitals for its own clientele as well as civilian patients, the AFMS worked in tandem with the national policies. The Armed Forces ensured force preservation and protection of its own troops and families by timely implementation of public health measures, even as it played its designated role in the national strategy. With vision, understanding and clarity, the AFMS continue to lend shoulder to India's response to this global public health challenge.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):94-95
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_516_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Health systems preparedness during COVID-19 pandemic: China and India

    • Authors: Rama V Baru
      Pages: 96 - 98
      Abstract: Rama V Baru
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):96-98
      This commentary reviews the health systems preparedness during the COVID-19 epidemic in China and India. It provides insight into how nonmedical measures were employed to contain and control the epidemic in Wuhan which was the epicenter. The methods employed by the Chinese provided the roadmap for the countries as the epidemic became pandemic. It provides contrasts in health system preparedness between China and India.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):96-98
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_501_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Kerala's response to COVID-19

    • Authors: Rajeev Sadanandan
      Pages: 99 - 101
      Abstract: Rajeev Sadanandan
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):99-101
      The response of Kerala state to COVID-19, led by the health department, was nested in larger social mobilization. Kerala has developed a strong government health system. Learning from managing the Nipah outbreaks, Kerala took effective prevention measures early. Local governments, actively involved in public health in Kerala, played an active role in controlling the epidemic and in cushioning the impact on the poor. Transparency in information and willingness of the government to take the people into confidence has contributed to enhancing trust in the government. These strengths will stand Kerala in good stead as it prepares to manage the next wave of COVID-19 infections.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):99-101
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_459_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Community preparedness for COVID-19 and frontline health workers in
           Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Prabir Kumar Chatterjee
      Pages: 102 - 104
      Abstract: Prabir Kumar Chatterjee
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):102-104
      At the end of April 2020, there had already been three million cases of COVID-19 in the world pandemic. Chhattisgarh might expect 90,000 diagnosed cases of COVID-19 in the end. The first step taken in March was to ensure a simple checklist of activities that needed to continue. Handbills were given with the basic information on the symptoms and what to do in the community. In urban areas, the lockdown affected the poorer section of the society, especially who are not having BPL card and no other means of availing necessary eatables. Issues that arose affecting regular activities such as tuberculosis and immunization. Residents of informal settlements are also vulnerable during any COVID-19 responses. Frontline workers such as Mitanins in the community are an important asset in the capacity building and preparedness strategies.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):102-104
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_467_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • AYUSH for COVID-19: Science or Superstition?

    • Authors: Ritu Priya, V Sujatha
      Pages: 105 - 107
      Abstract: Ritu Priya, V Sujatha
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):105-107
      There is a lot of discussion on COVID-19 control strategies from the mainstream approaches, but it is also necessary to examine the contributions of the Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, Sowa Riga and Homeopathy (AYUSH) sector, which is now being brought into public health interventions nationally. Although the AYUSH sector had previously joined the management of dengue and chikungunya outbreaks in some Indian states, its participation has remained contentious and there is reluctance in mainstream public health discourses to seriously examine their interventions. This is a commentary on the efforts made by the Ministry of AYUSH, state AYUSH directorates, AYUSH research institutions, and public hospitals, based on official documents as well as official statements reported in the media, with the aim of bringing out concerns in the process of adapting traditional textual knowledge and practices to public health requirements of the current age.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):105-107
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_500_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 vaccine development and the way forward

    • Authors: Narendra Kumar Arora, Manoja Kumar Das
      Pages: 108 - 111
      Abstract: Narendra Kumar Arora, Manoja Kumar Das
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):108-111
      The whole globe is reeling under the COVID-19 pandemic now. With the scale and severity of infection, number of deaths and lack of any definite therapeutic armamentarium, the vaccine development has been accelerated at a never-before pace. A wide variety of vaccine technologies and platforms are being attempted. Out of the over 108 efforts, 100 are in preclinical and eight in Phase 1 or 2 trial stage. While the availability of newer technologies has facilitated development, there are several challenges on the way including limited understanding of the pathophysiology, targeting humoral or mucosal immunity, lack of suitable animal model, poor success of human severe acute respiratory syndrome/Middle East Respiratory Syndrome vaccines, limited efficacy of influenza vaccines, and immune exaggeration with animal coronavirus vaccines. With the current scenario with political, funding, research, and regulatory supports, if everything sails through smoothly, the successful vaccine is expected in 12–18 months. Modestly efficacious vaccine may be also a good achievement.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):108-111
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_520_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Potential pharmacological agents for COVID-19

    • Authors: Anita Kotwani, Sumanth Gandra
      Pages: 112 - 116
      Abstract: Anita Kotwani, Sumanth Gandra
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):112-116
      A novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) first emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, has become a global pandemic. Currently, the management of COVID-19 infection is mainly supportive. Several clinical trials worldwide are evaluating several drugs approved for other indications, as well as multiple investigational agents for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Here, we give a brief overview of pharmacological agents and other therapies which are under investigation as treatment options or adjunctive agents for patients infected with COVID-19 and for chemoprophylaxis for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. At the time of writing this commentary, there is no peer-reviewed published evidence from randomized clinical trials of any pharmacological agents improving outcomes in COVID-19 patients. However, it was reported that remdesivir an investigational antiviral agent hastens clinical recovery, but a study is yet to be published in peer-reviewed medical journal.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):112-116
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_456_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • The global experience of digital health interventions in COVID-19
           management

    • Authors: Sohini Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath Sarbadhikari
      Pages: 117 - 124
      Abstract: Sohini Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath Sarbadhikari
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):117-124
      Digital health interventions are globally playing a significant role to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2. Here, we present a very brief overview of the multifaceted digital interventions, globally, and in India, for maintaining health and health-care delivery, in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):117-124
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_457_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis or treatment for COVID-19: What does the
           evidence say?

    • Authors: Praveen Balabaskaran Nina, Aditya Prasad Dash
      Pages: 125 - 127
      Abstract: Praveen Balabaskaran Nina, Aditya Prasad Dash
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):125-127
      Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial has been proposed as possible treatment for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). India has approved the use of HCQ for prophylaxis of asymptomatic health workers treating suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases, and asymptomatic household contacts of confirmed patients. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued Emergency Use Authorization for the use of HCQ to treat COVID-19 in adolescents and adults. In this review, we go over the available evidence for and against HCQ's use as prophylaxis or treatment for COVID-19, especially in the Indian context.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):125-127
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_496_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • SARS-CoV-2 Laboratory Testing in India's Pandemic Response: A
           Public Health Perspective

    • Authors: Mahesh Moorthy, John Fletcher
      Pages: 128 - 131
      Abstract: Mahesh Moorthy, John Fletcher
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):128-131
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted (at the time of writing) in over 3.3 million cases and 233,000 deaths globally and ~33,000 cases and ~1,100 deaths in India. The mainstay of the diagnosis is a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The accurate diagnosis is contingent on appropriate specimen choice, time of collection, and assay employed. In this commentary, we highlight the role of laboratory diagnostic tests used in the different stages of India's COVID-19 pandemic response.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):128-131
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_491_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Air pollution and COVID-19: Is the connect worth its weight?

    • Authors: Arun Kumar Sharma, Palak Balyan
      Pages: 132 - 134
      Abstract: Arun Kumar Sharma, Palak Balyan
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):132-134
      Primary route of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among humans is droplets and direct contact. Airborne transmission of this virus is not established conclusively and so is the role of airborne particulate matter. This commentary examines the existing evidence about the role of particulate matter pollutants in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. PM2.5and other small particulate matter have been shown to carry viable virus particles in the air and incriminated in spread of measles and SARS coronavirus. Empirical evidence has been provided regarding role of air pollution in accelerated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Italy as well as Wuhan. Lockdown-related reduction in PM2.5levels in ambient air may have contributed to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. High PM2.5levels in the past might have added to SARS-CoV-2 related mortality due to air pollution relate comorbidities. Post-lockdown increase in PM2.5levels may accelerate covid-19 transmission and can add to the burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):132-134
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_466_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 in India: Making a case for the one health surveillance system

    • Authors: Sandul Yasobant, Krupali Patel, Deepak Saxena, Timo Falkenberg
      Pages: 135 - 138
      Abstract: Sandul Yasobant, Krupali Patel, Deepak Saxena, Timo Falkenberg
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):135-138
      Pandemics like COVID-19 warrant an urgent implementation of the one health surveillance (OHS) system to the focus on multisectoral, multidisciplinary, multi-institutional, and multispecialty coordination, in all aspects of the response to outbreaks that might involve humans, animals, and their environment. The Indian system so far has evolved in conducting surveillance and monitoring of parameters within the domain of human health, animal health, and the environment, but in silos. This commentary piece provides an opinion to boost the existing surveillance activities for early detection and ways to develop an integrated OHS to prevent future COVID-19 like pandemics in India. It also attempts to provide possible solutions at the interface of human–animal–environment, from the simpler to the complex system integration with the principles of one health.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):135-138
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_488_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Significance of super spreader events in COVID-19

    • Authors: Sanjiv Kumar, Shreya Jha, Sanjay Kumar Rai
      Pages: 139 - 141
      Abstract: Sanjiv Kumar, Shreya Jha, Sanjay Kumar Rai
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):139-141
      The number of secondary cases from each primary case determines how fast an epidemic grows. It is known that all cases do not spread the infection equally; super spreaders play an important role as they contribute disproportionately to a much larger number of cases including in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Super spreaders have been reported for more than a century, but limited information is available in scientific literature. An epidemic containment strategy needs to include early identification of super spreaders to limit an explosive growth. Super spreaders tend to get stigmatized, resulting in late reporting and hiding of cases. It is important for program managers to be sensitive to the manner in which related information is shared with media and general public.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):139-141
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_495_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Impact of nonpharmacological interventions on COVID-19 transmission
           dynamics in India

    • Authors: Purvi Patel, Aditya Athotra, TP Vaisakh, Tanzin Dikid, Sudhir Kumar Jain, NCDC COVID Incident Management Team
      Pages: 142 - 146
      Abstract: Purvi Patel, Aditya Athotra, TP Vaisakh, Tanzin Dikid, Sudhir Kumar Jain, NCDC COVID Incident Management Team
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):142-146
      Background: As of May 4, 2020, India has reported 42,836 confirmed cases and 1,389 deaths from COVID-19. India's multipronged response included nonpharmacological interventions (NPIs) like intensive case-based surveillance, expanding testing capacity, social distancing, health promotion, and progressive travel restrictions leading to a complete halt of international and domestic movements (lockdown). Objectives: We studied the impact of NPI on transmission dynamics of COVID-19 epidemic in India and estimated the minimum level of herd immunity required to halt it. Methods: We plotted time distribution, estimated basic (R0) and time-dependent effective (Rt) reproduction numbers using software R, and calculated doubling time, the growth rate for confirmed cases from January 30 to May 4, 2020. Herd immunity was estimated using the latest Rtvalue. Results: Time distribution showed a propagated epidemic with subexponential growth. Average growth rate, 21% in the beginning, reduced to 6% after an extended lockdown (May 3). Based on early transmission dynamics, R0was 2.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.79–3.07). Early, unmitigated Rt= 2.51 (95% CI = 2.05–3.14) (March 15) reduced to 1.28 (95% CI = 1.22–1.32) and was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.71–1.93) at the end of lockdown Phase 1 (April 14) and 2 (May 3), respectively. Similarly, average early doubling time (4.3 days) (standard deviation [SD] = 1.86) increased to 5.4 days (SD = 1.03) and 10.9 days (SD = 2.19). Estimated minimum 621 million recoveries are required to halt COVID-19 spread if Rtremains below 2. Conclusion: India's early response, especially stringent lockdown, has slowed COVID-19 epidemic. Increased testing, intensive case-based surveillance and containment efforts, modulated movement restrictions while protecting the vulnerable population, and continuous monitoring of transmission dynamics should be a way forward in the absence of effective treatment, vaccine, and undetermined postinfection immunity.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):142-146
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_510_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Genome analysis of SARS-CoV-2 isolates occurring in India: Present
           scenario

    • Authors: Ragunathan Devendran, Manish Kumar, Supriya Chakraborty
      Pages: 147 - 155
      Abstract: Ragunathan Devendran, Manish Kumar, Supriya Chakraborty
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):147-155
      Background: The origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still a debatable topic. The association of the virus spread from the market is supported by the close relation of genome sequences of environmental surface samples with virus samples from earliest patients by phylogenetic analysis. Objectives: To have an insight into the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences reported from India for better understanding on their epidemiology and virulence. Methods: Genome sequences of Indian isolates of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed to understand their phylogeny and divergence with respect to other isolates reported from other countries. Amino acid sequences of individual open reading frames (ORFs) from SARS-CoV-2 Indian isolates were aligned with sequences of isolates reported from other countries to identify the mutations occurred in Indian isolates. Results: Our analysis suggests that Indian SARS-CoV-2 isolates are closely related to isolates reported from other parts of the world. Most ORFs are highly conserved; mutations were also detected in some ORFs. We found that most isolates reported from India have key mutations at 614th position of the S protein and 84th position of the ORF 8, which has been reported to be associated with high virulence and high transmission rate. Conclusion: An attempt was made to understand the SARS-CoV-2 virus reported from India. SARS-CoV-2 reported from India was closely similar to other SARS-CoV-2 reported from other parts of the world, which suggests that vaccines and other therapeutic methods generated from other countries might work well in India. In addition, available sequence data suggest that majority of Indian isolates are capable of high transmission and virulence.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):147-155
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_506_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Effectiveness of preventive measures against COVID-19: A systematic review
           of In Silico modeling studies in indian context

    • Authors: Arista Lahiri, Sweety Suman Jha, Saikat Bhattacharya, Soumalya Ray, Arup Chakraborty
      Pages: 156 - 167
      Abstract: Arista Lahiri, Sweety Suman Jha, Saikat Bhattacharya, Soumalya Ray, Arup Chakraborty
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):156-167
      Background: In the absence of any approved treatment or vaccine against novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) are the cornerstone to prevent the disease, especially in a populous country like India. Objectives: To understand the effectiveness of NPIs reported in the contemporary literatures describing prediction models for prevention of the ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 specifically in Indian population. Methods: Original research articles in English obtained through keyword search in PubMed, WHO Global Database for COVID19, and pre-print servers were included in the review. Thematic synthesis of extracted data from articles were done. Results: Twenty-four articles were found eligible for the review - four published articles and twenty pre-print articles. Compartmental model was found to be the most commonly used mathematical model; along with exponential, time varying, neural network and cluster kinetic models. Social distancing, specifically lockdown, was the most commonly modelled intervention strategy. Additionally, contact tracing using smartphone application, international travel restriction, increasing hospital/ICU beds, changes in testing strategy were also dealt with. Social distancing along with increasing testing seemed to be effective in delaying the peak of the epidemic and reducing the peak prevalence. Conclusion: Although there is mathematical rationality behind implementation of social distancing measures including lockdown, this study also emphasised the importance of other associated measures like increasing tests and increasing the number of hospital and ICU beds. The later components are particularly important during the social mixing period to be observed after lifting of lockdown.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):156-167
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_464_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 and lockdown: Insights from Mumbai

    • Authors: Kanchan Mukherjee
      Pages: 168 - 171
      Abstract: Kanchan Mukherjee
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):168-171
      Background: Mumbai is facing the full brunt of the COVID-19 pandemic epidemiologically and economically. Objectives: The objective was to understand the spatial distribution and trends of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Mumbai during the lockdown period and draw insights for effective actions. Methods: Spatial and trend analysis was conducted to trace the spread of the virus during the lockdown period in April 2020. The administrative divisions of Mumbai, in the form of wards and zones, have been used as units of analysis. Results: Greater Mumbai area occupies only 0.015% of the landmass of India, but is contributing to over 20% of the SARS-CoV-2 cases in India. Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections have increased over 375 times within 50 days of the lockdown. An analysis of trends across the wards during the 3-week period (April 4 to April 25) shows a skewed pattern, with three zones out of six contributing to the vast majority of cases in Mumbai. The wards with higher formal economic activity are relatively less affected than the other wards. The test positivity rate in Mumbai is much higher than the rest of India. Conclusion: The study suggests that the virus had already spread to the community in Mumbai before the lockdown started.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):168-171
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_508_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Impact of lockdown following COVID-19 on the gaming behavior of college
           students

    • Authors: Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Dheeraj Kattula, Swarndeep Singh, Surekha Chukkali, Rachna Bhargava
      Pages: 172 - 176
      Abstract: Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Dheeraj Kattula, Swarndeep Singh, Surekha Chukkali, Rachna Bhargava
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):172-176
      Background: The uncertainty about the impact of the lockdown in wake of COVID-19 on their future academic and carrier prospects, besides other concerns; makes college students, particularly vulnerable to stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Gaming has been recognized as a coping mechanism against stress in the previously published literature. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the gaming behavior of college students during the lockdown following COVID-19. Methods: Data were collected from a cohort of students that constituted the sampling frame of an ongoing project. A total of 393 college students were enrolled. All the eligible students were subsequently contacted through E-mail and WhatsApp messenger and invited to share the details. Results: About half (50.8%) of the participants reported that their gaming behavior had increased, whereas 14.6% reported a decrease in their gaming during the lockdown period. In binary logistic regression analysis, hours of gaming per day (odds ratio [OR] 1.75 [1.29–2.36]), increase in gaming due to examination related stress (OR 4.96 [1.12–21.98]), and belief that gaming helps managing stress (OR 4.27 [1.65–11.04]), were found to be independently associated with gaming behavior during lockdown period.Conclusion: In the lockdown period following COVID-19 pandemic, the increase in gaming behavior was associated with examination-related stress and the belief that gaming helps combat stress. These observations highlight the need to focus on the coping style of the students to ascertain the likelihood of them engaging in gaming behavior as a coping mechanism against stress.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):172-176
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_465_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Insights from COVID-19 cluster containment in Bhilwara District, Rajasthan

    • Authors: Badrilal Meghwal, Shyambhavee Behera, Akshay C Dhariwal, Deepak Saxena, Rommel Singh, Sanjiv Kumar
      Pages: 177 - 182
      Abstract: Badrilal Meghwal, Shyambhavee Behera, Akshay C Dhariwal, Deepak Saxena, Rommel Singh, Sanjiv Kumar
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):177-182
      Background: In March 2020, a healthcare professional from a renowned private hospital, in the textile city of Bhilwara, Rajasthan, reported clustering of cases of pneumonia amongst doctors and paramedical staff suspected to be due to COVID-19. The basis of suspicion was clinico-eco-epidemiologic-radiological findings as, by that time, about 20 COVID19 cases were reported from the state of Rajasthan including a big Italian group of tourists who travelled extensively in Rajasthan, including Udaipur city. Objectives: The current study presents the field experience of the Central and the State Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) in the cluster containment at Bhilwara. Methods: The information regarding the sociodemographic profile of the cases was provided by the Senior Medical Officer In-charge. The containment strategy was modeled under 6 pillars. Google Maps was used for preparing spot map. Results: Immediate public health actions of cluster containment including contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation were initiated using epidemiological approach of mapping the cluster and taking care of reservoir of infection by the District Public Health Team supported by Multidisciplinary Rapid Response Team. This was supplemented by strict enforcement of lock down in the District taking care of daily need of the community by the leadership of administration with very strong intersectoral co-ordination (locally called “ruthless containment”). Conclusion: The forthcoming challenge resides in re-establishment of inter-district and inter-state travel, which can become a risk of re-entry of the new cases, which needs to be taken care of, with the help of stringent administrative measures and screening at all points of entry. The team in Bhilwara needs to remain vigilant to pick up any imported cases early before local transmission establishes.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):177-182
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_489_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • An epidemiological study of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases admitted
           in a tertiary care hospital of Pune, Maharashtra

    • Authors: Muralidhar Parashuram Tambe, Malangori A Parande, Vinay S Tapare, Pradip S Borle, Rajesh N Lakde, Sangita C Shelke, BJMC COVID Epidemiology group
      Pages: 183 - 187
      Abstract: Muralidhar Parashuram Tambe, Malangori A Parande, Vinay S Tapare, Pradip S Borle, Rajesh N Lakde, Sangita C Shelke, BJMC COVID Epidemiology group
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):183-187
      Background: India has reported more than 70,000 cases and 2000 deaths. Pune is the second city in the Maharashtra state after Mumbai to breach the 1000 cases. Total deaths reported from Pune were 158 with a mortality of 5.7%. To plan health services, it is important to learn lessons from early stage of the outbreak on course of the disease in a hospital setting. Objectives: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of the outbreak of COVID-19 in India from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study which included all admitted laboratory confirmed COVID19 cases from March 31, to April 24, 2020. The information was collected in a predesigned pro forma which included sociodemographic data, duration of stay, family background, outcome, etc., by trained staff after ethics approval. Epi Info7 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of the total 197 cases, majority cases were between the ages of 31–60 years with slight male preponderance. Majority of these cases were from the slums. Breathlessness was the main presenting symptom followed by fever and cough. More than 1/5th of patients were asymptomatic from exposure to admission. The case fatality rate among the admitted cases was 29.4%. Comorbidity was one of the significant risk factors for the progression of disease and death (odds ratio [OR] = 16.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.0 − 40.1, P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Mortality was higher than the national average of 3.2%; comorbidity was associated with bad prognosis.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):183-187
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_522_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Distribution and growth rate of COVID-19 outbreak in Tamil Nadu: A
           log-linear regression approach

    • Authors: Adhin Bhaskar, Chinnaiyan Ponnuraja, Ramalingam Srinivasan, Srinivasan Padmanaban
      Pages: 188 - 191
      Abstract: Adhin Bhaskar, Chinnaiyan Ponnuraja, Ramalingam Srinivasan, Srinivasan Padmanaban
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):188-191
      Background: Most of the countries are affected with the pandemic outbreak of the coronavirus infection. Understanding the severity and distribution in various regions will help in planning the controlling measures. Objectives: The objective was to assess the distribution and growth rate of COVID-19 infection in Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The data on the number of infections of COVID-19 have been obtained from the media reports released by the Government of Tamil Nadu. The data contain information on the incidence of the disease for the first 41 days of the outbreak started on March 7, 2020. Log-linear model has been used to estimate the progression of the COVID-19 infection in Tamil Nadu. Separate models were employed to model the growth rate and decay rate of the disease. Spatial Poisson regression was used to identify the high-risk areas in the state. Results: The models estimated the doubling time for the number of cases in growth phase as 3.96 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.70, 9.42) days and halving time in the decay phase as 12.08 (95% CI: 6.79, 54.78) days. The estimated median reproduction numbers were 1.88 (min = 1.09, max = 2.51) and 0.76 (min = 0.56, max = 0.99) in the growth and decay phases, respectively. The spatial Poisson regression identified 11 districts as high risk. Conclusion: The results indicate that the outbreak is showing decay in the number of infections of the disease which highlights the effectiveness of controlling measures.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):188-191
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_502_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Facemasks for prevention of viral respiratory infections in community
           settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    • Authors: Nishant Aggarwal, Vignesh Dwarakanathan, Nitesh Gautam, Animesh Ray
      Pages: 192 - 200
      Abstract: Nishant Aggarwal, Vignesh Dwarakanathan, Nitesh Gautam, Animesh Ray
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):192-200
      Background: There is paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of facemask use in COVID-19 in community settings. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of facemask use alone or along with hand hygiene in community settings in reducing the transmission of viral respiratory illness. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for randomized controlled trials on facemask use in community settings to prevent viral respiratory illnesses published up to April 25, 2020. Two independent reviewers were involved in synthesis of data. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were done in a standard format from the selected studies. Outcome data for clinically diagnosed or self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) was recorded from individual studies. Pooled effect size was estimated by random-effects model for “facemask only versus control” and “facemask plus hand hygiene versus control.” Results: Of the 465 studies from PubMed and 437 studies from Embase identified from our search, 9 studies were included in qualitative synthesis and 8 studies in quantitative synthesis. Risk of bias was assessed as low (n = 4), medium (n = 3), or high (n = 1) risk. Interventions included using a triple-layered mask alone or in combination with hand hygiene. Publication bias was not significant. There was no significant reduction in ILI either with facemask alone (n = 5, pooled effect size: −0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.43–0.10; P = 0.23; I2 = 10.9%) or facemask with handwash (n = 6, pooled effect size: (n=6, pooled effect size: −0.09; 95% CI: -0.58 to 0.40; P = 0.71, I2 = 69.4%). Conclusion: Existing data pooled from randomized controlled trials do not reveal a reduction in occurrence of ILI with the use of facemask alone in community settings.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):192-200
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_470_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Development and Initial Validation of the COVID-19 Anxiety Scale

    • Authors: Viswa Chaitanya Chandu, Srinivas Pachava, Viswanath Vadapalli, Yamuna Marella
      Pages: 201 - 204
      Abstract: Viswa Chaitanya Chandu, Srinivas Pachava, Viswanath Vadapalli, Yamuna Marella
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):201-204
      Background: Safeguarding the psychological well-being of the public is also an integral component of fighting COVID-19. However, there is limited availability of psychometric measures to document COVID-19-related anxiety among the general public. Objectives: This study was aimed at developing a validated scale to measure COVID-19-related anxiety. Methods: Three hundred and seven subjects from different gender, educational categories participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis for the determination of factor structure, Pearson's correlation test, and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA were employed in data analysis using SPSS version 20 software. Results: COVID-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS) demonstrated a two-component structure identified as: “fear of social interaction;” “illness anxiety.” The final scale with seven items demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's Alpha 0.736). CAS exhibited good construct validity showing moderately negative correlation (Pearson's r = −0.417) with the self-rated mental health and resulted in higher scores among individuals with lower educational qualification (Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA χ2 [2, 303] = 38.01; P = 0.001). Conclusion: CAS is a rapidly administrable, valid, and reliable tool that can be used to measure COVID-19-related anxiety among the Indian population.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):201-204
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_492_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to COVID-19 pandemic among
           social media users in J&K, India

    • Authors: Sabira Aalia Dkhar, Ruqia Quansar, Sheikh Mohd Saleem, S Muhammad Salim Khan
      Pages: 205 - 210
      Abstract: Sabira Aalia Dkhar, Ruqia Quansar, Sheikh Mohd Saleem, S Muhammad Salim Khan
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):205-210
      Background: A series of measures have been suggested to reduce Covid-19 infection, including knowledge training for prevention and control, isolation, disinfection, classified protections at different degrees in infection areas, and protection of confirmed cases. Objectives: We conducted this study with an aim to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among the general population regarding COVID-19. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out by the Department of Community Medicine, Government Medical College, Srinagar in the month of April 2020. The questionnaire had four segments to collect data regarding social-demographic details, knowledge regarding Covid-19, attitude and practice based questions. The questionnaire was shared via social media applications like face book and Whatsapp to reach the target population. Continuous variables were summarized as frequency and percentage. All the analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2016. Among participants who responded, 1252 (82%) were in the age group of 18–40 years and 912 (60%) from urban areas. Results: A total of 934 (61%) respondents had heard details on COVID-19 from the social media, 1358 (89%) knew all ways of coronavirus transmission, 602 (40%) felt that COVID-19 is a serious disease, 1184 (78%) responded that they totally agree with the lockdown decision, and 1296 (85%) responded that lockdown is helping in reducing the number of cases. The majority, i.e. 1318 (87%), followed advisories and reported washing hands with soap and water regularly, 1108 (73%) reported regularly wearing masks, 1344 (89%) reported following lockdown guidelines, and 1306 (87%) reported maintaining social distancing. The respondents exhibited good knowledge, positive attitude, and sensible practices regarding COVID-19. Conclusion: Our study showed that the respondents have exhibited good knowledge, positive attitude and sensible practices regarding covid-19 during the pandemic.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):205-210
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_469_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Assessing health systems&#39; responsiveness in tackling COVID-19
           pandemic

    • Authors: Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi, GS Preetha
      Pages: 211 - 216
      Abstract: Sutapa Bandyopadhyay Neogi, GS Preetha
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):211-216
      Health systems' responsiveness is the key to addressing infectious disease threats such as pandemics. The article outlines an assessment of health systems based on World Health Organization's building blocks for select countries. It also compares these with the findings from a more comprehensive analysis of Global Health Security (GHS) Index, which assesses the preparedness of the health system for such pandemics. The GHS report (2019) spelt out very objectively that none of the countries of the world was prepared to effectively handle such emergencies, should they arise. Observations emerging from different countries highlight these findings although some of them seem to be discordant. Overall, it appears that Asian countries could fight the battle better than most developed nations in the Europe and America during the current pandemic, despite having poor GHS scores. Experiences of these countries in facing similar crisis in the past probably sensitized their strained health systems for a greater good. There are several lessons to be learned from such countries.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):211-216
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_471_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19 epidemiology: Through the eyes of vernacular newspapers

    • Authors: BN Mahima, Hemant Kr Tiwari, Payel Mahapatra, Senthil Amudhan, Girish N Rao
      Pages: 217 - 220
      Abstract: BN Mahima, Hemant Kr Tiwari, Payel Mahapatra, Senthil Amudhan, Girish N Rao
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):217-220
      Media plays an indispensable role in society to influence health literacy. To document COVID-19 coverage in Kannada daily newspapers, hardcopies of 455 editions were methodically reviewed. Content analysis and data coding of 11 of the possible 60 terms/concepts related to COVID-19 epidemiology, was undertaken. Across dailies, five different dimensions in reporting documented: reporting of statistics – both numbers and manner of reporting, reporting of epidemiological concepts/terms (frequency of use and frequency of reporting), focus of reporting, density of reporting and finally what is not reported which could have been reported (desirable reporting). Numbers were reported as headlines; >25% of listed items were covered; however, 20% of terms not covered would have helped. We looked at “News” as epidemiological information and identified the gaps in reporting. We conclude that vernacular print media in Karnataka has done a commendable job. A media communication plan is urgently needed.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):217-220
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_485_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19-Hospitalized Patients in Karnataka: Survival and Stay
           Characteristics

    • Authors: Vinayak Mishra, Ajit Deo Burma, Sumit Kumar Das, Mohana Balan Parivallal, Senthil Amudhan, Girish N Rao
      Pages: 221 - 224
      Abstract: Vinayak Mishra, Ajit Deo Burma, Sumit Kumar Das, Mohana Balan Parivallal, Senthil Amudhan, Girish N Rao
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):221-224
      The information on the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its correlates which are essential to assess the hospital care needs of the population are currently limited. We investigated the factors associated with hospital stay and death for COVID-19 patients for the entire state of Karnataka, India. A retrospective-cohort analysis was conducted on 445 COVID-19 patients that were reported in the publicly available media-bulletin from March 9, 2020, to April 23, 2020, for the Karnataka state. This fixed cohort was followed till 14 days (May 8, 2020) for definitive outcomes (death/discharge). The median length of hospital stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 15–20) for COVID-19 patients. Having severe disease at the time of admission (adjusted-hazard-ratio: 9.3 (3.2–27.3);P < 0.001) and being aged ≥ 60 years (adjusted-hazard-ratio: 11.9 (3.5–40.6);P < 0.001) were the significant predictors of COVID-19 mortality. By moving beyond descriptive (which provide only crude information) to survival analyses, information on the local hospital-related characteristics will be crucial to model bed-occupancy demands for contingency planning during COVID-19 pandemic.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):221-224
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_486_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Rational use of face mask in a tertiary care hospital setting during
           COVID-19 pandemic: An observational study

    • Authors: Sakshi Supehia, Vanya Singh, Twinkle Sharma, Meenakshi Khapre, Puneet Kumar Gupta
      Pages: 225 - 227
      Abstract: Sakshi Supehia, Vanya Singh, Twinkle Sharma, Meenakshi Khapre, Puneet Kumar Gupta
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):225-227
      Masks play a role in the protection of health-care workers (HCWs) from acquiring respiratory infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in health-care settings. This observational study was conducted among 382 HCWs in a tertiary care setting over a period of 1 month. Descriptive analysis was done to assess the rational and recommended use of masks/respirators during COVID-19 pandemic using a structured observation checklist as a survey tool. A total of 374 HCWs were included, 64.9% of whom were using face masks rationally as mentioned per risk area categorization with a predominance of triple-layered mask during all 4 weeks. Overall, 64.1% used masks correctly. Clear guidelines and strategies can help to increase the compliance of HCWs with rational use of face masks.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):225-227
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_493_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • How Indians responded to the Arogya Setu app?

    • Authors: Prakash Babu Kodali, Sibasis Hense, Swarajya Kopparty, Gangadhar Rao Kalapala, Banashri Haloi
      Pages: 228 - 230
      Abstract: Prakash Babu Kodali, Sibasis Hense, Swarajya Kopparty, Gangadhar Rao Kalapala, Banashri Haloi
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):228-230
      The mHealth app Arogya Setu can substantially contribute to the containment and management of COVID-19. This study explores the experiences and expectations of Arogya Setu app users by conducting a combined content analysis of their reviews. Five hundred and three most relevant reviews were analyzed using the descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The reviews are primarily posted in the areas of user acceptance (80%), app usefulness (72.8%), and app features (62.2%). The thematic analysis resulted in four themes: user acceptance, app usefulness, promptness of the Indian Government in bringing the app on time, and concerns and cautions raised by the users. These help in strengthening the app features enabling the real-time data capture and analytics and providing timely information to authorities for better decision-making.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):228-230
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_499_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Economics of COVID-19: challenges and the way forward for health policy
           during and after the pandemic

    • Authors: Shankar Prinja, Chandrakant S Pandav
      Pages: 231 - 233
      Abstract: Shankar Prinja, Chandrakant S Pandav
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):231-233
      The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic provides unique challenges for health system. While on the one hand, the government has to struggle with the strategies for control of COVID-19, on the other hand, other routine health services also need to be managed. Second, the infrastructure needs to be augmented to meet the potential epidemic surge of cases. Third, economic welfare and household income need to be guaranteed. All of these have complicated the routine ways in which the governments have dealt with various trade-offs to determine the health and public policies. In this paper, we outline key economic principles for the government to consider for policymaking, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic rightfully places long due attention of policymakers for investing in health sector. The policy entrepreneurs and public health community should not miss this once-in-a-lifetime “policy window” to raise the level of advocacy for appropriate investment in health sector.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):231-233
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_524_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Factors affecting the adoption of telemedicine during COVID-19

    • Authors: Vinaytosh Mishra
      Pages: 234 - 236
      Abstract: Vinaytosh Mishra
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):234-236
      Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has put restriction of travel, and social distancing has become a new normal. This outbreak of the pandemic has made telemedicine more relevant than ever. The objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting the rate of adoption of telemedicine and effect of the COVID-19 on these factors. The research develops five hypotheses to test the influence of a disease outbreak on the rate of telemedicine adoption. The method used for the study is the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the sampling method used for the study is purposive sampling. The respondents were taken from a multispecialty clinic in North India and the sample size for the study is 43. The study concludes that patients are seeing more value in the use of telemedicine during COVID-19. They are more willing to experiment with telemedicine and are not intimidated by the technology related to telemedicine.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):234-236
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_480_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Concerns of Frontline Doctors in India during COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional
           Survey

    • Authors: Harshvardhan Singh, Shailja Sharma
      Pages: 237 - 239
      Abstract: Harshvardhan Singh, Shailja Sharma
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):237-239
      A rapid cross-sectional survey was conducted across India among frontline allopathic doctors to know their prime concerns. Four hundred and five responses were received from 16 states and 3 union territories. Among doctors working in COVID-dedicated hospitals, 56.18% are formally trained for the same, and 40.5% of these are satisfied with the training. 47.3% of these have personal protective equipment (PPE) kits, 35.1% have no PPE kits, and 17.6% are not aware of their availability. 31.1% of doctors reported attending to COVID suspects without PPE. 58.1% of institutions have a dedicated task force, 20.3% do not, whereas 21.6% of doctors are not aware of such a task force. Only 21.6% of the participants consider their institution to be fully prepared for COVID. After performing COVID duties, 45.9% are being provided with an alternative place of stay, whereas only 16.2% have been quarantined. In non-COVID institutions, 82.4% of doctors are using protective gear, of these 35.2% procured them on their own.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):237-239
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_472_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Containing the first outbreak of COVID-19 in a healthcare setting in
           India: The sree chitra experience

    • Authors: Gurpreet Singh, G Srinivas, EK Jyothi, LK Gayatri, Rakhal Gaitonde, Biju Soman
      Pages: 240 - 242
      Abstract: Gurpreet Singh, G Srinivas, EK Jyothi, LK Gayatri, Rakhal Gaitonde, Biju Soman
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):240-242
      The response to the first health worker case in India and novel strategies adopted in the context of evolving pandemic of COVID-19 is presented here. On the same day of confirmation, institutional COVID cell was established, and contact tracing was started. A total of 184 contacts were identified and quarantined. Hospital services were scaled down, and responsibilities were reassigned. In-house digital platforms were used for daily meetings, contact tracing, line listing, risk stratification, and research. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV2 testing facility was established in the institute. All high-risk contacts were given hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis. No secondary cases were found. Hospital preparedness, participatory decision-making through institutional COVID cell, optimal use of in-house digital platforms, and coordination with the state health department and national bodies, including Indian Council of Medical Research, were the supporting factors. Rapidly evolving guidelines, trepidation about the disease, logistic delays, and lack of support systems for people under quarantine were the challenges in the containment exercise.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):240-242
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_483_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Indian response to COVID-19: Expertise and transparency

    • Authors: Anoop Saraya
      Pages: 243 - 244
      Abstract: Anoop Saraya
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):243-244

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):243-244
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_504_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Telepsychiatry during COVID-19: Some clinical, public health, and ethical
           dilemmas

    • Authors: Avinash De Sousa, Sagar Karia
      Pages: 245 - 246
      Abstract: Avinash De Sousa, Sagar Karia
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):245-246

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):245-246
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_511_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Wastewater monitoring and public health surveillance of SARS-CoV-2

    • Authors: Kumar Manoj
      Pages: 247 - 248
      Abstract: Kumar Manoj
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):247-248

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):247-248
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_490_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Psychological distress during COVID-19 among Malayalam-speaking Indian
           expats in the middle east

    • Authors: NA Uvais, Mohammed Jezeel Nalakath, P Shihabudheen, N A Bishurul Hafi, V Rasmina, CA Salman
      Pages: 249 - 250
      Abstract: NA Uvais, Mohammed Jezeel Nalakath, P Shihabudheen, N A Bishurul Hafi, V Rasmina, CA Salman
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):249-250

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):249-250
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_475_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • COVID-19: Endangering women&#39;s mental and reproductive health

    • Authors: Pallavi Sharma, Shalini Sharma, Nilanchali Singh
      Pages: 251 - 252
      Abstract: Pallavi Sharma, Shalini Sharma, Nilanchali Singh
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):251-252

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):251-252
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_498_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • Epidemic diseases act 1897 to public health bill 2017: Addressing the
           epidemic challenges

    • Authors: Yogesh Bahurupi, Aprajita Mehta, Mahendra Singh, Pradeep Aggarwal, Surekha Kishore
      Pages: 253 - 255
      Abstract: Yogesh Bahurupi, Aprajita Mehta, Mahendra Singh, Pradeep Aggarwal, Surekha Kishore
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):253-255

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):253-255
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/ijph.IJPH_503_20
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
  • List of Reviewers

    • Pages: 256 - 256
      Abstract:
      Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):256-256

      Citation: Indian Journal of Public Health 2020 64(6):256-256
      PubDate: Tue,2 Jun 2020
      DOI: 10.4103/0019-557X.285634
      Issue No: Vol. 64, No. 6 (2020)
       
 
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