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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 356 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 356 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access  
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access  
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access  
Heart Views     Open Access  
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access  
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Journal Cover Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
  [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2231-0746
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [356 journals]
  • Auto-tooth bone grafts: An emerging option

    • Authors: Masaharu Mitsugi, In-Woong Um
      Pages: 157 - 157
      Abstract: Masaharu Mitsugi, In-Woong Um
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):157-157

      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):157-157
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_186_16
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Facial feminization

    • Authors: SM Balaji
      Pages: 158 - 158
      Abstract: SM Balaji
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):158-158

      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):158-158
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_9_17
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Minimally invasive (endoscopic-computer assisted) surgery: Technique and
           review

    • Authors: Anand Kumar, Nirma Yadav, Shipra Singh, Neha Chauhan
      Pages: 159 - 164
      Abstract: Anand Kumar, Nirma Yadav, Shipra Singh, Neha Chauhan
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):159-164
      Endoscopic or minimally invasive surgery popular as keyhole surgery is a medical procedure in which endoscope (a camera) is used, and it has gained broad acceptance with popularity in several surgical specialties and has heightened the standard of care. Oral and maxillofacial surgery is a modern discipline in the field of dentistry in which endoscopy has developed as well as widely used in surgeries and is rapidly gaining importance. The use of different visual as well as standard instruments such as laparoscopic and endoscopic instruments, and high-powered magnification devices, has allowed physicians to decrease the morbidity of many surgical procedures by eliminating the need for a large surgical incision. Minimally invasive techniques have evolved through the development of surgical microscopes equipped with a camera to get visual images for maxillofacial surgeries, endodontic procedures, and periodontal surgical procedures. Nevertheless, current experiences and reviewing the literature have intimated that the use of endoscopes, as in different minimally invasive methods, may permit complicated surgeries with less complications, for example, in reconstruction of facial fractures through smaller incisions with less extensive exposure.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):159-164
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200348
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Secondary closure of alveolar cleft with resorbable collagen membrane and
           a combination of intraoral autogenous bone graft and deproteinized
           anorganic bovine bone

    • Authors: Lobna Abdel Aziz Aly, Nelly Hammouda
      Pages: 165 - 171
      Abstract: Lobna Abdel Aziz Aly, Nelly Hammouda
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):165-171
      Objects: Secondary alveolar bone grafting is a method that enables an excellent oral rehabilitation of the patients having alveolar cleft. The aim of this work is to report the closure of the alveolar cleft with the use of harvested autogenous bone graft combined with deproteinized anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss) under local anesthesia. Settings and Sample Population: Nine patients with age range, 8–11 years were consulted for their unilateral alveolar cleft. Materials and Methods: A combination of symphyseal bone and deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) was placed into the alveolar cleft defect. Clinical and radiographical assessments were performed at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: The healing period was uneventful in all cases, and no complications, such as membrane exposure, infection, or harvest site morbidity, were observed. All treated defect sites exhibited excellent bone formation, with an average of 5.45 mm (range, 2–9 mm; standard deviation 1.93 mm) of augmentation achieved overall. Conclusion: The treatment of vertically deficient alveolar ridges with guided bone regeneration using a mixture of autogenous bone and DBBM and resorbable collagen membrane can be considered successful, using this technique in an out-patient office setting.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):165-171
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200351
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Lugol's iodine identifies dysplastic tissue in precancerous
           lesions: A clinical trial

    • Authors: Shereen Fatima, Rajarshi Basu, Neelakamal H Hallur
      Pages: 172 - 174
      Abstract: Shereen Fatima, Rajarshi Basu, Neelakamal H Hallur
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):172-174
      Introduction: Intraepithelial dysplasia, or “invisible” precancerous lesions, provides a challenge for visualization to the surgical team. The prognostic relevance of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ at surgical margins is well documented.Materials and Methods: We evaluated the use of Lugol's iodine in visualizing the surgical margins of dysplastic tissue by an observational study of 100 patients having oral precancerous lesions between June 2013 and March 2016. Conclusion: Lugol's iodine is a simple, inexpensive, and apparently effective means of diagnosing and visualizing the surgical margins of the dysplastic tissue in oral precancerous lesions.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):172-174
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200333
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Volumetric analysis of bone substitute material performance within the
           human sinus cavity of former head and neck cancer patients: A prospective,
           randomized clinical trial

    • Authors: Jonas Lorenz, Kathrin Eichler, Mike Barbeck, Henriette Lerner, Stefan Stübinger, Catherine Seipel, Thomas J Vogl, Adorján F Kovács, Shahram Ghanaati, Robert A Sader
      Pages: 175 - 181
      Abstract: Jonas Lorenz, Kathrin Eichler, Mike Barbeck, Henriette Lerner, Stefan Stübinger, Catherine Seipel, Thomas J Vogl, Adorján F Kovács, Shahram Ghanaati, Robert A Sader
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):175-181
      Background: In numerous animal and human studies, it could be detected that in bone augmentation procedures, material's physicochemical characteristics can influence the cellular inflammatory pattern and therefore the integration in the host tissue. Histological, histomorphometrical, and clinical analyses of the integration of the biomaterial in the surrounding tissue are well established methodologies; however, they do not make a statement on volume and density changes of the augmented biomaterial. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the volume and density of a xenogeneic (Bio-Oss®, BO) and a synthetic (NanoBone®, NB) bone substitute material in split-mouth sinus augmentations in former tumor patients to complete histological and histomorphometrical assessment. Methods: Immediately and 6 months after sinus augmentation computed tomography scans were recorded, bone grafts were marked, and the volume was calculated with radiologic RIS-PACS software (General Electric Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, Great Britain) to determine the integration and degradation behavior of both biomaterials. Results: Radiographic analysis revealed a volume reduction of the initial augmented bone substitute material (i.e. 100%) to 77.36 (±11.68) % in the BO-group, respectively, 75.82 (±22.28) % in the NB-group six months after augmentation. In both materials, the volume reduction was not significant. Bone density significantly increased in both groups. Conclusion: The presented radiological investigation presents a favorable method to obtain clinically relevant information concerning the integration and degradation behavior of bone substitute materials.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):175-181
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200344
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Changes in posterior airway space and mandibular plane hyoid distance
           following mandibular advancement DO

    • Authors: Pushpa Kumari, SK Roy, Indranil Dev Roy, AK Rajput, MP Prasanna Kumar, Sanjeev Datana, Serat Rahman
      Pages: 182 - 189
      Abstract: Pushpa Kumari, SK Roy, Indranil Dev Roy, AK Rajput, MP Prasanna Kumar, Sanjeev Datana, Serat Rahman
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):182-189
      Aim: To study the changes in posterior airway space (PAS) and mandibular plane hyoid (MPH) distance following mandibular advancement using distraction osteogenesis (DO). Subjects and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care dental center from May 2009 to May 2014. Twenty-five consecutively operated patients of mandibular hypoplasia who underwent mandibular advancement using distraction with at least 12 months follow-up were included in the study. The study group comprised 15 males and 10 females with an age range of 15–30 years (mean 22 years). Presurgical and postsurgical cephalometric changes were compared to determine the changes in PAS and MPH distance. Results: The mean distraction achieved was 14.50 mm. The mean preoperative MPH was 18.88 mm and mean postoperative MPH was 13.16 mm with a resultant reduction by 32%. Mean preoperative PAS was 6.48 mm and mean postoperative PAS was 11.08 mm. Mean increase in PAS was 75%. Mean preoperative and postoperative SNB values were 75.4° and 79.52°, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using paired “Student's t-test.” Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that statistically significant changes were achieved in MPH and SNB. Although change in PAS was statistically insignificant, it may have clinical applications, especially in the field of Phase II surgical management of obstructive sleep apnea.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):182-189
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200337
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Clinical and radiological evaluation of implants placed with osteotome
           sinus lift technique: 19-month follow-up

    • Authors: Bijan Movahedian Attar, Samaneh Alaei, Hamid Badrian, Amin Davoudi
      Pages: 190 - 194
      Abstract: Bijan Movahedian Attar, Samaneh Alaei, Hamid Badrian, Amin Davoudi
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):190-194
      Aims: Implant placement in the posterior region of the maxilla might be problematic due to poor regional bone quality. The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate implants which were placed in the posterior region of the maxilla (with insufficient bone height) with osteotome sinus lift technique after 19-month follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients with posterior maxillary alveolar height ranging from 5 to 8 mm were chosen for this prospective study. After breaking of the cortical bony sinus floor, sufficient bone substitute was placed, and sinus floor was elevated. In this way, a new sinus floor was created, which was designated for further implants placement. Fifty implants were placed immediately after osteotomy sinus lift technique. The mean clinical and radiological follow-up period was 19 months (with a range of 14–24 months). Success factors such as the absence of mobility, pain, infection, and the amount of crestal bone loss were determined in this study. For data analyzing, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests were used. Results: After 19 months, results showed 96% success rate. Two out of fifty implants failed due to mobility. The mean depth of implants in sinus, mean height of residual crestal bone before surgery, and the mean rate of crestal bone loss were 3.8, 7.9, and 0.71 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Osteotome sinus lift technique is a noninvasive surgical method for enhancing a desired length. Furthermore, implants insertion was successful after osteotome sinus lift technique in cases with insufficient bone height.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):190-194
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_7_16
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cleft lip and palate: Parental experiences of stigma, discrimination, and
           social/structural inequalities

    • Authors: Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo, Olutayo James, Azeez Butali
      Pages: 195 - 203
      Abstract: Wasiu Lanre Adeyemo, Olutayo James, Azeez Butali
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):195-203
      Background: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) are the most common craniofacial birth impairment and one of the most common congenital impairments in humans. Anecdotal evidence suggests that stigmatization, discrimination, and sociocultural inequalities are common “phenomenon” experienced by families of children with CLP in Nigeria. This study aimed to explore the stigmatization, discrimination, and sociocultural inequalities experiences of families with children born with CLP. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at the surgical outpatient cleft clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study among mothers of children born with CLP, using both interviewer-administered questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Results: A total of 51 mothers of children with cleft lip and/or palate participated in the study. 35.3% of respondents believed cleft was an “act of God,” whereas others believed it was either due to “evil spirit” (5.9%), “wicked people” (9.8%). Seventy-three percent of the mothers were ashamed of having a child with orofacial cleft. Two of the respondents wanted to abandon the baby in the hospital. About a quarter of the respondent wished the child was never born and 59% of the fathers were ashamed of the facial cleft. Fifty-one percent admitted that their relatives were ashamed of the orofacial cleft, and 65% admitted that their friends were ashamed of the cleft. In addition, 22% of the respondents admitted that they have been treated like an outcast by neighbors, relatives, and friends because of the cleft of their children. When asked about refusal to carry the affected children by friends, relatives, and neighbors, 20% of respondents said “Yes.” Conclusions: Myths surrounding the etiology of orofacial cleft are prevalent in Nigeria. Parents and individuals with CLP experience stigma as well as social and structural inequalities due to societal perceptions and misconception about CLP. Public and health-care professionals must be equipped with necessary knowledge to combat stigma, discrimination, social and structural inequalities, and misconceptions associated with orofacial cleft. CLP should be considered a facial difference rather than a disability.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):195-203
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200336
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Micro-marsupialization versus surgical excision for the treatment of
           mucoceles

    • Authors: Girish B Giraddi, Aamir Malick Saifi
      Pages: 204 - 209
      Abstract: Girish B Giraddi, Aamir Malick Saifi
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):204-209
      Background: Mucocele is a common disorder of minor salivary glands which arises due to mucous accumulation resulting from their alteration. Several techniques have been described for the treatment. However, most of them are invasive or require costly armamentarium. Purpose: The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of micro-marsupialization technique as an alternative to surgical excision for the treatment of mucoceles. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. A total of twenty patients were selected based on clinical diagnosis of mucoceles and were randomly divided into two groups comprising ten patients each. Micro-marsupialization was done in Group 1 patients and surgical excision in Group 2. Patient's gender, age, size, location, duration, complications, and recurrences were evaluated during various visits. Data between the two groups were analyzed by descriptive and analytical (Chi-square tests) statistics. Results: The mean age of the patients in Group 1 was 19.6 ± 9.6 years while in Group 2 was 21.9 ± 11 years. The most common location for mucocele in Group 1 as well as Group 2 patients was lower lip (60% and 80%, respectively). In Group 1, two patients had recurrence while in Group 2, one patient had a recurrence. All recurrent cases were subsequently treated by surgical excision. No statistically significant difference was found between the two methods. Conclusion: Micro-marsupialization technique is as efficacious as surgical excision for the treatment of mucocele. It is advantageous over surgical excision as it is simple to perform, is less invasive therefore not associated with complications associated with invasive procedure, and is well tolerated by patients.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):204-209
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200324
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Facial feminization - Surgical modification for Indian, European and
           African faces

    • Authors: SM Balaji
      Pages: 210 - 213
      Abstract: SM Balaji
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):210-213
      Introduction: Gender reassignment surgery for facial feminization is being increasingly sought out by males with gender nonconformity issues. Noninvasive camouflage measures such as changing hairstyle, makeup, and filler inserts often do not fetch desired long lasting effects and surgery is sought as a last resort. The facial feminization surgery (FFS) for Indian faces, has no definitive protocol till date and largely remains as an arbitrary undertaking based on individual patient's perception, expectation, and surgeon's ability. This manuscript aims to present a series of the Indian FFS and compare the same with European and African counterparts to highlight the Indian expectation of FFS and thus its modifications. Materials and Methods: Seven patients confirming to gender nonconformity status, seeking FFS, aged between 21 and 36 years (mean 26.3 ± 4.2 years; median 25 years) were surgically treated during 2007–2014. Of them, five were of Indian origin and the rest two from the Europe and Africa. After investigation and para-clinical workup, FFS were carried out in stages with due modifications. Results: Basic surgical guidelines were followed accommodating Indian parameters of facial profile as well as expectations. Various amounts of soft and hard tissue changes were required for individual patients, depending on their individual perception. Conclusion: All seven patients were satisfied with their feminine faces. The challenges and differences in planning and performing Indian FFS are described.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):210-213
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_179_16
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Controlling the vector of distraction osteogenesis in the management of
           obstructive sleep apnea

    • Authors: Dekel Shilo, Omri Emodi, Dror Aizenbud, Adi Rachmiel
      Pages: 214 - 218
      Abstract: Dekel Shilo, Omri Emodi, Dror Aizenbud, Adi Rachmiel
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):214-218
      Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in individuals with craniofacial anomalies can compromise airway and is a serious life-threatening condition. In many cases, tracheostomy is carried out as the treatment of choice. Distraction osteogenesis of the mandible as a treatment modality for OSA is very useful and may spare the need for tracheostomy or allow decannulation, yet controlling the vector of distraction is still a major challenge. We present a method for controlling the vector of distraction. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with severe respiratory distress secondary to a micrognathic mandible were treated by mandibular distraction osteogenesis using either external or internal devices. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) and orthodontic elastics were used to control the vector of distraction. Cephalometric X-rays, computed tomography, and polysomnographic sleep studies were used to analyze the results. Results: A mean distraction of 22 mm using the internal devices and a mean of 30 mm using the external devices were achieved. Increase in the pharyngeal airway and hyoid bone advancement was also observed. Anterior-posterior advancement of the mandible was noted with no clockwise rotation. Most importantly, clinical improvement in symptoms of OSA, respiratory distress, and feeding was noted. Conclusions: We describe a method for controlling the vector of distraction used as a treatment for OSA. In these cases, TADs were used as an anchorage unit to control the vector of distraction. Our results show excellent clinical and radiographical results. TADs are a simple and nonexpensive method to control the vector of distraction.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):214-218
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200319
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity
           cancers

    • Authors: Mayank Pancholi, Sanjay Sharma, Sanjay M Desai, Deepak Agrawal
      Pages: 219 - 222
      Abstract: Mayank Pancholi, Sanjay Sharma, Sanjay M Desai, Deepak Agrawal
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):219-222
      Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap ) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):219-222
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200320
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Success rate in implant-supported overdenture and implant-supported fixed
           denture in cleft lip and palate patients

    • Authors: Jaine Zanolla, Flávio Monteiro Amado, Willian Saranholi da Silva, Bruno Ayub, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga de Almeida, Simone Soares
      Pages: 223 - 227
      Abstract: Jaine Zanolla, Flávio Monteiro Amado, Willian Saranholi da Silva, Bruno Ayub, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga de Almeida, Simone Soares
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):223-227
      Background: The prosthetic treatment in cleft patients is challenging. Based on this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the longevity of prosthetic rehabilitation treatment with implant-supported overdenture (IOD) and implant-supported fixed denture (IFD) in cleft lip and palate patients in a period of 22 years. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 72 patients were analyzed (29 males and 43 females), and the survival rate of the implants was evaluated. Moreover, the prostheses' time of use and the reason for the changing of these were also evaluated. Results: Four-hundred-seventeen implants were installed, and 370 implants survive today. The mean survival time of the implants was 7.6 years. Regarding the 97 prostheses made, the time of average use was 3.28 for the IFDs and 3.92 for IODs. The reasons for the replacements of the prostheses were mainly: fracture of the acrylic base (29.6%) and loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) (18.5%) in the IFDs. Moreover, in IODs, these were accounted for the loss of VDO due to teeth damage (17.2%) and implant loss (14.6%). Conclusions: The maintenance of the prostheses was challenging because the patients had difficulties returning for periodic control, but this fact did not result in the decrease of the success rate of the implants. The longevity of implants and prostheses was satisfactory; however, the prostheses showed repetitions mainly due to the wear of the teeth, with decreased vertical dimension and fracture of acrylic base.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):223-227
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200338
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Clinical evaluation of coverage of open wounds: Polyglycolic acid sheet
           with fibrin glue spray vs split thickness skin

    • Authors: Yumi Mochizuki, Hirofumi Tomioka, Fumihiko Tushima, Hiroaki Shimamoto, Hideaki Hirai, Yuu Oikawa, Hiroyuki Harada
      Pages: 228 - 234
      Abstract: Yumi Mochizuki, Hirofumi Tomioka, Fumihiko Tushima, Hiroaki Shimamoto, Hideaki Hirai, Yuu Oikawa, Hiroyuki Harada
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):228-234
      Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of oral wounds using either a polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet or split-thickness skin grafting (STSG). Materials and Methods: A total of 119 cases of wound coverage using a PGA sheet and fibrin glue spray as well as 132 cases of wound coverage cases using STSG were reviewed retrospectively. The site of the excision area, perioperative conditions, and postoperative functional problems were evaluated. Results: The PGA group had significantly shorter operation time, earlier start of oral intake, and shorter hospitalization than the STSG group. If the PGA sheet over the wound with exposed bone could be protected by a surgical sprint, oral food intake could be started on the day after surgery at the earliest. When the size of the wound in the buccal excisional area was classified into two groups (<6 or ≥6 cm2), mouth opening in the STSG group was significantly larger at 3 months postoperatively. When the size of the wound in the tongue and floor of mouth was classified into two groups (<12 or ≥12 cm2), the STSG group had a significantly higher score in postoperative speech intelligibility. Conclusion: Selection of a PGA sheet or STSG based on the consideration of defect size, tumor location, patients' local and general condition and tolerance for surgery could reduce the patients' postsurgical dysfunctional problems.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):228-234
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200346
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Clinical outcome of surgical treatment of T1-2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma
           of oral tongue with observation for the neck: Analysis of 176 cases

    • Authors: Arsheed Hussain Hakeem, Sultan Ahmed Pradhan, Rajan Kannan, Jagadish Tubachi
      Pages: 235 - 240
      Abstract: Arsheed Hussain Hakeem, Sultan Ahmed Pradhan, Rajan Kannan, Jagadish Tubachi
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):235-240
      Objective: To analyze various demographic, clinical, and histopathologic factors in T1-2 N0 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue to define a high-risk group for regional recurrence that will benefit from elective neck dissection. Materials and Methods: Retrospective outcome analysis of a patient cohort without palpable or ultrasound (USG) detectable nodal metastases undergoing per oral wide glossectomy for T1-2 N0 SCC of oral tongue. Patients were followed up using palpation and serial USG neck and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Results: Of the 176 patients, 69 (39%) showed recurrence during follow-up. Fifty-eight cases developed regional neck node metastases, i.e., overall regional node recurrence rate of 33%. Fifty-three (91%) with regional neck node metastases were salvaged successfully with further treatment. In 110 cases with tumor thickness more than 5 mm, 39% cases developed regional neck node metastases. This association was significant with P= 0.0402. Among 44 cases with perineural invasion, 54% developed regional neck node metastases. Similarly in 39 cases with lymphovascular invasion, 61% developed regional neck node metastases. Association of both of these parameters with the development of regional neck node metastases was significant. Conclusion: We recommend prophylactic selective neck dissection in early stage SCC of oral tongue, especially with depth of invasion more than 5 mm, perineural and lymphovascular invasion.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):235-240
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200331
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The use of buccal fat pad free graft in closure of soft-tissue defects and
           dehiscence in the hard palate

    • Authors: Fares Kablan
      Pages: 241 - 245
      Abstract: Fares Kablan
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):241-245
      Introduction: The integrity of the palatal mucosa can be lost due to congenital, pathological, and iatrogenic conditions. Various surgical techniques have been suggested for the closure of palatal defects. The aim of the current study is to present the free buccal fat pad graft as a novel technique to repair the soft-tissue defects at the palate. Patients and Methods: During a 2-year period, the free fat tissue graft harvested from the buccal fat pad (BFP) (FBFG) and used to reconstruct five soft-tissue defects of the palate in five patients (2 women, 3 men; mean age, 34 years; range, 22–58 years). In two patients, the palatal defect size was 2–3 cm and resulted from the resection of pleomorphic adenoma. In two other patients, the defect was due to odontogenic lesion, and in the last patient, the etiology was an iatrogenic dehiscence during maxillary segmentation surgery. Patients were examined every 2 weeks in the first 3 months and thereafter every 3 months. Results: Five patients were treated with FBFG to reconstruct palatal defects and were followed up for 6–24 months. The healing process of the BFP and the recipient sites were uneventful, with minimal morbidity. At 3 months after the surgery, there was complete epithelialization of the graft at the recipient sites. Conclusions: Harvesting of FBFG is a simple procedure with minor complications; manipulation and handling the graft are easy. The use of FBFG in reconstruction of small and medium palatal defects is encouraging with excellent clinical outcomes.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):241-245
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200326
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional evaluation of surgical techniques in neonates with
           orofacial cleft

    • Authors: Cleide Felício Carvalho Carrara, Elo&#225; Cristina Passucci Ambrosio, Bianca Zeponi Fernandes Mello, Paula Karine Jorge, Simone Soares, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Thais Marchini Oliveira
      Pages: 246 - 250
      Abstract: Cleide Felício Carvalho Carrara, Eloá Cristina Passucci Ambrosio, Bianca Zeponi Fernandes Mello, Paula Karine Jorge, Simone Soares, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira Machado, Thais Marchini Oliveira
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):246-250
      Background: Individuals with cleft lip and palate have many anatomic and functional alterations compromising esthetics, hearing, speech, occlusion, and development/craniofacial growth. The rehabilitative treatment of these patients is very challenging and starts at birth aiming at the best treatment for all functional demands. This study aimed to evaluate the dimensional alterations of the dental arches of neonates with cleft lip and palate after two different primary surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 114 digital models of children aged from 3 to 36 months, with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate divided into two groups. Two different phases were evaluated: precheiloplasty and 1 year after palatoplasty. The evaluation was performed through the digital models of each child obtained by scanning digitalization (3D Scanner). Dental arches measurements were accomplished through Appliance Designer software. The following measurements were assessed: dental arch area, anterior amplitude of the cleft, total length of dental arch, intercanine distance, and intertuberosity distance. t-test was applied to compare differences between groups. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between groups at precheiloplasty phase. At 1 year after palatoplasty, the groups differed in the total length of dental arch (P = 0.002), with greater values for Group I. Conclusion: This study suggests that the results of the different surgical techniques may alter the growth and development of the dental arches of neonates with cleft lip and palate.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):246-250
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200350
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Postsurgical consequences in lower third molar surgical extraction using
           micromotor and piezosurgery

    • Authors: Freddy Kersi Mistry, Nidarsh Diwakar Hegde, Mithra Nidarsh Hegde
      Pages: 251 - 259
      Abstract: Freddy Kersi Mistry, Nidarsh Diwakar Hegde, Mithra Nidarsh Hegde
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):251-259
      Background: One of the most critical and crucial steps in surgical extraction is cutting the bone or osteotomy, for which many techniques are used, e.g., chisels and mallet, rotary instruments, and ultrasound bone-cutting instruments. If they are not used judiciously, they can be hazardous. Objectives: To assess the efficiency of piezosurgery unit over micromotor while performing surgical extraction of lower third molars by assessing the time taken for the surgery and measuring postoperative parameters such as pain, trismus, and swelling. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having bilateral impacted third molars with the same difficulty index were selected for the study. One side surgical removal was done using micromotor and other side by piezosurgery with an interval of 15 days. After each surgery, time taken to finish was measured and patients were followed up on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 15 for assessing pain, trismus, and swelling. Data obtained were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean time taken for the micromotor group is 37.90 min whereas by the piezosurgery group is 54.63 min, showing a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there is statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) in the level of pain, trismus, and swelling on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Even the intragroup comparison of piezosurgical group for trismus and swelling showed no statistically significant difference on postoperative day 7, indicating faster recovery of trismus and swelling. On postoperative day 15, there was no difference in any parameter in both groups indicating complete symptom-free recovery in both groups. Conclusion: It takes more time to perform surgical extraction of third molars when piezosurgical unit is used. Despite that, it causes less pain postoperatively with faster improvement in trismus and quicker reduction in swelling.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):251-259
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200334
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Role of addition of dexamethasone to lignocaine 2% with adrenaline in
           dental nerve blocks for third molar surgery: A prospective randomized
           control trial

    • Authors: Saroj Prasad Deo
      Pages: 260 - 266
      Abstract: Saroj Prasad Deo
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):260-266
      Context: Dexamethasone has been frequently used in oral surgical procedure and accepted by oral and maxillofacial surgeon community worldwide. However, this is the first clinical trial that used dexamethasone as adjuvant with lignocaine in dental nerve block (DNB). Aims: The purpose of this double-blind, randomized control trial (RCT) was to compare the effect of dexamethasone with normal saline (NS) in a lignocaine DNB. Settings and Design: This prospective, double-blind, RCT was carried out after obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee. Subjects and Methods: In forty patients, the present placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted; allocated randomly into two groups: study group (SG) or control group (CG). The single-dose submucosal dexamethasone or NS injection was administered immediately after 2% lignocaine with epinephrine 1:2,00,000 nerves block during mandibular third molar surgery (TMS). Visual analog scale score, number, and exact time nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered were used to measure postoperative analgesia in 2nd and 7th days. Statistical Analysis Used: All the data were entered into the Spreadsheet (Excel, Microsoft) and Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Student's paired and unpaired t-test, and Fisher exact test were used. Results: This study found maximum duration of DNB in SG was 248.88 min and in CG was 175.44 min, whereas minimum duration in SG was 197 min and in CG was 140.78 min. Conclusions: Dexamethasone prolongs the action of lignocaine 2% in DNB for TMS.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):260-266
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200341
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Temporalis pull-through vs fascia lata augmentation in facial reanimation
           for facial paralysis

    • Authors: SM Balaji
      Pages: 267 - 271
      Abstract: SM Balaji
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):267-271
      Objectives: Surgical rehabilitation of facial palsy is challenging as each case is unique and success rate is often unpredictable. In one technique, temporalis is elevated from origin preserving vessels, and this elevation increases the length which is tunneled into buccal tissues (pull-through technique, Group A). In the other technique, a harvested fascia lata is attached to temporalis after a coronoidectomy release and the fascia lata is attached to the modiolus (Group B). The aim of this study is to compare the two different surgical techniques. Materials and Methods: Case records of 22 cases, 15 females, and 7 males who were operated between 2008 and 2012 for facial palsy with at least 1-year follow-up, using either of the techniques were assessed for pull of muscle, postoperative pain, recovery time, motor control, and symmetry at rest. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results: The Group A (n = 7) and Group B (n = 15) formed the study group. In the Group A, residual asymmetry (n = 3), poor postoperative muscle pull (n = 2) were noticed while in the modified group it was 2 and 3, respectively. The technique used in Group B had better pull of muscle, symmetry, faster recovery time, and better motor control at 1-year follow-up than the conventional technique. Discussion and Conclusion: The difference between the two groups is due to preservation of original muscular architecture, vascular channel supply. As the muscle is not traumatized, no fibrosis occurs aiding regaining of normal function. In addition, the facial reanimation is more successful in the Group B. The mechanism and success behind the technique used in Group B is discussed elaborately in terms of localregional anatomy and physiology
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):267-271
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200323
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • 6-0 nylon versus 6-0 vicryl rapide in chieloplasty

    • Authors: J K. Dayashankara Rao, Payal Luthra, Varun Arya, Vijay Siwach, Anil K Sheorain, Megha Gupta
      Pages: 272 - 277
      Abstract: J K. Dayashankara Rao, Payal Luthra, Varun Arya, Vijay Siwach, Anil K Sheorain, Megha Gupta
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):272-277
      Context: Facial cosmetic result is one of the most concerning issues for the parents who get their children operated for cleft lip. Moreover, the discomfort associated with the suture removal encourages one to use any new technology that may replace the need for suture placement. The type of suture material used in surgery has been a long-standing debate among surgeons. In this study, we compared rapidly absorbable suture material (Vicryl Rapide™) with nonabsorbable suture material (nylon). Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the appearance and course of scar, wound infection, and patient's parent perception using Vicryl Rapide and nylon in nonsyndromic congenital cleft lip repair. Settings and Design: This was a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients, in the age group of 3–18 months treated for unilateral congenital cleft lip deformity, were included and randomly allocated to two groups with ten patients each. Skin suturing was done with 6-0 polyamide and 6-0 irradiated polyglactin in Groups A and B, respectively. Patients were evaluated at 1 week, 1, 3, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively in person by the observer as well as by the patient's parent. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20, and Student's t-test was applied. Results: It was found that Vicryl Rapide showed more hypopigmented scars and raised scars than nylon at the end of 1 year though overall appearance was comparable between the groups. Conclusions: Vicryl Rapide showed poorer cosmetic outcomes in terms of height and pigmentation of car as compared to nylon suture of same thickness. However, since scars tend to improve with time, a bigger sample size and a longer follow-up are required to generalize this statement.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):272-277
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/ams.ams_31_16
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional printer-assisted reduction genioplasty; surgical guide
           fabrication

    • Authors: Seied Omid Keyhan, Alireza Jahangirnia, Hamid Reza Fallahi, Alireza Navabazam, Sina Ghanean
      Pages: 278 - 280
      Abstract: Seied Omid Keyhan, Alireza Jahangirnia, Hamid Reza Fallahi, Alireza Navabazam, Sina Ghanean
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):278-280
      Genioplasty is a common operation to enhance function and appearance of the chin, the most prominent part of the lower third of the face, which has major impact on character impressions and facial beauty. However, since transference of preconfigured accurate treatment plans to patients during operation is difficult, sometimes it can be challenging, especially for inexperienced surgeons. This article represents a simplified technique to perform reduction genioplasty by utilizing a customized genioplasty guide manufactured with three-dimensional printing technology. This approach is helpful to achieve more precise and safer outcomes with fewer complications.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):278-280
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200321
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Three-dimensional planning in craniomaxillofacial surgery

    • Authors: Josep Rubio-Palau, Alejandra Prieto-Gundin, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Miguel Bejarano Serrano, Gemma Garcia Fructuoso, Francisco Parri Ferrandis, Alejandro Rivera Bar&#243;
      Pages: 281 - 286
      Abstract: Josep Rubio-Palau, Alejandra Prieto-Gundin, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Miguel Bejarano Serrano, Gemma Garcia Fructuoso, Francisco Parri Ferrandis, Alejandro Rivera Baró
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):281-286
      Introduction: Three-dimensional (3D) planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery has become a standard in the planification of a variety of conditions such as dental implants and orthognathic surgery. By using custom-made cutting and positioning guides, the virtual surgery is exported to the operating room, increasing precision and improving results. Materials and Methods: We present our experience in the treatment of craniofacial deformities with 3D planning. Software to plan the different procedures has been selected for each case, depending on the procedure (Nobel Clinician, Kodak 3DS, Simplant O&O, Dolphin 3D, Timeus, Mimics and 3-Matic). The treatment protocol is exposed step by step from virtual planning, design, and printing of the cutting and positioning guides to patients' outcomes. Conclusions: 3D planning reduces the surgical time and allows predicting possible difficulties and complications. On the other hand, it increases preoperative planning time and needs a learning curve. The only drawback is the cost of the procedure. At present, the additional preoperative work can be justified because of surgical time reduction and more predictable results. In the future, the cost and time investment will be reduced. 3D planning is here to stay. It is already a fact in craniofacial surgery and the investment is completely justified by the risk reduction and precise results.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):281-286
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200322
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Guidelines for patient-specific jawline definition with titanium implants
           in esthetic, deformity, and malformation surgery

    • Authors: Maurice Yves Mommaerts
      Pages: 287 - 291
      Abstract: Maurice Yves Mommaerts
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):287-291
      Context: Asymmetry and unfavorable esthetics of the jawline have become possible to correct in three dimensions using computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing. Aims: The aim of this study was to provide esthetic, technical, and operative guidelines for mandibular angle and border augmentation using patient-specific titanium implants made by selective laser melting. Settings and Design: University hospital - prospective registry. Subjects and Methods: Twelve patients and 17 implantation sites were documented and prospectively registered. Malformational, deformational, and purely esthetic indications were encountered. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive. Results: Patient satisfaction was high, probably because the patients had input into the planned dimensions and shape. A serious infection with implant removal occurred in one patient who had six previous surgeries at the same sites. Technical and surgical guidelines were developed including splitting implants into two segments when the mental nerve was at risk, using a three-dimensional (3D) puzzle connection, providing at least two screw holes per segment, using scaffolds at the bony contact side, using a “satin” finish at the periosteal side, referring to anatomical structures where possible, making provisions for transbuccal and transoral fixation, using a high vestibular incision, and using a double-layer closure. Esthetic guidelines are discussed but could not be upgraded. Conclusions: Mirroring techniques and 3D print accuracy up to 0.1 mm allow precise planning of jaw angle implants. Patients are pleased when given preoperative renderings for their consideration. Infections can be managed using technical and operative recommendations and careful patient selection.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):287-291
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200325
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Bullet removal from the infratemporal fossa

    • Authors: Ahmed Maki Merza
      Pages: 292 - 296
      Abstract: Ahmed Maki Merza
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):292-296
      War injuries are the cornerstone of maxillofacial surgery, and it led to the initiation and development of this specialty, and each case represents a challenge to the surgeon who deals with it. In this article, we present a 30-year-old male patient who was referred to our emergency department complaining of gunshot wound, severe pain, and limitation in mouth opening. Preoperative imaging showed a bullet with a very long path lodged in the infratemporal fossa. Three different approaches with the aid of C-arm imaging system were used for the removal of this bullet; the last approach was the successful one.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):292-296
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200340
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Unusually elongated styloid process: A report of two cases with literature
           review

    • Authors: Neeta Sharma, Rangila Ram, Reet Kamal
      Pages: 297 - 299
      Abstract: Neeta Sharma, Rangila Ram, Reet Kamal
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):297-299
      Eagle's syndrome is most often associated with an elongated styloid process or ossified stylohyoid ligament, which may result in cervicofacial pain. Since the symptoms are vague and nonspecific, patients with the Eagle's syndrome are difficult to diagnose. We here report two cases of Eagle's syndrome, one case with unusually elongated styloid process of size 6.97 cm, in whom imaging with computed tomography established the diagnosis and managed by local infiltration of lidocaine and steroid; in another case the length of styloid processes were 3.47 cm and 3 cm respectively and was managed surgically.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):297-299
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200343
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Unusually large-sized peripheral ossifying fibroma

    • Authors: Reena Rachel John, Saravanan Kandasamy, Narendran Achuthan
      Pages: 300 - 303
      Abstract: Reena Rachel John, Saravanan Kandasamy, Narendran Achuthan
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):300-303
      Fibrous growths in the gingiva with the histopathological presence of calcifications are a common occurrence in the oral cavity. These lesions can be neoplastic in nature with either odontogenic or non odontogenic origin or they can be reactive lesions. This is a case report of an unusual presentation of peripheral ossifying fibroma , unusual because of its abnormally large size with review of literature.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):300-303
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200347
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Osteolipoma in the retromolar trigone: A case report and review of
           literature

    • Authors: Sareen Seelam, Ratna Kumari Beeram
      Pages: 304 - 307
      Abstract: Sareen Seelam, Ratna Kumari Beeram
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):304-307
      Osteolipoma is the distinct histological variant of lipoma. Until now, a total of 17 cases have been documented in English literature. It is most commonly seen in buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, tongue, palate, and parapharyngeal spaces of the oropharyngeal region. The aim of the present communication is to report an unusual presentation of osteolipoma in the retromolar trigone. Conventional radiographs have revealed “whorled pattern” of radiographic appearance in our case that might be due to uniform distribution of bony trabeculae within tumor; such type of finding has not been reported till now. Hence, here, we add these new features to existing literature.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):304-307
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200349
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe of the
           parotid gland

    • Authors: Francesco Paparo, Mauro Massarelli, Giorgio Giuliani
      Pages: 308 - 310
      Abstract: Francesco Paparo, Mauro Massarelli, Giorgio Giuliani
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):308-310
      Lipomas are the most commonly encountered benign mesenchymal tumors, but their occurrence in the head and neck is rare, even more at the level of the parotid region where they can be found nearby the parotid capsule, inside the capsule, or within the gland. In addition, lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely unusual. That is why lipomas are not often considered for differential diagnosis of parotid lumps. Concerning diagnostic tools, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is nowadays considered as the main imaging examination for parotid lipomas due to a characteristic signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. Furthermore, even if the cost of MRI is nearly three times that of computed tomography, MRI is accurate, safe, and has few biological costs for the patient. In this reported case, MRI provided all information for either diagnosis or preoperative planning being the best diagnostic tool regarding tumor margin characteristics and surrounding tissues' involvement. Concerning treatment, surgical excision of parotid masses is always mandatory for definitive diagnosis, but it is challenging because of the facial nerve. For this reason, a well-established surgical technique is mandatory for success. The authors present a rare case of parotid gland lipoma arising from the deep lobe and discuss diagnostic tools and surgical technique.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):308-310
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200335
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Choristoma: A rare congenital tumor of the tongue

    • Authors: Jessica Patricia Correa Jorquera, Josep Rubio-Palau, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Leonardo Rodr&#237;guez-Carunchio
      Pages: 311 - 313
      Abstract: Jessica Patricia Correa Jorquera, Josep Rubio-Palau, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Leonardo Rodríguez-Carunchio
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):311-313
      Most congenital masses of the mouth floor are cystic, irrespective of their origin. They may obstruct airway or digestive tract or may present other complications. Recognizing and treating these masses expeditiously is imperative. Choristoma is a mass of normal tissue in an abnormal location; they are classified according to the predominant epithelial lining. Few cases have been reported lined with gastric and respiratory epithelia within the same cyst. This case report presents a 5-month-old boy with an infected choristoma involving the floor of the mouth and its successful management.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):311-313
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200342
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Simple bone cyst of the mandibular condyle

    • Authors: Benjamin H. J. Rapaport, Andrew A. C. Heggie
      Pages: 314 - 315
      Abstract: Benjamin H. J. Rapaport, Andrew A. C. Heggie
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):314-315
      Simple bone cysts (SBCs) are benign lesions often found in the long bones of children between their first and second decades. They occasionally occur in the mandible but rarely in the mandibular condyle. A case of a 7-year-old female child with an increasing enlargement of the left mandibular condyle is presented. A 2 cm × 3 cm lytic lesion was explored and curetted through an intraoral vestibular incision and proved to be an SBC. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated with remodeling of the condylar observed at 3 years follow-up.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):314-315
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200329
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • New bone formation by orthodontic tooth movement for implant placement

    • Authors: Fatih Cabbar, Rahime Burcu Nur, Burcu Dikici, Ceyhun Canpolat, Gonca Duygu Capar
      Pages: 316 - 318
      Abstract: Fatih Cabbar, Rahime Burcu Nur, Burcu Dikici, Ceyhun Canpolat, Gonca Duygu Capar
      Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):316-318
      Bone defects at the anterior regions of the jaws often cause esthetic problems such as gingival disharmonies and longer crowns than neighboring teeth. Variety of procedures can be used in this region for achieving sufficient bone volume with or without different bone graft materials. All of these procedures has their own advantages and disadventages. New bone formation was defined with orthodontic tooth movement in different regions. In this case we present the use of orthodontic tooth movement, for achieving sufficient bone volume, in anterior maxillary region, for esthetic and functional results.
      Citation: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery 2016 6(2):316-318
      PubDate: Fri,17 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/2231-0746.200332
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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