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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 426 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 426 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Medica Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Indian Psychiatry     Open Access  
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Tropical Pathology     Open Access  
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.856, CiteScore: 2)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Reproduction     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.491, CiteScore: 2)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 2)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian J. of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Cancer Investigation J.     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.811, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.242, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.799, CiteScore: 2)
Egyptian J. of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Nursing J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian J. of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.12, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Glioma     Open Access  
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Hamdan Medical J.     Open Access  
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ibnosina J. of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Imam J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.468, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Health Sciences and Biomedical Research KLEU     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Respiratory Care     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Spine J.     Open Access  
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Clinicopathological Correlation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.623, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.4, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  

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Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.478
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0019-5049
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [426 journals]
  • IJA postgraduate special issue on current concepts in paediatric
           anaesthesia

    • Authors: Jigeeshu V Divatia
      Pages: 687 - 687
      Abstract: Jigeeshu V Divatia
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):687-687

      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):687-687
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_669_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • The IJA postgraduate educational issue on current concepts in paediatric
           anaesthesia

    • Authors: Jeson R Doctor, Anila Malde, Sandhya Yaddanapudi
      Pages: 688 - 689
      Abstract: Jeson R Doctor, Anila Malde, Sandhya Yaddanapudi
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):688-689

      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):688-689
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_671_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Cardiovascular and respiratory physiology in children

    • Authors: Diganta Saikia, Bandana Mahanta
      Pages: 690 - 697
      Abstract: Diganta Saikia, Bandana Mahanta
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):690-697
      Children are at increased risk of perioperative respiratory and cardiovascular complications because of their unique respiratory and cardiovascular physiology compared to adults. Anaesthesia can exaggerate respiratory deterioration in young children because of their inability to control respiration and inherent susceptibility to rapid desaturation, airway obstruction, early respiratory fatigue and lung atelectasis. Premature infants (less than 60 weeks of postconceptional age) can be exposed to the danger of prolonged apnoea and consequent worsening of respiratory function. The transitional phase of circulation is vulnerable to revert to persistent foetal circulation in neonates. Myocardium and autonomic control of the heart is immature and different in neonates and infants compared to older children and adults and are predisposed to inadvertent life-threatening haemodynamic changes during the perioperative period. In this review article, we discuss respiratory and cardiovascular physiology in neonates, infants and younger children and their differences with older children and adults. We mainly focus on transitional physiology of both respiratory and cardiovascular system in newborns and infants and the deleterious changes that may occur during anaesthesia or perioperatively.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):690-697
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_490_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Pharmacology related to paediatric anaesthesia

    • Authors: Meghna Maheshwari, Sadhana Sanwatsarkar, Milind Katakwar
      Pages: 698 - 706
      Abstract: Meghna Maheshwari, Sadhana Sanwatsarkar, Milind Katakwar
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):698-706
      A child is not a mini adult. They differ from adults in terms of weight, shape, anatomical size and major body systems such as cardiovascular and respiratory as well as psychologically. Each organ system is immature in paediatric age group and their growth and development can dramatically affect the pharmacokinetics of different drugs. Children differ in every way from an adult thus mandating to have a basic knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles in paediatric population to prevent under dosing or toxicity of drugs. This review article aims to simplify the basic principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in paediatric population. It also highlights physiological and pharmacological differences between adults and paediatric age. We performed a PUBMED search for English language articles using keywords including pharmacology, child, paediatric anaesthesia. We also hand searched references from relevant review articles and text book chapters. We have also discussed drug interaction in anaesthesia, pharmacology pertaining to neuromuscular junction and effects of anaesthesia over the developing brain.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):698-706
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_487_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Operative fasting guidelines and postoperative feeding in paediatric
           anaesthesia-current concepts

    • Authors: Ann Sumin Toms, Ekta Rai
      Pages: 707 - 712
      Abstract: Ann Sumin Toms, Ekta Rai
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):707-712
      Preoperative fasting period is the prescribed time prior to any procedure done either under general anaesthesia, regional anaesthesia or sedation, when oral intake of liquids or solids are not allowed. This mandatory fasting is a safety precaution that helps to protect from pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents which may occur any time during anaesthesia. We searched PUBMED for English language articles using keywords including child, paediatric, anaesthesia, fasting, preoperative, gastric emptying. We also hand searched references from relevant review articles and major society guidelines. Association of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI), the French Language Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists and the European Society of Paediatric Anesthetists recommends clear fluid intake upto one hour prior to elective surgery unless specific contraindications exists. Current guidelines recommend fasting duration of 4 hours for breastmilk, 6 hours for milk and light meals and 8 hours for fatty meals. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines recommend that oral intake can be initiated within hours of surgery in most patients. While fluids can be started almost immediately, the introduction of solids should be done more cautiously.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):707-712
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_484_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Premedication and induction of anaesthesia in paediatric patients

    • Authors: Nandini Malay Dave
      Pages: 713 - 720
      Abstract: Nandini Malay Dave
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):713-720
      Perioperative anxiety has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as emergence delirium, increased analgesic requirements and negative postoperative behavioural changes such as sleep disturbance, separation anxiety, eating problems and new-onset enuresis. Predictors of preoperative anxiety have been identified, and these include, among other factors, the age and temperament of the child. Any plan for anaesthetic induction in a child must take into account these factors. The anaesthetic plan must be individualised for special situations, for example, the child with behavioural disorder or at risk of aspiration. This article details the pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods to minimise preoperative anxiety and the techniques of anaesthetic induction in infants and children undergoing surgery. The benefits and limitations of inhalational and intravenous induction and the current status of rapid sequence induction in children are discussed. MEDLINE database was searched for this narrative review using the keywords including preoperative anxiety, child, premedication, paediatric and anaesthetic induction. Search was restricted to articles in English, but without any publication date restrictions.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):713-720
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_491_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Airway devices in paediatric anaesthesia

    • Authors: Sarbari Swaika, Sujata Ghosh, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya
      Pages: 721 - 728
      Abstract: Sarbari Swaika, Sujata Ghosh, Chiranjib Bhattacharyya
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):721-728
      Airway devices were first used in children since 1940 and thereafter an increasingly large number of paediatric airway devices have come into our armamentarium. To control and protect the airway in children during anaesthesia, in intensive care unit or in emergency department either tracheal intubation is performed under direct or indirect visualization of vocal cords with the help of laryngoscopes or video-laryngoscopes respectively or it can be done blindly or by using special instruments such as fiberoptic laryngoscope, lighted stylet or Bullard laryngoscope to name a few. Airway also can be maintained with the help of Laryngeal mask airways, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airways. Updating our information and knowledge regarding these developments is pivotal to our practice of paediatric anaesthesia. With a thorough search of books, MEDLINE, MEDNET, clinical trials.gov.in, this article aims at focusing and understanding a brief basis of paediatric devices and their use.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):721-728
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_550_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Perioperative fluid therapy and intraoperative blood loss in children

    • Authors: Neerja Bhardwaj
      Pages: 729 - 736
      Abstract: Neerja Bhardwaj
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):729-736
      Fluid and blood administration are required during surgery in children. The type, amount and tonicity of the intravenous fluids is an important aspect to be considered during anaesthesia management. The physiological differences between adults and children regarding the body water and blood volume needs to be understood. We performed a PUBMED search for English language articles using keywords including 'children', 'intravenous fluid therapy', 'crystalloids', 'colloids', 'fluid homeostasis', 'Starling equation', 'Donnan effect', 'blood loss', 'estimation of blood loss', 'blood management program'. This review discusses the physiological basis, historical background, risk of hyponatraemia, need of glucose in the intravenous fluids as well as the recent concepts in blood transfusion as related to children.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):729-736
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_493_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Vascular access in children

    • Authors: Vibhavari M Naik, S Shyam Prasad Mantha, Basanth Kumar Rayani
      Pages: 737 - 745
      Abstract: Vibhavari M Naik, S Shyam Prasad Mantha, Basanth Kumar Rayani
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):737-745
      Securing stable vascular access is an important clinical skill for the anaesthesiologist. Sick children, complex surgeries, chronic illnesses, multiple hospitalisations, and prolonged treatments can make vascular access challenging. A search was done in the English language literature using the keywords “paediatric,” “vascular access,” “venous access,” and “techniques” or “complications” in Pubmed, Embase, and Google scholar databases. Articles were screened and appropriate content was included. Intraosseous access is a lifesaving technique that can be performed even in hypovolaemic patients rapidly. Transillumination and near-infrared light improve visualisation of superficial veins in difficult access. Ultrasonography has become the standard of care in selecting the vessel, size of catheter, guide placement, and prevent complications. Fluoroscopy is used during insertion of long-term vascular access devices. This article reviews the various routes of access, their indications, most appropriate site, securing techniques, advantages, disadvantages, and complications associated with vascular access in children.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):737-745
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_489_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Recent trends in paediatric regional anaesthesia

    • Authors: Vrushali Ponde
      Pages: 746 - 753
      Abstract: Vrushali Ponde
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):746-753
      Paediatric regional anaesthesia today is one of the fastest growing and exciting aspects of paediatric anaesthesia, which requires an ongoing fervour to learn. Application of paediatric regional anaesthesia in neonates, infants, toddlers and children is undertaken to treat perioperative pain without disturbing the physiological milieu with additional advantages elaborated in the review. The available choices, traditional methods and the most recently described methods are discussed with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Clear pointers for selection of the blocks are also discussed. To present a holistic overview of this rapidly growing subject, a comprehensive literature search was performed in May 2019 in MEDLINE, PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve articles pertaining to all the above topics. The keywords used in various combinations included 'Central neuraxial, blocks, Paediatric(s)', 'Peripheral Nerve blocks', 'Safety, controversies, regional, anaesthesia'.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):746-753
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_502_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Non-operating room anaesthesia in children

    • Authors: Subrahmanyam Maddirala, Annu Theagrajan
      Pages: 754 - 762
      Abstract: Subrahmanyam Maddirala, Annu Theagrajan
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):754-762
      Administration of sedation and/or anaesthesia to patients undergoing painful or uncomfortable procedures at off-site locations is referred to as non-operating room anaesthesia (NORA). Sedating/anaesthetising children in an unfamiliar environment, with the lack of support staff, nonavailability of choice of medication and equipment is often challenging. Studies have shown an increased risk of airway-related adverse events, complications, and even death outside the operating room locations. It is crucial to be familiar with the anatomical and physiological variations in children, well versed with the difficult airway algorithm and call for help early. The most common event in NORA claims was inadequate oxygenation/ventilation, which are preventable with vigilant monitoring. English language articles were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Academic using 'sedation in children', 'remote location anaesthesia', 'peadiatric sedation', and 'nonoperating room anaesthesia' as the mesh words. Full text of the relevant articles was obtained and this review article was synthesised. The article outlines various safety guidelines, sedation techniques, drugs used for sedation, environmental concerns, procedure-specific risks, and complications associated with NORA in children.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):754-762
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_486_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Postoperative anaesthetic concerns in children: Postoperative pain,
           emergence delirium and postoperative nausea and vomiting

    • Authors: Shikha Mehrotra
      Pages: 763 - 770
      Abstract: Shikha Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):763-770
      The incidence of anaesthetic complications in children is much more than in adults and sometimes with a severe outcome. Patients under one year of age, those with co-morbidities and posted for emergency surgery are at increased risk for morbidities. Sources of information on the risk involved come from institutional audit, closed claim analysis, and large-scale studies of cardiac arrest. A strategy for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), emergence delirium (ED) and postoperative pain should be a part of every anaesthetic plan. A planned multimodal approach should be opted consisting of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic prophylaxis along with interventions to reduce the baseline risks. The literature in this subject is reviewed extensively to give comprehensive information to postgraduate students about the current understanding of postoperative anaesthetic concerns. Relevant articles from Pub med, review articles, meta-analysis, and editorials were the primary source of information for this article.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):763-770
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_391_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
  • Anaesthetic concerns in preterm and term neonates

    • Authors: Rajeshwari Subramaniam
      Pages: 771 - 779
      Abstract: Rajeshwari Subramaniam
      Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):771-779
      Anaesthesia for neonates is a composite of good knowledge of neonatal and transitional physiology combined with skill in airway maintenance and vascular access. When the newborn is a preterm, the complexities of management increase due to the small size and accompanying issues such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and apnoea. World over, the number of survivors of preterm birth is on the increase. We searched Pubmed for “Anesthesia, apnea, neonatal, neonates, physiology, preterm, spinal anesthesia”, as well as cross references from review articles. These babies have a high incidence of conditions warranting surgery (e.g., tracheoesophaeal fistula, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, anorectal malformations, incarcerated hernia, necrotising enterocolitis). The possibility of neurodevelopmental harm by anaesthetics is currently the topic of active research. In parallel, advances in paediatric anaesthesia equipment, use of regional and neuraxial anaesthesia and availability of monitoring have steadily increased the safety of anaesthesia in these tiny patients.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2019 63(9):771-779
      PubDate: Thu,12 Sep 2019
      DOI: 10.4103/ija.IJA_591_19
      Issue No: Vol. 63, No. 9 (2019)
       
 
 
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