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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Journal Cover Annals of Saudi Medicine
  [SJR: 0.24]   [H-I: 29]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0256-4947 - ISSN (Online) 0975-4466
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Erratum

    • Abstract: In Ann Saudi Med 2016; 36(3) 190-196: “Tocilizumab efficacy and safety in rheumatoid arthritis patients after inadequate response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or anti-tumor necrosis
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2017 08:50:00 +000
       
  • Reply

    • Abstract: We would like to thank the authors of the letter commenting on our recent paper on the association between anti-CCP and the shared epitope status
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2017 08:37:00 +000
       
  • Eleven-year review of data on Pap smears in Saudi Arabia: We need more
           focus on glandular abnormalities!

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: We reviewed data from Saudi Arabia on epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) detected by Pap smear after noticing a slight increase in the incidence of cervical glandular abnormalities in our regional laboratory in recent years. OBJECTIVE: Clarify data on adenocarcinoma (ADCA) on Pap smears in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Descriptive, retrospective study. SETTINGS: Regional laboratory, Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed all Pap smears of adult females between 2006 and 2016 and compared our data with previously published results from Saudi Arabia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Descriptive data on ECAs. RESULTS: Among 19759 cases, atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US) was the most prevalent ECA (1.16%). ADCA occurred more than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In a comparison of published data before 2014 and after 2014 (including ours), there was a significant rise in ADCA (28 vs 48 cases; P=.004) with a significant drop in SCC, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) (P<.0001, .004, and <.0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: We recommend that pathologists and cytotechnologists be vigilant in screening Pap smears in our population, particularly for glandular abnormalities. We also recommend use of Pap smears in the initial workup of women with suspected gynecological abnormalities, regardless of evolutions in HPV testing.  LIMITATIONS: The pooling of data instead of analyzing by study year.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:59:00 +000
       
  • Hepatitis B and C virus prevalence in couples attending an in vitro
           fertilization clinic in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia:
           comparison with ten years earlier

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are a major public health problem in Saudi Arabia. Recent data has indicated a major reduction in viral hepatitis prevalence in Saudi population. However, there is limited data for infertile Saudi couples.  OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HCV and HBV attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic in Saudi Arabia between 2012 and 2015 to compare with the prevalence 10 years earlier in the same center.  DESIGN: Retrospective prevalence study. SETTING: Tertiary care center in Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected on all couples seen at the IVF unit between 2002-2005 and 2012-2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Prevalence of HBV and HCV. RESULTS: In 4442 patients during 2002-2005 and 5747 patients during 2012-2015, the prevalence of HBV was significantly less in 2012-2015 compared with 2002-2005 (1.67% [97 patients] vs 4.7% [210 patients], P<.0001), respectively, but HCV prevalence was similar for the two periods (0.7% for both periods) (P=.887). The hepatitis B seroprevalence rate was higher in males compared to females during 2002-2005 (6.3% vs 3.1%) (P<.0001) and 2012-2015 (2.4% vs 1.1% ) (P<.0001), respectively.  CONCLUSION: The significant drop in HBV prevalence was most likely due to the introduction of the vaccination program in 1989, while reasons for HCV prevalence remaining unchanged are unclear.  LIMITATION: No data on confounding factors that may have affected the prevalence.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:53:00 +000
       
  • Utilization and adherence to guideline-recommended lipid-lowering therapy
           at an academic medical center

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for managing blood cholesterol were updated in November 2013.  OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adherence to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline recommendations for statin therapy in the treatment of elevated blood cholesterol in high-risk patients. DESIGN: A single-center, retrospective, observational study. SETTING: A tertiary care academic medical center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS: Consecutive adult patients discharged with a prescription for any of the statin medications group between 1 June 2015 and 31 December 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Adherence to the 2013 ACC/AHA guidelines for management of cholesterol by statin therapy in high-risk patients. RESULTS: Of 1094 patients, 753 (68.8%) met the inclusion criteria of the study. Of these 753 patients, 53.5% had atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases; 29.2% had diabetes; 0.9% had an LDL-C level >190 mg/dL; 10.8% had an estimated 10-year risk >7.5%; and 4.9% had no risk. Two hundred and eight (27.6%) patients received statin therapy at an inappropriate intensity according to their risk group based on the guideline; 126 (16.7%) received less than the ideal intensity. CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of patients received statin therapy at an inappropriate intensity according to the guideline recommendation. Wide application of the 2013 ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines in our practice would optimize the utilization of statin therapy at the ideal intensity in high-risk patients.  LIMITATION: Drug-drug interactions and intolerance to statin therapy were not considered when we evaluated adherence among high-risk patients.   
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:46:00 +000
       
  • Five-year epidemiological trends for chemical poisoning in Jeddah, Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Poisoning is a significant global public health challenge in terms of morbidity and mortality. We conducted this study because of the lack of large population-based studies on chemical poisoning in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: Describe epidemiological trends, associated factors, and outcomes of chemical poisoning cases reported to the Jeddah Health Affairs Directorate, Saudi Arabia.  DESIGN: Descriptive, retrospective medical record review. SETTING: Population database for the Jeddah Governorate. METHODS: For chemical poisoning cases reported from January 2011 to December 2015, data was collection using a standardized, validated data collection sheet. Data was collected on personal characteristics, type of chemical poisoning and outcome. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Descriptive epidemiological data and statistical comparisons. RESULTS: For 994 chemical poisoning cases, an increasing trend was observed from 2011 to 2013 followed by some reduction during 2014 and 2015. The highest percentage of cases occurred during July followed by March for the cumulative total cases by month for all years. More than half of the cases involved males (55%), and children aged less than 5 years (56.6%). About three-fourths of the cases occurred accidentally and through ingestion. The most common poisonous agents were detergents (36.0%). Poisoning with addictive drugs occurred in 13 cases (1.3%). Only 1.1% of cases received a poisoning specific antidote, and the same percentage died because of poisoning. Gender, age, nationality, the route and the circumstances of the exposure were significantly associated with the type of poisoning (P<.001).  CONCLUSION: Most of chemical poisoning cases were accidental, occurred during summer, were caused by detergents, affected children <5 years of age, and occurred via ingestion. Educational programs are needed to raise public awareness about poisoning, and to minimize the access of children to poisonous agents, especially detergents. Such measures could contribute toward a further reduction of the chemical poisoning burden. LIMITATIONS: Some key statistics not reported. Information bias may have affected results.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:38:00 +000
       
  • Variation in access to pediatric surgical care among coexisting public and
           private providers: inguinal hernia as a model

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Faced with growing healthcare demand, the Saudi government is increasingly relying on privatization as a tool to improve patient access to care. Variation in children’s access to surgical care between public (PB) and private providers (PV) has not been previously analyzed.  OBJECTIVES: To compare access to pediatric surgical services between two coexisting PB and PV.  DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study.  SETTINGS: A major teaching hospital and the largest PV group in Saudi Arabia.  PATIENTS AND METHODS: The outcomes for children who underwent inguinal herniotomy (IH) between May 2010 and December 2014 at both providers were with IH serving as the model. Data collected included patient demographics, insurance coverage, referral pattern and access parameters including time-to-surgery (TTS), surgery wait time (SWT) and duration of symptoms (DOS).  MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): TTS, SWT and DOS. RESULTS: Of 574 IH cases, 56 cases of in-hospital referrals were excluded leaving 290 PB and 228 PV cases. PV patients were younger (12.0 vs 16.4 months, P=.043) and more likely to be male (81.6% vs 72.8%, P=.019), expatriates (18% vs 3.4%, P<.001) and insured (47.4% vs 0%, P<.001). The emergency department was more frequently the source for PB referrals (35.2% vs 12.7%, P<.001) while most PV patients were self-referred (72.8% vs 16.7%, P<.001). Access parameters were remarkably better at PV: TTS (21 vs 66 days, P<.001), SWT (4 vs 31 days, P<.001) and DOS (33 vs 114 days, P<.001). CONCLUSION: When coexisting, PV offers significantly better access to pediatric surgical services compared to PB. Diverting public funds to expand children’s access to PV can be a valid choice to improve access to care in case when outcomes with the two providers are similar.  LIMITATIONS: Although it is the first and largest comparison in the pediatric population, the sample may not represent the whole population since it is confined to a single selected surgical condition.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:28:00 +000
       
  • Isometric muscle fatigue of the paravertebral and upper extremity muscles
           after whiplash injury

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) result from injury of neck structures that most often occur during traffic accidents as a result of rapid acceleration-deceleration. The dominant symptoms manifest in the musculoskeletal system and include increased fatigue. Because of the frequency of whiplash injuries, a simple, cheap and useful diagnostic tool is needed to differentiate whiplash injury from healthy patients or those faking symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To determine muscle fatigue in patients with whiplash injury in six body positions. DESIGN: Analytical cross-sectional study. SETTING: Emergency center, university hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied patients with whiplash injury from vehicular traffic accidents who presented to the emergency center within 6 hours of sustaining the injury. We determined whiplash injury grade according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF) classification and measured isometric muscle endurance in six different body positions. Control subjects for each patient were matched by age, gender and anthropomorphic characteristics. Cut-off values were determined to distinguish patients with whiplash injury from controls and for determination of injury grade .  MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): QTF grade, time to muscle fatigue in seconds.  RESULTS: From September 2013 to September 2016, we enrolled 75 patients with whiplash injury and 75 matching control subjects. In all six positions, the patients with whiplash injury felt muscle fatigue faster than equivalent controls (P<.05) and the time to onset of muscle fatigue decreased with increasing injury grades in all six positions. Assignment to the patient or control group and to injury grade could be predicted with more than 90% accuracy on the basis of time to muscle fatigue. The most efficient position was the highest injury grade, by which 99.9% of the patients were accurately categorized. Isometric muscle endurance correlated with whiplash injury grade in all six positions (P<.01).  CONCLUSION: Under clinical conditions, muscle endurance and the appearance of isometric muscle fatigue during testing can be a useful indicator of whiplash injury and grade. LIMITATIONS: The size of the sample was small. An objective parameter such as electromyography is needed to confirm isometric muscle fatigue.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:20:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of the Trendelenburg position versus upper-limb tourniquet on
           internal jugular vein diameter

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Central venous cannulation is a necessary invasive procedure for fluid management, haemodynamic monitoring and vasoactive drug therapy. The right internal jugular vein (RIJV) is the preferred site. Enlargement of the jugular vein area facilitates catheterization and reduces complication rates. Common methods to enlarge the RIJV cross-sectional area are the Trendelenburg position and the Valsalva maneuver. OBJECTIVE: Compare the Trendelenburg position with upper-extremity venous return blockage using the tourniquet technique. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: University hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers (American Society of Anesthesiologists class I) aged 18–45 years were included in the study. The first measurement was made when the volunteers were in the supine position. The RIJV diameter and cross-sectional area were measured from the apex of the triangle formed by the clavicle and the two ends of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, which is used for the conventional approach. The second measurement was performed in a 20° Trendelenburg position. After the drainage of the veins using an Esbach bandage both arms were cuffed. The third measurement was made when tourniquets were inflated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Hemodynamic measurements and RIJV dimensions. RESULTS: In 65 volunteers the diameter and cross-sectional area of the RIJV were significantly widened in both Trendelenburg and tourniquet measurements compared with the supine position (P<.001 for both measures). Measurements using the upper extremity tourniquet were significantly larger than Trendelenburg measurements (P=.002 and <.001 for cross-sectional area and diameter, respectively). CONCLUSION: Channelling of the upper-extremity venous return to the jugular vein was significantly superior when compared with the Trendelenburg position and the supine position. LIMITATIONS: No catheterization and study limited to healthy volunteers.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:13:00 +000
       
  • Indications for enucleation and evisceration in a tertiary eye hospital in
           Riyadh over a 10-year period

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Enucleation and evisceration are eye removal procedures considered as palliative treatment when all other therapeutic options are exhausted. OBJECTIVE: Describe the causes and histopathological findings leading to enucleation/evisceration, and correlate the clinical findings with the histopathological findings. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTINGS: Tertiary care hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent enucleation or evisceration from February 2005 to May 2015 were reviewed. Patients were classified into two categories based on indications of surgery: traumatic and nontraumatic. Causes of ocular injury in the traumatic group were documented, and the histopathological findings were reviewed for the nontraumatic cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Number of enucleation and evisceration surgeries and their causes and histopathological findings.  RESULTS: One hundred ten patients underwent evisceration (n=69, 63%) and enucleation (n=41, 37%). Causes were traumatic in 38 (35%) and nontraumatic in 72 (65%). The median age was 50 years and there were 64 men and 46 women. Postoperative endophthalmitis was the most common indication for surgery (n=24, 21.8%), followed by painful blind eye (n=22, 20%). Ocular trauma was more predominant in men (n=29, 76%) than in women (n=9, 24%), and the leading mechanism of trauma was metallic nail injuries (n=6, 15.8%). In the nontraumatic group, endophthalmitis was the most common histopathological finding (n=25, 34.7%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the eye enucleation/evisceration surgeries were due to nontraumatic causes, especially postoperative infections. However, severe eye trauma was still a main indication for this destructive procedure. Guidelines are needed to decrease the incidence/severity of work-related eye injuries and to detect and manage eye infections earlier and more promptly. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study, in one hospital in one area; therefore, results cannot be generalized.   
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:06:00 +000
       
  • Influence of knowledge and beliefs on consumption of performance enhancing
           agents in north-western Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Consumption of performance enhancing agents (PEAs) has a wide range of negative health consequences, but knowledge of these consequences among gym users of PEAs in Saudi Arabia is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: Identify the knowledge, awareness, beliefs and attitudes of gym users about negative health consequences of using PEAs, and the relationship between these factors and use of these agents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Five gyms in Madinah city, Saudi Arabia.  SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to recruit gym users. An electronic self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.  MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Level of knowledge about the negative health consequences of PEAs among gym users. RESULTS: About 70% of 316 participants had used one or more of PEAs over the last six months. Of those, about 68.4% used protein powder supplements and 48.1% used energy drinks. Participants who believed that protein powder supplements (c2=52.3, P<.01) and energy drinks (c2=35.2, P<.01) had health hazards used these agents less often than others during the six months preceding data collection. Participants who had less knowledge about the negative health consequences were more likely to use protein powder supplement (t=2.38, P=.018). On the other hand, those who were more knowledgeable about the negative health consequences of insulin, were more likely to use insulin (t=2.45, P=.015).  CONCLUSION: Misuse of PEAs is widespread among gym users in Saudi Arabia. Improving the level of knowledge and awareness of possible serious health consequences would hopefully lead to reduced PEA consumption. LIMITATIONS: The temporal sequence of cause and effect could not be determined in a cross sectional study. Convenience sampling in a single city limited the generalizability of the findings to all regions of Saudi Arabia.  
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 14:59:00 +000
       
  • Perception of hospital accreditation among health professionals in Saudi
           Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hospital accreditation assesses hospital performance against explicit standards. Studies of the efficacy of accreditation are limited, but suggest that Joint Commission International (JCI) accreditation is efficient in improving the safety and quality of care in accredited hospitals.  OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the perceptions of health professionals on the impact of JCI accreditation and implementation of change towards the delivery of quality patient care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTINGS: King Abdulaziz Medical City in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. SUBJECTS: Between June 2016 and September 2016, a validated questionnaire was distributed to physicians, nurses, medical technologists, dietitians, and other allied healthcare professionals. The questionnaire consisted of 19 items covering participation in accreditation, benefits of accreditation, and the quality of results of accreditation. Demographic data collected on the participants included age, gender, educational attainment, profession, length of service, and department. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Participation in accreditation, benefits of accreditation, and quality of results of accreditation. RESULTS: Hospital accreditation was given a worthy response from the general view of 901 health professionals. The mean (standard deviation) of scores on a 5-point Likert scale were 3.79 (0.68) for participation in accreditation, 3.85 (0.84) for benefits, and 3.54 (1.01) for quality of results. CONCLUSION: As perceived by health professionals in our survey, accrediation had a positive impact on the process and implementation of change in the hospital that resulted in improvement in the delivery of patient care and other health services.  LIMITATIONS: Single institution study with no comparison made to other small, medium, or large-sized JCI-accredited hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Patient satisfaction before and after accreditation was not included. 
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 14:51:00 +000
       
  • Successful desensitization to radiocontrast media in two high-risk cardiac
           patients

    • Abstract: Hypersensitivity reactions to radiocontrast media (RCM) are common and in severe cases may present a challenge for treating physician in cases when premedication fails or the patient presents with severe comorbidities. We describe two cases in need of radiocontrast media after a severe reaction on previous exposure to iohexol. One presented anaphylactic reaction to RCM despite premedication and another presented with angina. Both cases were treated with a desensitization protocol to iodixanol. In conclusion, desensitization to radiocontrast media may be considered in patients with previously unsuccessful premedication and/or severe acute comorbidities.  SIMILAR CASES PUBLISHED: 14 
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 14:45:00 +000
       
  • Accessory ulna: a rare case in an Asian female

    • PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 14:42:00 +000
       
  • RE: Association of human leukocyte antigen-DRB1 with anti-cyclic
           citrullinated peptide autoantibodies in Saudi patients with rheumatoid
           arthritis

    • PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 14:35:00 +000
       
  • Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    • Abstract:  Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L) cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 13:09:00 +000
       
  • The validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D: a study
           from Jordan

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:EQ-5D is a generic measure that permits comparisons in quality of life across disease states, and which may provide useful data for health policy and resource allocation decision-making. There are no published reports on the acceptability and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D in the Arabic language. We therefore investigated the validity and reliability of the Arabic translation of the EQ-5D in Jordan.METHODS:The study was conducted on a convenience sample consisting of consecutive adult Arabic-speaking outpatients or visitors attending a university teaching hospital. Subjects were interviewed twice using a standardized questionnaire containing the EQ-5D, Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). To assess the validity of the Arabic version of the EQ-5D, ten hypotheses relating responses to EQ-5D dimensions or the visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) to SF-36 scores or other variables were examined and test-retest reliability was assessed.RESULTS:The study included 186 subjects who had a mean age of 45.3 years and included 87 (47%) females. The major problem reported in more than 102 (55%) of the subjects was anxiety/depression. All of the ten a-priori hypothesis relating EQ-5D responses to external variables were fulfilled. Cohen's κ for test-retest reliability (n=52) ranged from 0.48 to 1.0.CONCLUSION:The Arabic translation of EQ-5D appears to be valid and reliable in measuring quality of life in Jordanian people.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 12:54:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in teenage football
           players in Tunisia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Studies on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in team sports are lacking. The aim of this study was to screen for EIB among amateur teenage football players in Tunisia and to compare EIB prevalence between regions.METHODS:One hundred ninety-six male football players (mean age [SD], 13.5 [0.5] yrs), practicing in three different cities of Tunisia (Tunis, Sousse and Sfax), underwent an outdoor free run of 7 minutes. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was recorded prior to and at 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes after the run. Players were screened for EIB positivity defined as a greater than 10% decline in FEV1 from the resting value at any timepoint.RESULTS:FEV1 decreased more than 10% in 30% of the players. EIB positivity was more common in Sfax (15.8%) than in Tunis (7.7%) (P =.03). Air humidity during the study was higher in Tunis.CONCLUSION:EIB is prevalent among amateur teenage football players in Tunisia. The prevalence differs between regions and seems to be dependent on air humidity levels.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 12:40:00 +000
       
  • A screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:A clinically validated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) scale in Arabic for evaluating children in Saudi Arabia who might be suspected of having ADHD is lacking. Thus, we studied the validity of an Arabic version of the ADHD Rating Scale in discriminating children with an ADHD diagnosis from normal children or from those with non-ADHD psychiatric diagnoses, including mental retardation.METHODS:The guardians of 119 children provided demographic data and completed the standardized Arabic version of the ADHD Rating Scale on their children, who were either normal, had a diagnosis of ADHD, or had a non-ADHD psychiatric diagnosis. The mean rating scores of the groups were compared, and the cutoff points were calculated for both sexes.RESULTS:The scores discriminated children with ADHD diagnosis (mean and [SD], 28 [6.288]) from normal children (10.93 [8.009]), and those with a non-ADHD psychiatric diagnosis (16.63 [8.865]). ADHD cutoff points were obtained for male (23.5) and female (22.5) children. Psychosocial characteristics associated with children having ADHD were not associated with the diagnosis of ADHD.CONCLUSION:The ADHD Rating Scale (Arabic version), in terms of either the grand total score or the total score of each of its two subscales, demonstrated concurrent and discriminant validity by discriminating children with ADHD from other clinical and non-clinical children groups. The study obtained cutoff points for both sexes based only on the grand total score of the scale because of the relatively small sample size. Replication of the study, utilizing a larger sample and eliciting ratings from both parents and teachers, is recommended.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 12:28:00 +000
       
  • Clinicopathological study of male breast carcinoma: 24 years of experience

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Because breast cancer in men is rare, few patients are available for prospective studies. To learn more about its epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, genetics and pathology in our country, we conducted a retrospective study of all cases seen in recent decades at our institution.PATIENTS AND METHODS:We identified each case of male breast cancer in the database at the Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir, India, between the years 1983 to 2007.RESULTS:We identified only 32 cases of male breast cancer over the 24-year period. Male breast cancer accounted for 32 (2.8%) of 1141 resected breast specimens, which included all breast lesions and 32 (4.1%) of 780 breast cancer cases. Of the 32 cases, 20 (62.5%) had various associated risk factors. Invasive ductal carcinoma was seen in 30 cases (93.7%). Of 20 cases that underwent molecular studies, 16 (80%) patients had estrogen receptor positivity whereas 14 (70%) had progesterone receptor positivity. Six cases (30%) overexpressed HER2 and p53. The BRCA2 mutation was observed in 4 cases (40%) while no patient presented with the BRCA1 mutation.CONCLUSION:An incidence of 4.1% for male breast cancer indicates that this disease is not as uncommon as presumed in this part of the world. Breast cancer in men seems more frequently to be hormone receptor positive and the BRCA2 mutation confers a significant risk to men.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 12:15:00 +000
       
  • Accuracy of the Fischer scoring system and the Breast Imaging Reporting
           and Data System in identification of malignant breast lesions

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Fischer developed a scoring system in 1999 that made identifying malignant lesions much easier for inexperienced radiologists. Our study was performed to assess whether this scoring system would help beginners to accurately diagnose breast lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to assess the correlation between the magnetic resonance mammography Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (MRM BI-RADS) grade and the final diagnosis.PATIENTS AND METHODS:The lesion morphology and contrast kinetics of 63 masses in 41 patients were evaluated on MRI and accorded a MRM BI-RADS final assessment category using the Fischer scoring system. The accuracy was evaluated after the final diagnosis was obtained by tissue sampling and follow-up imaging.RESULTS:There were 25 malignant and 30 benign lesions. Eight lesions were seen by MRI only and we could not verify their pathology since we did not have MR-guided biopsy facilities at the time of the study. On MR mammography, the proven carcinomatous lesions were characterized as BI-RADS category V in 16 (64%), category IV in 7 (28%), and category III in 2 (8%) lesions. Benign lesions were graded as category V in 3 (10%), category IV in 6 (20%), and category III in 3 (10%), category II in 10 (33%) and category I in 8 (27%) lesions. The MRM BI-RADS category accurately predicted malignancy in 92% and a benign pathology in 70% of the lesions. The overlap between the MRM features of chronic inflammatory lesions and carcinomas resulted in a lower accuracy in diagnosing benign as compared to malignant lesions.CONCLUSION:The MRM BI-RADS lexicon using the Fischer scoring system is useful and has a high predictive value, especially for malignant breast lesions, and is easy to apply. Overlapping features between benign inflammatory and malignant lesions might yield a reduced accuracy in inflammatory pathologies.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 11:55:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in
           Abha, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia.METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students.RESULTS:The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors.CONCLUSION:Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 11:41:00 +000
       
  • Factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Jordanian women and their
           sexual attitudes

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND:Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, and orgasm, as well as sexual pain, that leads to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. Social aspects of FSD have been understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the social aspects of FSD and sexual attitudes of Jordanian women.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Six hundred thirteen married females were studied between October 2006 and August 2007 at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan. Females were interviewed using a special questionnaire that was suitable to our culture and added to the Arabic translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire.RESULTS:Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm. About 58.5% of women reported that they prepared themselves if they had sexual desire and 68.2% reported wearing special attire for this purpose. Only 37.2% of women could ask their husband for a special excitement.CONCLUSIONS:FSD is prevalent in Jordan. Its social aspects are understudied and need more research in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 11:25:00 +000
       
  • Factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Jordanian women and their
           sexual attitudes

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND:Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, and orgasm, as well as sexual pain, that leads to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. Social aspects of FSD have been understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the social aspects of FSD and sexual attitudes of Jordanian women.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Six hundred thirteen married females were studied between October 2006 and August 2007 at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan. Females were interviewed using a special questionnaire that was suitable to our culture and added to the Arabic translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire.RESULTS:Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm. About 58.5% of women reported that they prepared themselves if they had sexual desire and 68.2% reported wearing special attire for this purpose. Only 37.2% of women could ask their husband for a special excitement.CONCLUSIONS:FSD is prevalent in Jordan. Its social aspects are understudied and need more research in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 11:25:00 +000
       
  • Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II data were used for comparison.RESULTS:Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cut-off values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES II), arm muscularity was substantially lower.CONCLUSIONS:Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention programs is emphasized.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:54:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum
           β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Reports on extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) production by Enterobacteriaceae, and especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae, are few in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of ESBL in K pneumoniae from Riyadh and characterized the predominant β-lactamase gene in these isolates.METHODS:A total of 400 K pneumoniae samples were isolated from two hospitals in Riyadh during 2007 and screened for production of ESBL using ESBL-E-strips and combined disk methods. PCR assay was used to detect blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes.RESULTS:Phenotypic characterization identified a high ESBL rate of 55% of K pneumoniae isolates. ESBL-producing K pneumoniae were PCR positive for SHV, TEM and CTX-M β-lactamase genes with prevalences 97.3%, 84.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Within the CTX-M family, two groups of enzymes, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9-like genes were found with prevalences of 60% and 40%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS:This study confirms the high rate of ESBL in K pneumoniae clinical isolates in hospitals in Riyadh. This study demonstrates the worldwide spread of blaCTX-M genes. This first report of the presence of the blaCTX-M gene in clincial isolates in Saudi Arabia is evidence of the continuing worldwide spread of this gene.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:47:00 +000
       
  • Extended-spectrum β-lactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis
           treated with tigecycline

    • Abstract: To the Editor: Multidrug-resistant bacteria are increasing in prevalence, causing sporadic outbreaks of difficult-to-treat infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative pathogen that is known to cause both community
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:40:00 +000
       
  • Restless leg syndrome in a patient with celiac disease: a coincidence or
           an association'

    • Abstract: To the Editor: A myriad of extraintestinal manifestations of celiac disease have been described,1 but none have included restless leg syndrome (RLS). We report a case of
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:37:00 +000
       
  • Symptomatic splenoma in a child

    • Abstract: To the Editor: Splenoma or splenic hamartoma, described in 1861 by Rokitansky, is a rare benign lesion of the spleen, with only 150 cases having been
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:31:00 +000
       
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of liver cirrhosis in a treated
           hepatitis C virus patient

    • Abstract: To the Editor: A 65-year-old male patient was referred to King Faisal Hospital and Research Centre after he presented with jaundice, fever, abdominal discomfort and biochemical
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:24:00 +000
       
  • A 74-year-old woman with a 1-month history of itching and skin rash

    • Abstract:  A 74-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of itching followed by a rash. The bullous lesions were large and wide-spread (including lesions on the
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:21:00 +000
       
  • Defecation of a “colon cast” as a rare presentation of acute
           graft-versus-host disease

    • Abstract:  Diffuse involvement of the gastrointestinal tract by graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Gastrointestinal GVHD usually presents 3 or more weeks after HSCT and is characterized by profuse diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who had undergone allogeneic HSCT and presented with bloody diarrhea on the 90th day post-HSCT. On the fourth day of admission, the patient passed per rectum a 27-cm long pinkish colored fleshy material recognized as a “colon cast”. Sigmoidoscopy showed a congested and erythematous rectum with the remaining portion of the “colon cast” attached to the proximal part of the sigmoid colon. A biopsy from the rectal wall was suggestive of grade IV GVHD. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone, cyclosporin and mycophenolate mofetil, with a partial response (diarrhea and abdominal pain improved), but then he developed multiple other medical complications and died after 3 months.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:11:00 +000
       
  • Neonatal familial Evans syndrome associated with joint hypermobility and
           mitral valve regurgitation in three siblings in a Saudi Arab family

    • Abstract:  The occurrence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia in the absence of a known underlying cause led to the diagnosis of Evans syndrome in a 9-month-old male. Subsequently, a similar diagnosis was made in two siblings (a 3-year-old boy and a 1-day-old girl). The 9-month-old had a chronic course with exacerbations. He was treated with steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and colchiccine with a variable response. He died of congestive heart failure at the age of 8 years. The brother's disease course was one of remission and exacerbation. With time, remissions were prolonged and paralleled an improvement in joint hypermobility. The sister died of sepsis after a chronic course with severe exacerbattions. Only two families with Evans syndrome have been reported in the English medical literature. In one report (in a Saudi Arab family), the disease was associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 08:46:00 +000
       
  • Gastrointestinal angiodysplasia in three Saudi children

    • Abstract:  Angiodysplasia is a term used to describe distinct gastrointestinal mucosal ectasias that are not associated with cutaneous lesions, systemic vascular disease or a familial syndrome. Seventy-seven percent of angiodysplasia are located in the cecum and/or ascending colon. Fifteen percent are located in the jejunum and/or ileum and the remainder are distributed throughout the alimentary tract. Most commonly, the angiodysplastic lesions are typically seen in elderly patients of both genders, although gastric and duodenal lesions have been reported occasionally in subjects within the third decade of life. However, data on infants and children are scarce. We describe three cases (ages 7 days, 2 years, and 5 years) who presented to our unit with gastrointestinal bleeding. One of these patients developed moderate-to-severe symptoms and was blood-transfusion dependent. She was misdiagnosed as having inflammatory bowel disease and underwent a total colectomy and ileoanal anastomosis. The other two patients were managed conservatively for up to 5 years with no further bleeding.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 08:35:00 +000
       
  • Autologous bone marrow transplanation for extramedullary plasmacytoma
           presenting as adrenal incidentaloma

    • Abstract:  Extramedullary adrenal plasmacytoma (EMP) involving the adrenal glands is rarely encountered clinicaly. We report a A 47-year-old male who presented with bilateral adrenal incidentalomas. After confirming EMP, the patient received two consecutive autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) using high-dose melphalan. Following HSCT, a serial follow-up helical CT revealed a substantial decrease in the size of both adrenal masses. Serial periodic serum protein and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation showed abrogation of a previously noted monoclonal band. At 50 months follow-up the patient was alive and well. Our patient is the first with EMP to have received an autologous HSCT, which may prove to have a role in therapy due to the immunological effect of the infused donor marrow T-lymphocytes against the clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells in extrammedullary sites. This case indicates that an EMP should be added to the differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentalomas.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 07:37:00 +000
       
  • Osteoporosis prophylaxis in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid
           therapy

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis, yet few patients receive proper measures to prevent its development. We retrospectively searched prescription records to determine if patients receiving oral prednisolone were receiving prophylaxis or treatment for osteopenia and osteoporosis.METHODS:Patients who were prescribed >7.5 milligrams of prednisolone for 6 months or longer during a 6-month period were identified through the prescription monitoring system. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the patient records, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were retrieved, when available. Use of oral calcium, vitamin D and anti-resorptives was recorded.RESULTS:One hundred males and 65 females were receiving oral prednisolone for a mean (SD) duration of 40.4 (29.9) months in males and 41.2 (36.4) months in females. Twenty-one females (12.7%) and 5 (3%) males had bone mineral density measured by DEXA. Of those, 10 (47.6%) females and 3 (50%) males were osteoporotic and 11(52.4%) females and 2 (40%) males were osteopenic. Calcium and vitamin D were prescribed to the majority of patients (60% to 80%), but none were prescribed antiresorptive/anabolic therapy.CONCLUSIONS:Patients in this study were neither investigated properly nor treated according to the minimum recommendations for the management of GIOP. Physician awareness about the prevention and treatment of GIOP should be a priority for the local health care system.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:52:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with nasal polyps

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND:Nasal polyposis is a common problem in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Since allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) can present with unilateral or bilateral nasal polyps, it is important to be aware of the prevalence of AFS in patients with nasal polyps.PATIENTS AND METHODS:The medical records of 91 patients with nasal polyps admitted for functional endoscopic sinus surgery were reviewed. The diagnosis of AFS was considered if histopathology showed the presence of eosinophillic mucin-containing hyphae. The following data were collected: presence of associated asthma, IgE levels, grading of CT scan findings, and operative details.RESULTS:Histopathological diagnosis was positive for AFS in 11 of 91 patients 12.1%. There was a highly significant statistical difference in IgE levels between patients suffering AFS and chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (P<.0001). The overall incidence of recurrence of polypi was 50.5% (45 of 89 patients who had follow up for a minimum of one year) and the rate of recurrence in patients with AFS was 54.5% (6 of 11 patients with AFS). There was a significant direct relationship between the CT grading of nasal polyps and recurrence, with a recurrence rate of 60.7% (34 of 56) in patients with grade III nasal polyps.CONCLUSION:This study showed that the prevalence of AFS among patients with nasal polyps is 12.1%, and suggests that CT grading of nasal polyps can be used as a prognostic factor for disease recurrence.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:47:00 +000
       
  • Black ant stings caused by Pachycondyla sennaarensis: a significant health
           hazard

    • Abstract:  Several species of ants cause stings, but not all lead to allergic reactions. We present a series of cases of allergic reactions following insect bites or stings that presented to our emergency department and that were caused by the black samsum ant (Pachycondyla sennaarensis). Reactions ranged from mild allergic reactions to severe anaphylactic shock. Patients were treated with subcutaneous epinephrine 0.3 mg, intravenous methylprednisolone 125 mg, intravenous diphenhydramine HCl 50 mg, and intravenous normal saline as appropriate. These cases illustrate the range of clinical presentations to black ant stings, which can include severe reactions, indicating that ant stings are a significant public health hazard in Saudi Arabia. Physicians in the Middle East and Asia need to be aware of ant stings as a cause of severe allergic reactions.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:40:00 +000
       
  • Electrical cardioversion

    • Abstract: External electrical cardioversion was first performed in the 1950s. Urgent or elective cardioversions have specific advantages, such as termination of atrial and ventricular tachycardia and recovery of sinus rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is life-saving when applied in urgent circumstances. The succcess rate is increased by accurate tachycardia diagnosis, careful patient selection, adequate electrode (paddles) application, determination of the optimal energy and anesthesia levels, prevention of embolic events and arrythmia recurrence and airway conservation while minimizing possible complications. Potential complications include ventricular fibrillation due to general anesthesia or lack of synchronization between the direct current (DC) shock and the QRS complex, thromboembolus due to insufficient anticoagulant therapy, non-sustained VT, atrial arrhythmia, heart block, bradycardia, transient left bundle branch block, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, transient hypotension, pulmonary edema and skin burn. Electrical cardioversion performed in patients with a pacemaker or an incompatible cardioverter defibrillator may lead to dysfunction, namely acute or chronic changes in the pacing or sensitivity threshold. Although this procedure appears fairly simple, serious consequences might occur if inappropriately performed.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:30:00 +000
       
  • Anthropometric predictors of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iranian
           women

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Studies have shown a strong association between excess weight and risk of incident diabetes in Iranian women. Therefore, we investigated anthropometric indices in the prediction of diabetes in Iranian women.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:We examined 2801 females aged ≥220 years (mean [SD] age, 45.2 [12.9] years) in an Iranian urban population who were non-diabetic or had abnormal glucose tolerance at baseline. We estimated the predictive value of central obesity parameters (waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR], body mass index [BMI]) in the prediction of diabetes. We classified each parameter in quartiles and compared the lowest with the highest quartile after adjusting for confounding variables, including age, hypertension, triglyceride levels, HDL-cholesterol, family history of diabetes, and abnormal glucose tolerance in a multivariate model. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the predictive power of each variable.RESULTS:Over a median follow up of 3.5 years (11 months-6.3 years), 114 individuals developed diabetes (4.1%). The risk for developing diabetes was significantly higher for the highest quartile of BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR, respectively, compared to the lowest quartile, and the risk decreased but remained statistically significant when abnormal glucose tolerance was included in the multivariate model. WHtR had the highest area under the ROC curve.CONCLUSIONS:In Iranian women, BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were predictive of development of type 2 diabetes, but WHtR was a better predictor than BMI.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:19:00 +000
       
  • Extra-articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis: a hospital-based
           study

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The frequency of extra-articular manifestations in rheumatoid arthritis (ExRA) differs from one country to another, so we investigated ExRA frequency in a well-defined hospital patient population with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia. We also examined possible predictors of the development ExRA.METHODS:A retrospective analysis was conducted of all patients diagnosed with RA at a university hospital during a 4-year period. Cases were classified according to the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA, and the frequency of ExRA was recorded.RESULTS:Of 140 patients who fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of RA, 98 (70%) developed ExRA features. Anemia occurred in 61%, thrombocytosis in 16%, pulmonary involvement in 10%, and renal amyloidosis, vasculitis and Felty syndrome were present in 6%, 2% and 1%, respectively. The mortality rate was high (16%) in patients with ExRA. The predictors for mortality were lung involvement, age over 50 years and kidney amyloidosis.CONCLUSION:ExRA were present in a substantial proportion of our patients, which lead to a worse disease outcome. Anemia, thrombocytosis and respiratory system involvement were the commonest. Early recognition and treatment are important to decrease mortality.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:06:00 +000
       
  • Oral sucrose and a pacifier for pain relief during simple procedures in
           preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Previous randomized trials of the analgesic effects of sucrose, glucose, and a pacifier in term neonates have shown that the pacifier resulted in lower pain scores than glucose or sucrose, but the pacifier with and without sucrose did not differ. The current study was designed to assess the analgesic effect of pharmacologic (sucrose, water) and a non-pharmacologic measures (pacifier) in preterm infants and to find whether there is any synergism between these intervention in relieving pain during painful procedures.PATIENTS AND METHODS:In this double-blind, randomized, controlled study, 36 preterm infants (mean 31 weeks gestational age, range 27 to 36 weeks) were randomly allocated to six different regimens (0.5 mL sterile water with pacifier, 0.5 mL sterile water without pacifier, 0.5 mL sucrose 24% with pacifier, 0.5 mL sucrose 24% without pacifier, pacifier alone and control group) during a stay in intensive care of up to 15 days. Pain scores were measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP), a validated behavioral acute pain scale.RESULTS:Of all the regimens, the lowest pain scores occurred with the use of 24% sucrose solution combined with pacifier. The mean pain score for the combination of sucrose with pacifier was 0.7 as compared to 1.4 for the sterile water with pacifier group (P<.05).CONCLUSION:The synergistic effect of the combination of sucrose and non-nutritive sucking was clinically effective and safe in relieving the pain of simple procedures such as venipuncture or heel stick in preterm and term infants, but further research is needed on these interventions alone and in combination with other behavioral interventions in neonates.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 05:56:00 +000
       
  • Cesarean delivery rates in Saudi Arabia: A ten-year review

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:In view of the global increase in the rate of cesarean deliveries (CD), with the associated higher morbidity and mortality, this study was undertaken to review CD rates and some of their determinants over a ten-year period in Saudi Arabia.METHODS:Maternity data for Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals across 14 administrative regions and other governmental hospitals in nine clusters were collected and the corresponding rates calculated using MOH yearly statistical books from 1997 to 2006. No private hospital data are reported.RESULTS:The overall CD rate significantly increased by 80.2% from 10.6% in 1997 to 19.1% in 2006. The greatest increase of 265% was in the Northern region and the least of 32.8% was in the Royal Commission Hospitals. Both vaginal breech and operative vaginal deliveries showed a significant decrease of 38% and 29%, respectively. There was a significant negative correlation between the increasing CD rate and the decreasing vaginal breech and operative vaginal deliveries rates. The volume of annual deliveries did not influence the CD rate.CONCLUSIONS:A significant increase of more than 80% in the CD rate was observed from 1997 to 2006. A national strategy to reduce the CD rate is needed and will require upgrading of the existing vital registration system. We also recommend that current national data capturing mechanisms be expanded to include private sector data and to include indications for CD.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 05:49:00 +000
       
  • Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study.RESULTS: A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and 1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups.CONCLUSION: Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 04:54:00 +000
       
  • RE: Snake venom preparation for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency
           virus

    • Abstract: To the Editor:Recently the usefulness of snake venom preparation in the treatment of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus was demonstrated in clinical practice for the first
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 11:28:00 +000
       
  • Bilateral brucellar breast abscess in a 48-year-old woman

    • Abstract: To the Editor:Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection transmied from animals to humans by ingestion of infected food products, direct contact with an infected animal, or
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 11:25:00 +000
       
  • Transverse myelitis as a presenting feature of late onset systemic lupus
           erythematosus

    • Abstract: To the Editor:Late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the type of SLE whose manifestations reportedly begin after the age of 501–3 or 65 years.4 The prevalence of
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 11:19:00 +000
       
  • Aphalangia possibly linked to unintended use of finasteride during early
           pregnancy

    • Abstract: To the Editor:Finasteride (Proscar) is a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.1Finasteride is not FDA-approved for use in women,2 but in practice
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 11:14:00 +000
       
  • Difficulties in diagnosing tuberculosis in pregnancy

    • Abstract: To the Editor:Diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) in pregnancy can be difficult because of the vague, non-specific nature of the symptoms. Fatigue, shortness of breath, sweating and
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 11:09:00 +000
       
  • A 3-year-old boy with a depressed, whitish lesion on the left buttock

    • Abstract: A 3-year-old Saudi boy with severe atopic dermatitis presented with a depressed white area on the left buttock. Three weeks previously, the parents noticed this
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 11:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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