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Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Annals of Saudi Medicine
  [SJR: 0.24]   [H-I: 29]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0256-4947 - ISSN (Online) 0975-4466
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [354 journals]
  • Reply

    • Abstract:  Dear Dr. Shaker: We thank Dr Shakers comments on our article "Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs: A pilot study. Annals Saudi Med 2006; 26(6):450-54.1 The
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 01:51:00 +000
  • Antioxidant Defense and Oxidative Stress in Children with Acute Hepatitis

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published data on oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A are still very scarce. This study aims to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status of these patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, case-control study, over 2.5 years in patients under hospitalized and ambulatory care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The levels of a whole-blood antioxidant, reduced glutathione; and plasma antioxidants, β-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol; and the biomarker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, were evaluated in 50 pediatric patients (age range, 5-16 years; 29 males and 21 females) with acute hepatitis A and in 50 healthy children as control subjects (age range, 5-16 years; 25 males and 25 females). RESULTS: Plasma levels of reduced glutathione, β-carotene, retinol, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid were significantly lower, while malondialdehyde plasma levels were significantly increased in the patient group when compared to the controls (P<.0001 for all parameters). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that pediatric patients with acute hepatitis A were influenced by oxidative stress, resulting in significantly lower levels of plasma antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation. In the absence of other therapeutic options, antioxidant vitamin supplements could be added to the therapy for these patients to help reestablish the oxidant status balance. Further investigations to confirm this suggestion are recommended. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 258-262PMID: 21623054
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81538
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:24:00 +000
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pakistan

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a major global health problem leading to morbidity, mortality and stigma. Prior to this study there was no information on the prevalence and knowledge of STIs in Faisalabad, Pakistan. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, cross-sectional study in patients attending STI clinics from July 2006 to September 2009. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After obtaining consent, patients completed structured questionnaires used for behavioral surveys. Blood and urethral swabs were collected and tested for syphilis, gonococcus, genital herpes, chlamydia and chancroid. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) age of the 1532 participants was 38.9 (9.4) years, including 37.8 (10.2) years for males and 35.5 (6.3) years females. Male gender (n=1276, 83.3%), low socioeconomic class (n=1026, 67.0%) and residence in rural suburbs (n=970, 63.3%) were more common. Most (n=913, 59.6%) were aware of the modes of transmission of STIs and the associated complications, 20% (n=306) were condom users, and 21.2% (n=324) had knowledge of safe sex. Opposite-sex partners were preferred by 972 (63.4%) patients, while 29.9% (n=458) had both homosexual and heterosexual sex partners. Syphilis was present in 29.5% of patients (n=452); gonorrhea, in 13% (n=200), HSV-2, in 3.2% (n=49), chlamydia, in 4.7% (n=72) and chancroid, in 1.3% (n=20). Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (3): 263-269PMID: 21623055
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81541
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:22:00 +000
  • Erratum

    • Abstract:  BaHammam AS, Almestehi W, Albatli A, AlShaya S. Distribution of chronotypes in a large sample of young adult Saudis. Ann Saudi Med. 2011
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 10:18:00 +000
  • Atrial Fibrillation in Saudi Patients

    • Abstract: PMID: 21623067
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81536
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:43:00 +000
  • Improper Aortic Sinus- Connected Coronary Artery: Ascertaining the Course
           is Essential (Comment on Ann Saudi Med 2010;1:81-3)

    • Abstract: PMID: 21623066
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81535
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:28:00 +000
  • Comment on: Outcome of a Newborn Hearing Screening Program in a Tertiary
           Hospital in Malaysia: The First Five Years Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31: 24-8

    • Abstract: PMID: 21623065
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81534
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:21:00 +000
  • Comment on: Early Cholestasis in Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus. Ann Saudi
           Med 2011; 31: 80-2

    • Abstract: PMID: 21623063
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81532
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 09:14:00 +000
  • Survival of Living-related Kidney Graft Recipients in the Era of Modern
           Immunosuppressive Treatment

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Currently, there is no consensus about immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. Acute rejection rates and allograft survival rates are the clinical outcomes traditionally used to compare the efficacy of various immunosuppressive regimens. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate whether patient survival rates improved in the era of modern immunosuppressive treatment during living-related kidney transplantation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study in a university-based tertiary internal medicine teaching hospital performed between 1999 and 2009 and patients followed up to 7 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival rates were assessed in 38 patients receiving basiliximab and mycophenolatemofetil (regimen A) and 32 patients receiving antithymocyte globulin and azathioprine (regimen B). The rest of the regimen (cyclosporine A and steroids) remained the same. A secondary end point was acute rejection episode. RESULTS: Seven-year survival rates were 100% and 72% (P=.001) and 7-year acute rejection-free survival rates were 82% and 53% (P=.03), in groups A and B, respectively. CONCLUSION: Long-term survival after living-related kidney transplantation has improved in the era of modern immunosuppressive treatment. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 279-283PMID: 21623058
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81546
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:53:00 +000
  • Clinical and Autonomic Functions: A Study of Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood and adolescent anxiety is generally associated with a varied somatic symptom pattern thought to reflect autonomic system activity. Few studies have examined the autonomic characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This omission is at odds with contemporary models of autonomic cardiovascular control. The current study aimed to find differences in autonomic functions between children with a diagnosis of childhood anxiety disorder and a control group using a case-control design. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross sectional experimental study conducted in the years 2004-2005 in the psychophysiology lab of a tertiary care multi-speciality teaching hospital. METHODS: Assessments were carried out using a semistructured interview, K-SADS (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for Children and Adolescents); STAIC (State and Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children); CDRS (Childhood Depression Rating Scales); SCARED (Self-Report for Childhood Anxiety-Related Disorders). Autonomic reactivity was tested using the standard battery of tests. RESULTS: There were differences between 34 children and adolescents (age range, 8-18 years) with a diagnosis of childhood anxiety disorder and a control group of 30 age- and sex-matched subjects from a nearby school in autonomic activity and reactivity between individuals with anxiety disorder and non-anxious control subjects. Our finding is suggestive of autonomic rigidity or diminished physiologic flexibility in children with anxiety disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The study is probably the first of its kind to look into the issue in detail using a detailed battery of the autonomic function tests, and the results are of help in better understanding the condition. The result of the present experiment supports differences in autonomic activity and reactivity between individuals with anxiety disorder and non-anxious control subjects. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 250-257PMID: 21623053
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81533
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:39:00 +000
  • Incidental Parathyroidectomy During Thyroid Resection: Incidence, Risk
           Factors, and Outcome

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Thyroidectomy is a commonly performed procedure for thyroid problems. Inadvertent removal of the parathyroid glands is one of its recognized complications, which occurs more frequently in certain high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence, risk factors, and clinical relevance of incidental parathyroidectomy during thyroid surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective review of thyroid operations performed at a tertiary referral hospital between January 2004 and December 2008. METHODS: Pathology reports were reviewed to identify the specimens that included parathyroid tissue and underlying thyroid pathology. Postoperative calcium levels were reviewed in these patients. RESULTS: During the study period, 287 thyroidectomies were performed and 47 (16.4%) patients had incidentally removed parathyroid glands. Risk factors for inadvertent parathyroid resection included total thyroidectomy (P=.0001), Hashimoto thyroiditis (P=.004), and extrathyroidal spread (P=.0003). Postoperative hypocalcemia occurred in 18 (38.3%) of the patients in whom the parathyroid gland was removed inadvertently and in 48 (20%) of the rest of the patients (P=.0123). CONCLUSION: The incidence of incidental removal of parathyroid tissue during thyroidectomy is 16.4%. Total thyroidectomy, extrathyroidal extension of the tumor, and thyroiditis were found to be the risk factors. Hypocalcemia was significantly higher among patients who had inadvertent parathyroidectomy. Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (3): 274-278PMID: 21623057
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81545
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:19:00 +000
  • Reply

    • Abstract:  We appreciate with interests raised by Dr. Jayadevan Sreedharan. The department of primary care shares medical care with the diabetic centre at the endocrinology
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:19:00 +000
  • Comment on: Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in a Saudi Community Ann Saudi
           Med 2011;31(1):19-23

    • Abstract:
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81530PMID: 21623064
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 08:09:00 +000
  • Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucella Arthritis in 24 Children

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis is considered the leading zoonotic disease of the Middle East. The disease has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and can result in complications with severe morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency, distribution and characteristics of arthritis in Iranian children with brucellosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective descriptive study conducted in a referral children center in Tehran from 1997 to 2005. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Arthritis in children with brucellosis who were admitted to a specialized hospital was detected by clinical signs of the involved joint(s) and characteristics of joint fluid aspiration. Sociodemographic information was recorded. RESULTS: Of 96 patients diagnosed with brucellosis, 24 (25%) had Brucella arthritis 14 (58.3%) males and 10 (41.7%) females. Most common manifestations were fever in 21 patients (87.5%) and fatigue in 18 patients (75%). Monoarthritis was recorded in 15 patients (62.5%) of the cases with involvement of the knee in 8 (45%) and hip in 5 (29%), the ankle in 2 (8%) patients while 9 (37.5%) patients suffered from polyarthritis. None of the patients had axial joints involvement. Seventy-five percent of the subjects (18 patients) were from urban areas and 66.7% (16 patients) had consumed un-pasteurized cheese. Recurrence was not seen in any of the 24 patients who received a combination of co-trimoxazole for 6 weeks and gentamicin for 5 days. CONCLUSION: Childhood brucellosis is a challenging disease in Iran that has serious complications like arthritis. Therefore all physicians who work in endemic areas should be familiar with this disease and consider the possibility of brucellosis in all children who present with arthritis and arthralgia. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31 (3): 270-273PMID: 21623056
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81 543
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 07:59:00 +000
  • Recurrent Abdominal Pain in a 16-Year-Old Girl

    • Abstract: Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 314 PMID: 21623062
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81539
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 07:49:00 +000
  • Pattern of Presentation in Type 1 Diabetic Patients at the Diabetes Center
           of a University Hospital

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of presentation and complications of pediatric diabetes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study of children treated at a diabetes clinic at a university hospitalfor diabetes over 12-year period.  PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected data on the age at onset, sex, clinical presentation, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and partial remission rate that were obtained from the hospital medical records, the National Diabetes Registry, and the statistics department. RESULTS: Of 369 diabetic children, most (n=321) children had polyuria (92%) 321/369=87% as the presenting symptom; other symptoms included polydipsia (310 patients, 88.8% 310/369=84%), weight loss (292 patients, 83.9%), nocturia (240 patients, 68.8% 240/369=65%), diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (174 patients, 49.9% 1 74/369=47.20%), and abdominal pain (172 patients, 49.3% 174/369=46.6%). Presenting symptoms were missing in 20 files, so the percentages were calculated among 349 patients. Most patients had acute diabetic complications such as hypoglycemia (222 patients, 62%) and DKA (88 patients, 38.1%, but none had severe complications such as coma and cerebral edema. Chronic complications included retinopathy (4 patients, 1.3%), neuropathy (2 patients, 0.6%), coronary heart disease (2 patients, 0.6%), and nephropathy (1 patient, 0.4%). CONCLUSION: The pattern of presentation of type 1 diabetes has changed as the incidence of DKA has decreased; unlike in previous studies, DKA was not the most common presenting symptom in this study. Chronic complications of diabetes, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, coronary heart disease, and nephropathy are mostly rare but still present. These complications might be prevented by achieving better awareness of the need for glycemic control. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 243-249PMID: 21623052
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81529
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 07:48:00 +000
  • Soft Tissue Mass of the Chest Wall as the Sole Manifestation of
           Brucellosis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    • Abstract: We report the case of a child who presented with a subcutaneous mass on the left side of the chest wall of one month's duration. The mass was painful and increasing in size over time. He had a history of weight loss and a decrease in appetite, but no history of fever or trauma. He had ingested raw camel milk, but had no history of contact with animals. He was diagnosed by the standard tube agglutination titer and tissue culture for brucellosis, treated with surgery and three months of antibrucella antibiotics. The report includes a brief review of the current pediatric literature to familiarize pediatricians with this uncommon presentation. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 311-313PMID: 21242641
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.75584
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:53:00 +000
  • Paget Disease of the Bone: Does it Exist in Saudi Arabia'

    • Abstract: Paget disease of the bone is a chronic disease characterized by accelerated bone turnover with abnormal repair leading to expansion, pain and deformities. The disease is common in the West, but little if any information is available on its existence in the Arab world, including Saudi Arabia. We present four cases of Saudi patients with Paget disease with variable presentations. The first case, a 63-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid cancer, presented with bone, shoulder and chest wall pain and foci of uptake in the ribs and skull that were thought to be metastases, indicating the possibility of diagnostic difficulty in a patient with history of malignancy. Bone biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of Paget disease. The second case was a 47-year-old asymptomatic woman with an elevated alkaline phosphatase of 427 U/L, a common presentation but at an unusual age. Plain x-rays and bone scan confirmed the diagnosis. The third case was a 43-year-old man who presented with hearing impairment and right knee osteoarthritis, unusual presentations at a young age leading to a delay in diagnosis. The fourth case was a 45-year-old man who presented with sacroiliac pain and normal biochemical values, including a normal alkaline phosphatase. Bone biopsy unexpectedly revealed features of Paget disease, which evolved over time into a classical form. A common feature in all except the first case was the relatively young age. Paget disease does exist in Saudi Arabia, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of similar cases. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 305-310PMID: 21242639
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.75588
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:27:00 +000
  • Factors Affecting the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy and its
           Complications: A Single-center Experience in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract:  BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One out of five Saudi diabetics develops end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Factors associated with progressive loss of renal function have not been extensively studied and reported in our community. We sought to evaluate the pattern and progression in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and investigate the potential risk factors associated with progression to diabetic nephropathy (DN) among Saudi patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Hospital-based retrospective analysis of type 2 diabetic patients seen between January 1989 and January 2004 at Security Forces Hospital and King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: DN was defined as persistent proteinuria assessed by urine dipstick [at least twice for at least two consecutive years and/or serum creatinine >130 μmol/L; and/or GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2]. RESULTS: Of 1952 files reviewed, 621 (31.8%) met the criteria for DN, and 294 (47%) were males. The mean (SD) age of the patients at baseline was 66.9 (11.4) years, and mean duration of diabetes was 15.4 (7.5) years. GFR deteriorated from a baseline value of 78.3 (30.3) mL/min/1.73m2 to 45.1 (24.1) mL/min/1.73m2 at the last visit, with a mean rate of decline in GFR of 3.3 mL/min/year. Progression of nephropathy was observed in 455 (73.3%) patients, with 250 (40.3%) patients doubling their first-hospital-visit serum creatinine level in a mean of 10.0 (6.0) years. At the end of the study, 16.5% of the cohort developed ESRD and were dialyzed. GFR >90 mL/min/1.73m2 at the first hospital visit; duration of diabetes >10 years; persistent proteinuria; systolic blood pressure >130 mm Hg; and presence of retinopathy were significant markers associated with progression of nephropathy. CONCLUSION: Diabetic nephropathy tends to be progressive among Saudis, with GFR deteriorating at a rate of 3.3 mL/year and with a doubling of serum creatinine level in 40.3% of patients in 9.9 years. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 236-242PMID: 21623051
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81528
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:26:00 +000
  • Effect of Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy on Ovarian Volume and
           Androgen Hormones in Patients with Untreated Primary Hypothyroidism

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary hypothyroidism may be associated with ovarian enlargement and/ or cyst formation. We evaluated the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy on hormonal changes, ovarian volume and sonographic appearance. DESIGN AND SETTING: Open, prospective study of women admitted to university gynecology clinic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 26 patients with untreated hypothyroidism who had polycystic (n=10) or normal-appearing (n=16) ovaries and 20 euthyroidic controls. Basal serum total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandosterone-sulfate, prolactin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free T3, free T4 and thyroid-stimulating horone, together with ovarian volumes, were determined and repeated after euthyroidism was achieved. RESULTS: Ovarian volumes of patients with hypothyroidism were significantly greater compared with controls, and their magnitudes diminished significantly during thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Hypothyroidic patients with polycystic ovaries had significantly higher serum free testosterone and dehydroepiandosterone- sulfate, but lower androstenodione levels compared with those who had normal-appearing ovaries. Serum total testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in hypothyroidic patients without polycystic ovaries, and thyroid hormone replacement therapy achieved a significant reduction in total as well as free testosterone. CONCLUSION: Severe longstanding hypothyroidism leads to increased ovarian volume and/or cyst formation. A decrease in ovarian volume, resolution of ovarian cysts and reversal of the polycystic ovary syndrome-like appearance, together with improvement in serum hormone levels, occurred after euthyroidism was achieved. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 145-151PMID: 21403408
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77500
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:03:00 +000
  • Chronic Spontaneous Cervicothoracic Epidural Hematoma in an 8-month-old

    • Abstract: Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is an uncommon cause of cord compression in children, especially in infants. An 8-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital for a 40-day history of paraparesis in the lower extremities. This rapidly progressed to paraparesis with an inability to move the lower extremities. MRI of the cervicothoracic spine revealed an epidural mass with compression of the spinal cord. The infant underwent C7-T3 total laminectomies. The pathology and postoperative MRI confirmed spinal epidural hematoma from a vascular malformation. We present the case to highlight the significance of recognizing this chronic spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma and discuss the diagnosis, treatment options and prognosis. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 301-304PMID: 21242640
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.75586
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:02:00 +000
  • Betel Nut Chewing as a Risk Factor for Hepatitis C Infection in Taiwan-a
           Community-Based Study

    • Abstract:  To the Editor: We completed a comprehensive health survey and structural questionnaires among the adults living in the eastern area of Taichung
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 06:01:00 +000
  • Erratum

    • Abstract:  The order of authors in the article below should have appeared as: Mohammad Alsharani, Marzouqah Alanazi, Majid Alsalamah Alanazi M, Alashahrani M, Alsalamah M. Black
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:59:00 +000
  • Reply

    • Abstract:  Thank you for the comments. My response is as follows: The comments on relapse usually occurring in two to three weeks after the infection
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:57:00 +000
  • MRI Demonstration of Subtotal Agenesis of the Cerebellum with Closed-Lip

    • Abstract: Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 207-208PMID: 21422661
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78212
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:55:00 +000
  • Unusual Anatomic Location of a Primary Intracranial Yolk Sac Tumor

    • Abstract: A nongerminomatous germ cell tumor occurring in the brain parenchyma is extremely rare. A 2-year-old boy presented with symptoms of abnormal movements in the hand and mouth. MRI scanning revealed a lesion occupying the left temporoparietal region. Craniotomy was performed and the tumor was removed by en bloc resection. Histological examination revealed that the tumor was arranged in a reticular pattern, and Schiller-Duval bodies were evident at the center of the tumor. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were positive for alpha-fetoprotein and vimentin, but negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein. The histological diagnosis was pure yolk sac tumor). Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 298-300PMID: 21293065
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.76410
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:50:00 +000
  • Cyst in the Liver and Cough with Copious Purulent Sputum

    • Abstract: Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (2): 206PMID: 21403405
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77504
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:48:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Gilbert Syndrome in Parents of Neonates with Pathologic
           Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The cause of hyperbilirubinemia cannot be found in about 45% of cases of neonatal jaundice. Gilbert syndrome (GS) is the most common congenital disease associated with bilirubin metabolism in the liver. Since the screening value of genetic tests cannot be fully determined until accurate data on the prevalence and penetrance of the GS genotype are known, we sought to estimate whether the prevalence of GS is higher in the parents of neonates with severe unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study of parents of neonates with severe unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia admitted to a neonatal ward. METHODS: We used the rifampin test (checked bilirubin before and 4 hours after administration of 600 mg rifampin) for diagnosis of GS in parents of 115 neonates with severe unexplained indirect hyperbilirubinemia. We compared the prevalence of GS in these parents with that of a control group of 115 couples referred for premarital counseling. RESULTS: The 115 neonates were aged 5.2 (1.6) days (mean, standard deviation), all were breast-fed, and males constituted 56.5%. Mean total serum bilirubin (TSB) level was 20.96 (5.48) mg/dL. 14.8% were glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was present in 14.8%, and 10.4% had A, B or O blood group (ABO) incompatibilities with their mothers. There was no difference in the prevalence of GS between parents of the group with hyperbilirubinemia (22.2%) and the control group (19.13%) (P=.42). Mean TSB in neonates with parents who had GS was more (about 3 mg/dL) than in neonates with normal parents (P=.004). Fathers had GS twice as often as the mothers among the parents of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia (P=.003), among the control group (P=.009) and among neonates (P=.014). CONCLUSION: This study showed that GS cannot cause severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia by itself, but it may have a summative effect on rising bilirubin when combined with other factors, for example, G6PD. Our results showed that in GS, males are affected about twice as much as the females. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 140-144PMID: 21403409
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77498
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:47:00 +000
  • Distribution of Chronotypes in a Large Sample of Young Adult Saudis

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no published data on the chronotypes of young Saudi adults. This study assessed the distribution of chronotypes in college-aged Saudis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey of college students PATIENTS AND METHODS: A validated abridged version of the original Horne and Ostberg morningness-eve ningness questionnaire (MEQr) was used to assess the chronotype of 759 subjects. RESULTS: Of 540 (71.1%) males and 219 (28.9%) females participated in this study ( age range, 18-32 years), 138 (18.2%) were "morning-types," 41 7 (54.9%) were "neither-types" and 204 (26.9%) were "evening-types." There was no significant gender difference in MEQr typology. In Saudis, particularly males, the frequency of morning typology was somewhat higher than that reported for individuals in similar age groups in some Western countries. CONCLUSION: Most Saudi college students had no preference for morningness or eveningness and were classified as "intermediate-types." Morningness appears to be slightly more common in Saudis, especially males, than in individuals of some Western societies. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 183-186PMID: 21422657
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78207
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:40:00 +000
  • Characteristics of Human Ewing/PNET Sarcoma Models

    • Abstract: Ewing/PNET (peripheral neuroepithelioma) tumors are rare aggressive bone sarcomas occurring in young people. Rare-disease clinical trials can require global collaborations and many years. In vivo models that as accurately as possible reflect the clinical disease are helpful in selecting therapeutics with the most promise of positive clinical impact. Human Ewing/PNET sarcoma cell lines developed over the past 45 years are described. Several of these have undergone genetic analysis and have been confirmed to be those of Ewing/PNET sarcoma. The A673 Ewing sarcoma line has proven to be particularly useful in understanding the biology of this disease in the mouse. The chromosomal translocation producing the EWS/FLI1 fusion transcript characterizes clinical Ewing sarcoma. Cell lines that express this genetic profile are confirmed to be those of Ewing sarcoma. The A673 Ewing sarcoma line grows in culture and as a xenograft in immunodeficient mice. The A673 model has been used to study Ewing sarcoma angiogenesis and response to antiangiogenic agents. Many Ewing sarcoma clinical specimens express the cell surface protein endosialin. Several Ewing sarcoma cell lines, including the A673 line, also express cell surface endosialin when grown as subcutaneous tumor nodules and as disseminated disease; thus the A673 is a useful model for the study of endosialin biology and endosialin-directed therapies. With the advent of tools that allow characterization of clinical disease to facilitate optimal treatment, it becomes imperative, especially for rare tumors, to develop preclinical models reflecting disease subsets. Ewing PNET sarcomas are a rare disease where models are available. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 174-182PMID: 21422656
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78206
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:21:00 +000
  • Incidence of Various Clinico-Morphological Variants of Cutaneous
           Tuberculosis and HIV Concurrence: A Study from the Indian Subcontinent

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are few reports of cutaneous tuberculosis with immunosuppressed states such as HIV, use of immunosuppressants or malignancy. Diagnosis is thus difficult and despite scientific advances such as polymerase chain reaction, it is frequently missed. Although rare, given its worldwide prevalence and the rising incidence of HIV, it is important for clinicians to recognize the variants and promptly treat the patient. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study of all cases of cutaneous tuberculosis diagnosed from October 2007 to November 2009 at an outpatient clinic of a tertiary-care hospital in northern India. METHODS: We collected information on the clinical form of disease, histopathology and HIV concurrence rates and looked for differences in presentation between mmunocompetent and immunocompromised states. We also looked for differences and HIV concurrence between immunocompetent and immunocomprised patients. Diagnosis was based on clinical, histopathological and microbiological tests for tuberculosis and a test for HIV. RESULTS: The overall incidence of cutaneous tuberculosis was 0.7% (131 of 18 720 outpatients). HIV concurrence was 9.1 % (12 cases) of all cutaneous tuberculosis cases. Most common variants seen were scrofuloderma (36.5%), lupus vulgaris (31%), tuberculosis verruca cutis (12.9%), lichen scrofulosorum (11.4%), papulonecrotic tuberculids (3.8%), erythema nodosum (2.2%) and erythema induratum of Bazin (1.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous tuberculosis rates were slightly higher in our study than in other studies from India. HIV co-infection rates were similar to those in other studies. Many atypical morphological forms and presentations were observed in HIV co-infected patients. Due to the varied clinical presentations, physician awareness and a high index of suspicion are necessary to diagnose cutaneous forms of tuberculosis. Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (2): 1 34-1 39PMID: 21403410
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77495
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:16:00 +000
  • Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Complications

    • Abstract: Percutaneous vertebroplasty, among various other options, has become a mainstay in the management of osteoporotic and malignant vertebral fractures. The purpose of this article is to describe complications arising from the procedure, which can be classified as mild, which may include a temporary increase in pain and transient hypotension; moderate, including infection and extravasation of cement into the foraminal, epidural or dural space; and severe such as cement leakage in the paravertebral veins, leading to pulmonary embolism, cardiac perforation, cerebral embolism or even death. Vertebroplasty is not a procedure without complications. The article defines them and describes methods to minimize them. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 294-297PMID: 21623061
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81542
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:11:00 +000
  • Re-Infection of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccine (Comment on "An Imported
           Enteric Fever Caused by a Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella Typhi")

    • Abstract: PMID: 21403404
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77505
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:09:00 +000
  • Frequency of HLA-DRB1 Alleles in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in Zahedan,
           Southeast Iran

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of the role of different alleles of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is necessary in many populations and geographical areas. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of HLA-DRB1 alleles in RA patients, comparing with that in control group in southeast Iran. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control study of rheumatoid arthritis patients referred to rheumatology clinic at university hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The frequency of HLA-DRB1 alleles was determined in 79 RA patients and 93 healthy subjects in Zahedan, southeast Iran. HLA-DRB1 allele types were identified by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). RESULTS: The HLA-DRB1*10 allele showed a significantly higher frequency in patients with RA (OR=2.698, 95% Cl=1.087-6.699, P=.045), while the frequency of DRB1 *03 allele in these subjects was significantly lower than that in the control group (OR=0.447, 95% Cl=0.2285-0.8729, P=.021). The frequencies of DRB1*01, DRB1 *04, DRB1 *07, DRB1*09, DRB1*11, DRB1*13, DRB1*14, DRB1*15, DRB1*16 were not significantly different between RA subjects and the control group. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that the DRB1*10 allele is a risk factor and DRB1*03 is protective for RA in this population. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 171-173PMID: 21422655
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78205
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 05:08:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among Smokers
           Attending Primary Healthcare Clinics in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Saudi Arabia is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of COPD among smokers more than 40 years of age attending primary healthcare clinics in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: A questionnaire was used in a cross-sectional collection of demographic data and other items related to diagnosis of COPD in patients visiting primary healthcare clinics. METHODS: Eligible subjects were current or ex-smokers and aged 40 years or above. Spirometry was performed according to American Thoracic Society criteria. Airflow obstruction was classified according to the 2003 update of the World Health Organization and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. COPD was defined as a ratio less than 0.70 of post-bronchodilator-predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.70). RESULTS: Because of incomplete data or poor performance on spirometry, of 1380 subjects eligible for the study, only 501 subjects were eligible for data analysis. Seventy-one patients had an FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70, comprising 14.2% of the study population, of which 95.8% were males. Current smokers comprised 57 (80.3%) subjects. Of the 71 subjects who fulfilled the criteria for COPD diagnosis, none were found to be in COPD stage I; 40 (56.3%) were in stage II and 31 (43.6%) were in stage III of the disease. CONCLUSION: Underdiagnosis of COPD in primary healthcare clinics in Saudi Arabia is common, but its extent is not different from the corresponding data available in the literature for other countries. Use of spirometry as a routine test for all patients older than 40 years of age and with a smoking history can help in early detection and proper diagnosis of COPD, which subsequently will help in implementation of preventive measures. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 129-133PMID: 21403413
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77485
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:47:00 +000
  • Reply

    • Abstract:  With great honor I have read the valuable comments entitled “NK cell: an unforgettable lymphocyte" on the case report “Delayed Presentation of
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:47:00 +000
  • Urine Iodine Excretion in Patients with Euthyroid Noduler Disease

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Different nutritional and environmental factors are responsible for the pathogenesis of goiter, but iodine deficiency is the most important factor. However, little is known about the natural course of benign thyroid nodules in euthyroid patients over time. Few studies have used ultrasonographic evaluation to address this issue, especially in iodine-deficient areas. In this study, we present the long-term follow-up of benign thyroid nodules in a iodine-deficient area. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at a tertiary referral center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 62 randomly selected patients with benign euthyroid nodule. Thyroid volume and nodules were measured with sonography. Iodine intake was estimated by patient diet history and by measuring iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Patients were followed one year. RESULTS: Patients were divided into three groups according to level of urine iodine excretion: Group 1 : <50 (μg/L (severe iodine deficiency group), Group 2: 50-100 μg/L (mild iodine deficiency group), Group 3: >100 μg/L (iodine sufficient group). The presence of additional disease (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, chronic renal failure and a history of any medication for chronic disorder) and smoking rates were significantly higher in first group compared to the second and third group. Among groups, no significant difference was observed in either right or left thyroid lobe volume after one year. A clinically significant increase in nodule volume was observed in the first group, while there was a significant decrease in the second and third group. CONCLUSION: In this study, iodine deficiency was associated with an increase in thyroid nodule volumes. Smoking rates were higher in iodine deficient groups. It is thought that smoking impairs iodine intake or absorption consistent with a previous report. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(2): 167-170PMID: 21422654
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78204
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:44:00 +000
  • NK Cell: An Unforgettable Lymphocyte (Comment on "Delayed Presentation of
           Severe Combined Immunodeficiency due to Prolonged maternal T Cell

    • Abstract: PMID: 21422659
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78209
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:40:00 +000
  • Epidemiology of Sickle Cell Disease in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care.
      Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 289-293PMID: 21623060
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81540
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:31:00 +000
  • Accidental Inhalation of Mercury Vapor in a Child

    • Abstract: PMID: 21422658
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78208
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:30:00 +000
  • The Prognostic Value of the Glasgow Coma Scale, Serum Acetylcholinesterase
           and Leukocyte Levels in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Organophosphate poisoning (OP) is a serious clinical condition that may sometimes be fatal. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Glasgow coma scale (GCS), and serum acetylcholinesterase and leukocyte levels have prognostic value in acute OP poisoning. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review of records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit of Selcuk University, Meram Medical Faculty, Emergency Department, Konya, Turkey, between January 2006 and January 2009. METHODS: We studied acutely OP-poisoned patients admitted within 24 hours after OP exposure. RESULTS: The mean age of the 25 patients was 37 years (range, 20-80 years). Three (12%) of the 25 patients (male- female ratio, 12:13) died. The mean GCS values of the patients who died were significantly lower compared to those of the group that survived (4 vs 11.7, respectively P<.05). While the mean serum acetylcholinesterase levels were lower in the patients who died, the difference in the mean serum acetylcholinesterase levels between the patients who died and the ones who survived was not statistically significant (3841 IU/L vs. 1 768 IU/L, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although serum Cholinesterase values can be used in the quick diagnosis, their efficiency at predicting outcome in patients with OP poisoning has not been established. It has also been determined that serum leukocyte values have no prognostic value in OP poisoning, but GCS values have been found to be effective in predicting the outcome. Ann Saudi Med 2011 ; 31 (2): 163-166PMID: 21422653
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.78203
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:25:00 +000
  • Ambiguous Genitalia: Two Decades of Experience

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ambiguous genitalia is a complex, medical and social emergency. The aim of this study is to present our experience over two decades, focusing on the pattern and clinical presentation. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study conducted in the pediatric endocrine clinic at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia during the period 1989-2008. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Medical records of children with ambiguous genitalia were reviewed and the genitalia described. RESULTS: Of the 81 children with ambiguous genitalia, 53 (65.4%) patients were genetically females (46XX), with congenital adrenal hyperplasia being the common cause in 51 (96.5%) patients. Hyperpigmentation, variable degrees of salt wasting and a family history of a similar problem helped in diagnosis. Male genetic sex (46XY) was present in only 28 (34.6%) patients with a diversity of causes; multiple congenital anomalies in 9 (32.1%), local anorectal anomalies in 2 (7.1%), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (3- β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency) in 2 (7.14%), 5-a-reductase deficiency in 4 (14.28%), partial androgen insensitivity in 3 (10.7%), complete androgen insensitivity in 4 (14.28%), and hypogonadotrophin deficiency in 4 (14.3%). Twenty-five (47.2%) of females were wrongly assigned as males, where only two (7.1%) males were wrongly assigned as females. CONCLUSION: Ambiguous genitalia, currently termed disorders of sex development (DSD), is not uncommon in our community. Increased awareness, a detailed history, and a careful physical examination, coupled with appropriate laboratory and radiological investigations aid in early diagnosis and avoid serious sequelae.  Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 284-288PMID: 21623059
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81544
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 04:07:00 +000
  • Cold Agglutinin Disease in Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Rare
           Association with a Rare Cancer Variant

    • Abstract: Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a rare autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Although it can occur secondary to lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune or infectious diseases, CAD is rarely reported as secondary to solid tumors. We report a case of a woman aged 18 years diagnosed with a welI -differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma of the fibrolamellar subtype, who was shown to have CAD also. Her general condition, including CAD, improved after targeted therapy with sorafenib for the hepatocellular carcinoma and only conservative measures for the CAD that consisted of avoidance of cold. In summary, although it is an extremely rare association and less common than lymphoproliferative disorders, CAD can be associated with solid tumors. Ann Saudi Med 2011: 31(2): 197-200PMID: 21293066
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.76409
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 03:58:00 +000
  • Intra-Articular Lipoma Arborescens of the Knee Joint

    • Abstract: Intra-articular lipoma arborescens (LA) is a rare entity that can present with monoarticular or polyarticular involvement of joints such as knees, ankles, hips, shoulders, and elbows. We describe a case in a 26-year-old man who presented with intermittent pain and swelling of the left knee joint for the previous 2 years. Physical examination showed only tenderness over the medial line of the left knee joint. MRI found only joint effusion; therefore, the patient was referred to the orthopedic clinic where he underwent arthroscopy, which revealed a diffuse yellow soft tissue synovial papillary growth involving both medial and lateral gutters of the suprapatellar pouch. A biopsy reported intra-articular LA. This is the first case of LA reported in Saudi Arabia. LA should be included in the clinical and radiologic differential diagnosis of cases with persistent knee joint effusion. Ann Saudi Med 2011:31 (2): 194-196PMID: 21403407
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.77501
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 03:39:00 +000
  • Six-year Outcome of the National Premarital Screening and Genetic
           Counseling Program for Sickle Cell Disease and β-thalassemia in Saudi

    • Abstract: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Saudi Arabia has a high prevalence of hereditary hemoglobin disorders. Data has been collected by the Saudi Premarital Screening and Genetic Counseling Program on the prevalence of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia but the outcomes were not quantified. We used six years of premarital screening data to estimate the burden of sickle disease and β-thalassemia over the program period and to assess the frequency of at-risk marriage detection and prevention. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review, premarital couples attending premarital and genetic counseling clinics with marriage proposals between 2004 and 2009. METHODS: Blood samples obtained from all couples with marriage proposals between 2004 and 2009 were tested for sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia. Test results were shared with all examinees and genetic counseling was offered for all at-risk couples. Marriage certificates were issued irrespective of the results and compliance with medical advice was voluntary. RESULTS: Out of all men and women examined, 70962 (4.5%) and 29006 (1.8%) were carriers or cases of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, respectively. While the prevalence of sickle cell disease was constant between 2004 and 2009 (average 45.1 per 1000 examined persons, P=.803), the prevalence of β-thalassemia steadily decreased from 32.9 to 9.0 per 1000 examined persons (P<.001). The frequency of at-risk couples decreased by about 60% between 2004 and 2009 (from 10.1 to 4.0 per 1000 examined persons, P<.001). The frequency of voluntary cancellation of marriage proposals among at-risk couples showed more than 5-fold increase between 2004 and 2009 (from 9.2% to 51.9%, P<.001). The eastern region had 58% of all detected at-risk marriages and showed the greatest decline in detection and increase in prevention over time compared to other regions of Saudi Arabia. CONCLUSION: Six years of premarital screening in Saudi Arabia markedly reduced the number of at-risk marriages, which may considerably reduce the genetic disease burden in Saudi Arabia in the next decades. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31 (3): 229-235PMID: 21623050
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81527
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 03:23:00 +000
  • RE: Water Pipe (Shisha) Smoking Among Male Students of Medical Colleges in
           the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract:
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.75795PMID: 21245608
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 03:08:00 +000
  • Response to Oral Glidazide in a Pre-Pubertal Child with Hepatic Nuclear
           Factor-1 Alpha Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

    • Abstract: The term "maturity onset diabetes of the young" (MODY) describes a heterogeneous group of monogenic diabetes of which hepatic nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF-1α) MODY is the most common. Patients with HNF-1α mutations typically present after puberty, and oral sulfonylureas (SU) have been shown to be effective in adults with this condition. A 7-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic hyperglycemia ranging between 6.2 and 10.1 mmol/L and glycosuria for nearly a year. The child's initial HbA1c was 6.9% and the pancreatic Islet cell autoantibodies were negative. His response to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed a large increment of glucose from basal level of 7.7 to 21.1 mmol/L in 120 min. The mild presentation, family history, and negative autoantibodies were suggestive of HNF-1αMODY, which was confirmed by mutation analysis. Initial management with diet alone was not sufficient, but he responded well to 20 mg oral gliclazide once a day with an improvement of HbA1c from 7.2% to 6.5% within 3 months of treatment. The case is an illustration of the clinical utility of molecular genetic tests in the management of childhood diabetes. Ann Saudi Med 2011: 31(2): 190-193PMID: 21242637
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.75590
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 02:55:00 +000
  • Epithelioid Sarcoma of the Orbit

    • Abstract: Epithelioid sarcoma is an aggressive and rare malignancy first recognized by Enzinger in 1970. It is known most commonly to affect the distal upper extremities in young adults. The classical "distal" form has a male predominance and can also involve other less frequent sites including lower extremities, proximal upper extremities, and the trunk. The "proximal" variant of this tumor is deep seated, tends to occur in older patients and predominantly develops in the pelvis, perineum, and genital tract. In the orbit, only a single report of two cases, which had a typical histopathologic appearance, has been previously published. We present the third case of orbital primary epithelioid sarcoma. Ann Saudi Med 2011:31 (2): 187-189PMID: 21242638
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.75589
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 02:46:00 +000
  • Laboratory Quality Control Based on Risk Management

    • Abstract: Risk management is the systematic application of management policies, procedures, and practices to the tasks of analyzing, evaluating, controlling and monitoring risk (the effect of uncertainty on objectives). Clinical laboratories conduct a number of activities that could be considered risk management including verification of performance of new tests, troubleshooting instrument problems and responding to physician complaints. Development of a quality control plan for a laboratory test requires a process map of the testing process with consideration for weak steps in the preanalytic, analytic and postanalytic phases of testing where there is an increased probability of errors. Control processes that either prevent or improve the detection of errors can be implemented at these weak points in the testing process to enhance the overall quality of the test result. This manuscript is based on a presentation at the 2nd International Symposium on Point of Care Testing held at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on October 12-13, 2010. Risk management principles will be reviewed and progress towards adopting a new Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Guideline for developing laboratory quality control plans based on risk management will be discussed. Ann Saudi Med 2011; 31(3): 223-228PMID: 21623049
      DOI : 10.4103/0256-4947.81526
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 02:05:00 +000
  • Diagnosis: Intralobar Sequestration

    • Abstract: The chest CT scan with contrast (Figure 1) revealed large cystic parenchymal changes and a lesion with an aberrant aortic branch supplying the lesion. After
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 14:11:00 +000
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