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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 429 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 429 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Medica Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria J. of Pediatrics     Open Access  
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Indian Psychiatry     Open Access  
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Tropical Pathology     Open Access  
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.856, CiteScore: 2)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Reproduction     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.491, CiteScore: 2)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 2)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian J. of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access  
Chinese Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Cancer Investigation J.     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.811, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.242, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.799, CiteScore: 2)
Egyptian J. of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.127, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Nursing J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian J. of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.12, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Glioma     Open Access  
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Hamdan Medical J.     Open Access  
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ibnosina J. of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Imam J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.468, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Respiratory Care     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Spine J.     Open Access  
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Clinicopathological Correlation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.623, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.4, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.102
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0019-5359 - ISSN (Online) 0019-5359
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [429 journals]
  • Global challenges in smokeless tobacco control

    • Authors: Ravi Mehrotra, Dhirendra N Sinha
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Ravi Mehrotra, Dhirendra N Sinha
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):1-3

      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):1-3
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_32_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Development of comprehensive data repository on chemicals present in
           smokeless tobacco products: Opportunities & challenges

    • Authors: Jasmine Kaur, Arun Sharma, Ruchika Gupta, Harpreet Singh
      Pages: 4 - 6
      Abstract: Jasmine Kaur, Arun Sharma, Ruchika Gupta, Harpreet Singh
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):4-6

      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):4-6
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_108_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Role of World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control
           Global Knowledge Hub on Smokeless Tobacco

    • Authors: Ravi Mehrotra, Shekhar Grover, Anshika Chandra
      Pages: 7 - 13
      Abstract: Ravi Mehrotra, Shekhar Grover, Anshika Chandra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):7-13
      Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is a recognized public health challenge, having over 350 million users globally, concentrated particularly in South-East Asia. A need for research on curbing major challenges in regulating SLT use has been long felt and subsequently highlighted in several sessions of the Conference of Parties (COP) of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The sixth session of COP established a knowledge hub on SLT at the Indian Council of Medical Research- National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research India, with a mandate to (i) generate and share expertise, information and knowledge; (ii) promote and facilitate communication among Parties, organizations and stakeholders; and (iii) support the Convention Secretariat in contributing to technical aspects of SLT control. The hub disseminates scientific evidence through an interactive website and publications and supports national and international partners in SLT research. The hub is a contributor to many events/conferences and has conducted several workshops on SLT control, including an inter-country meeting on SLT policy implementation status, which brought together representatives from across the globe, and framed recommendations for policy reform. The hub is dedicated to interaction and collaboration with relevant tobacco control organizations to generate evidence, support and policy orientation in line with its mandates and recommendations under the World Health Organization FCTC.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):7-13
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2036_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Regulation of toxic contents of smokeless tobacco products

    • Authors: Amit Kumar, Deeksha Bhartiya, Jasmine Kaur, Suchitra Kumari, Harpreet Singh, Deepika Saraf, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Pages: 14 - 24
      Abstract: Amit Kumar, Deeksha Bhartiya, Jasmine Kaur, Suchitra Kumari, Harpreet Singh, Deepika Saraf, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):14-24
      Effective regulation of contents of tobacco products is one of the primary milestones to reduce negative health effects associated with the use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. As per the available sources, testing of some SLT products has been done on ad hoc basis, but there is a lack of comprehensive and periodic analysis of these products. In addition, the available results indicate huge variations among the levels of pH, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, N-nitrosonornicotine, benzo[a]pyrene, heavy metals and nicotine within different products as well as within different brands of the same product. This review was aimed to throw light on the variations and gaps in testing of SLT products and emphasize the need for strong policy regulation for monitoring the chemical constituents of these products.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):14-24
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2025_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Smokeless tobacco control: Litigation & judicial measures from
           Southeast Asia

    • Authors: Amit Yadav, Arpita Singh, Badri Bahadur Khadka, Hemantha Amarasinghe, Nisha Yadav, Ranjit Singh
      Pages: 25 - 34
      Abstract: Amit Yadav, Arpita Singh, Badri Bahadur Khadka, Hemantha Amarasinghe, Nisha Yadav, Ranjit Singh
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):25-34
      Recourse to litigation and positive judicial interventions is one of the most effective tools to meet public health objectives. The present review envisions compiling litigation and judicial measures in Southeast Asia Region (SEAR) while assessing their role in advancing smokeless tobacco (SLT) control, and equally highlighting, how tobacco industry has used litigation to undermine tobacco control efforts in the Region. The litigation, especially from the SEAR, up to 2017, that have facilitated SLT control or have been used by the tobacco industry to challenge an SLT control policy decision were reviewed. Most of the litigation related to SLT control from the Region are on pictorial health warnings. Bhutan has imposed a complete prohibition on sale, manufacture and import of all kinds of tobacco products and the litigation there relates to the prosecution of offenders for violating the ban. Judiciary in the Region is well informed about the ill-effects of tobacco use and remains positive to tobacco control initiatives in the interest of public health. In India, several SLT-specific litigation helped in better regulation of SLT products in the country. Litigation has compelled governments for effective enforcement of the domestic tobacco control laws and the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Parties to the WHO FCTC must now use Treaty Article 19 to strengthen their legal procedures and make the tobacco industry liable, for both criminal and civil wrongs.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):25-34
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2063_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Oral health consequences of smokeless tobacco use

    • Authors: Arvind Muthukrishnan, Saman Warnakulasuriya
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Arvind Muthukrishnan, Saman Warnakulasuriya
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):35-40
      Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use has many oral effects including oral cancer, leukoplakia and erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (if mixed with areca nut), loss of periodontal support (recession) and staining of teeth and composite restorations. This review was aimed to provide information to identify oral lesions that occur due to the use of smokeless tobacco so that effective interventions can be undertaken to reduce morbidity and mortality from the use of SLT.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):35-40
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1793_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Determinants of smokeless tobacco use in India

    • Authors: JS Thakur, Ronika Paika
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: JS Thakur, Ronika Paika
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):41-45
      Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) contributes to more than 50 per cent disability adjusted life years (DALYs) in India; and tobacco contributes to 7·4 per cent of DALYs which is next to diet and high blood pressure. According to Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015, tobacco use contributed to 5.9 per cent out of total DALYs in India. Smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption is a multifactorial process influenced by varied range of contextual factors i.e., social, environmental, psychological and the genetic factors which are linked to the tobacco use. The determinants associated with the SLT use are gender, educational level, wealth index (inverse association), urban-rural residence, socio-economic status and low tax. Taking the view from tobacco control programmes, there is a need to address determinants of SLT use with State level monitoring and socio-economic inequalities, progress and review of the taxation of the SLT use in India.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):41-45
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_27_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Smokeless tobacco taxation: Lessons from Southeast Asia

    • Authors: Rijo M John, Amit Yadav, Dhirendra N Sinha
      Pages: 46 - 55
      Abstract: Rijo M John, Amit Yadav, Dhirendra N Sinha
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):46-55
      Southeast Asia accounts for nearly 86 per cent of the smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumers in the world. The heterogeneous nature of SLT is a major impediment to using taxation as a tool to regulate SLT. This study was aimed to review issues around fiscal policies on SLT with the objective of providing clarity on the use of taxation as an effective policy instrument to regulate SLT use. Descriptive statistics and graphical representations were used to analyze published data from different sources. An analysis of prices and tax between smoke and SLT products was done to understand the impact of tax policies on SLT consumption. India, Bangladesh and Myanmar together account for 71 per cent of the world SLT users. The retail prices (PPP$) and tax were lower for SLT in low- and lower-middle-income countries and higher in high-income countries, on an average, suggesting a direct relationship between the two. Evidence from India and Bangladesh suggested that taxation had significantly reduced SLT use among adults. The compounded levy scheme used in India to tax SLT was found effective after incorporating speed of packing machines into the assessment of deemed production and tax on SLT products. The current analysis shows that taxation can be an effective instrument to regulate SLT consumption if tax rates are harmonized across SLT products and in a manner not to encourage substitution with other tobacco products. It is also imperative to set a minimum floor price on all tobacco products including SLT.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):46-55
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1822_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Relationship between type of smokeless tobacco & risk of
           cancer: A systematic review

    • Authors: Sanjay Gupta, Ruchika Gupta, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Pages: 56 - 76
      Abstract: Sanjay Gupta, Ruchika Gupta, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):56-76
      Background & objectives: Causative linkages of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use with oral potentially malignant disorders and cancers of oral cavity, oesophagus and pancreas have been reported. Published meta-analyses have provided pooled risk estimates for major cancers caused by SLT, both on global and regional levels. This systematic review was aimed at summarizing the available studies on occurrence and mortality risk of common cancers due to various SLT products.Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched from 1985 till January 2018 for observational studies on SLT and cancer. The included studies were evaluated and data were extracted and reviewed.Results: The review included 80 studies providing 121 risk estimates for various cancers. Majority of the studies from South-East Asian Region (SEAR) and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) showed a significant positive association of SLT use with oral [odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.48 to 27.4] and oesophageal cancers (OR between 2.06 and 12.8), while studies from European Region (EUR) reported a positive association with pancreatic cancer (OR between 1.6 and 2.1). Cancer-related mortality was evaluated in a few reports with higher risk of mortality for lung (OR between 2.0 and 9.1), cervical (OR 2.0) and prostate (OR 2.1) cancers. A wide variation was noted in the association of various cancers and specific SLT products based on their nature, methods of use and inherent toxicity. The majority of chewing tobacco products displayed higher risk for oral and oesophageal cancers while the same was not observed for snus.Interpretation & conclusions: This review emphasizes on the significantly positive association of SLT use with oral and oesophageal cancers in SEAR and EMR and pancreatic cancer in EUR. Mortality estimates for SLT-associated cancers need further analysis. Risk analysis for cancers of other sites in SLT users also requires multicentric well-designed studies.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):56-76
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2023_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • A systematic review on association between smokeless tobacco &
           cardiovascular diseases

    • Authors: Ruchika Gupta, Sanjay Gupta, Shashi Sharma, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Pages: 77 - 89
      Abstract: Ruchika Gupta, Sanjay Gupta, Shashi Sharma, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):77-89
      Background & objectives: The association of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with cardiovascular diseases has remained controversial due to conflicting reports from various countries. Earlier meta-analyses have shown significantly higher risk of fatal myocardial infarction and stroke in SLT users. However, the risk of hypertension (HTN) with SLT products has not been reviewed earlier. This systematic review was undertaken to summarize the evidence available from global literature on the association of SLT with cardiovascular outcomes – heart disease, stroke and HTN.Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar since their inception till October 2017 using pre-decided search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from studies included independently by two authors and reviewed.Results: The review included 50 studies - 23 on heart disease, 14 on stroke and 14 on HTN. Majority of the studies evaluating heart disease or stroke were conducted in the European Region and most of these did not find a significant association between SLT use and either of these outcomes. On the other hand, 70 per cent of the studies on HTN were reported from South-East Asian Region and about half of the studies found a higher risk of HTN in SLT users.Interpretation & conclusions: Current available evidence is insufficient to conclusively support the association of cardiovascular diseases with SLT use due to variability in results and methodological constraints in most of the studies. Region and product-specific well-designed studies are required to provide this evidence to the policymakers. However, advice on cessation of SLT products should be offered to patients presenting with cardiovascular diseases.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):77-89
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2020_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • A review of trade practices of smokeless tobacco products in terms of
           prohibition on sale, manufacturing & importation in Framework
           Convention on Tobacco Control ratified Parties

    • Authors: Deepika Singh Saraf, Ravi Mehrotra, Kumar Chandan, Dhirendra N Sinha, Amit Yadav
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Deepika Singh Saraf, Ravi Mehrotra, Kumar Chandan, Dhirendra N Sinha, Amit Yadav
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):90-97
      Background & objectives: Over the past decade, the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has served as a powerful tool to initiate and advance global tobacco control efforts. However, the control strategies have mainly targeted demand-side measures. The goal of a tobacco-free world by 2040 cannot be achieved if the supply-side measures are not addressed. This analysis was undertaken to examine the tobacco control legislations of various Parties ratifying WHO FCTC with an objective to ascertain the status of prohibition of importation, sale and manufacturing of smokeless tobacco products.Methods: All 180 Parties to WHO FCTC were included for the study. A comprehensive database of all the parties to FCTC was created and tobacco control legislations and regulations of all parties were studied in detail.Results: Overall, the sale of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products was prohibited in 45 Parties. Eleven Parties prohibited manufacturing of SLT products and six Parties imposed a ban on importation of SLT products. Australia, Bhutan, Singapore and Sri Lanka banned all three.Interpretation & conclusions: Comprehensive tobacco control strategy with effective tobacco cessation programme should complement strong legal actions such as prohibition on trade in SLT products to meet the public health objective of such laws and regulations. In addition, multisectoral efforts are needed for effective implementation of such restrictions imposed by the governments.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):90-97
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2027_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Feedback from vendors on gutka ban in two States of India

    • Authors: Gaurav Kumar, MS Pednekar, Sameer Narake, Gauri Dhumal, PC Gupta
      Pages: 98 - 102
      Abstract: Gaurav Kumar, MS Pednekar, Sameer Narake, Gauri Dhumal, PC Gupta
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):98-102
      Background & objectives: Beginning in 2012, all States in India eventually banned the sale of gutka. This study was conducted to investigate gutka vendors' knowledge on gutka ban, products covered under ban, penalties for non-compliance and action for enforcement by government agencies. Methods: Twenty vendors were interviewed, 10 each in Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Indore (Madhya Pradesh) during May - June, 2013, one year after ban was imposed. Interviewers used a standardized questionnaire to assess vendors' knowledge of gutka ban, their attitude towards it and compliance to it in practice.Results: All 20 vendors were aware that gutka sale was banned. However, despite ban, eight of the 10 vendors in Mumbai perceived sale of pan masala as legal. In Indore, all 10 vendors perceived sale of Indori Tambakoo, a local gutka variant, as legal. No vendor was sure about the quantum of fine applicable on being caught selling the banned product. Two vendors in Mumbai and nine in Indore admitted selling gutka. Five vendors in Mumbai and four in Indore supported an existing ban on gutka. Interpretation & conclusions: All vendors were aware of the ban on gutka and reason for it. Many vendors supported the ban. However, awareness of other products covered under ban and on fines in case of non-compliance was low. Law enforcement system needs to be intensified to implement ban. Notification of ban needs to be further strengthened and made unambiguous to explicitly include all smokeless tobacco products.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):98-102
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_121_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Setting research priorities in smokeless tobacco control: A retrospective
           review

    • Authors: Harleen Kaur Gulati, Amit Kumar, Ajay Singh Dhama, Ruchika Gupta, Amitesh Kumar Sharma, Harpreet Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Pages: 103 - 109
      Abstract: Harleen Kaur Gulati, Amit Kumar, Ajay Singh Dhama, Ruchika Gupta, Amitesh Kumar Sharma, Harpreet Singh, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):103-109
      Background & objectives: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) has become a global menace; India being one of the high-burden countries contributes about 67 per cent of its users. Although research is ongoing on various aspects of SLT use and its effects, there is a need to identify the still under-researched areas in this field. This study was aimed at delineating the quantum of research on various topics of SLT, with intent to delineate research gaps for guiding future research priorities.Methods: Data about research in SLT were collected from PubMed database using ‘smokeless tobacco’ as a keyword and applying Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms filter. Data were extracted in XML (Extensible Markup Language) format and parsed into database to extract necessary fields such as PubMed IDs, authors' names, affiliations and MeSH terms. Quantum of research in various aspects of SLT was identified for individual MeSH terms and compared for global and Indian data.Results: Data analysis of 2857 records revealed that maximum number of articles was devoted to adverse effects (35.6%) followed by epidemiology (32.4%). In comparison, India contributed only 11.7 per cent of records with maximum number of articles on the topics of epidemiology (26%) and adverse effects (45.8%). Higher proportion of research was published on epidemiology, aetiology and prevention and control at global level, while adverse effects of SLT were researched more in Indian studies as compared to global data.Interpretation & conclusions: The present analysis highlighted the paucity of research studies on important topics such as economics and alternative strategies of SLT control, both on the global and regional levels.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):103-109
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_80_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Implementation of Article 20 of the World Health Organization Framework
           Convention on Tobacco Control

    • Authors: Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Amit Kumar, Ruchika Gupta, Harleen Kaur Gulati, Sanjay Gupta, Ravi Mehrotra
      Pages: 110 - 115
      Abstract: Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Amit Kumar, Ruchika Gupta, Harleen Kaur Gulati, Sanjay Gupta, Ravi Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):110-115
      Background & objectives: Article 20 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) deals with surveillance and research on all tobacco products including smokeless tobacco (SLT). Here we describe the availability of indicators related to SLT among 180 Parties to the convention (countries ratifying the WHO FCTC are referred as Parties to the Convention).Methods: Data on SLT use among adults and adolescents and SLT-related economic and health indicators among Parties were obtained through rigorous literature search. Data analysis for high-burden parties was done using SPSS. Results: Nearly 92 per cent (166) of the Parties reported SLT use prevalence among adults or adolescents at national or subnational level, of these nearly one-fifth of the Parties (20.5%) were high-burden Parties. Comparable SLT tax incidence rate was available for 19.4 per cent (n=35) Parties, and SLT attributable morbidity and mortality risks of major diseases were available for only five per cent (n=10) of Parties.Interpretation & conclusions: SLT use is a global epidemic widespread among Parties to the Convention. There are a data gap and dearth of research on SLT-related issues. Parties need to monitor SLT use and related health and economic indicators regularly at periodic intervals.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):110-115
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_288_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Dohra- a mixture of potent carcinogens

    • Authors: Vishwas Sharma, Amrita Nandan, Ajay Kumar Shukla, Anshika Chandra, Ravi Kaushik, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Pages: 116 - 119
      Abstract: Vishwas Sharma, Amrita Nandan, Ajay Kumar Shukla, Anshika Chandra, Ravi Kaushik, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):116-119
      Background & objectives: Dohra is a areca nut preparation used with or without tobacco in a few of the areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. There is evidence that it causes potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer. This study was undertaken to provide information on dohra by searching through literature and also through a survey in three areas of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India.Methods: The information on dohra was collected through literature search, study tour to different areas of UP, where group discussions with dohra vendors and with community members of different age group were done to obtain information.Results: Dohra was prepared by the users for their personal use or prepared by small-scale industry for sale. It was available mostly in betel shops or any other store/kiosks and was also available in special dohra shops. Dohra was available in both dry and wet form. Its common constituents were areca nut, catechu (Acacia catechu), edible lime, peppermint (Mentha piperita), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) and some flavoring agents. Dohra was consumed as such or with tobacco. Interpretation & conclusions: Different varieties of Dohra were available such as sukha dohra, sukha mulethi dohra and geela dohra. Different processing methods for producing dohra existed. As dohra increases the risk of cancer, it needs to be banned or it should be sold in packets with the details of its constituents and also statutory warning about its adverse health effects.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):116-119
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_39_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Iodine deficiency disorders and their elimination

    • Authors: Umesh Kapil
      Pages: 120 - 120
      Abstract: Umesh Kapil
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):120-120

      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):120-120
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_852_17
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Well-being therapy: Treatment manual and clinical applications

    • Authors: Uma Hirisave
      Pages: 120 - 122
      Abstract: Uma Hirisave
      Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):120-122

      Citation: Indian Journal of Medical Research 2018 148(1):120-122
      PubDate: Tue,25 Sep 2018
      DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_117_18
      Issue No: Vol. 148, No. 1 (2018)
       
 
 
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