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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
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J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)

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Journal Cover Journal of Conservative Dentistry
  [SJR: 0.532]   [H-I: 10]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0972-0707 - ISSN (Online) 0974-5203
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Editorial message

    • Authors: Aditya Mitra
      Pages: 63 - 63
      Abstract: Aditya Mitra
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):63-63

      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):63-63
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_214_17
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal
           instrumentation using two Ni-Ti single file rotary systems: An in vitro
           study

    • Authors: Kiran Singbal, Disha Jain, Kranthi Raja, Tan Ming Hoe
      Pages: 64 - 67
      Abstract: Kiran Singbal, Disha Jain, Kranthi Raja, Tan Ming Hoe
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):64-67
      Background: Apical extrusion of debris during instrumentation is detrimental to the patient.Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris during root canal instrumentation using two single file rotary Ni-Ti systems.Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted mandibular premolars with straight roots were sterilized and divided into two groups instrumented using: One Shape rotary Ni-Ti system with Endoflare orifice shaper (Group 1) and Neo-Niti rotary Ni-Ti system with C1 orifice shaper (Group 2). Preweighed Eppendorf tubes fitted for each tooth before instrumentation. During instrumentation, 1 mL of distilled water with a 30-gauge needle was used to irrigate after every instrument. Tips of the tooth were irrigated with 2 ml distilled water after removal from Eppendorf tubes. The total volume of irrigant in each group was the same 8 ml. All tubes were incubated at 68°C for 15 days and subsequently weighed. The difference between pre- and post-debris weights was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and level of significance was set at 0.05.Results: The difference between pre- and post-weights was significantly greater for the One Shape system.Conclusions: The Neolix Niti single file was associated with less extrusion compared to One Shape single file system.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):64-67
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212236
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A cone-beam computed tomography assessment of the efficacy of different
           irrigation devices for removal of silicone oil-based calcium hydroxide
           from root canal system

    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Marina Fernandes, Rajan Lambor
      Pages: 68 - 71
      Abstract: Pradeep Kumar, Ida de Noronha de Ataide, Marina Fernandes, Rajan Lambor
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):68-71
      Background: Most often used intracanal medicament is calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Removal of Ca(OH)2before obturation is mandatory. Different irrigation solutions and devices were tested in the previous study for this purpose.Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy of different irrigation techniques in removing intracanal medicament using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).Materials and Methods: Cleaning and shaping was carried out in 42 freshly extracted single-rooted mandibular first premolars using Protaper Rotary Files. Intracanal medicament (silicone oil-based Ca(OH)2paste) was placed and left for 2 weeks in the root canal. Medicament was then removed by five different irrigation techniques: EndoActivator, EndoVac, ultrasonic irrigation with Endo-U-File, F-file, and Max-i-Probe needle. Changes in volume percentage were measured using CBCT and results were statistically analyzed using Levene's statistics and ANOVA.Results: Remnants of Ca(OH)2were found in all experimental groups. No significant difference was detected among the groups. F-file showed maximum removal efficacy of approximately 48%.Conclusion: (1) There is no statistically significant difference between any irrigation technique for removal of oil-based Ca(OH)2. (2) F-file demonstrated better results among all the other systems.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):68-71
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212245
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of different fibers and biodentine as alternates to crown
           coverage for endodontically treated molars: An in vitro study

    • Authors: Hemalatha Hiremath, Sadanand Kulkarni, Vishwanath Hiremath, Madhavi Kotipalli
      Pages: 72 - 75
      Abstract: Hemalatha Hiremath, Sadanand Kulkarni, Vishwanath Hiremath, Madhavi Kotipalli
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):72-75
      Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the fracture resistance of newer restorative materials that could serve as an alternate to crown coverage.Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human mandibular molar teeth were selected for this study and were divided into four groups (n = 10). All the teeth in the experimental groups (Group 2–4) were subjected to access cavity preparation with roughly 1.5 mm of tooth structure remaining throughout the circumference. Group 1: Intact teeth used as control. Group 2: Access cavities reinforced with biodentine. Group 3: Inner circumference of access cavities reinforced with polyethylene fiber and nano-hybrid composite. Group 4: Access cavities were reinforced with fiber reinforced composite. All the teeth were subjected to fracture resistance using universal testing machine.Results: The results of the study were evaluated statistically using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Group 2 demonstrated the least mean values of fracture resistance and was significantly different from the control and other experimental groups. Statistically significant difference among Groups 1, 3, and 4 was not found.Conclusion: Within the limitation of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that fiber reinforced composite and polyethylene fibers with nanohybrid composite could serve as an alternate to crown coverage.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):72-75
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212248
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of three methods to measure working length - Manual
           tactile sensation, digital radiograph, and multidetector computed
           tomography: An in vitro study

    • Authors: Kaushik Dutta, Priti D Desai, Utapal Kumar Das, Soumayabrata Sarkar
      Pages: 76 - 80
      Abstract: Kaushik Dutta, Priti D Desai, Utapal Kumar Das, Soumayabrata Sarkar
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):76-80
      Aim: Compare the measurement of working length with three different methods manual tactile sensation, digital radiography and Mutidetector computed tomography(MDCT).Materials and Method: 40 human premolar extracted for orthodontic purpose were selected. Teeth were store in sodium chloride (0.9%) during the study. Access cavity was prepared and canal patency was seen with no 10 file in each tooth. Manually no 15 K file was inserted from access cavity until the tip was visible at the foramen, a silicon stopper was adjusted to the corresponding buccal cusp tip and the root canal length was measured. After that in each tooth with no-15 K file inserted from access cavity with stop at tip of buccal cusp until tip appear at foramen and x-ray was taken with digital radiograph (RVG,Satelac) and canal length was measured. After that all teeth are mounted in wax block,MDCT scan was done and in the scan images of teeth, root canal length is measured from buccal cusp tip to root end. After taking measurement of working length with all three methods and the data was stastically analyzed with One Way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey's Test.Results: ANOVA and turkeys test showed that there was no significant difference in the measurements by the three procedures (p>0.05).Conclusion: Working length measurement with MDCT scan and other two conventional methods does not show significant difference in measurement. Use of newer 3D imaging technique is useful in root canal treatment for measuring working length.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):76-80
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_4_16
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Preservation of root canal anatomy using self-adjusting file
           instrumentation with glide path prepared by 20/0.02 hand files versus
           20/0.04 rotary files

    • Authors: Niharika Jain, Ajinkya M Pawar, Piyush D Ukey, Prashant K Jain, Bhagyashree Thakur, Abhishek Gupta
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Niharika Jain, Ajinkya M Pawar, Piyush D Ukey, Prashant K Jain, Bhagyashree Thakur, Abhishek Gupta
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):81-85
      Objectives: To compare the relative axis modification and canal concentricity after glide path preparation with 20/0.02 hand K-file (NITIFLEX®) and 20/0.04 rotary file (HyFlex™ CM) with subsequent instrumentation with 1.5 mm self-adjusting file (SAF).Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty ISO 15, 0.02 taper, Endo Training Blocks (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were acquired and randomly divided into following two groups (n = 60): group 1, establishing glide path till 20/0.02 hand K-file (NITIFLEX®) followed by instrumentation with 1.5 mm SAF; and Group 2, establishing glide path till 20/0.04 rotary file (HyFlex™ CM) followed by instrumentation with 1.5 mm SAF. Pre- and post-instrumentation digital images were processed with MATLAB R 2013 software to identify the central axis, and then superimposed using digital imaging software (Picasa 3.0 software, Google Inc., California, USA) taking five landmarks as reference points. Student's t-test for pairwise comparisons was applied with the level of significance set at 0.05.Results: Training blocks instrumented with 20/0.04 rotary file and SAF were associated less deviation in canal axis (at all the five marked points), representing better canal concentricity compared to those, in which glide path was established by 20/0.02 hand K-files followed by SAF instrumentation.Conclusion: Canal geometry is better maintained after SAF instrumentation with a prior glide path established with 20/0.04 rotary file.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):81-85
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212231
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of apical microleakage in immediate and delayed
           postspace preparation using four different root canal sealers: An in vitro
           study

    • Authors: Prabeesh Padmanabhan, Joydeep Das, R Veena Kumari, PR Pradeep, Ankur Kumar, Sneha Agarwal
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: Prabeesh Padmanabhan, Joydeep Das, R Veena Kumari, PR Pradeep, Ankur Kumar, Sneha Agarwal
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):86-90
      Background: Endodontically treated teeth often lack sufficient support for a permanent restoration. During post space preparation, it is important not to disturb the integrity of the apical seal.Aim: This study compared the effect of immediate versus delayed post space preparation on the apical seal using four different sealers. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty single rooted teeth were biomechanically prepared and obturated with single cone gutta-percha and 4 sealers: Endoflas FS, AH Plus, Gutta flow and MTA. Teeth were divided randomly into eight groups, post spaces were prepared using Gates Glidden drills immediately for group I, III, IV and VII. For groups II, IV, VI and VIII prepared after storage of the specimens in 100% humidity for one week. The samples were kept in methylene blue dye, centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 3 min sectioned and then measured under stereomicroscope for apical leakage.Statistical Analysis: The data was analysed using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey test.Results: All the specimens showed dye leakage, and a statistically significant difference was seen among all the groups (P > 0.05) except Gutta flow. Conclusion: Less leakage is seen when post space is prepared immediately.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):86-90
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212230
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Clinical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine as direct
           pulp capping agents in carious teeth

    • Authors: Swaroop Hegde, B Sowmya, Sylvia Mathew, Shilpa H Bhandi, Shruthi Nagaraja, K Dinesh
      Pages: 91 - 95
      Abstract: Swaroop Hegde, B Sowmya, Sylvia Mathew, Shilpa H Bhandi, Shruthi Nagaraja, K Dinesh
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):91-95
      Background: Root canal treatment has been a routine treatment option for carious exposure of the dental pulp. In the context of minimally invasive dentistry, direct pulp capping (DPC) procedure with a reliable biomaterial may be considered as an alternative provided the pulp status is favorable. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), a bioactive cement with excellent sealing ability and biocompatibility is capable of regenerating relatively damaged pulp and formation of dentin bridge when used as DPC agent. Biodentine is comparatively a new biomaterial claimed to possess properties similar to MTA and is currently explored for vital pulp therapy procedures.Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical response of pulp-dentin complex after DPC with MTA and biodentine in carious teeth.Subjects and Methods: Twenty-four permanent molars with carious exposure having no signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis were selected and assigned to one of the two groups, Group I - MTA and Group II - biodentine. Patients were recalled at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months for clinical and radiographic evaluation. Fisher's exact test was used along with Chi-square test for statistical analysis.Results: Over a period of 6 months, MTA and biodentine showed 91.7% and 83.3% success rate, respectively, based on the subjective symptoms, pulp sensibility tests, and radiographic appearance.Conclusion: MTA and biodentine may be used as DPC agents when the pulpal diagnosis is not more than reversible pulpitis.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):91-95
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212243
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of apical debris extrusion during root canal preparation using
           instrumentation techniques with two operating principles: An in vitro
           study

    • Authors: Mudita Verma, N Meena, R Anitha Kumari, Sudhanva Mallandur, R Vikram, Vishwas Gowda
      Pages: 96 - 99
      Abstract: Mudita Verma, N Meena, R Anitha Kumari, Sudhanva Mallandur, R Vikram, Vishwas Gowda
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):96-99
      Aims: The aim of this study was to quantify the debris extruded apically from teeth using rotary and reciprocation instrumentation systems.Subjects and Methods: Eighty extracted human mandibular premolars with single canals and similar lengths were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (40, 06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), ProTaper Next (40, 06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), WaveOne (40, 06; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and Reciproc (R40; VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany). Debris extruded during instrumentation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes, which were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The final weight of the Eppendorf tubes with the extruded debris was calculated after obtaining the mean of three consecutive weights obtained for each tube.Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. The groups were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test for all variables.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.1114). However, the ProTaper Universal group produced more extrusion and ProTaper Next produced least debris extrusion among the instrument groups (P > 0.05).Conclusions: All instrumentation techniques were associated with extruded debris.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):96-99
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212239
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Remineralization ability of sodium fluoride on the microhardness of
           enamel, dentin, and dentinoenamel junction: An in vitro study

    • Authors: Elangovan Sivapriya, Krishnamoorthy Sridevi, Ravishankar Periasamy, Lakshmikanthanbharathi Lakshminarayanan, Angambakkam Rajasekaran Pradeepkumar
      Pages: 100 - 104
      Abstract: Elangovan Sivapriya, Krishnamoorthy Sridevi, Ravishankar Periasamy, Lakshmikanthanbharathi Lakshminarayanan, Angambakkam Rajasekaran Pradeepkumar
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):100-104
      Aim: Dental tissues such as enamel, dentinoenamel junction (DEJ), dentin, and root dentin can react differently to demineralization and remineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of sodium fluoride on the microhardness of enamel, dentin, and dentinoenamel junction.Materials and Methods: Ten extracted third molar teeth were sectioned mesiodistally to form control and test groups. For the test group, initial demineralization was done with acetic acid for 24 h followed by remineralization for 28 days by application of sodium fluoride (226 ppm) for 2 min twice a day. Vickers microhardness test was done to control and test groups at different sites after initial demineralization and on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 14th, and 28th day of remineralization.Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post hoc test with a significance level of P < 0.001 with SPSS (21) software.Results: Microhardness values in the demineralization group were significantly lower than controls (P < 0.001). Evaluation of remineralization samples showed that microhardness similar to control values were achieved at the 3rd day in root predentin and on the 5th day in coronal dentin and coronal predentin. On the 7th day, remineralization coronal predentin was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.001). On the 14th day, DEJ axial zone and root dentin were similar to control and coronal dentin was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.001). Enamel was similar to control on the 28th day. Microhardness of DEJ-cusp tip and DEJ-center of the fissure was significantly lower than control even at the 28th day (P < 0.001).Conclusion: Long-term repeated application of sodium fluoride (226 ppm) can improve the microhardness of demineralized dental tissues on enamel, dentin, and DEJ-axial zone, except in the DEJ-cusp tip and DEJ-center of fissure.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):100-104
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_353_16
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Canal transportation and centering ability of protaper and self-adjusting
           file system in long oval canals: An ex-vivo cone-beam computed tomography
           analysis

    • Authors: Dipali Yogesh Shah, Swati Ishwara Wadekar, Ashwini Manish Dadpe, Ganesh Ranganath Jadhav, Lalit Jayant Choudhary, Dheeraj Deepak Kalra
      Pages: 105 - 109
      Abstract: Dipali Yogesh Shah, Swati Ishwara Wadekar, Ashwini Manish Dadpe, Ganesh Ranganath Jadhav, Lalit Jayant Choudhary, Dheeraj Deepak Kalra
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):105-109
      Context and Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the shaping ability of ProTaper (PT) and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess their performance in oval-shaped root canals.Materials and Methods: Sixty-two mandibular premolars with single oval canals were divided into two experimental groups (n = 31) according to the systems used: Group I – PT and Group II – SAF. Canals were evaluated before and after instrumentation using CBCT to assess centering ratio and canal transportation at three levels. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, post hoc Tukey's test, and t-test.Results: The SAF showed better centering ability and lesser canal transportation than the PT only in the buccolingual plane at 6 and 9 mm levels. The shaping ability of the PT was best in the apical third in both the planes. The SAF had statistically significant better centering and lesser canal transportation in the buccolingual as compared to the mesiodistal plane at the middle and coronal levels.Conclusions: The SAF produced significantly less transportation and remained centered than the PT at the middle and coronal levels in the buccolingual plane of oval canals. In the mesiodistal plane, the performance of both the systems was parallel.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):105-109
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212234
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of glide path preparation on apical extrusion of debris in root
           canals instrumented with three single-file systems: An ex vivo comparative
           study

    • Authors: Ajinkya M Pawar, Mansing Pawar, Anda Kfir, Bhagyashree Thakur, Pooja Mutha, Kulwinder Singh Banga
      Pages: 110 - 114
      Abstract: Ajinkya M Pawar, Mansing Pawar, Anda Kfir, Bhagyashree Thakur, Pooja Mutha, Kulwinder Singh Banga
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):110-114
      Aim: The aim of this study was to test the effect of new protocol of glide path preparation by 20/0.04 rotary file on apical extrusion of debris when instrumenting fine curved mesial canals in mandibular molars with Self-adjusting File (SAF) and compare it to a glide path prepared by 20/0.02 hand K-file and rotary OneShape (OS) and reciprocating WaveOne (WO) file instrumentation.Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular molars with curved mesial roots were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) for instrumentation. In two groups, glide path was prepared using 20/0.02 K-file for instrumentation by OS (size 25/0.06 taper) and WO (size 25/0.08 taper) files; in the remaining group, 20/0.04 rotary file was used for glide path preparation and instrumented by SAF (1.5 mm). The debris extruded during instrumentation was collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes and stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. Tubes containing the dry extruded debris were then weighed. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the weights obtained, followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparison.Results: The mean debris (g) extruded apically was 0.000651 ± 0.000291, 0.000823 ± 0.000319, and 0.000473 ± 0.000238 for Group 1 (20/0.02 + OS), Group 2 (20/0.02 + WO), and Group 3 (20/0.04 + SAF), respectively. The groups exhibited a significant difference (P < 0.01; ANOVA). Group 3 resulted in least debris extrusion compared to Groups 1 and 2 (P < 0.01; Tukey's post hoc test).Conclusion: Glide path prepared to size 20/0.04 and SAF 1.5 mm instrumentation produce less debris in curved mesial canals of mandibular molars, compared to glide path established by 20/0.02 and instrumentation by OS and WO files.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):110-114
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212235
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of obturating materials on fracture resistance of simulated
           immature teeth

    • Authors: Karri Girish, Jyothi Mandava, R Ravi Chandra, K Ravikumar, Anupreeta Anwarullah, Mounika Athaluri
      Pages: 115 - 119
      Abstract: Karri Girish, Jyothi Mandava, R Ravi Chandra, K Ravikumar, Anupreeta Anwarullah, Mounika Athaluri
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):115-119
      Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth, when the root canals were completely filled either with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Biodentine, comparing with that of roots filled with apexification procedure.Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular premolar teeth with single, straight canals decoronated at cementoenamel junction were divided into five groups (n = 12 each). Group 1 samples served as negative control and remaining four groups root samples were shaped and cleaned using ProTaper rotary files. To simulate immature roots, a #5 Peeso reamer was passed beyond the apex so that apices were enlarged to a diameter of 1.5 mm. Group 2 and 4 samples were filled with 5 mm of MTA or Biodentine apical plug and backfilling with gutta-percha using AH Plus sealer. Group 3 and 5 root samples were completely obturated with MTA and Biodentine, respectively. All the teeth were loaded vertically until fracture, using the universal testing machine.Statistical Analysis: Forces at which fracture of the roots occurred were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS/PC version 2 software, and the results were analyzed with the one-way analysis of variance and Newman–Keuls multiple post hoc test.Results: Complete root canal obturation with MTA or Biodentine has shown significantly higher fracture resistance (P < 0.05) when compared to apexification with MTA or Biodentine.Conclusion: Obturation of the root canals with bioactive materials has shown highest fracture resistance when compared to apexification groups.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):115-119
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212238
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Comparative evaluation of chlorhexidine, grape seed extract,
           riboflavin/chitosan modification on microtensile bond strength of
           composite resin to dentin after polymerase chain reaction thermocycling:
           An in vitro study

    • Authors: Rani Samyukta Gajjela, R Kalyan Satish, Girija S Sajjan, K Madhu Varma, T Rambabu, BH Vijaya Lakshmi
      Pages: 120 - 124
      Abstract: Rani Samyukta Gajjela, R Kalyan Satish, Girija S Sajjan, K Madhu Varma, T Rambabu, BH Vijaya Lakshmi
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):120-124
      Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), grape seed extract (GSE), riboflavin/chitosan modification on microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of composite resin to dentin after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycling.Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human molars were used and a flat surface was then prepared by removing the occlusal one-third. The teeth were randomly assigned into four groups - Group I in which self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy One) was applied and Groups II, III, IV were pretreated with 2% CHX, 6.5% GSE, and 1% riboflavin/chitosan, respectively, before the application of self-etch adhesive. Composite build-ups were constructed, and PCR thermocycling (5000 cycles) was performed. The μTBS was evaluated using the universal testing machine. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test.Results: The mean μTBS values for Group I (control), Group II (CHX), Group III (GSE), and Group IV (riboflavin/chitosan modification) were 30.81, 43.15, 38.79, and 35.07 MPa, respectively.Conclusion: Pretreatment with CHX and GSE leads to a significant increase in μTBS of composite resin to dentin.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):120-124
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212241
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of conventional irrigation and photoactivated disinfection on
           Enterococcus faecalis in root canals: An in vitro study

    • Authors: Niyati Balakrishna, Prashant Moogi, G Vinay Kumar, BR Prashanth, Nithin Kumar Shetty, Kaushal R Rao
      Pages: 125 - 128
      Abstract: Niyati Balakrishna, Prashant Moogi, G Vinay Kumar, BR Prashanth, Nithin Kumar Shetty, Kaushal R Rao
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):125-128
      Aims: A study was done to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and photoactivated disinfection (PAD) on Enterococcus faecalis.Settings and Design: Random sampling, in-vitro study.Subjects and Methods: Access opening and biomechanical preparation were performed on fifty freshly extracted mandibular second premolars. The specimens were sterilized; 15 μm of E. faecalis was inoculated into each canal and incubated at 36°C for 24 h. Later, specimens were randomly divided into two groups of fifty each and following procedures was carried out: (i) conventional irrigation with 2.25% NaOCl (ii) PAD using diode laser, and toluidine blue photosensitizer. Samples were collected from each canal using sterile paper points which were deposited in brain heart infusion broth, and microbiological evaluation was carried out.Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test was used to find the significant difference in the reduction of colony forming unit (CFU) between the groups.Results: The mean CFUs of the two groups showed statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Improved antibacterial efficacy was seen with PAD group compared to conventional NAOCL irrigation.Conclusions: NaOCl alone was not effective in eliminating E. faecalis completely from the root canals. PAD compared to conventional irrigation showed the best results in removing E. faecalis from root canals.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):125-128
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212244
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • A comparison of human dental pulp response to calcium hydroxide and
           Biodentine as direct pulp-capping agents

    • Authors: Anushka Lalit Jalan, Manjusha M Warhadpande, Darshan M Dakshindas
      Pages: 129 - 133
      Abstract: Anushka Lalit Jalan, Manjusha M Warhadpande, Darshan M Dakshindas
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):129-133
      Context: Direct pulp capping involves the placement of a biocompatible agent on pulp tissue that has been inadvertently exposed from traumatic injury or by iatrogenic means.Aim: To compare the human pulp response to calcium hydroxide and Biodentine as direct pulp-capping agents.Materials and Methods: Pulp exposures were performed on the pulpal floor of forty human permanent premolars. The exposure sites were dressed with either Dycal or Biodentine as pulp-capping materials. After 45 days, teeth were extracted and processed for histological examination.Statistical Analysis: The histological data were subjected to Wilcoxon rank-sum test.Results: The dentinal bridges in teeth that were capped with Biodentine were significantly thicker (P < 0.0001) and more continuous (P = 0.0001) with less pulpal inflammation (P = 0.0044) in comparison to Dycal.Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, Biodentine can be suggested as the material of choice for direct pulp capping procedure instead of Dycal. However, further long-term follow-up in vivo human studies using Biodentine on cariously exposed pulpal teeth are warranted to derive a definite conclusion.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):129-133
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212247
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of dried sunflower seeds on incisal edge abrasion: A rare case
           report

    • Authors: Avita Rath, Priyadarshini H Ramamurthy, Bennete Aloysius Fernandes, Preena Sidhu
      Pages: 134 - 136
      Abstract: Avita Rath, Priyadarshini H Ramamurthy, Bennete Aloysius Fernandes, Preena Sidhu
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):134-136
      Tooth surface loss (TSL) is a complex phenomenon characterized by the loss of hard tooth structure at various locations of the teeth, usually due to more than one factor. TSL due to abrasion can be significant in patients consuming coarse, abrasive diet. The present case reports an interesting incisal edge abrasion in a female patient, attributed to a particular dietary behavior of long-term consumption of sunflower seeds. All her family members and most of the people from her native place were also reported to have similar lesions by the patient. Larger epidemiological studies to assess the prevalence and severity of such abrasive lesions in geographic areas with this particular dietary habit need to be carried out so that people may be made aware and educated about alternative ways of eating sunflower seeds that will not cause any form of tooth wear.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):134-136
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212237
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Endodontic management of mandibular first molars with mid mesial canal: A
           case series

    • Authors: Pradnya Sunil Nagmode, Ankit Vasant Patel, Archana Bhaskar Satpute, Pooja L Gupta
      Pages: 137 - 140
      Abstract: Pradnya Sunil Nagmode, Ankit Vasant Patel, Archana Bhaskar Satpute, Pooja L Gupta
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):137-140
      The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the importance of knowledge of the internal anatomy of root canals for the success of endodontic treatment. Lack of knowledge of anatomic variations and their characteristics in different teeth has been pointed out as one of the main cause of endodontic therapy failure. Dental operating microscope plays a key role in the identification of canal and success of endodontic treatment. This case series describes the endodontic treatment of mandibular first molars with extra root canals, evaluate the occurrence of this extra canal, and discuss the importance of their identification and treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):137-140
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212246
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of teeth associated with large periapical
           lesion using triple antibiotic paste and mineral trioxide aggregate apical
           plug: A case series

    • Authors: Sanjeev Kunhappan, Neerja Kunhappan, KK Saraf, Vaibhav Kridutt
      Pages: 141 - 145
      Abstract: Sanjeev Kunhappan, Neerja Kunhappan, KK Saraf, Vaibhav Kridutt
      Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):141-145
      Periapical diseases are induced as a result of the direct or indirect involvement of oral bacteria. The etiologic factor being the degenerating pulp tissue. A periapical lesion is formed within an area of apical periodontitis which cannot form by itself and is inflammatory in origin. If the microbial etiology of periapical lesions and in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy the lesions regress. Mere surgical removal of the periapical lesions without proper root canal disinfection and obturation will not result in the healing of periapical tissues. Nonsurgical treatment with triple antibiotic paste offers a high success rate in the healing of large periapical lesions. The present clinical cases show the nonsurgical endodontic management of large periapical pathosis using triple antibiotic paste and mineral trioxide aggregate.
      Citation: Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2017 20(2):141-145
      PubDate: Fri,4 Aug 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.212232
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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