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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Journal of Carcinogenesis
  [SJR: 1.152]   [H-I: 26]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1477-3163 - ISSN (Online) 1477-3163
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Review of hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, etiology, and
           carcinogenesis

    • Authors: Yezaz Ahmed Ghouri, Idrees Mian, Julie H Rowe
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Yezaz Ahmed Ghouri, Idrees Mian, Julie H Rowe
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2017 16(1):1-1
      Since the 1970s, the epidemic of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has spread beyond the Eastern Asian predominance and has been increasing in Northern hemisphere, especially in the United States (US) and Western Europe. It occurs more commonly in males in the fourth and fifth decades of life. Among all cancers, HCC is one of the fastest growing causes of death in the US and poses a significant economic burden on healthcare. Chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus and alcohol accounts for the majority of HCC cases. Incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been on the risem and it has also been associated with the development of HCC. Its pathogenesis varies based on the underlying etiological factor although majority of cases develop in the setting of background cirrhosis. Carcinogenesis of HCC includes angiogenesis, chronic inflammation, and tumor macroenvironment and microenvironment. There is a significant role of both intrinsic genetic risk factors and extrinsic influences such as alcohol or viral infections that lead to the development of HCC. Understanding its etiopathogenesis helps select appropriate diagnostic tests and treatments.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2017 16(1):1-1
      PubDate: Mon,29 May 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/jcar.JCar_9_16
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Role of matrix metalloproteinase 13 gene expression in the evaluation of
           radiation response in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    • Authors: Shankar Sharan Singh, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Vandana Singh Kushwaha, Anshuman Singh, Rajendra Kumar, Rajeev Gupta, Devendra Parmar
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Shankar Sharan Singh, Madan Lal Brahma Bhatt, Vandana Singh Kushwaha, Anshuman Singh, Rajendra Kumar, Rajeev Gupta, Devendra Parmar
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2017 16(1):2-2
      BACKGROUND: Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) is a member of collagenase family and it is involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix and basement membrane protein. It is thought to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Elevated MMP13 expression has been found in carcinoma of the breast, urinary bladder, head and neck and others. It is observed that MMP13 gene is also correlated with radiation response in OSCC (Oral squamous cell carcinoma) cell line based study. The present study correlates the MMP13 expressions with clinicopathological parameters and radiation response in OSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MMP13 mRNA levels were determined by employing qRT-PCR (real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction). RESULTS: We observed high expression of MMP13 mRNA in OSCC patients when compared with matched controls. Statistically significant up regulation of MMP13 mRNA expression was found in tobacco chewers, advanced T-stage (p < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.01). MMP13 mRNA levels were also elevated in non responders as compared to responders to radiation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that indicates role of MMP13 in radiation response in OSCC patients and could be used as potential bio-marker for radiotherapy treatment in OSCC patients.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2017 16(1):2-2
      PubDate: Mon,19 Jun 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/jcar.JCar_5_16
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The impact of gender, race, socioeconomic status, and treatment on
           outcomes in esophageal cancer: A population-based analysis

    • Authors: Phu N Tran, Thomas H Taylor, Samuel J Klempner, Jason A Zell
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Phu N Tran, Thomas H Taylor, Samuel J Klempner, Jason A Zell
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2017 16(1):3-3
      Background: African Americans and Hispanics are reported to have higher mortality from esophageal cancer (EC) than Caucasians. In this study, we analyzed the independent effects of race, gender, treatment, and socioeconomic status (SES) on overall survival (OS). Methods: Data for all EC cases between 2004 and 2010 with follow-up through 2012 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. We conducted descriptive analyses of clinical variables and survival analyses by Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods. Results: African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be in the lower SES strata and less likely to receive surgery than Caucasians in this cohort. The proportion of patients receiving chemotherapy and radiotherapy was similar across different racial/ethnic groups. After adjustment for stage, grade, histology, treatments, and SES in multivariate analyses, the mortality risk in African Americans (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85–1.07) and Hispanics (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.89–1.07) did not differ from Caucasians (HR = 1.00, referent), with histology, SES, and surgery largely accounting for unadjusted OS differences. We also observed that African American men had higher adjusted risk of death relative to Caucasian men (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07–1.42), but this effect was not observed for African American women compared to Caucasian women (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.94–1.35). Conclusions: Race is not an independent risk factor for OS in our population-based analysis of EC cases. Rather, observed differences in OS by race/ethnicity result from differences in cancer histology, SES, surgery, and gender. Our findings support further health disparities research for this disease.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2017 16(1):3-3
      PubDate: Mon,18 Sep 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/jcar.JCar_4_17
      Issue No: Vol. 16, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Antiangiogenic mechanisms and factors in breast cancer treatment

    • Authors: Jessica M Castañeda-Gill, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Jessica M Castañeda-Gill, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2016 15(1):1-1
      Breast cancer is known to metastasize in its latter stages of existence. The different angiogenic mechanisms and factors that allow for its progression are reviewed in this article. Understanding these mechanisms and factors will allow researchers to design drugs to inhibit angiogenic behaviors and control the rate of tumor growth.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2016 15(1):1-1
      PubDate: Fri,12 Feb 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.176223
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • ACOS Abstracts

    • Authors: Gopala Kovvali
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Gopala Kovvali
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2016 15(1):2-2

      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2016 15(1):2-2
      PubDate: Thu,7 Apr 2016
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • The well-accepted notion that gene amplification contributes to increased
           expression still remains, after all these years, a reasonable but unproven
           assumption

    • Authors: Yuping Jia, Lichan Chen, Qingwen Jia, Xixi Dou, Ningzhi Xu, Dezhong Joshua Liao
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Yuping Jia, Lichan Chen, Qingwen Jia, Xixi Dou, Ningzhi Xu, Dezhong Joshua Liao
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2016 15(1):3-3
      "Gene amplification causes overexpression" is a longstanding and well-accepted concept in cancer genetics. However, raking the whole literature, we find only statistical analyses showing a positive correlation between gene copy number and expression level, but do not find convincing experimental corroboration for this notion, for most of the amplified oncogenes in cancers. Since an association does not need to be an actual causal relation, in our opinion, this widespread notion still remains a reasonable but unproven assumption awaiting experimental verification.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2016 15(1):3-3
      PubDate: Fri,20 May 2016
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.182809
      Issue No: Vol. 15, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Invited Speakers' Abstracts

    • Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract:
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(2):9-15

      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(2):9-15
      PubDate: Tue,10 Feb 2015
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Delegates' Abstracts (General)

    • Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract:
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(2):16-20

      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(2):16-20
      PubDate: Tue,10 Feb 2015
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Delegates' Abstracts (Students)

    • Pages: 21 - 38
      Abstract:
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(2):21-38

      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(2):21-38
      PubDate: Tue,10 Feb 2015
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cancer review: Cholangiocarcinoma

    • Authors: Yezaz Ahmed Ghouri, Idrees Mian, Boris Blechacz
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Yezaz Ahmed Ghouri, Idrees Mian, Boris Blechacz
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):1-1
      Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common biliary tract malignancy. CCA is classified as intrahepatic, perihilar or distal extrahepatic; the individual subtypes differ in their biologic behavior, clinical presentation, and management. Throughout the last decades, CCA incidence rates had significantly increased. In addition to known established risk factors, novel possible risk factors (i.e. obesity, hepatitis C virus) have been identified that are of high importance in developed countries where CCA prevalence rates have been low. CCA tends to develop on the background of inflammation and cholestasis. In recent years, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinogenesis has increased, thereby, providing the basis for molecularly targeted therapies. In its diagnostic evaluation, imaging techniques have improved, and the role of complementary techniques has been defined. There is a need for improved CCA biomarkers as currently used ones are suboptimal. Multiple staging systems have been developed, but none of these is optimal. The prognosis of CCA is considered dismal. However, treatment options have improved throughout the last two decades for carefully selected subgroups of CCA patients. Perihilar CCA can now be treated with orthotopic liver transplantation with neoadjuvant chemoradiation achieving 5-year survival rates of 68%. Classically considered chemotherapy-resistant, the ABC-02 trial has shown the therapeutic benefit of combination therapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin. The benefits of adjuvant treatments for resectable CCA, local ablative therapies and molecularly targeted therapies still need to be defined. In this article, we will provide the reader with an overview over CCA, and discuss the latest developments and controversies.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):1-1
      PubDate: Mon,23 Feb 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.151940
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Zoledronic acid directly suppresses cell proliferation and induces
           apoptosis in highly tumorigenic prostate and breast cancers: Retraction

    • Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract:
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):2-2

      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):2-2
      PubDate: Mon,23 Feb 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.151965
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: Review of current knowledge, diagnostic
           challenges, and management options

    • Authors: Tanima Jana, Jennifer Shroff, Manoop S Bhutani
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Tanima Jana, Jennifer Shroff, Manoop S Bhutani
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):3-3
      Pancreatic cystic lesions are being detected with increasing frequency, largely due to advances in cross-sectional imaging. The most common neoplasms include serous cystadenomas, mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasms. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are currently used as imaging modalities. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration has proved to be a useful diagnostic tool, and enables an assessment of tumor markers, cytology, chemistries, and DNA analysis. Here, we review the current literature on pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including classification, diagnosis, treatment, and recommendations for surveillance. Data for this manuscript was acquired via searching the literature from inception to December 2014 on PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):3-3
      PubDate: Sat,14 Mar 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.153285
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Molecular pathways to therapeutics: Paradigms and challenges in oncology
           meeting report: Carcinogenesis 2015

    • Authors: Ujjwala M Warawdekar, Pradnya Kowtal
      Pages: 4 - 4
      Abstract: Ujjwala M Warawdekar, Pradnya Kowtal
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):4-4
      The search for the most effective therapy with minimum side effects has always been the goal of oncologists and efforts to develop such therapies through understanding disease mechanisms has been the focus of many basic scientists in cancer research, leading to a common interest of convergence. The 5 th International Conference organized by the Carcinogenesis Foundation, USA and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, India, was held between February 11 th and 13 th 2015, at ACTREC. During these proceedings, the scientific community engaged in oncology research discussed novel ideas emerging from the laboratory and their translation into improved clinical outcomes. However, the lack of major success in the genesis of novel cancer therapeutics that is safe and provides long-term relief to patients is a challenge that needs to be overcome. The focus of this meeting was to highlight these challenges and to encourage collaborations between scientists and clinicians and clearly a message through exemplary scientific contribution was conveyed to all the dedicated scientists and clinician that even if two decades of tireless work on a single idea does not generate a reliable and safe therapy, the combat to rein cancer must not cease. In this report we have communicated some of the outstanding work done in the areas of cancer therapeutics, biomarkers and prevention and described the salient observations associated with cancer stem cells in disease progression and some of the pathways implicated in tumor progression.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):4-4
      PubDate: Thu,21 May 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.157434
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRTC1 and BARX1 are associated with
           esophageal adenocarcinoma

    • Authors: Anna M. J. van Nistelrooij, Hetty A. G. M. van der Korput, Linda Broer, Ronald van Marion, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Carel J van Noesel, Katharina Biermann, Manon C. W. Spaander, Hugo W Tilanus, J Jan B. van Lanschot, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Bas P. L. Wijnhoven, Winand N. M. Dinjens
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Anna M. J. van Nistelrooij, Hetty A. G. M. van der Korput, Linda Broer, Ronald van Marion, Mark I van Berge Henegouwen, Carel J van Noesel, Katharina Biermann, Manon C. W. Spaander, Hugo W Tilanus, J Jan B. van Lanschot, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Bas P. L. Wijnhoven, Winand N. M. Dinjens
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):5-5
      Objective: Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and Barrett's esophagus (BE) were identified; rs10419226 (CRTC10), rs11789015 (BARX1), rs2687201 (FOXP10), rs2178146 (FOXF1), rs3111601 (FOXF10), and rs9936833 (FOXF1). These findings indicate that genetic susceptibility could play a role in the initiation of EAC in BE patients. The aim of this study was to validate the association between these previously identified SNPs and the risk of EAC in an independent and large case-control study. Design: Six SNPs found to be associated with EAC and BE were genotyped by a multiplex SNaPshot analysis in 1071 EAC patients diagnosed and treated in the Netherlands. Allele frequencies were compared to a control group derived from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study (n = 6206). Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR). Results: Rs10419226 (CRTC1) showed a significantly increased EAC risk for the minor allele (OR = 1.17, P = 0.001), and rs11789015 (BARX1) showed a significantly decreased risk for the minor allele (OR = 0.85, P = 0.004) in the logistic regression analysis. The meta-analysis of the original GWAS and the current study revealed an improved level of significance for rs10419226 (CRTC1) (OR = 1.18, P = 6.66 × 10–10 ) and rs11789015 (BARX1) (OR = 0.83, P = 1.13 × 10–8 ). Conclusions: This independent and large Dutch case-control study confirms the association of rs10419226 (CRTC1) and rs11789015 (BARX1) with the risk of EAC. These findings suggest a contribution of the patient genetic make-up to the development of EAC and might contribute to gain more insight in the etiology of this cancer.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):5-5
      PubDate: Thu,21 May 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.157441
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Role of genomics in eliminating health disparities

    • Authors: Meghana V Kashyap, Michael Nolan, Marc Sprouse, Ranajit Chakraborty, Deanna Cross, Rhonda Roby, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
      Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Meghana V Kashyap, Michael Nolan, Marc Sprouse, Ranajit Chakraborty, Deanna Cross, Rhonda Roby, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):6-6
      The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education, and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2014 Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts in research, patient care, and community outreach on the "Role of Genomics in Eliminating Health Disparities." Rapid advances in genomics and pharmacogenomics are leading the field of medicine to use genetics and genetic risk to build personalized or individualized medicine strategies. We are at a critical juncture of ensuring such rapid advances benefit diverse populations. Relatively few forums have been organized around the theme of the role of genomics in eliminating health disparities. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing "Gene-Environment Interactions and Health Disparities," "Personalized Medicine and Elimination of Health Disparities," and "Ethics and Public Policy in the Genomic Era." This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates, and public health data presented by the speakers.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):6-6
      PubDate: Fri,11 Sep 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.165158
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen,
           and cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with effusion from nonsmall cell
           lung cancer

    • Authors: Sushil Kumar Sharma, Sanjay Bhat, Vikas Chandel, Mayank Sharma, Pulkit Sharma, Sakul Gupta, Sashank Sharma, Aijaz Ahmed Bhat
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Sushil Kumar Sharma, Sanjay Bhat, Vikas Chandel, Mayank Sharma, Pulkit Sharma, Sakul Gupta, Sashank Sharma, Aijaz Ahmed Bhat
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):7-7
      Aims: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 (cytokeratin 19 fragments) in serum and pleural fluid in non small cell lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Settings and Design: Two subsets of patients were recruited with lymphocytic exudative effusion, one subset constituted diagnosed patients of NSCLC with malignant pleural effusion and the other subset of constituted with Tubercular pleural effusion. Methods and Material : CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels were measured using Electrochemilumiscence Immunoassay (ECLIA). The test principle used the Sandwich method. For both the tests, results are determined via a calibration curve which is instrument specifically generated by 2 - point calibration and a master curve provided via reagent barcode. Statistical Analysis Used: All data are expressed as means ± SD and percentage. All the parametric variables were analysed by student-t test where as non parametric variables were compared by Mann-Whitney U-test Statistical significance was accepted for P values < 0.05. Software used were SPSS 11.5, and MS excel 2007. In order to compare the performance of the tumor markers, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and compared with area under the curve (AUC). The threshold for each marker was selected based on the best diagnostic efficacy having achieved equilibrium between sensitivity and specificity. Results: In cases serum CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 34.1 ± 29.9 with a range of 1.6-128.3 where as in controls serum CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 1.9 ± 1.0 with a range of 0.5-4.7. In cases serum CEA levels had mean value of 24.9 ± 47.3 with a range of 1.0, 267.9 where as in controls serum CEA levels had mean value of 1.9 ± 1.4 with a range of 0.2-6.8. The difference in the means of serum CYFRA 21-l (P = 0.000) and CEA (P = 0.046) were statistically significant. In cases pleural fluid CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 160.1 ± 177.1 with a range of 5.4-517.2 where as in controls pleural fluid CYFRA21-1 levels had mean value of 15.9 ± 5.7 with a range of 7.2-29.6. In cases CEA pleural fluid levels had mean value of 89.8 ± 207.4 with a range of 1.0-861.2 where as in controls CEA levels had mean value of 2.5 ± 2.3 with a range of 1-8.9. The difference in the means of CYERA 21-1 (P = 0.001) between cases and controls is statistically significant. Conclusions: CYFRA21-1 (serum - pleural fluid) is a sensitive marker for NSCLC with sensitivity of 96.7%, highest of any combination [Serum (CYFRA 21-1 - CEA). CEA (Serum + Pleural Fluid), Pleural Fluid (CYFRA 21-1 + CEA)] and specificity of 77.8%. Levels of CYFRA21-l (serum + pleural fluid) are increased in malignant pleural effusion, so it is better to be used in suspicious malignant pleural effusion showing negative cytology, particularly in the absence of a visible tumor and or unsuitability for invasive procedure.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2015 14(1):7-7
      PubDate: Fri,27 Nov 2015
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.170662
      Issue No: Vol. 14, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • BRAF and beyond: Tailoring strategies for the individual melanoma patient

    • Authors: Anthony Jarkowski, Nikhil I Khushalani
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Anthony Jarkowski, Nikhil I Khushalani
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):1-1
      Until recently, options for therapy in metastatic melanoma were limited. The understanding of immune check-point blockade and the discovery of molecular pathways involving driver mutations like BRAF has transformed the therapeutic landscape in this disease. Ipilimumab was the first drug shown to improve survival while vemurafenib demonstrated rapid responses never seen before in melanoma. Drugs from these classes and others are now in advanced stages of development and primed to positively impact patient survival in an incremental fashion. In this review, we highlight some of the developments during this renaissance in melanoma therapy and discuss agents of promise. Clinical challenges we face include individualizing therapy for patients, overcoming resistance to molecularly targeted therapy and developing rationale combinations or sequences of drugs. A concerted bench and bedside effort in this direction will undoubtedly keep melanoma in the forefront in an era of personalized medicine.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):1-1
      PubDate: Fri,7 Feb 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.126759
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Antisense oligonucleotides directed against insulin-like growth factor-II
           messenger ribonucleic acids delay the progress of rat hepatocarcinogenesis
           

    • Authors: Miltu Kumar Ghosh, Falguni Patra, Shampa Ghosh, Chowdhury Mobaswar Hossain, Biswajit Mukherjee
      Pages: 2 - 2
      Abstract: Miltu Kumar Ghosh, Falguni Patra, Shampa Ghosh, Chowdhury Mobaswar Hossain, Biswajit Mukherjee
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):2-2
      Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep complex process, caused by many of genetic alteration. Insulin-like growth factors and their receptor have been widely implicated to HCC. Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a mitogenic polypeptide, found in various fetal and neonatal tissues of humans and rats and expresses in HCC. Here we investigated anticancer potential of phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) against three coding exons (exon-1/exon-2/exon-3) of IGF-II messenger ribonucleic acid in rat hepatocarcinogenesis model. Materials and Methods: During diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene induced hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were treated with ASOs. Various biochemical and histological studies were conducted. Results: About 40% of carcinogen treated rats, which received two oligomers (against exon-1 or-3) did not show any hepatic lesion, hyperplastic nodule or tumor and remaining 60% of those rats showed lesion incidence and had about 59% and 55% reductions in the numbers of hepatic altered foci, respectively. Reductions in the total lesion-area when compared with carcinogen control rats were 64% and 53%, respectively for the animals treated with carcinogen and received the ASOs against exon-1/-3. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ASO reached in the hepatocytes in 2 h. No predominant IGF-II overexpression was observed in case of rats treated with the two ASOs. Treatment of the antisense IGF-II oligomers in carcinogen treated rats show better hepatocellular integrity along with several preneoplastic/neoplastic marker isoenzyme/enzyme modulations. Conclusions: Two of the three antisense oligomer-types effectively controlled IGF-II overexpression, causing the delay of the development and/or progress of hepatic cancer in rats.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):2-2
      PubDate: Fri,7 Feb 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.126761
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Targeted therapy for renal cell carcinoma: The next lap

    • Authors: Ravindran Kanesvaran, Min-Han Tan
      Pages: 3 - 3
      Abstract: Ravindran Kanesvaran, Min-Han Tan
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):3-3
      Advances in rationally targeted therapeutics over the last decade have transformed the clinical care of advanced kidney cancer. While oncologists consolidate the gains of the wave of new agents, comprising a panoply of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors and inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), there is an increasing sense that a plateau has been reached in the short term. It is sobering that all currently approved targeted therapies have not yielded durable remissions and remain palliative in intent. In the context of recent insights in kidney cancer biology, we review promising ongoing and future approaches for kidney cancer therapeutics aimed toward forging new paths in the systemic management of renal cell carcinoma. Broadly, candidate agents for such innovative strategies include immune check-point inhibitors, anti-cancer stem cell agents, next-generation anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and anti-mTOR agents as well as more investigational agents in the preclinical and early clinical development settings.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):3-3
      PubDate: Thu,20 Feb 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.127638
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Targeted therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies

    • Authors: Ravi Chhatrala, Yasmin Thanavala, Renuka Iyer
      Pages: 4 - 4
      Abstract: Ravi Chhatrala, Yasmin Thanavala, Renuka Iyer
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):4-4
      Increased understanding of cancer pathogenesis has identified several pathways that serve as potential targets for novel targeted agents in development. The selection of targeted cancer therapy based on biomarkers has instigated a new era of personalized medicine and changed the way we practice oncology. Many targeted agents are approved for treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies most targeting tumor angiogenesis, and many more are in different phases of development. Here we briefly summarize nine different targeted agents that are approved currently in the U.S. and several other agents currently being studied in various gastrointestinal cancers.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):4-4
      PubDate: Thu,20 Feb 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.127639
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Novel agents in the management of castration resistant prostate cancer

    • Authors: Shruti Chaturvedi, Jorge A Garcia
      Pages: 5 - 5
      Abstract: Shruti Chaturvedi, Jorge A Garcia
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):5-5
      Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in men and despite high cure rates with surgery and/or radiation, 30-40% of patients will eventually develop advanced disease. Androgen deprivation is the first line therapy for standard of care for men with advanced disease. Eventually however all men will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Insight into the molecular mechanisms of androgen resistance has led to the development of alternative novel hormonal agents. Newer hormonal agents such as abiraterone, enzalutamide and TOK-001; and the first cancer vaccine, Sipuleucel T have been approved for use in men with CRPC. The recognition of the importance of bone health and morbidity associated with skeletal related events has led to the introduction of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B-ligand inhibitor denosumab. Other molecularly targeted therapies have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but this has not consistently translated into clinical efficacy. It is increasingly evident that CRPC is a heterogeneous disease and an individualized approach directed at identifying primary involvement of specific pathways could maximize the benefit from targeted therapies. This review focuses on targeted therapy for PCa with special emphasis on therapies that have been Food and Drug Administration approved for use in men with CRPC.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):5-5
      PubDate: Wed,5 Mar 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.128185
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Systems oncology: A new paradigm in cancer research

    • Authors: Gopala Kovvali
      Pages: 6 - 6
      Abstract: Gopala Kovvali
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):6-6

      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):6-6
      PubDate: Tue,11 Mar 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.128641
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Inhibitory potential of methanolic extracts of Aristolochia tagala and
           Curcuma caesia on hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine
           in BALB/c mice

    • Authors: Khetbadei Lysinia Hynniewta Hadem, Rajeshwar Nath Sharan, Lakhan Kma
      Pages: 7 - 7
      Abstract: Khetbadei Lysinia Hynniewta Hadem, Rajeshwar Nath Sharan, Lakhan Kma
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):7-7
      Context: Aristolochia tagala (AT) and Curcuma caesia (CC) have been used traditionally by local herbal practitioners for cancer treatment and as chief ingredients of many polyherbal formulations for various types of ailments. However, there is void in scientific study to evaluate their anti-cancer property. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-carcinogenic properties of the crude methanolic extracts of roots of AT and rhizomes of CC in BALB/c mice exposed to a hepatocarcinogen, diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Settings and Design: (I) Toxicity of herbal plant extracts (HPE); (II) Anticancer studies; (III) Histological studies; and (IV) Biochemical studies. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effects of these two HPE either alone or following DEN exposure, serum transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT]), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and cancer marker enzyme acetylcholine esterase (AChE) were assayed in mice. In addition, histological study was also carried out under similar conditions. The antioxidant potentials of the HPE were evaluated by monitoring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolites, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH). Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 6 Software using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Our findings show that DEN administration elevated AST, ALT, ALP, and AChE activities. CC or AT extracts attenuated the increased activities of these marker enzymes. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, which were decreased following DEN administration, were significantly increased in mice treated with CC or AT. Conclusions: The present study clearly documents anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties of AT and CC in DEN-induced mouse liver cancer in vivo.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):7-7
      PubDate: Fri,30 May 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.133520
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer

    • Authors: Geetha Pukazhendhi, Stefan Glück
      Pages: 8 - 8
      Abstract: Geetha Pukazhendhi, Stefan Glück
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):8-8
      Circulating tumor cell (CTC) measurement in peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer offers prognostic information. In this review, we will try to identify evidence that could be used for prognosis, predictive power to draw this tool to clinical utility. We reviewed 81 manuscripts, and categorized those in discovery datasets, prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer, identification of clinical utility in early breast cancer and in novel approaches. With each patient responding differently to chemotherapy, more efficient markers would improve clinical outcome. Current CTC diagnostic techniques use epithelial markers predominantly; however, the most appropriate method is the measurement of circulating DNA. It has been hypothesized that micrometastasis occurs early in the development of tumors. That implies the presence of CTCs in nonmetastatic setting. The origin of stimulus for malignant transformation is yet unknown. The role of microenvironment as a stimulus is also being investigated. It has been shown that CTCs vary in numbers with chemotherapy. The markers, which are followed-up in the primary tumors, are also being studied on the CTCs. There is discordance of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status between the primary tumor and CTCs. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the CTCs. With genetic profiling and molecular characterization of CTCs, it is possible to overcome the diagnostic difficulties. Evidence for clinical utility of CTC as prognostic and predictive marker is increasing. Appropriate patient stratification according to CTC determination among other tests, would make personalized cancer therapy more feasible.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):8-8
      PubDate: Fri,27 Jun 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.135578
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and
           dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in
           mice

    • Authors: Ji-Kang Jeong, Hee-Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park
      Pages: 9 - 9
      Abstract: Ji-Kang Jeong, Hee-Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):9-9
      Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):9-9
      PubDate: Tue,29 Jul 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.137699
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, p53, Bcl2, vascular
           endothelial growth factor, cyclooxygenase-2, cyclin D1, human epidermal
           receptor-2 and Ki-67: Association with clinicopathological profiles and
           outcomes in gallbladder carcinoma

    • Authors: Dinesh Chandra Doval, Saud Azam, Rupal Sinha, Ullas Batra, Anurag Mehta
      Pages: 10 - 10
      Abstract: Dinesh Chandra Doval, Saud Azam, Rupal Sinha, Ullas Batra, Anurag Mehta
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):10-10
      Background: The present study observed the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), p53, Bcl2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2), cyclin D1, human epidermal receptor-2 (HER-2) and Ki-67 in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and their association with clinicopathological profiles and disease outcomes. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive samples of cholecystectomy/biopsies from GB bed (archived formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of different stages of GBC) were included, and patient details related to their demographic profile, investigations, tumor profile, treatment, and follow-up were recorded. Immunohistochemistry was performed to study the expression levels. Results: Overexpression of EGFR, p53, Bcl2, VEGF, cox-2, cyclin D1 and HER-2 was observed as 74%, 44%, 8%, 34%, 66%, 64%, and 4%, respectively. Association of Bcl2 overexpression in mucinous morphology (40%, P = 0.045), cox-2 overexpression in early stage (I/II) tumors (87.5%, P = 0.028) and VEGF overexpression in alive patients (47.1%, P = 0.044) was observed. Co-expression of EGFR and p53 were statistically significant (P = 0.033). Ki-67 labeling index was significantly higher in patients in age group
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):10-10
      PubDate: Mon,25 Aug 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.139450
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Esophageal cancer: Recent advances in screening, targeted therapy, and
           management

    • Authors: Puja Gaur, Min P Kim, Brian J Dunkin
      Pages: 11 - 11
      Abstract: Puja Gaur, Min P Kim, Brian J Dunkin
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):11-11
      The incidence of esophageal cancer remains on the rise worldwide and despite aggressive research in the field of gastrointestinal oncology, the survival remains poor. Much remains to be defined in esophageal cancer, including the development of an effective screening tool, identifying a good tumor marker for surveillance purposes, ways to target esophageal cancer stem cells as well as circulating tumor cells, and developing minimally invasive protocols to treat early-stage disease. The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the recent advances and ongoing research in the field of esophageal cancer.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):11-11
      PubDate: Thu,30 Oct 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.143720
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    • Authors: Kathleen M Decker, Harminder Singh
      Pages: 12 - 12
      Abstract: Kathleen M Decker, Harminder Singh
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):12-12
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):12-12
      PubDate: Fri,14 Nov 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.144576
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • The advent of precision therapy in gastrointestinal malignancies:
           Targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor family in colorectal
           and esophagogastric cancer

    • Authors: Danielle Desautels, Craig Harlos, Piotr Czaykowski
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Danielle Desautels, Craig Harlos, Piotr Czaykowski
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):13-13
      Until recently, systemic therapy for gastrointestinal malignancies was restricted to relatively noncancer-specific cytotoxic chemotherapy. Over the last 15 years targeted therapies have become available, most notably bevacizumab in the case of advanced colorectal cancer. Unfortunately, there are no predictive biomarkers to guide the use of this agent. In this review article, we describe the advent of "Precision Medicine" (in part, the use of patient-specific molecular markers to inform treatment) in gastrointestinal cancers: The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor in advanced colorectal cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-neu in advanced esophagogastric cancer. In both instances, biomarkers help in selecting appropriate patients for such treatment.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):13-13
      PubDate: Thu,27 Nov 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.145609
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Gastric cancer review

    • Authors: Lauren Peirce Carcas
      Pages: 14 - 14
      Abstract: Lauren Peirce Carcas
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):14-14
      Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC) staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2014 13(1):14-14
      PubDate: Fri,19 Dec 2014
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.146506
      Issue No: Vol. 13, No. 1 (2014)
       
  • Inhibitory effects of meju prepared with mixed starter cultures on
           azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in
           mice

    • Authors: Ji-Kang Jeong, Hee-Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park
      Pages: 13 - 13
      Abstract: Ji-Kang Jeong, Hee-Kyung Chang, Kun-Young Park
      Journal of Carcinogenesis 2012 11(1):13-13
      Backgrounds: Meju is the main ingredient and the starter culture of traditional Korean fermented soybean foods; these fermented soybean products are well-known for their various health benefits, including anticancer effects. We developed the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures to improve the qualities and functionalities of fermented soybean products, as well as the meju itself. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the grain-type meju were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. Materials and Methods: AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice and meju was orally administered for 4 weeks. The body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically observed. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: The administration of meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer and reduced number of neoplasia, and reduced serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. It increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in colonic tissues. Conclusion: The meju showed inhibitory effects on the progression of colon cancer induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the number of neoplasias and regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels and the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.
      Citation: Journal of Carcinogenesis 2012 11(1):13-13
      PubDate: Mon,1 Jan 1900
      DOI: 10.4103/1477-3163.100404
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (1900)
       
 
 
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