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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 429 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 429 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Medica Intl.     Open Access   (SJR: 0.101, CiteScore: 0)
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Skeletal Muscle Function Assessment     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.25, CiteScore: 1)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alexandria J. of Pediatrics     Open Access  
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.258, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.308, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Indian Academy of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery     Open Access  
Annals of Indian Psychiatry     Open Access  
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.352, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.238, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.524, CiteScore: 1)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Annals of Tropical Pathology     Open Access  
Apollo Medicine     Open Access  
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access  
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.187, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.302, CiteScore: 1)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Medicine and Surgery     Open Access  
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Archives of Trauma Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 2)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.856, CiteScore: 2)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.35, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Reproduction     Open Access   (SJR: 0.227, CiteScore: 1)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.491, CiteScore: 2)
Asian Pacific J. of Tropical Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.561, CiteScore: 2)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian J. of Rural Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (SJR: 0.202, CiteScore: 0)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cardiology Plus     Open Access  
Chinese Medical J.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.52, CiteScore: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Cancer Investigation J.     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.811, CiteScore: 2)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.353, CiteScore: 1)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.543, CiteScore: 1)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.152, CiteScore: 0)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.416, CiteScore: 1)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.242, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.799, CiteScore: 2)
Egyptian J. of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.155, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.127, CiteScore: 0)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Nursing J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.822, CiteScore: 2)
Environmental Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Eurasian J. of Pulmonology     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.749, CiteScore: 2)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.12, CiteScore: 0)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.113, CiteScore: 0)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.112, CiteScore: 0)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.153, CiteScore: 0)
Glioma     Open Access  
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gynecology and Minimally Invasive Therapy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Hamdan Medical J.     Open Access  
Heart and Mind     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ibnosina J. of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Imam J. of Applied Sciences     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.478, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.361, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.37, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.604, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.266, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.468, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.445, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.791, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.568, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.425, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.656, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.102, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.347, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.23, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.225, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.498, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.392, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.199, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.276, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.412, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.408, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.368, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Respiratory Care     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.119, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.34, CiteScore: 0)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Transplantation     Open Access  
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.434, CiteScore: 1)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian Spine J.     Open Access  
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intervention     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. Archives of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Abdominal Wall and Hernia Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Clinicopathological Correlation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Community Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.192, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.142, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Growth Factors and Stem Cells in Dentistry     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.535, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.17, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orofacial Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.623, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of the Cardiovascular Academy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.105, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.4, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Green Pharmacy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.142
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0973-8258 - ISSN (Online) 1998-4103
Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [429 journals]
  • Memory enhancing effect of various polar and non-polar extracts of
           Plumbago zeylanica Linn. roots

    • Authors: Vaibhav Uplanchiwar
      Abstract: Aim: The main aim of our study is to evaluate the memory enhancing effect of various extracts of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. roots in suitable animals models. Materials and Methods: Roots were extracted by successive solvent methods by petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, butanol, and finally water. All the extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening for the presence of various active phytoconstituents. All the extracts were evaluated by Morris water test, and brain acetylcholinesterase level was measured. Result: The chloroform extract showed the presence of alkaloids. Among all the extracts, chloroform extract significantly decreased the escape latency and increased the time spent in target quadrant. Chloroform extract significantly lowers the level of acetylcholinesterase level as compared to all other extracts. Conclusion: Among all the extracts, chloroform extract significantly increased the learning and memory in Morris water test and lowered the brain acetylcholinesterase level.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1624
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Cashew
           (Anacardium occidentale) Nut Shell Waste

    • Authors: Dr. Yuttana Sudjaroen
      Abstract: Context: Antioxidants have been used in the food industry particularly as dietary supplements and additives to preserve food quality during transportation and storage. In the Southern of Thailand, especially in Ranong Province, cashew nut is one major of agriculture product and the volume of cashew nut shell is becoming increase as by-product. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate antioxidant activity, antibacterial activity against to common food borne pathogens, and cytotoxicity to mammal cells of cashew nut shell waste. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of cashew nut shell waste was 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical scavenging assays. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of water extract (CW) and ethanol extract (CE) of cashew nut shell waste was done against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumanii by resazurin microplate assay (REMA). Cytotoxicity of CW and CE was determined by REMA and used human dermal fibroblasts, a neonatal (HDFn)–neonatal dermal fibroblast and Vero cells as mammal cells. Results and Discussion: Cashew nut shell waste extract (150 μg/ml) was inhibited DPPH and ABTS radical by 75.5 ± 1.4 and 97.1 ± 1.4%, which calculated to 57.1 ± 1.0 and 56.2 ± 0.6 μmol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, respectively. Water (CW) and ethanol (CE) extracts of cashew nut shell waste were inhibited S. aureus, B. cereus, and E. faecium with minimal inhibitory concentration = 3.13, 3.13, and 6.25 μg/ml, respectively. CW and CE (3.13-100 μg/ml) were insufficient cytotoxic against Vero cells and HDFn-neonatal dermal fibroblast. Conclusions: Cashew nut shell waste may apply for food additives used, as well as, to reduce or diminish agricultural waste production.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1625
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Phytochemical investigation, in vitro antioxidant, and in vivo
           antidepressant activity of ethanolic leaf extract Antigonon leptopus

    • Authors: Dr. G. V. N. Kiranmayi
      Abstract: Aim: The present investigation deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening, in vitro antioxidant, and in vivo antidepressant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Antigonon leptopus. Materials and Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the parameters such as free radical scavenging using phosphomolybdenum antioxidant assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging. Ascorbic acid (AA) with the same concentration was used as an standard antioxidant. Extract was investigated further for its antidepressant activity using the forced swim test, tail suspension test, and locomotor activity using digital photoactometer. AA, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), and imipramine (4 mg/kg, p.o) were used as reference drugs for comparison in the antioxidant and antidepressant experiments, respectively. Results and Discussions: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponins, and flavonoids. The presence of these bioactive constituents is associated with the antioxidant and antidepressant activity of the plant. The IC50 values of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals were found to be 216 and 20.8 ug/ml for extract and 24.54 and 33.1 ug/ml for AA. It has been observed from our study that the extract showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in immobility in tail suspension and forced swim model of depression comparable to imipramine. In locomotor activity testing, it showed psychostimulant effect comparable to that of standard fluoxetine. Conclusion: The results indicated that dose-dependent in vitro antioxidant activity against phosphomolybdenum antioxidant assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging by ethanolic leaf extract of A. leptopus comparable with that of standard AA. The antioxidant and antidepressant effect of A. leptopus seems to be mediated due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1626
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro evaluation of
           anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and thrombolytic activities of ethanolic
           leaf extract of Bauhinia purpurea

    • Authors: G. V. N. Kiranmayi
      Abstract: Aim: The aim of the present study is to carry out the preliminary phytochemical screening followed by an investigation of the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and thrombolytic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Bauhinia purpurea. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done to find the presence of various secondary metabolites of the plant. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by human red blood cell (HRBC) method. Using hypotonic solution-induced human erythrocyte lysis model, membrane-stabilizing activity was examined by considering aspirin as standard. Thrombolytic activity was evaluated using the in vitro clot lysis model. Egg albumin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used to evaluate the antiarthritic potential. Results and Discussion: Phytochemical tests of ethanolic leaf extract of B. purpurea indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, lignin’s, carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, saponins, and glycosides. In case of anti-inflammatory activity, the maximum percentage stabilization of HRBC membrane was observed as 59.2% at 500 μg/ml concentration. The maximum percentage inhibition by BSA method and egg albumin method was observed as 82.2% and 94%, respectively, at 500 μg/ml concentration for antiarthritic activity. During assay for thrombolytic activity, it revealed that 91.02 ± 2.6% lysis of clot, while standard streptokinase and water used as positive and negative controls, demonstrated 72.835 ± 5.702% and 2.725 ± 0.983% lysis of clot, respectively.Conclusion: The present outcomes highlight the role of ethanolic leaf extract of B. purpurea for its anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, and thrombolytic activities. It reveals that the phytochemical constituents are responsible for these activities.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1627
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Derivative spectrophotometric methods for the determination of
           escitalopram oxalate (an antidepressant)

    • Authors: Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
      Abstract: Introduction: Escitalopram oxalate is an antidepressant drug. FDA has given approval for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adolescents and adults. New spectrophotometric techniques have been proposed for the determination of Escitalopram oxalate in sodium acetate buffer, borate buffer, and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). Materials and Methods: Double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (SHIMADZU Model UV-1800) was used for the present study. Zero-order and first-order derivative spectrophotometric techniques have been developed for the determination of Escitalopram oxalate in sodium acetate buffer, borate buffer, and phosphate buffer. Results and Discussion: Escitalopram oxalate has shown absorption maxima at 238 nm in all the methods and linearity was observed 1.0–60 μg/ml in all the reagents such as sodium acetate buffer, borate buffer, and phosphate buffer and the methods were validated as per the ICH guidelines. Conclusions: These methods are simple, economical and can be successfully applied for the estimation of Escitalopram oxalate in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1628
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women
           attending antenatal care in Shalla Woreda, W/Arsi Zone, Oromia region

    • Authors: Tsegay Beyene
      Abstract: Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a common problem in many developing countries and affects both mother’s and child’s health. Knowledge of the current status of associated factors in our setting is necessary. This knowledge will motivate antenatal caregivers toward prevention and early detection and of anemia in pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted on 374 pregnant women attending ANC. Blood sample was taken to determine hemoglobin (Hgb) level, and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information. The data were cleaned, coded, and fed into SPSS version 16.0 for descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. Results: Mean Hgb concentration was 12.05g/dl ± 1.5 and the overall anemia prevalence was 36.6%. Having five or more living children (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2), intake of vegetables less than once per day, (OR = 6.7) taking tea always after meal (OR=12.8), and recurrence illness during the current pregnancy (OR = 7.3) were determined as the independently influencing occurrence of anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: This study shows that anemia is a moderate public health problem among pregnant women in the study area. Hence, ANC should put emphasis on routine anemia screening, dietary advice, iron supplementation, and counseling for the use of family planning after delivery to delay the subsequent pregnancy more than 2 years is highly recommended.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1629
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • New stability-indicating ultra-fast liquid chromatographic method for the
           determination of eplerenone - An antimineralocorticoid

    • Authors: Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
      Abstract: Introduction: A new stability indicating RP-UFLC method has been developed for the assay of Eplerenone in presence of and internal standard. Eplerenone is used for the treatment of hypertension, central serious retinopathy and especially in the treatment cardio vascular diseases. Materials and Methods: Shimadzu HPLC system (PDA detector) using Agilent column (150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 3.5 µm particle size) and (isocratic mode) was used for the chromatographic study of Eplerenone with the mixture of 10 mM tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) (UV detection at 242 nm) with flow rate 0.8 mL/min. Stress degradation studies were performed by treating Eplerenone with different reagents to study the degradation profile and the proposed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results and Discussion: Beer-Lambert’s law was obeyed 0.1-40 µg/mL (Correlation coefficient 0.9998). The LOD and LOQ are found to be 0.0291 µg/mL and 0.0863 µg/mL respectively. Conclusions: The proposed RP-UFLC method is precise, accurate and sensitive and the method can be used for the routine analysis of Eplerenone pharmaceutical formulations (Tablets).
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1630
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • New stability-indicating liquid chromatographic method for determination
           of palbociclib (an anti-breast cancer drug)

    • Authors: Pramadvara Kallepalli
      Abstract: Introduction: A simple, sensitive stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of palbociclib. Palbociclib is an anticancer drug used for the treatment of breast cancer. It is a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Materials and Methods: Waters Model 2695 alliance HPLC system (PDA Detector) with Inertsil ODS- 3V (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm) was used for the chromatographic separation. Mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate:acetonitrile (32:68, v/v) was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min (detection wavelength 263 nm) on isocratic mode for the chromatographic study. Results and Discussion: Palbociclib obeys Beer Lambert’s Law over a concentration range 5–1000 µg/ ml. The limit of detection and limit of quantification are found to be 1.6378 and 4.951 µg/ml. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. Forced degradation studies were conducted, and the method was found to be specific. Conclusion: The present RP-HPLC method is simple, precise, and accurate and can be used for the routine analysis of pharmaceutical formulations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1632
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • HPLC as an assay method for the investigation of conditions of bisoprolol
           extraction by organic solvents

    • Authors: Liliya Logoyda
      Abstract: Introduction: Sample preparation is an important step in pharmaceutical analysis and is needed to improve the metrological characteristics of the analysis: Improving accuracy, reliability, correctness and reproducibility of the determination, expanding the range of values studied, accelerating the test, and reducing the error of the results of the analysis. The objective of this research was to select the optimal conditions for the extraction of bisoprolol fumarate by organic solvents from water solutions in dependence on pH solutions. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic analysis of bisoprolol fumarate performed on liquid chromatograph ACQUITY Arc System. Results: The extraction of bisoprolol fumarate by organic solvents from water solutions in dependence on pH solutions has been conducted. The quantitative determination of bisoprolol fumarate by high-performance liquid chromatography methods has been conducted. Conclusion: As a result of studies, we have found out that the optimal extragent is chloroform, which is extracted at pH 10 to 92.57% and methylene chloride is extracted at pH 10–90.08%. We have found that bisoprolol fumarate least extracted with hexane, so these conditions may be cleaned extracts from coextractives impurities.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1633
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • In vitro free radical scavenging potential of Hydroethanolic extract in
           the leaves of Annona muricata

    • Authors: Brindha Durairaj
      Abstract: Objective: The present study was carried out to validate the free radical scavenging activity of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata. Materials and Methods: The A. muricata leaves were evaluated for its scavenging activity against the free radicals such as 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl, and hydrogen peroxide. Results: The obtained results showed that hydroethanolic leaf extract of A. muricata possessed maximum scavenging activity of free radicals at a concentration of 250 µg/mL which was comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Conclusion: The observations suggest that the A. muricata leaf extract might serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant by providing significant protection against oxidative stress.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1634
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Extraction of antioxidants from fruit peel of Artocarpus altilis

    • Authors: Mhd. Riza Marjoni
      Abstract: Aim: Fruit peel of Artocarpus altilis traditionally in West Sumatra has been used and believed to be analgesic and treat other generative diseases. The aim of this study is to quantify the potential of antioxidant activity and the total phenolic and flavonoids contents from methanol extract of fruit peel A. altilis. All of this is intended for waste utilization and to find other natural sources of antioxidants and pharmaceutical formulations in the future. Material and Methods: The antioxidant activity was performed by 2,2´-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and the total yield of phenolic and flavonoids contents was determined using spectrophotometer methods. Results and Discussion: Research results show that fruit peel of A. altilis has an inhibitory concentration 50% 479.31µg/ml, total phenolic content 6277 mg of dry weight of extract, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, and total flavonoid contents 4874 mg expressed in terms of rutin equivalent. Data from the present results show that methanol extract of fruit peel of A. altilis possesses significant free radical scavenging properties and clear correlation exists between the strong antioxidant activity and phenolic and flavonoids contents. Conclusion: The results suggest that fruit peel of A. altilis can be regarded as natural plant sources of antioxidants with high value.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1635
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Use of bioresorbable plates on the basis of collagen and digestase for
           treatment of diseases of oral mucosa (review of clinical cases)

    • Authors: Timoshin Anton Vladimirovich
      Abstract: Mucosa, which lines oral cavity, is adapted to constant contact with irritating factors. It is resistant to action of mechanical, physical, and chemical irritants and to contact with rich flora of oral cavity. However, 3–5% of population have various diseases of oral mucosa (OM). Pathology of OM can develop in response to the action of pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, and various traumatic factors; it can be a result of pathology of viscera and systems of a person. The article describes four clinical cases of the use of bioresorbable plates on the basis of collagen and digestase “Farmadont” for the treatment of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis, traumatic stomatitis, and gingivostomatitis which is caused by herpesvirus (herpes simplex).
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1636
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of effectiveness of a preparation on the basis of
           phytoecdysteroids for treatment of traumatic injuries of oral mucosa in
           orthodontic patients

    • Authors: Kuznetsova Mariya Yur’evna
      Abstract: Aim: To comparison of the effectiveness of the use of the phytoointment on the basis of phytoecdysteroids with effectiveness of the use of conventional synthetic drugs in the treatment of traumatic lesions of oral mucosa in orthodontic patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 orthodontic patients were examined and treated who have acute and chronic traumatic lesions of mucous tunic of lips and cheeks. Following preparations were used for treatment: Phytoointment containing phytoecdysteroids, gel cholisal, and dental paste solcoseryl. During each examination (before start of treatment and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days), a visual evaluation of the state of traumatic injury and photoplanimetric measurement of dimensions of pathological focus were performed. Results and Discussion: Effectiveness of treating the traumas of oral mucosa, which were caused by orthodontic treatment with the help of non-removable appliances, was compared when these traumas were treated by various preparations: Solcoseryl, cholisal, and a new preparation on the basis of phytoecdysteroids. We revealed that among the medicinal preparations, which we compare, the highest effectiveness in the treatment of erosiveulcerous traumatic lesions of oral mucosa is provided by a new phytoointment. Taking into account low cost and absence of side effects, we can recommend this technique of the treatment for use as a method of choice.
      PubDate: 2018-05-19
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1637
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Advancement in sandhana kalpana and role of biotechnology: Need of
           research for diabetic patients

    • Authors: Shruti Pandey
      Abstract: The diabetic population of India is increasing day by day. At the meantime, diabetic patients also adopt ayurvedic treatment for their other chronic ailments. Sandhana Kalpana, which deals with hydroalcoholic oral dosage form, has a number of formulations for various ailments in ayurvedic treasures. However, ayurvedic practitioners failed to prescribe this dosage form to the diabetic patients because of more percentage of sugar content in asava-arishta. Hence, there is need to replace jaggery from other carbohydrate sources, namely, starch and cellulosic material which produce less sugar percentage in asava-arista. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae directly ferment the sugar molecule into alcohol, but starchy and cellulosic feedstocks required specific treatment, before the fermentation process. Different researchers have been done which revealed that uses of engineered strains are helpful in direct production of alcohol. Therefore, it is required to change the feedstock and, respectively, the strain of yeast. Schwanniomyces castellii and Endomycopsis fibuligera are some of the available strains of yeast which when used with can transform the starch directly into alcohol. Further, researchers are needed to manufacture asava-arishta from these first and second generation feedstocks with the care that therapeutic value should not to be altered.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1594
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Sandhana Kalpana: A progressive review

    • Authors: Dileep Singh Baghel
      Abstract: Growing awareness about harmful adverse effects of allopathic medicine has led to interest in Ayurveda at the international level as well as within India. Ayurveda comprises of various types of formulations including fermented forms, namely, Madya and Sukta, Sandhan kalpa. Sandhan kalpas consist of unique and valuable therapeutic indications due to their efficacy and stability. It is prepared using decoction/swarasa of herbal drug and contains self-generated alcohol. Although these formulations are available in classical literature and used regularly, their scientific investigation and reporting is not widely available in literature for the acceptance of these formulations at global level, it is mandatory that scientifically sound concepts be presented for the formulation and quality control of these formulations.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1595
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • A progressive pharmaceutical review on Sneha Kalpana

    • Authors: Dileep Singh Baghel
      Abstract: Sneha Kalpana is a group of products of medicated taila and ghrita. This class of formulations is reported to treat a very wide range of diseases among patients of all age groups. Sneha Kalpas manufactured in Ayurvedic pharmaceutics are used extensively for medicinal as well as cosmetic purposes. It is one of the widely used techniques in Ayurvedic drug industry to achieve solubility of both fat-soluble and water-soluble extractives into the oil medium. It is the only Kalpana which is used through all four modes of administration of such formulations, i.e. pana, abhyanga, nasaya, and basti.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1596
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Pharmacovigilance: A need in ayurvedic medicine system

    • Authors: Pardeep Kumar Sharma
      Abstract: The core principle of the pharmaceutical trade is to establish product safety and effectiveness through clinical trials. The approval procedures govern by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and clinical trial methods, however, will give a guarantee of safety from all variety of medicine under all circumstances. Despite this truth, is a procedure pharmaceutical corporations and physicians will implement to support pharmacovigilance. Once designed the existing analysis and development practices will enhance patient safety, whereas reducing or perhaps stopping pricey safety connected withdrawals. In 1961, after detection of teratogenic disaster, the World Health Organization (WHO) started its International Drug Monitoring program. The more international demand of Ayurveda forced the regulators to implement a constant program for Ayurveda. So that some doctors, scientists, and public will report the adverse drug reactions when using Ayurvedic/herbal formulations. The WHO so convinced the Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, to start the same program for Ayurveda, as a way to making sure the protection and efficaciousness of Ayurvedic medicines. Ayurveda as a proper medical system, which is recognized by Goverment of India, initiated the institutionalized coaching a century ago. Now, India has 196 undergraduate schools and 55 postgraduate centers.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1597
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Phyto-pharmacological potential of Jaiphal (Myristica fragrans Houtt): A
           spice of medicinal importance and its utilization in Unani Medicine

    • Authors: Dr. Hamiduddin
      Abstract: Jaiphal is a common fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt. plant used as spices as well as for medicinal purpose in Unani System of Medicine since antiquity. The Saydalaneh (pharmacist) in Arab introduce a large number of new drugs to clinical use including nutmeg. As a Unani concept of temperament, it is hot and dry. It is very common and popular drug used as digestive, carminative, appetizer, exhilarant and mood elevator, antitussive, antiemetic, demulcent, aphrodisiac, stomachic, liver, nervine, cardio, and uterine tonic in Unani System of Medicine. Extensive information is provided in Unani text by Greek physicians about this drug so it is used in many compound formulations and useful recipes. These importance and benefits lead to further review to explore its medicinal importance. Review reveals digestive, appetizer, exhilarant and mood elevator, antitussive, antiemetic, nervine tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheal, liver tonic, cardiotonic, and uterine tonic. Recent researchers indicate antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anticancer, sedative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity. Further, scope of research can also be explored with the help of traditional knowledge exist in Unani and other traditional medicine.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1598
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Critical review of Brahma Rasayana W.S.R to its immunomodulatory activity

    • Authors: Dr. Manoj Kumar Dash
      Abstract: Rasayana is one of the eight clinical specialties of Ayurveda. The Rasayana therapy enhance the qualities of Rasa, enhances it with nutrients, so it is useful as longevity, memory, intelligence, optimum development of physique, and sense organs. Brahma Rasayana is one of the most important Rasayana of Ayurvedic texts. It is useful to improve memory and immunity of the body. Brahma Rasayana was found to activate antibody-dependent cytotoxicity significantly. The present review is undertaken for screening herbs (ingredients) of Brahma Rasayana to evaluate their immunomodulatory properties and established the correlation between Rasayana and immunomodulatory effect. Critical review of herbs to show immunomodulatory property is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts as well as from multiple articles on the internet to justify their immunomodulatory property on the basis of data collected. Many of the herbs reviewed of Brahma Rasayana are found to act as immunomodulators as per Ayurveda. This shows their potential to act as antioxidant, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, vaccine adjuvant, or immunity against diseases property. The ingredients of Brahma Rasayana formulation are the herbs among all reviewed in the present study found to exhibit immunomodulatory effect of formulation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1599
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • A review on marine natural products and their application in modern
           medicine

    • Authors: Aravinda Pai
      Abstract: In recent years, drugs from natural sources are becoming important owing to their potency and less toxicity. Natural products from marine microorganisms and marine algae are one of the highly explored areas in natural product research. Plenty of marine natural product being isolated and is showing a wide array of biological activity. The present review focuses on pharmaceutically important marine natural products isolated from different microorganisms, marine invertebrates, variety of algae, and their application in modern medicine.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1600
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Nutraceutical, therapeutic, and pharmaceutical potential of Aloe vera: A
           review

    • Authors: Ravi Kant Upadhyay
      Abstract: The present review explains therapeutic and pharmaceutical potential of Aloe vera a well-known plant grows in semi-arid climate of tropical and subtropical regions. This article emphasizes important uses of A. vera constituents as dietary nutraceutical, medicinal, and therapeutic potential. Plant is cultivated for agricultural and medicinal and decoration purposes for indoors as a potted plant. Plant is a good depository of chemical constituents which display a very wide array of biological activities such as anticancer, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antitumor, antioxidant, chemopreventive, hepatoprotective, and gastroprotective. Plant is used to prepare skin protective/care gels mainly for soothing, moisturizing, and wound healing. Thick watery plant sap works are added as key ingredient in many beauty products. Plant leaves are used to generate aroma, beverages, skin lotion, cosmetics, or ointments for minor burns. Plant contains vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids, and amino acids as main ingredients. Plant is a good source of Vitamins A, C, and E, which are antioxidants. It also contains Vitamin B12, folic acid, and choline watery juicy of A. vera leaf which contains important minerals such as calcium, chromium, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, and potassium. Plant ingredients were found active against gingivitis, psoriasis, and used for herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. A. vera contains important fatty acids mainly steroids such as cholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol, and lupeol. Aloin and emodin act as analgesics, antibacterials, and antivirals while lupeol shows antiseptic and analgesic properties. It also contains auxins and gibberellin hormones that help in wound healing and have anti-inflammatory action. Saponins that are the soapy substances display cleansing and antiseptic properties.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1601
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Traditional uses, chemistry and pharmacological activities of Leea indica
           (Burm. f.) Merr.(Vitaceae): A comprehensive review

    • Authors: Dr. H. L. Raghavendra
      Abstract: Plants have been used for various purposes of humans including medicinal purposes since time immemorial. Plants are an integral part of traditional medicine. Leea indica (Burm.f.) is a large shrub and belongs to the family Vitaceae. The plant L. indica is used traditionally in various countries of the world such as India, Malaysia, Thailand, Nepal, and Indonesia. The plant is used as a remedy for ailments such as diarrhea, dysentery, diabetes, bone fracture, body ache, fever, and wound treatment. Phytochemical groups such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, saponins, and steroids and compounds, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, lupeol, β-sitosterol, ursolic acid, mollic acid arabinoside, and mollic acid xyloside have been identified in various parts of the plant. Literature survey carried on biological activities of L. indica revealed that the plant showed bioactivities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxic, enzyme inhibitory, analgesic, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antidiarrheal activity. The observed bioactivities of the plant might be related to the presence of bioactive phytoconstituents as compounds such as gallic acid, quercetin, mollic acid arabinoside, and mollic acid xyloside are known to exhibit marked pharmacological activities.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1602
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Plant microbiome and its functional mechanism in response to environmental
           stress

    • Authors: Mohammad Israil Ansari
      Abstract: Stresses are the prime factor for limiting agricultural productivity. Protracted stress conditions are accountable for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell compartments. ROS attacks biomolecules and interrupts the regular mechanism of the cell that eventually prompts to cell death. Crops requisite to acclimatize adverse external stress generated by ecological conditions with their native biological mechanisms defeated which their growths as well as productivity endure. Microbes, the supreme natural occupants of diverse environments, have developed intricate physiological and metabolic mechanism to manage with potentially toxic oxygen species that are generated by environmental stresses. Subsequently, the interaction of microbial population with plants is an essential for the ecosystem, and microbes are the natural partners that accommodate in plants to combat with antagonistic environment. Plant microbiome involves intricate mechanisms inside the plant cell. Molecular, physiological as well as biochemical studies support to understand the intricate and integrated cellular processes of plant–microbe interactions. During the incessant stress by increasing environmental variations, it is becoming more essential to characterize and decipher plant–microbe association in relation to defense against environmental challenges.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1603
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Plant pigments as dietary anticancer agents

    • Authors: Ravi Kant Upadhyay
      Abstract: Present review article explains the dietary use of plant pigments and therapeutic effects against cancer. Important plant pigments such as anthocyanins, lycopene, carotenoids, chlorophyll, and betalains are explained for their anticancer effects. Plant pigments are secondary metabolites which obstruct cancer cell proliferation; stop growth and cell division in cancer cells. These inhibit cellular processes in cancer cells such as signaling pathways, cell cycle, induce apoptosis, and autophagy. Besides, anticancer activity these also assist in controlling high blood pressure, obesity, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and restore cardiovascular problems. A full series of pigments is available in various plants families which might show protective effects against cancer. Plant pigments are edible, nutritionally rich and therapeutically suitable. Due to their health-promoting effects there is a growing public interest to consume green vegetables, fruits, sprouted seeds, pigmented cereals, and processed low energy antioxidative functional food. For widening their use, these could be harvested using recombinant gene technology to add to processed foods as a coloring agent. Plant pigments as natural plant products or its by-products are highly useful for the development of a large variety of functional foods, digestive ingredients, additives, as well as cosmetic products. These could be naturally added to genetically suitable modified foods by applying genomic tools. No doubt plant secondary metabolites will also fulfill needs of present-day medicine and show great promise for the future.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1604
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Identification of stigmasterol by preparative thin-layer chromatography,
           infrared, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, and antioxidant
           properties of Cenchrus ciliaris L.

    • Authors: Dr. Premlata Singariya
      Abstract: Aim: The present investigation was carried out to determine the possible bioactive components of Cenchrus ciliaris, in vitro antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts, and comparative estimation of antioxidant properties (in vitro and in vivo) of C. ciliaris (Poaceae). Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated against seven Gram-negative bacteria, two Gram-positive bacteria, and three fungi, using disk diffusion method followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations by broth dilution method, against sensitive bacteria and fungi. Bioactive components determined using thin-layer chromatography, infrared spectra, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, and antioxidant properties estimated in terms of peroxidase, catalases, polyphenol oxidase, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation activity and carotenoids, and total phenolics contents. Results and Discussion: The most bioactive compound in C. ciliaris was stigmasterol (3.02%), Rf value (0.83). Most of the extracts at higher concentrations showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against all bacteria. The highest activity was exhibited by the leaf extract against Staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive pathogens which show maximum antimicrobial effects. Gentamycin and Ketoconazole, the standard antibiotics used were effective against the bacteria and fungi, respectively. Highest antioxidant properties of C. ciliaris were found to greater in in vivo than in vitro. Conclusion: C. ciliaris contains various bioactive compounds. Hence, it is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1605
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Protective role of date fruit extract against chlorpyrifos-induced
           reproductive toxicity in albino male rats

    • Authors: Dr. B. Kishori
      Abstract: Introduction: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide; it causes adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of date fruit extract (DFE) on CPF-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Male rats were treated with CPF (orally with 6 mg/kg bw) or DFE alone (orally with 1000 mg/kg bw) or in combination for 45 days.Body weights, sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation, and levels of antioxidant enzymes were determined. Results: A significant decrease in the weights of testes and epididymis was observed in CPF-treated rats when compared with control rats. Treatment with CPF significantly decreased daily sperm count, epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation with decreased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was observed in the testis of CPF-treated rats when compared to control rats, suggesting the CPF-induced oxidative stress in the testes of rats. No changes were observed after administration of DFE alone, whereas coadministration of CPF and DFE showed a significant improvement in body weights and weights of decreased reproductive organs and sperm parameters. Moreover, treatment of DFE to CPF significantly decreased lipid peroxidation with increased antioxidant enzyme levels in the testis compared with CPF-alone-treated rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study concluded that DFE administration protects the CPF-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1606
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of acute toxicity of Tribhuvana-Mishrana in albino rats

    • Authors: Dr. Vivek Thakur
      Abstract: Background: Tribhuvana- Mishrana (TM) is a complex herbo-mineral preparation used as an antipyretic agent. It is an effective remedy for Sannipata (~vitiation of all doshas/severe condition of any disease), Sarva Jvara (~all types of fever), and Pratishyaya (~coryza). Objective: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspect of the use of TM. Study and Design: TM is the combination of three drugs - Tribhuvan Kirti Rasa (TKR), Godanti Bhasma (GB), and Sudarshan Ghanvati (SGV). For the preparation of TM, TKR, GB and SGV were prepared separately by an assortment of Ayurvedic procedures such as Shodhana (~purification), Marana (~calcination), and Bhavana (~lavigation). Then, fine powder of above three mentioned drugs was mixed homogenously as per the reference of Ayurveda Formulary of India. The resultant product was subjected to acute toxicity study. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity study was conducted in Wister strain of albino rats as per the OECD guidelines 423. Criteria of assessment included behavior changes, hematological changes, and histopathological changes. Histopathological studies of different organs include brain, liver, kidney, and spleen were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In acute toxicity study TM was found to be safe. Rats did not showed any signs of toxicity. All hematological parameters, namely, hemoglobin%, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and total count were found to be within normal limits. Histopathological study of different organs revealed normal cytoarchitecture
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1607
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • A Comparative evaluation of in vitro anti‑inflammatory and antifungal
           activity of Ganoderma lucidum strains DARL-4 and MS-1

    • Authors: Dr. Abhishek Tiwari
      Abstract: Background: Ganoderma lucidum commonly known as Reishi is a lignicolous high value medicinal mushroom belonging to family Ganodermataceae. DARL-4 is an indigenous strain and MS-1 is an exotic Malaysian strain which is in vitro cultivated under sterile condition. The main aim of this study is a comparative evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity of G. lucidum strains DARL-4 and MS-1. Materials and Methods: The hydroalcoholic extract of G. lucidum strains DARL-4 and MS-1 was screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using inhibition of albumin denaturation technique at different concentration. Diclofenac (100 μg/ml) was used as standard reference drug. In vitro antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of G. lucidum strains DARL-4 and MS-1 was evaluated by agar well diffusion method using Candida albicans as a fungal strain. Fluconazole was used as standard drug. Results and Discussion: The % inhibition of denaturation produced by hydroalcoholic extract of DARL-4 and MS-1 was comparable with that produced by diclofenac. MS-1 shows more significant anti-inflammatory activity than DARL-4. DARL-4 and MS-1 show moderate antifungal activity with a zone of inhibition of 19 ± 0.21and 21 ± 0.36 mm, respectively, as compared to the standard (fluconazole) having zone of inhibition of 30 ± 0.03 mm. Conclusion: MS-1 possesses more significant anti-inflammatory and antifungal activity as compared to DARL-4.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1608
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Protective effects of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract on
           neurotransmitter system of developing brain of Wistar rats with
           gestational and post-natal exposure of sodium fluoride

    • Authors: K. Pratap Reddy
      Abstract: Aims: Fluoride known environmental pollutant and also neurotoxicant and functions through oxidative stress and excitotoxicity mechanisms in brain. Balanced levels of neurotransmitters (NTs) are essential for healthy condition while their imbalanced status leads to illnesses and associated abnormalities. The present study focused on maternal as well as post-natal exposure of fluoride and its effects on NTs and protective effects of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extract through regulation of NTs system. Materials and Methods: The pregnant Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six groups of five animals each. Group I is of control rats which received normal tap water. Group II is sodium fluoride (NaF) exposed group with 20 ppm (or 20 mg/kg body wt.) in their drinking water. Group III and Group IV rats were treated with A. moschatus aqueous (AMAE) and ethanolic (AMEE) extract (at the rate of 300 mg/kg body wt./day/rat), respectively, along with NaF water (20 ppm). Group V and Group VI rats were treated with AMAE and AMEE (300 mg/kg body wt./day/rat) respectively. On 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th day (postpartum days), the pups were sacrificed to assess NTs levels of brain of all experimental groups.Results: The epinephrine and glutamate levels were increased, while nor-epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine levels were decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in NaF-fed rats with respect to control group and were restored on the treatment of AMAE and AMEE toward control. In addition, monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) activity also increased in NaF intoxicated rats than the control, and its activity was reverted to normal in NaF-received rats along with AMAE and AMEE. Discussion: These findings suggested that NaF exposure during developmental stages alter the NTs levels where as their levels are regulated on the treatment of A. moschatus toward NaF. AMEE showed better efficacy over AMAE. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the seed extract of Abelmoschus has therapeutically significant efficacy in protection from NaF toxicity.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1609
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Phytochemical and pharmacognostical studies of Blumea lacera (Roxb.) DC.

    • Authors: Vijay Kumar Yadav
      Abstract: Background: Blumea lacera (Roxb.) DC belongs to the family Asteraceae which is known to have anthelmintic, diuretics, antipyretic, and many other bioactivities. B. lacera has good medicinal value. Aim: The present work aims to perform a comprehensive phytochemical and pharmacognostical study of Blumea lacera (Roxb.) DC. Materials and Methods: The Pharmacognostical studies on Blumea lacera including parameters such as foreign organic matter, morphological evaluation, Total ash value, acid soluble, water-soluble ash values. Foaming index, Thin layer chromatography (TLC), HPTLC, physico‑chemical, analysis and phytochemical studies are established. Result and Conclusion: Foreign organic matter of crude drug was found 0.28% w/w. Total ash values of drug was found to be 16.240 and w/w with respect to air-dried crude drug. Moisture content of crude drug was found to be 4.07 % Foaming index of Blumea lacera was FI 150. HPTLC studies were carried for the better isolation and Identification of the different components of ethanolic extract of Blumea lacera. HPTLC carried out in the solvent system - Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Methanol: Acetic acid (8:1:0.5:0.5). The report of HPTLC indicates the presence of fourteen spots. The results of the study can serve as a valuable resource of pharmacognostic and phytochemical information. Phytochemical characterization of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides, tannins and phenolic compounds.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1610
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • New derivative spectrophotometric methods for the determination of
           thiocolchicoside – A semisynthetic derivative of colchicoside

    • Authors: Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
      Abstract: Introduction: Thiocolchicoside is a semisynthetic derivative of colchicoside. It is clinically as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and muscle relaxant. New spectrophotometric techniques have been proposed for the determination of thiocolchicoside in hydrochloric acid, sodium acetate buffer, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Materials and Methods: Shimadzu double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (UV-1800 Model) was used for the present study. Zero-order and first derivative spectrophotometric techniques have been developed for the determination of thiocolchicoside in hydrochloric acid, sodium acetate buffer, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Results and Discussion: Thiocolchicoside has shown absorption maxima at 259 nm in all the methods, and linearity was observed 1.0–70, 0.1–2, and 0.1–6 μg/ml in hydrochloric acid, sodium acetate buffer, and phosphate buffer, respectively, and all the methods were validated as per ICH guidelines. Conclusions: These methods are simple and economical and can be successfully applied for the estimation of thiocolchicoside in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1611
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • In silico studies on phytoconstituents of Vernonia arborea Buch. - Ham.
           against Mitogen-activated protein kinase-I

    • Authors: S. Sriram
      Abstract: Introduction: The present study focuses on in silico docking of phytocompounds eugenol and vanillin from the plant Vernonia arborea against mitogen-activated protein kinase-I (MAPK-I) (PDB ID – 4U7Z) to assess their anti-inflammatory potential. Materials and Methods: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out on the ethanolic leaf extract of V. arborea and the phytoconstituents present was identified after comparison with the NIST library. In silico analysis of the selected compounds was done by AutoDock software. Indomethacin was used as the reference compound for the study. Results: The results showed that eugenol interacted with the amino acid residues MET106 and ASP104 in the active site of MAPK-I with a bond length of 1.864 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively, and the IC50 value of this compound was found to be 3.21 (μm). The second ligand, vanillin showed interactions with the amino acid residues MET106, THR 108, and LYS112 with a bond length of 1.991 Å, 2.243 Å, and 2.166 Å, and the IC50 value was 3.29 (μm). Indomethacin showed interactions with methionine and lysine at a bond length of 2.165 Å and 2.007 Å with an IC50 value of 9.21 (μm). Discussion and Conclusion: The ligands formed an effective hydrogen bonding with the chosen target and the bonds formed were well within the range of >1.5 Å and <3.2 Å. The median inhibitory concentration values of the selected phytocompounds were also a proof of their superior anti-inflammatory potential when compared to indomethacin. Based on these promising preliminary in silico results, further in vitro and in vivo experiments can be planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of V. arborea.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1612
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of anticancer activity of methanol extract of Commelina
           benghalensis Linn. against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in albino mice

    • Authors: Dr. Tapan Kumar Maity
      Abstract: Aim: Evaluation of anticancer activity of methanol extract of Commelina benghalensis L. (MECB) by the experimental parameters such as tumor volume, tumor cell count, viable and non-viable cell count, mean survival time, increase lifespan, red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells count and hemoglobin level (Hb), and histological architecture of liver section of three treatment group of mice compared to Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) control group of mice. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity of methanol extract of the aerial part of CB, family Commelinaceae has been evaluated against EAC cells (EAC 107 cells/mouse) in Swiss Albino mice at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. The MECB was administered intraperitoneal (i.p.) route for 9 consecutive days to tumor-bearing mice. 5-Flurouracil (5-FU) 20 mg/kg body weight was also administered to i.p. for 9 days as a standard anticancer drug. Result: The MECB decreased the EAC cell count, viable cell count, and percentage inhibition of total cell count. At the same time, there was an increase in the percentage of lifespan (% ILS), non-viable cell count, RBC count, and Hb level. These parameters were compared with the EAC bearing mice in a dose-dependent manner. The histological architecture of liver section in EAC bearing mice was observed steatosis, lymphocyte accumulation and normal architecture of nucleus, parenchyma, and regeneration of hepatic cells in three treated group of mice. Conclusion: This study reveals that the MECB has significant anticancer activity against EAC cell in mice.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1613
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Methodology of demand study for proton pump ingibitors drugs

    • Authors: O. P. Balicka
      Abstract: Aim: This study aims to describe the method and practical application of flexible tools for development of non-standard designs of selection models, implemented in the SAS system. The main research task was to study the demand for proton-pump inhibitors drugs (PPIs) that are prescribed for the treatment of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer. The difficulty was in the a priori present dependence on the choice of alternative on the attributes of other alternatives in the choice set. the dependence of choosing an alternative from the presence of others in the selection network is also non-standard. Hence, if the desired drug is absent in the pharmacy chain, the patient must choose the next desired one from the available ones. All this requires non-standard approaches in the creation of design, and therefore, of the corresponding tools. Materials and Methods: LIMDEP/NLOGIT and Sawtooth software; toolbox SAS. Results and Discussion: There are five groups of PPI according to the active ingredient: Omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and esomeprazole medications. Taking into account the possibility of quadratic effects of the price for the drug at the patient’s discretion, we have used three-level attributes of the price, which provide the assessment of both linear and quadratic price effects. In the capacity of the effectiveness of the selected treatment regimens of gastric disease, we have chosen the anatomical cicatrization of mucosa damage at week 4 of treatment, according to the published specialized researches. Conclusion: Increasing of the analytical capabilities of the choice modeling allows using more flexible designs.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1614
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Hematological and immunomodulatory evaluation of methanolic extract of
           Sorghum bicolor leaves

    • Authors: Maheswara Reddy Mallu
      Abstract: Introduction: Sorghum bicolor has widely reported ethnomedicinal uses which include its use for stimulation and purification of blood as well as body defense. Aim: The study aims to determine the hematological and immunological activity of S. bicolor leaf base extracts. Materials and Methods: The immunological effect of the leaf base extract was evaluated using tests on hematological indices and activated charcoal clearance assay for macrophage phagocytosis. Results: The results revealed that the extract of 100–300 mg/kg formed no significant change in the packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, total leukocyte count, monocyte, basophil, eosinophil, bleeding time, and clotting time. The dose of 100 mg/kg produced a significant increase in neutrophil and decrease in lymphocyte. Platelet count was significantly increased at the dose of 300 mg/kg. The extract showed strong stimulation of phagocytic rate at the dose of 300 mg/kg. Conclusion: The results did not validate the ethnomedicinal use of the plant leaf base for stimulation of blood production. It, however, showed improvement of non-specific immune responses involving phagocytosis and inflammation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1615
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Stability indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography
           method for the determination of Raltegravir in bulk and pharmaceutical
           formulation

    • Authors: Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
      Abstract: Introduction: A new sensitive and simple stability indicating reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of Raltegravir in tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was achieved through C8 phenomenex column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) using ammonium formate:acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) mixture as the mobile phase. The Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite HPLC system was monitored at detection wavelength 254 nm on isocratic mode with flow rate 1.2 ml/min and the method was validated. Raltegravir was exposed to different stress conditions, and the stability of Raltegravir was studied as per the ICH guidelines. Results and Discussion: Raltegravir follows Beer-Lambert’s law over a concentration range 1–120 μg/ml with regression equation y = 15416x+10312 and correlation coefficient 0.9997. The limit of detection and limit of quantification are found to be 0.2885 μg/ml and 0.8743 μg/ml, respectively. Raltegravir was found to be more sensitive toward alkaline conditions. Conclusions: The proposed RP-HPLC method is accurate, precise, sensitive, and specific for the assay of Raltegravir in tablets.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1616
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Nationwide trends in antidiabetic drugs (type-2) utilization, Ukraine,
           2014–2016

    • Authors: Olena Pokotylo
      Abstract: Introduction: Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. According to the guidelines of International Diabetes Federation, patients need to be given appropriate medical treatment, the purpose of which is to achieve the compensation of the disease and the treatment of its complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the consumption and expenditure per day of oral antidiabetic medicines in Ukraine during 2014–2016. Materials and Methods: Study of drug consumption was conducted using anatomical therapeutic chemical/defined daily dose (ATC/DDD) methodology by calculating such figures as utilization in DDD, DDDs per 1000 inhabitants per day, and expenditure per DDD. Results and Discussion: The consumption rates of DDDs/1000 PD of monoantidiabetic drugs fluctuated from 11.57 to 15.45 DDDs/1000 PD, and for combined antidiabetic drugs, it was changed from 1.02 to 1.11 DDDs/1000 PD during 2014–2016. The structure of consumption in Ukraine 2015–2016 shows increasing in consumption of biguanides (51.21%), sulfonylureas (74.57%), repaglinide (91.67%), liraglutide (40%), pioglitazone (33.3%), and dapagliflozin (35%). The analysis of expenditure per DDD shows that the most affordable unit of DDD was agents that contain pioglitazone, metformin, sulfonylureas group, and combined drugs. Conclusion: Nationwide trends in antidiabetic agents’ utilization were analyzed in Ukraine during 2014–2016. It has been established a slight decreasing of A10B group agents’ consumption in the period of 2014–2015. In 2016, there was a tendency to increase the value of DDDs/1000 PD.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1617
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method
           development and validation for the determination of quetiapine fumarate in
           bulk and dosage form by HPLC

    • Authors: S. G. Talele
      Abstract: Objective: The purpose of the realistic study is the determination of Quetiapine fumarate in bulk and tablet dosage form utilizing a basic, particular, exact, and formalize stability signifying high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Materials and Methods: The assessment of Quetiapine fumarate in tablet dosage form performed using a validated stability-indicating HPLC method. HPLC Binary Gradient System of model no. HPLC 3000 Series having Greece C18 (250 mm × 4.6 ID, Particle size: 5 micron) column using mobile phase composition of methanol:water (80:20) is used and pH was adjusted to 3. Flow rate was maintained at 0.9 ml/min at room temperature. Evaluation was accomplished with ultraviolet detection at 213 nm. Results and Discussion: The retention time acquired for Quetiapine fumarate was at 3.3 min. The result acquired with the detector response was found to be linear which is in the concentration range of 20–100 μg/ml. This technique has been accepted and appeared to be particular, delicate, exact, straight, precise, rough, vigorous, and quick. Quetiapine fumarate was subjected to different accelerated stress conditions. The degradation products when anywhere well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different retention time values. Conclusion: It is inferred that this system can be connected for routine quality control of Quetiapine fumarate in tablet dosage forms as well as in bulk drug.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1618
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • New stability indicating ultrafast liquid chromatographic method for the
           determination of umifenovir in tablets

    • Authors: Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
      Abstract: Introduction: A new stability indicating RP-UFLC method was proposed for the determination of Umifenovir in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was achieved through C18 Agilent column(150 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 3.5 μm particle size) using acetonitrile: 0.1% triethylamine (pH adjusted to 3.2 with orthophosphoric acid) mixture as the mobile phase. The UFLC system was monitored at 223 nm on isocratic mode with flow rate 0.6 mL/min and the total run time is 10 min. The method was validated, and forced degradation studies were performed. Results and Discussion: Umifenovir has obeyed Beer-Lambert’s law over a concentration range 0.05–50 μg/mL with correlation coefficient 0.9997. The limit of detection and limit of quantification are found to be 0.0156 and 0.0421 μg/mL, respectively. Umifenovir was found to be highly sensitive toward alkaline conditions. Conclusions: It is observed that this reverse phase UFLC method is accurate, precise, sensitive, and reproducible for the estimation of Umifenovir in tablets. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines and very much specific as the degradants were well separated without interfering the drug peak.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1619
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Spider venom toxins, its purification, solubilization, and antimicrobial
           activity

    • Authors: Ravi Kant Upadhyay
      Abstract: Aim: Purification of spider venom Crossopriza lyoni toxins on a Sepharose CL-6B 200 column and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility in infectious bacterial pathogenic strains. Materials and Methods: Solubilization of spider venom toxins in Triton X-100 (0.1%), phosphate-buffered saline, and trichloroacetic acid.For obtaining purified toxins/ peptides, and determination of their molecular weight of toxins, poison gland homogenate was loaded on a gel filtration column and 135 regular fractions were eluted at constant rate of 5mL/min. Antimicrobial potential was determined in serial microdilution assays and agar disc diffusion method in presence of spider toxin peptides. Results and Discussions: The elution pattern of purified and homogenized mouth poison glands displayed two major peaks at 280 nm. The first one was eluted in fraction No. 43–51 while the second one after fraction no. 61–90. From gel filtration chromatography, total yield of protein obtained was 67.3%. Low-molecular-weight peptides (6–64 kDa) were obtained in spider venom. These were subjected to employ for antimicrobial study that revealed possible interaction between different concentration ranges of spider venom toxins. In serial microdilution assays, low minimum inhibitory concentration values 3.75 μg/ml were obtained in the presence of spider toxins. By agar disc diffusion method, the diameter of inhibition zones in mm in the presence of spider toxin at a concentration range of 98.56–1.92 μg/ml in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholera obtained was 17.86 ± 0.21 mm, 16.16 ± 0.21 mm, and 18.66 ± 0.21 mm, respectively. Conclusion: In the present investigation, spider toxins have generated lytic effect in bacterial cells that results in heavy cell death. No doubt spider toxins can be used as alternate of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1620
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Ethnomedicinal claims of Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.: A review

    • Authors: Shashi Gupta
      Abstract: Objective: Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. (Moraceae) has been attributed with numerous therapeutic claims in Indian traditional medicinal systems, especially for its ethnomedicinal and economical uses. Present review aims to congregate all available ethnomedicinal information on Ficus semicordata. Material and Methods: Information of all the reported ethnobotanical uses of the Ficus semicordata from available 21 books on ethnobotany and 53 ethnomedicinal research articles have been compiled. The obtained data are arranged in a tabular form, with regards to various local names, as known by different tribes across India, name of the tribe and their area of presence, part used. Therapeutic indications, external (E) and internal (I) usage of the drug are also noted in a separate column with individual references. Results and Discussion: It is observed that various parts of F. semicordata are used to combat several diseases. About 25 external applications and 40 internal administrations are reported. Fruit and root, as a parts used, have maximum applications in 16 disease conditions each. Stem bark is being used in 14, leaves in 9, latex in 7, young twigs and seeds are in 2 each and aerial parts in one diseased condition. Conclusion: Present ethnobotanical review shows the multi-faceted use of Ficus semicordata in varied aspects including its economical usage thus underlining its significance. Reported claimed anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities can be further strengthened through pharmacological and clinical studies to establish the ethnic claims like leprosy, wound, boil, liver disorders, gynecological disorders etc.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1621
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • Comparative in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract, ethyl
           acetate extract (EAE), and hexane extracts (HE) of Tecoma gaudichaudi
           flowers

    • Authors: G. V. N. Kiranmayi
      Abstract: Background: Free radicals excessive production causes biological molecules direct damage to DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and may cause the development of tumor and its progression. Phytochemically derived natural antioxidant molecules may directly inhibit the radical production or their propagation is limited or to protect the system they will be destroyed. Objective: In the present study, in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract (EE), ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and hexane extracts (HE) of Tecoma gaudichaudi flowers was investigated. Materials and Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity of EE, EAE, and HE of T. gaudichaudi flowers was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, reducing power method, phosphomolybdenum assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and IC50 values were calculated. Ascorbic acid is used as standard drug. Results: EE, EAE, and HE of T. gaudichaudi exhibited a significant antioxidant status which is evident from their IC50 values 21.42, 44.77, and 71.44 ug/mL in DPPH method and 22.3, 57.27, and 95.49 ug/mL in hydroxyl radical. In reducing power method and phosphomolybdenum assay, there is concentration-dependent increase in absorbance. The results are significant when compared to the standard drug ascorbic acid. Conclusion: EE, EAE, and HE of T. gaudichaudi flowers and specifically the EE reveal several properties such as higher free radical scavenging properties, significant antioxidant capacities compared to other extracts.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1622
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
  • A new liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of
           ketorolac tromethamine and fluorometholone in the presence of
           hydrochlorothiazide

    • Authors: Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
      Abstract: Introduction: Ketorolac is used to treat eye pain and to relieve the itchiness and burning of seasonal allergies. Fluorometholone is a synthetic glucocorticoid used for treating eye inflammatory diseases. A simultaneous and new RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of Ketorolac tromethamine and Fluorometholone in ophthalmic solutions using Hydrochlorothiazide as an internal standard. Materials and Methods: Shimadzu Model CBM-20A/20 Alite with phenomenex C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) was used for the chromatographic study. 0.1 % acetic acid and methanol (20: 80, v/v) mixture was used as mobile phase with flow rate 0.7 ml/min and UV detection at 241 nm. Results and Discussion: Linearity was observed over the concentration range 1-100 μg/ml with regression equation y = 0.1047x + 0.0006 and correlation coefficient 0.9993 and the method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Conclusions: The method is more precise and accurate and suitable for the quality control analysis of combined formulations of Fluorometholone and Ketorolac tromethamine.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v12i01.1623
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 01 (2018)
       
 
 
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