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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 355 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 355 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access  
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart India     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Heart Views     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Green Pharmacy
  [SJR: 0.229]   [H-I: 13]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0973-8258 - ISSN (Online) 1998-4103
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [355 journals]
  • Evaluating the therapeutic efficiency and drug targeting ability of
           alkaloids present in Rauwolfia serpentina

    • Authors: Manisha Singh
      Abstract: Rauwolfia serpentina is reported in an Ayurvedic medicinal system for centuries, for the treatment of various ailments such as snakebites, insomnia, hypertension, and insanity. Scientific evaluation of these documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in neurological disorders. The work presents the brief overview of R. serpentina including a description of the plant, its active chemical constituents and pharmacological properties with the major emphasis on cardiovascular and central nervous system disorders. This review compiles information available in the scientific literature from databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, India bioscience.org, Herbs - Medicinal plant usage and Identification Database, Database on medicinal plants used in Ayurveda and Siddha, Missouri Botanical Garden, National Medicinal Plants Board, and the International Plant Names Index. Information gathered from the literature has shown that the alkaloids are the major constituents of the plant imparting various pharmacological properties. Reserpine, the Indole alkaloid, is the most active compound of R. serpentine. The plant is known to possess antidiarrheal, antimicrobial activity apart from using it for the treatment of circulatory disorders, rheumatism, hypertension, insanity, epilepsy, and leaves are used in the removal of opacities of the cornea. Research shows that R. serpentine is a potential source of compounds pertaining medicinal applications. It provides an interesting subject in the search for new drugs of natural origin.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1116
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Characterization of Rajata Bhasma (traditional calcined silver
           preparation)

    • Authors: Rohit Ajith Gokarn
      Abstract: Introduction: Rajata Bhasma (RB), a calcined preparation of silver, is widely used in various herbo-mineral compounds and ample used as a single drug with different Anupanas (adjuvant) in several diseases. It is potentially used in numerous herbo-mineral formulations such as Kasturi bhairav Rasa, Grahani kapata Rasa, Jayamangala Rasa, and Trilokya chintamani Rasa. Objectives: Several works emphasizing standard method of preparation has been established, but there are few works focusing analytical profile of RB, hence objectives were to establish an analytical profile of RB. Materials and Methods: RB was subjected for X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence, and particle size analysis. Results: Mean particle size of RB was 1.04 μm, and XRD results revealed RB was Ag2Hg2S (imitrite) initially and was in Acanthite (Ag2S) form in the final product. Conclusion: RB was found to be in silver sulfide (Ag2S) having a considerable reduction in particle size. Final product was devoid of mercury and other heavy metal contamination.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1117
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • New technology acquisition
           3α,14α,22r,25-tetrahydroxy-5α(H)-cholest-7-en-6-one and biological
           research anti-inflammatory activities

    • Authors: Aidar K. Berkenov
      Abstract: Aim: Design a new pharmaceutical technology for isolation novel ecdysteroid 3α,14α,22R, 25-tetrahydroxy-5α (Н)-cholest-7-en-6-one from the epigeal organs of ComastomatenellaRottb. Research NMR spectrscopy and biological activity. Material and Methods: The isolation procedure involved extraction with aqueous ethanol, partitioning(petroleum ether–ethyl acetate) of the obtained extract to remove non-polar impurities, extraction of the water layer with isobutyl alcohol, and subsequent purification by aluminum oxide column chromatography. According to NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and microanalysis, the structure of 3α,14α,22R,25-tetrahydroxy-5α(Н)-cholest-7-en-6-one (1). Results and Discussion: During the study of plants ComastomatenellaRottb was isolated new phytoecdysteroid.According to NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and microanalysis, the structure of 3α,14α,22R,25-tetrahydroxy-5α(Н)-cholest-7-en-6-one.Isolated object was examined for anti-inflammatory activity of the compound.Thus, the present study established high anti-inflammatory activity of 3α,14α,22R,25-tetrahydroxy-5α(Н)-cholest-7-en-6-one1 in the dose of 50 mg/kg in an experimental model of an acute exudative reaction. Conclusion: From the results of the study on the anti-inflammatory activity, it became clear that object potently and significantly reduced the number of abdominal writhings as compared to the control animals.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1118
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Scientific justification of anthelmintic medicines based on medicinal
           plant material

    • Authors: Tolochko Kateryna Valentynivna
      Abstract: Introduction: The problem of helminthiases is particularly relevant in the recent years as this group of diseases is met in all countries of the world. Ukraine also faces the increasing number of digestive system helminthiases, especially in children aged under 12 years. However, the existing range of anthelmintic medicines in Ukrainian pharmaceutical market is represented with derivatives of praziquantel, mebendazole, albendazole, piperazine, pyrantel, levamisole, and one herbal medicine - tansy flowers. Medicines of synthetic origin have diverse side effects (nausea, vomiting, pain in epigastria, diarrhea, allergy, dizziness, headache, etc.,) and, therefore, can cause a low compliance of the patient. A good alternative to the use of synthetic medicines is phytotherapy, which is based on the centuries-old experience of folk medicine. Materials and Methods: As the objects of research, there were analyzed the most common prescriptions of helminthiases phytotherapy in adults and children which are used in Ukraine, including folk anthelmintic remedies. Analysis of the possible pharmacological activity was performed with the use of power analysis and sample size (PASS)-analysis (http://www.way2drug.com). Results: Research of the existing range of phytomedicines with anthelmintic activity and the most commonly used remedies of folk medicine allowed to identify medicinal plants with high potential anthelmintic activity. Conclusion: The further study of their main biologically active substance with the use of PASS-analysis showed that tansy flowers, wormwood herb, wormseed flowers, elecampane rhizomes and roots, pumpkin seeds, buckthorn bark, valerian rhizomes and roots, and chamomile flowers should be considered promising medicinal plant material for development new anthelmintic medicines with narrow and broad spectrum of action with minimal toxicity.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1119
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Management capabilities of generative development of apple trees

    • Authors: Tatyana N. Doroshenko
      Abstract: Aim: In field and laboratory experiments, we investigated the viability of application of boric acid and Melaphen, growth regulator of the next generation, to optimize the generative activity of apple plants (Golden Delicious variety) at different stages of the annual growth and development cycle. Methods: To achieve this goal, we used field and laboratory research methods. The research was conducted in 2013-2016. Results: We revealed the effect of boric acid (at concentration of 0.1%) on the setting-up, differentiation and further development of generative buds of apple trees. Discussion: The application of boric acid in the fall contributes to strengthen and accelerate the formation of floral sprouts. The use of this compound before the beginning of the vegetation period improves the fertilization process. The growth stimulator Melaphen has the same effect on the generative activity of Golden Delicious as boric acid in the autumn and spring season. We identified an indirect effect of Melaphen on the apple plants resistance against spring frosts. Summer plant treatment with Melaphen contributes to a certain increase of economic crop, a significant increase in the activity of shoot growth in the second half of the growing season, as well as the weakening of the setting-up generative buds and the time shift in their development. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the possibility of adjustment of the fruit yield formation, when using the preparations under study, through directional increase of the concentration (biological activity) of growth factors of the auxin nature in certain plant organs and tissues, and change in this regard the nutrients displacement vector toward relevant attracting centers.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1120
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • In vitro anticoagulant activity of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts on
           normal healthy blood plasma

    • Authors: S. Asha
      Abstract: Aim: Hemostasis is the process of formation of clots within the walls of damaged blood vessels. To prevent abnormal bleeding and to maintain intravascular blood in a fluid state, in this study we aimed to evaluate the possible anticoagulant effect of leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera. Materials and Methods: The aqueous, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate extracts of N. nucifera at different concentrations were tested for in vitro prothrombin time (PT) test. The in vitro anticoagulant effects of different extracts of N. nucifera in different concentrations 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.062 g/ml were examined using plasma, collected from blood samples of normal individuals by measuring PT. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and saline in distilled water were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. The extract plasma was subjected to anticoagulation activity and was compared with EDTA-plasma and saline plasma. Results: The methanol leaf extract of N. nucifera was found to inhibit coagulation process in 60 min: 3 s in 0.5 g/ml. The time taken for clotting at the concentration of 0.5 g/methanol leaf extract showed the moderate effect of 10 min:20 s with respect to control while ethyl acetate extract showed the least effect of 8 min: 23 s compared to control. Overall, the concentration of 0.5 g/ml of leaf extract showed a maximum effect in all the tested extracts with respect to other concentrations 0.25, 0.125, and 0.062 g/ml. Thus, N. nucifera methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate leaf extract in different concentrations inhibits clot formation and increases the PT in a dose-dependent manner. The observed prolonged prothrombin activity could be due to the presence of certain phytochemical constituents in the crude extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids and steroid compounds in the crude extract and further, the active principles could be isolated and evaluated for clinical or physiological purposes. Conclusion: In vitro, anticoagulant activity studies results demonstrated that leaf extract N. nucifera possesses pharmacologically active anticoagulant components which could be helpful in preventing blood clotting disorders. Thus, in future N. nucifera leaf could be used as a supplementary source of natural anticoagulant.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1121
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Antimicrobial, radical scavenging, and insecticidal activity of leaf and
           flower extracts of Couroupita guianensis Aubl.

    • Authors: T. R. Prashith Kekuda
      Abstract: Objectives: The objective of the present study was carried out to investigate antimicrobial, radical scavenging, and insecticidal activity of leaf and flower of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Lecythidaceae). Methods: Extraction of leaf and flower was carried out by maceration process using methanol. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extracts was carried out by agar well-diffusion method and poisoned food technique, respectively. Radical scavenging activity of extracts was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Insecticidal activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of larvicidal and pupicidal effects against Aedes aegypti. Results: Leaf extract displayed marked antibacterial activity when compared to flower extract. Highest and least inhibitory activity of extracts was observed against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, respectively. Both extracts displayed antifungal activity with highest activity exhibited by leaf extract. Highest and least susceptibility were shown by Curvularia sp. and Fusarium sp., respectively. Both extracts scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals dose dependently. Leaf extract (IC50 = 19.61 μg/ml) caused marked DPPH radical scavenging potential than flower extract ((IC50= 257.13 μg/ml). IC50 value of ABTS radical inhibition of leaf and flower extract was found to be 7.63 and 53.34 μg/ml, respectively. Larvicidal and pupicidal activity by extracts was concentration dependent. The susceptibility of larvae and pupae to extract was in the order: 2nd instar larvae > 4th instar larvae > pupae. Leaf extract displayed marked insecticidal activity when compared to flower extract as revealed by lower LC50 values. Conclusion: Overall, leaf extract exhibited marked bioactivities than flower extract. The plant can be used to treat microbial infections and oxidative damage and to manage fungal diseases. The plant can be used against mosquito vectors which transmit arboviral diseases.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1122
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial activity
           of ethanolic extract of Leptadenia pyrotechnica

    • Authors: Suresh Purohit
      Abstract: Background: Leptadenia pyrotechnica (LP) is a well-known traditional shrub used by the tribes of Africa and Asia. Locally, it is called as Khimp and recognized as therapeutic uses as well as animal fodder. Aims: The present study investigates the preliminary phytochemical contents, free radical scavenging, and antimicrobial activity against the bacterial and fungal strains of ethanolic extract and its fraction of LP (Decne.). Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract and fractions of LP were used to different phytochemical qualitative screening methods to identify the constituents presented in it. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were determined to justify its antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the extracts was measured by disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition against the bacterial and fungal strains. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity had used to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of extract and fractions. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of extract and fractions showed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, and steroids. Reducing efficiency revealed dose-dependent inflation in concentration (6.25-200 μg/μL) with respect to quercetin and gallic acid. The presence of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and flavonoids contribute to potent antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains. Conclusion: The present research work concluded the effectiveness of different extract and fractions at various concentrations against the bacterial and fungal strains. Free radical scavenging activity embarks its contribution as antimicrobial along with the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic residues.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1123
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Youden’s test of the chromatographic determination of captopril in
           pharmaceuticals

    • Authors: Liliya Logoyda
      Abstract: Introduction: Robustness tests were originally introduced to avoid problems in interlaboratory studies and to identify the potentially responsible factors. This means that a robustness test was performed at a late stage in the method validation since interlaboratory studies are performed in the final stage. Thus, the robustness test was considered a part of method validation related to the precision (reproducibility) determination of the method. However, performing a robustness test late in the validation procedure involves the risk that when a method is found not to be robust, it should be redeveloped and optimized. At this stage, much effort and money have already been spent in the optimization and validation, and therefore one wants to avoid this. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rubustness of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) determination of captopril in tablets using Youden’s test. Materials and Methods: An efficient method to assess the robustness of analytical methods is by Youden’s test, by means of an experiment design which involves seven analytical parameters combined in eight tests. In the recent studies, we assessed the robustness of a chromatographic method to quantify captopril in tablets using Youden’s test. Results: Using the Youden’s test criteria, UHPLC method showed to be greatly robust concerning captopril content, at the introduction of variation in seven analytic parameters. The highest variation in captopril content was 0.96%, when was used column Nucleosil C18 (4.6 mm × 150 mm with a particle size of 5 μ). Using column Ascentis Express C18 Fused-Core® technology (column size 4.6 mm × 150 mm with a particle size of 5 μ) reduces the retention time of captopril more than 2 times. Conclusion: Youden’s test proved to be an efficient and helpful tool for the robustness evaluation for assay of captopril by UHPLC.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1124
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Nutritional profile of spinach and its antioxidant & antidiabetic
           evaluation

    • Authors: Manish Vyas
      Abstract: Background: A proper diet is the best source of complete nutrition which provides strength, complexion, and vitality. Nutraceuticals and dietary supplement are the functional food that promotes the health and manage the disease. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a leafy vegetable and considered a good source of nutrients. Objective: The objective of the study is to determine the nutritional value and evaluate in vitro antioxidant as well as antidiabetic potential of spinach. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of spinach was prepared using Soxhlet extraction technique which was subjected for physicochemical, nutritional value determination along with the OH - scavenging, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and α-amylase inhibition activity. Result and Discussion: The results suggested the good nutritional values such as total crude fiber 4.55 ± 0.244% w/w, proteins 0.052 ± 0.0068% w/w, oils and fats 0.72 ± 0.036% w/w, carbohydrate 61.95 ± 0.382% w/w, Vitamins A 26.85 ± 0.154 μg, and Vitamins C 19.66 ± 0.21 μg. Further, methanolic extract of spinach showed the antioxidant activity and antidiabetic effect with an inhibitory concentration of 3.03 μg/mL, 6.03 μg/mL and 3.046 μg/mL for OH- scavenging, DPPH inhibition and α-amylase inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: Results revealed the potential nutraceutical values of spinach which can further explored to effectively use it by preparing suitable formulation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1125
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of methanol
           extract of Calotropis gigantea root

    • Authors: Subhash C. Mandal
      Abstract: Objective: Extracts of the root of Calotropis gigantea (family: Apocynaceae) have been used as a natural therapeutic agent in traditional medicine to treat inflammation and pain. This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of C. gigantea root (MECG). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of MECG was evaluated using formalin-induced pain and glutamate-induced paw licking models. Antagonism of opioid receptors using naloxone was used to determine the involvement of central pathways of pain. The acute inflammation was measured by carrageenan and dextran-induced paw edema models. Cyclooxygenase (COX) assay was carried out to determine the action of MECG on prostaglandins (PGs). Results: MECG 200 mg/kg dose was found to produce a significant (P < 0.001) and dose-dependent analgesic activity in the models used. MECG caused significant inhibition of edema in the carrageenan and dextran-induced inflammation tests. MECG was found to reduce the expression of COX, thus confirming the inhibitory action of MECG on PGs. Conclusion: The findings suggest that MECG possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity mediated through peripheral and central mechanisms. The results justify its traditional use in the treatment of inflammation and pain.
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1126
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatile oil obtained
           from Aegle marmelos leaves collected from foothills of Shivalik range

    • Authors: Shabir Shidhu
      Abstract: Aim: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa belongs to the Rutaceae family and is abundantly available all over India, and almost every part of this plant is used in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: In the present work, we isolated volatile oil using the standard method of hydrodistillation from the leaves of A. marmelos. Further, the analysis of the oil was performed by capillary gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results and Discussion: The percentage yield of oil was 0.91 (v/m). Further, the analysis of the oil resulted in the identification of 13compounds comprising more than 85 % of the total oil. The leaf oil was constituted mainly of monoterpene compounds, and the major compounds included a relatively stable terpene-limonene (67.83 %) and caryophyllene (8.76 %).
      PubDate: 2017-09-14
      DOI: 10.22377/ijgp.v11i03.1127
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 03 (2017)
       
 
 
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