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Publisher: Medknow Publishers   (Total: 356 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 356 Journals sorted alphabetically
Advanced Arab Academy of Audio-Vestibulogy J.     Open Access  
Advances in Human Biology     Open Access  
African J. for Infertility and Assisted Conception     Open Access  
African J. of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African J. of Medical and Health Sciences     Open Access  
African J. of Paediatric Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.269, h-index: 10)
African J. of Trauma     Open Access  
Ain-Shams J. of Anaesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Azhar Assiut Medical J.     Open Access  
Al-Basar Intl. J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Ancient Science of Life     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Anesthesia : Essays and Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of African Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.331, h-index: 15)
Annals of Bioanthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.408, h-index: 15)
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.308, h-index: 14)
Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Nigerian Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Pediatric Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.441, h-index: 10)
Annals of Saudi Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.24, h-index: 29)
Annals of Thoracic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.388, h-index: 19)
Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.148, h-index: 5)
APOS Trends in Orthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arab J. of Interventional Radiology     Open Access  
Archives of Intl. Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Medicine and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Pharmacy Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asia Pacific J. of Clinical Trials : Nervous System Diseases     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific J. of Oncology Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian J. of Andrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.879, h-index: 49)
Asian J. of Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian J. of Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian J. of Transfusion Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.362, h-index: 10)
Astrocyte     Open Access  
Avicenna J. of Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AYU : An international quarterly journal of research in Ayurveda     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Benha Medical J.     Open Access  
BLDE University J. of Health Sciences     Open Access  
Brain Circulation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Faculty of Physical Therapy     Open Access  
Cancer Translational Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CHRISMED J. of Health and Research     Open Access  
Clinical Dermatology Review     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access  
Community Acquired Infection     Open Access  
Conservation and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.82, h-index: 12)
Contemporary Clinical Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Medical Issues     Open Access  
CytoJ.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.339, h-index: 19)
Delta J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access  
Dental Hypotheses     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.131, h-index: 4)
Dental Research J.     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Dentistry and Medical Research     Open Access  
Digital Medicine     Open Access  
Drug Development and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Education for Health     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.205, h-index: 22)
Egyptian J. of Bronchology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cardiothoracic Anesthesia     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Cataract and Refractive Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian J. of Dermatology and Venerology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Haematology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Internal Medicine     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Neurology, Psychiatry and Neurosurgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.121, h-index: 3)
Egyptian J. of Obesity, Diabetes and Endocrinology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Egyptian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Egyptian J. of Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Egyptian Orthopaedic J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Pharmaceutical J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Retina J.     Open Access  
Egyptian Rheumatology and Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Endodontology     Open Access  
Endoscopic Ultrasound     Open Access   (SJR: 0.473, h-index: 8)
Environmental Disease     Open Access  
European J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 11)
European J. of General Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European J. of Prosthodontics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
European J. of Psychology and Educational Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Fertility Science and Research     Open Access  
Formosan J. of Surgery     Open Access   (SJR: 0.107, h-index: 5)
Genome Integrity     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.227, h-index: 12)
Global J. of Transfusion Medicine     Open Access  
Heart India     Open Access  
Heart Views     Open Access  
Hepatitis B Annual     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
IJS Short Reports     Open Access  
Indian Anaesthetists Forum     Open Access  
Indian Dermatology Online J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Anaesthesia     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.302, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Burns     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Cancer     Open Access   (SJR: 0.318, h-index: 26)
Indian J. of Cerebral Palsy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Community Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.618, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Critical Care Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.307, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dental Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.243, h-index: 24)
Indian J. of Dental Sciences     Open Access  
Indian J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.448, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.563, h-index: 29)
Indian J. of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Drugs in Dermatology     Open Access  
Indian J. of Endocrinology and Metabolism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Indian J. of Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Medical and Paediatric Oncology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.292, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.716, h-index: 60)
Indian J. of Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.207, h-index: 31)
Indian J. of Multidisciplinary Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.233, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Nuclear Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.203, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Ophthalmology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.536, h-index: 34)
Indian J. of Oral Health and Research     Open Access  
Indian J. of Oral Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Orthopaedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.393, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Otology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.218, h-index: 5)
Indian J. of Paediatric Dermatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Pain     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indian J. of Palliative Care     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.35, h-index: 12)
Indian J. of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.285, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Pharmacology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.347, h-index: 44)
Indian J. of Plastic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.303, h-index: 13)
Indian J. of Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.496, h-index: 15)
Indian J. of Psychological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.344, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.444, h-index: 17)
Indian J. of Radiology and Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.253, h-index: 14)
Indian J. of Research in Homoeopathy     Open Access  
Indian J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.169, h-index: 7)
Indian J. of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.313, h-index: 9)
Indian J. of Social Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indian J. of Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.366, h-index: 16)
Indian J. of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Industrial Psychiatry J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Academic Medicine     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Advanced Medical and Health Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Applied and Basic Medical Research     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Clinical and Experimental Physiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Critical Illness and Injury Science     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Educational and Psychological Researches     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Environmental Health Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Forensic Odontology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Green Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.229, h-index: 13)
Intl. J. of Health & Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Health System and Disaster Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Heart Rhythm     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Medicine and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Mycobacteriology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.239, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Noncommunicable Diseases     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Nutrition, Pharmacology, Neurological Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Oral Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Orthodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pedodontic Rehabilitation     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pharmaceutical Investigation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.523, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Shoulder Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.611, h-index: 9)
Intl. J. of Trichology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.37, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Yoga     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Yoga : Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Iranian J. of Nursing and Midwifery Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Iraqi J. of Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Academy of Medical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.427, h-index: 15)
J. of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 14)
J. of Applied Hematology     Open Access  
J. of Association of Chest Physicians     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cancer Research and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.359, h-index: 21)
J. of Carcinogenesis     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.152, h-index: 26)
J. of Cardiothoracic Trauma     Open Access  
J. of Cardiovascular Disease Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 13)
J. of Cardiovascular Echography     Open Access   (SJR: 0.134, h-index: 2)
J. of Cleft Lip Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Clinical and Preventive Cardiology     Open Access  
J. of Clinical Imaging Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.277, h-index: 8)
J. of Clinical Neonatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Ophthalmology and Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Clinical Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Conservative Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.532, h-index: 10)
J. of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.199, h-index: 9)
J. of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
J. of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Cytology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.274, h-index: 9)
J. of Dental and Allied Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Dental Implants     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Dental Lasers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Dental Research and Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Digestive Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Dr. NTR University of Health Sciences     Open Access  
J. of Earth, Environment and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Education and Ethics in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Education and Health Promotion     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.353, h-index: 14)
J. of Engineering and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Family and Community Medicine     Open Access  
J. of Family Medicine and Primary Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)

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Journal Cover Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.285]   [H-I: 22]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0377-4929 - ISSN (Online) 0974-5130
   Published by Medknow Publishers Homepage  [356 journals]
  • From Editor's desk

    • Authors: Vatsala Misra
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: Vatsala Misra
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):1-1

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):1-1
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200031
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis: A comprehensive review of a
           challenging liver disease

    • Authors: Kavita Gaur, Puja Sakhuja
      Pages: 2 - 7
      Abstract: Kavita Gaur, Puja Sakhuja
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):2-7
      Cholestatic liver disease in children represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The requirement of a multidisciplinary approach, high levels of professional expertise, and the costs of genetic testing are a few of the reasons why such patients may suffer for want of an accurate diagnosis. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a hereditary cholestatic liver disease, afflicted children often progressing to liver failure. Despite its potential to cause significant morbidity, it has seldom been studied in India. Preliminary observations made previously at our center while dealing with such cases have suggested that PFIC may actually not be as rare as described in Western literature. A lack of understanding of actual disease burden in India and no data on genotype–phenotype correlation compounds the issue. The aim of this review is to make pathologists aware of the nuances involved in understanding this disease and its diagnostic clues. As a specific diagnosis has direct therapeutic implication for this subset of patients, the onus is on the pathologist to ensure an accurate opinion. A PubMed-based literature search using the keywords “PFIC” and “progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis” was done to analyze and disseminate both global and Indian work in this arena.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):2-7
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200040
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Calretinin expression as a reliable prognostic marker in different
           molecular subtypes of breast carcinoma

    • Authors: Mayada Saad Farrag, Amro Awad El-karef, Maha Mohammed Amin, Nagwa Mokhtar Helal, Omar Farouk Ali, Nesrine Saad Farrag
      Pages: 8 - 14
      Abstract: Mayada Saad Farrag, Amro Awad El-karef, Maha Mohammed Amin, Nagwa Mokhtar Helal, Omar Farouk Ali, Nesrine Saad Farrag
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):8-14
      Background: Calretinin (CR), a known mesothelial marker, is expressed in both epithelial and mesenchymal malignancies including breast cancer. Aims: We aimed to measure the frequency of CR expression in correlation with other clinicopathological parameters of different molecular subtypes of invasive breast carcinoma and to study its prognostic implications in this common cancer.Study Design: Tissue microarrays were constructed from 225 tissue samples of breast carcinoma cases. Subjects and Methods: Immunostaining for CR in addition to estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor, CK5/6, and Ki-67 for molecular subtyping. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were done using SPSS 18.0 software (IBM Inc.). Survival data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier test, Log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Cases of invasive breast carcinomas with different grades were classified into 84 luminal A, 45 luminal B, 27 HER2 positive, 40 basal-like, and 29 unclassified. High CR expression was associated with tumors of high grade (P < 0.0001), high locoregional recurrence (P = 0.005), hormonal receptors negative, and high Ki-67 indices. They frequently display a basal-like phenotype (70%, P < 0.0001), HER2 (59.3%), and luminal B (33.3%) tumors compared to luminal A (9.5%) and unclassified subtypes (17.2%). Moreover, it is associated with poor overall patient survival (P = 0.034), but it does not affect disease-free survival. Conclusions: Calretinin could be a reliable predictor marker of adverse prognosis in breast cancer.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):8-14
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200046
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Histological evaluation of the possible transformation of peripheral giant
           cell granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma: A preliminary study

    • Authors: Ömür Dereci, &#350;ivge Akg&#252;n, B&#252;lent Celasun, Adnan &#214;zt&#252;rk, &#214;mer G&#252;nhan
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Ömür Dereci, Şivge Akgün, Bülent Celasun, Adnan Öztürk, Ömer Günhan
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):15-20
      Aims: The objective of this study is to describe shared morphological features of peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) and peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF) in detail and discuss the possible relationship between them. Materials and Methods: Ten intermediate cases with features resembling to both POF and PGCG were selected and type 3 and 1 collagen immunostainings were performed for evaluation of the connective tissue maturation. Immunohistochemical staining percentage (SP) for stromal cells in the slides of POF and PGCG counterparts of intermediate lesions was scored as 1 when the SP was above 10%, 2 when the SP was above 25%, 3 when the SP was above 50% and 4 when the SP was above 75%. Staining intensity (SI) of immunuhistochemical staining was graded and scored as 1 - mild, 2 – moderate, and 3 - severe. An immunoreactivity score was calculated by multiplying SP and SI. Results: All intermediate lesions comprised osteoclast type multinucleated giant cells and partly mineralized hard tissue component. Parts of intermediate lesions resembling POF showed higher type 1 collagen immunoreactivity compared to the PGCG counterparts of intermediate lesions (P < 0.05). PGCG counterparts showed higher type 3 collagen immunoreactivity compared to the POF counterparts of the intermediate lesions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: POF may be a later stage lesion with morphologically more mature components. A possible transformation may be considered for these two lesions.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):15-20
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200032
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Altered expressions of Notch-1 signaling proteins and beta-catenin in
           progression of carcinoma in situ into squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix
           

    • Authors: Na-Hye Myong
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Na-Hye Myong
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):21-26
      Background: Activation of Notch-1 signaling pathway and loss of membranous beta-catenin have been known to play key roles in the progression of uterine cervix cancer and thus this study focused any alteration in the expression patterns for Notch-1, p53, and cyclin D1 as well as beta-catenin in squamous carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive squamous carcinomas to investigate their roles in the progression of CIS to squamous carcinomas. Materials and Methods: Three Notch-1 signaling proteins, such as Notch-1, TP53, and cyclin D1, and a component of cell adhesion complex, beta-catenin, were immunohistochemically stained in 112 uterine cervical tumors including 74 CIS and 38 invasive squamous carcinomas (11 microinvasive and 27 invasive carcinomas). Each immunohistochemical result was compared between CIS and squamous carcinoma groups and the difference was statistically analyzed. Results: Notch-1 protein expression was significantly higher in the microinvasive and invasive carcinomas than in CIS lesions (P = 0.001). Cyclin D1 and p53 immunoreactivities tended to be expressed higher in the invasive group than in CIS (P = 0.056 and 0.060). Membranous beta-catenin expression was significantly reduced in squamous carcinomas compared to CIS (P = 0.000). However, both CIS and squamous carcinoma groups revealed no interrelationship among Notch-1 signaling proteins and beta-catenin. Conclusion: Altered expressions of Notch-1 signaling proteins and beta-catenin in the progression of CIS into squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix suggests that Notch-1 signaling pathway and cell adhesiveness might play key roles in the stromal invasion of CIS cells.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):21-26
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200045
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Perineural invasion is a valuable prognostic factor in advanced stage
           and/or Node (+) cervical cancer

    • Authors: Cigdem Vural, Busra Yaprak Bayrak, Bahar Muezz&#305;noglu, Izzet Yucesoy
      Pages: 27 - 32
      Abstract: Cigdem Vural, Busra Yaprak Bayrak, Bahar Muezzınoglu, Izzet Yucesoy
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):27-32
      Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) is correlated with adverse survival in several malignancies, but its significance cervical cancer remains to be clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between PNI status and clinical outcomes in clinically localized surgically treated cervical cancers. Materials and Methods: We reviewed clinical records and pathology slides of 111 patients with cervical cancer treated with surgery at a single academic center. PNI was evaluated for presence, number of foci per slide, involved largest nerve size, and topographically (intratumoral vs. extratumoral). Association with these parameters, clinicopathologic characteristics and survival were analyzed. Results: The analysis demonstrated that PNI in cervical cancer was significantly correlated with parametrial invasion, tumor size, resection margin involvement, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node (LN) metastasis, depth of stromal invasion, necrosis, and higher stage disease (P < 0.005). Similarly, PNI density and mean size of the nerve involved were also associated with advanced stage (P < 0.005). In the multivariate analysis, PNI was not an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. However, in the advanced stage cases and LN (+) cases, PNI is significantly associated with lower overall survival (43 vs. 58 months and 36 vs. 60 months, respectively, P < 0.005). Conclusions: The presence of PNI is accompanied by high-risk factors for recurrence. Overall survival rate is significantly reduced in PNI (+) patients. Although PNI itself is not an independent prognostic factor, PNI has a significant prognostic impact on overall survival in patients with advanced stage and/or Node (+) cervical cancer.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):27-32
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200021
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Serotonin receptor 4 (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor Type 4) regulates
           expression of estrogen receptor beta and cell migration in hormone-naive
           prostate cancer

    • Authors: Yasuhiro Nakamura, Kazue Ise, Yuto Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Keely M McNamara, Hironobu Sasano
      Pages: 33 - 37
      Abstract: Yasuhiro Nakamura, Kazue Ise, Yuto Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Keely M McNamara, Hironobu Sasano
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):33-37
      Background: Estrogens are considered to potentially play some roles in the development and progression of prostate cancer through estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). However, additional factors which could influence the clinical outcome of the patients through modulating these steroid signalings have also been proposed. Among these, increased expression of serotonin receptor especially that of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor Type 4 (5-HTR4) has been recently proposed to be involved in autocrine/paracrine mechanisms of castration-resistant prostate cancer, but the presence and clinical significance of 5-HTR4 in hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC) and its interaction with hormonal signaling pathways have remained virtually unknown. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the status of 5-HTR4 in 112 human HNPC cases (acinar adenocarcinoma) using immunohistochemistry and correlated the findings with clinicopathological features of individual patients and the status of androgen receptor (AR) and ERβ. To further elucidate its underlying mechanisms, androgen-dependent human prostate carcinoma cell line, LNCaP, expressing 5-HTR4, was treated by 5-HTR4 agonist. Results: 5-HTR4 immunoreactivity was detected in 34% of prostate cancer cases examined (38/112) and was significantly correlated with the status of ERβ but not with that of AR and other clinicopathological factors of the patients. Results of in vitro studies demonstrated that 24 h incubation with 5-HTR4 agonist (10 nM) increased the expression level of ERβ messenger RNA compared to controls. 5-HTR4 agonist (100 nM) significantly inhibited LNCaP carcinoma cell migration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Results of our present study indicated that 5-HTR4 signaling upregulated ERβ expression in HNPCs and could impact on biological processes in HNPC.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):33-37
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200022
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Immunogenetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    • Authors: Nikhil Patkar, Nikhil Rabade, Pratibha Amare Kadam, Falguni Mishra, Aditi Muranjan, Prashant Tembhare, Shruti Chaudhary, Swapnali Joshi, Hasmukh Jain, Uma Dangi, Bhausaheb Bagal, Navin Khattry, Hari Menon, Sumeet Gujral, Manju Sengar, PG Subramanian
      Pages: 38 - 42
      Abstract: Nikhil Patkar, Nikhil Rabade, Pratibha Amare Kadam, Falguni Mishra, Aditi Muranjan, Prashant Tembhare, Shruti Chaudhary, Swapnali Joshi, Hasmukh Jain, Uma Dangi, Bhausaheb Bagal, Navin Khattry, Hari Menon, Sumeet Gujral, Manju Sengar, PG Subramanian
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):38-42
      Introduction: Cytogenetic aberrations as well as presence of IGVH mutations are the underlying reason for clinical heterogeneity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). The presence of IGVH mutations as well as the predominant gene usage shows geographical variations. However, there is no study from India addressing immunogenetics of CLL. In a first Indian study we document the immunogenetics of CLL in a large tertiary hospital. Methods: We analyzed IGVH mutation status, VH gene usage, cytogenetic abnormalities using FISH, immunophenotyping data and correlated them with standard clinical variables in 84 patients of CLL. Results: Advanced Rai stage (Stage 3/4) was seen in 45% of our patients, where as 13q deletion was the commonest clonal cytogenetic abnormality detected in 48.4% of the cases. IGVH unmutated cases (55.2%) showed higher proportion expressing CD38 and CD49d, a preferential usage for VH1 and VH3 families (55.2%), presentation at an advanced Rai stage (52.8%) as well as more frequent presence of p53 deletions. As compared to the IGVH mutated cases greater proportion of IGVH unmutated patients (70%) required treatment. However, there was no significant difference in the time to treatment between mutated and unmutated cases which can be attributed to relatively short median follow up of 10 months. Conclusion: To summarize, we have seen a higher proportion of IGVH unmutated patients in our cohort (55.2%). The commonly used VH genes in the Indian population are IGVH 2-5, IGVH 1-2 and IGVH 1-69. Longer clinical follow up and a larger cohort is necessary to confirm the prognostic value of IGVH mutation analysis in Indian Patients with CLL.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):38-42
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200051
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Mixed-phenotypic acute leukemia series from tertiary care center

    • Authors: Ravikiran N Pawar, Sambhunath Banerjee, Subhajit Bramha, Shekhar Krishnan, Arpita Bhattacharya, Vaskar Saha, Anupam Chakrapani, Saurabh Bhave, Mammen Chandy, Reena Nair, Mayur Parihar, Neeraj Arora, DK Mishra
      Pages: 43 - 49
      Abstract: Ravikiran N Pawar, Sambhunath Banerjee, Subhajit Bramha, Shekhar Krishnan, Arpita Bhattacharya, Vaskar Saha, Anupam Chakrapani, Saurabh Bhave, Mammen Chandy, Reena Nair, Mayur Parihar, Neeraj Arora, DK Mishra
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):43-49
      Introduction: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemias (MPALs) are a heterogeneous group of rare leukemias constituting approximately 2%–5% of all leukemias, in which assigning a single lineage of origin is not possible. They are diagnosed by either the presence of antigens of more than one lineage or by the presence of dual population of blasts belonging to two or more lineages. We highlight the clinicopathological, immunophenotype, and genetic data of a cohort (n = 14) of patients diagnosed and treated at our center. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed consecutive cases of MPAL diagnosed in our flow cytometry laboratory from May 2012 to August 2015. These cases were diagnosed based on immunophenotyping of peripheral blood/bone marrow aspirates and morphology/genetics wherever available as per the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 guideline. Results: Among 628 consecutive acute leukemia (AL) cases diagnosed and evaluated during this period, we identified 14 (2.2%) patients with MPAL fulfilling WHO 2008/EGIL criteria for immunological characterizing of AL criteria. Majority of these were males (n = 8, male:female ratio 1.3:1) and adults (n = 11, 78.5%). The median age of this cohort was 41 years (range 2–80). These cases were further classified as: B/myeloid (n = 9), T/myeloid (n = 4), and B/T MPAL (n = 1). Cytogenetics was available in 12 out of 14 cases, out of which, three cases had normal karyotype, three with t(9;22)(q34;q11), and two cases with complex karyotype. We also came across a rare case of B + T lymphoid MPAL who had mixed-lineage leukemia gene t(v; 11q23) rearrangement. Conclusion: MPAL is a complex entity with heterogeneous clinical, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular features. Multiparametric flowcytometry by using comprehensive antibody panels is a valuable tool for diagnosis. Subsequent cytogenetic and molecular analysis for further prognostic stratification and treatment modalities are important.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):43-49
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200057
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Coagulation profile during induction chemotherapy in childhood acute
           lymphoblastic leukemia

    • Authors: Shivali Sehgal, Sunita Sharma, Jagdish Chandra, Anita Nangia
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Shivali Sehgal, Sunita Sharma, Jagdish Chandra, Anita Nangia
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):50-56
      Context: Thromboembolism in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is most commonly reported after the initiation of antileukemic therapy, indicating a possible interaction of disease and therapy. Aims: To study the effect of induction chemotherapy on coagulation parameters in pediatric ALL patients. Settings and Design: Thirty-seven newly diagnosed patients of ALL up to 18 years of age were evaluated along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects and Methods: At the time of diagnosis (day 0), various coagulation parameters were tested. These were sequentially analyzed on day 14 (after the completion of L-asparaginase doses) and on day 28 of therapy (after the completion of induction). Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, protein C (PC) activity, and protein S (PS) activity were done by a clot-based method. Antithrombin (AT) assay was performed by chromogenic method. D-dimer (D-DI), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) levels were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0. Results: No major change in PT and APTT was observed during chemotherapy; however, fibrinogen levels declined significantly (P = 0.04), following L-asparaginase treatment. D-DI levels were significantly raised at diagnosis (P < 0.001) and throughout induction therapy (P < 0.001). PC, PS, and AT were reduced in the initial part of induction, followed by a rise in the second half of therapy, reaching their respective baseline levels (P < 0.05). The tPA levels were significantly reduced in the patients at diagnosis and throughout therapy (P < 0.001). PAI-1 levels were comparable to controls at presentation and showed a rising trend during therapy. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that both the malignant process and the drugs used in combined chemotherapy cause thrombin activation, decrease in natural inhibitors, and hypofibrinolysis, resulting in hypercoagulability. Thus, ALL per se is a hypercoagulable state and the prothrombotic condition at the time of diagnosis gets enhanced during induction chemotherapy.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):50-56
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200029
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Efficacy of in-house fluorescent stain for fungus

    • Authors: K. R. L. Surya Kirani, V Satya Chandrika
      Pages: 57 - 60
      Abstract: K. R. L. Surya Kirani, V Satya Chandrika
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):57-60
      Context: Mycotic infections are gaining importance in the present day medicine, and definite demonstration of fungus is essential for diagnosis. Small numbers of organisms in the smear can be identified by fluorescence microscopy. Calcofluor white (CFW) fluorescent stain is a textile brightener mixed with Evans blue. It is expensive and not easily available. Aims: (1) To assess the efficacy of in-house CFW fluorescent stain for fungus in relation to conventional CFW stain, histopathology, and culture. (2) To determine sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) with culture as gold standard. Settings and Design: One hundred cases of suspected dermatophytosis and 15 cases of systemic mycosis were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The local whitener Ranipal is added with Robin blue, another brightener, and was used to stain teased fungal cultures. Skin, hair, and nails require pretreatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH). Biopsy slides require deparaffinization and pretreatment with KOH before staining. Conventional calcofluor stain, histopathology, and culture were done. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV. Results: The results are consistently comparable with conventional stain. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 93.3%, NPV was 100%, and PPV was 85.7%. It is also cost effective when compared to commercial stains. Conclusions: In-house stain can be used for screening of fungus in direct samples, biopsies as alternative in resource-constrained laboratories.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):57-60
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200049
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Molecular identification of Candida species isolated from cases of
           neonatal candidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment
           length polymorphism in a tertiary care hospital

    • Authors: Akeela Fatima, Gulnaz Bashir, Tehmeena Wani, Abiroo Jan, Amrish Kohli, Mosin S Khan
      Pages: 61 - 65
      Abstract: Akeela Fatima, Gulnaz Bashir, Tehmeena Wani, Abiroo Jan, Amrish Kohli, Mosin S Khan
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):61-65
      Context: Candida spp. is an emerging cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. Delay in speciation of Candida isolates by conventional methods and resistance to antifungal drugs in various Candida species are responsible for the increase in morbidity and mortality due to candidemia. Hence, the rapid identification of Candida isolates is very important for the proper management of patients with candidemia. Aims: The aim was to re-evaluate the identification of various Candida spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and to evaluate the accuracy, speed, and cost of phenotypic methodology versus PCR-RFLP. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ninety consecutive clinical isolates of seven Candida species, isolated from blood of neonates and identified by routine phenotypic methods, were re-evaluated using universal primers internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS4 for PCR amplification and Msp I restriction enzyme for RFLP. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test for agreement. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP were 100% in agreement with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Identification could be achieved within 3 work days by both the methods. Our routine methods proved to be cost effective than PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: We can continue with our routine phenotypic methods and PCR-RFLP can be used for periodic quality control or when conventional methods fail to identify a species.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):61-65
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200023
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Association of interleukin-2, -4 and -10 with dengue severity

    • Authors: Kumar S Abhishek, Anita Chakravarti, CP Baveja, Naresh Kumar, Oves Siddiqui, Suman Kumar
      Pages: 66 - 69
      Abstract: Kumar S Abhishek, Anita Chakravarti, CP Baveja, Naresh Kumar, Oves Siddiqui, Suman Kumar
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):66-69
      Background: Dengue is an arboviral disease caused by four distinct serotypes of dengue virus. The pathogenesis of dengue is not very clearly understood. Various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the immune pathogenesis of dengue. Interleukin (IL)-2/IL-2 receptor interaction is supposed to play a protective role, while IL-4 acts as pro-inflammatory whereas IL-10 acts as anti-inflammatory cytokines. So far, not much information is available regarding the established role of these cytokines with dengue infection and severity. Aims: our study aimed to show the association of IL-2, -4, and -10 with severity of dengue infection. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the year 2015; 150 blood samples from suspected dengue cases were confirmed for dengue and then with an equal number of healthy control samples were tested for cytokines levels (IL-2, -4, and -10) by ELISA. Severity of the dengue infection was determined on the basis of clinical manifestations based on the WHO criteria.Statistical Analysis: for statistical analysis, SPSS version 21 (IBM, New York, United States) was used. Results: Out of 150 samples, 56 samples came to be dengue positive. Thirty-eight (67.85%) cases were classified as nonsevere dengue and 18 (32.15%) were severe dengue. The serum levels of IL-4 and -10 were significantly raised in severe dengue cases as compared to nonsevere dengue cases. No significant association was observed between serum IL-2 levels and the severity of dengue. Conclusion: IL-4 and -10 levels can be used as marker of severe dengue and help in early preparedness to start the treatment in the line of severe dengue.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):66-69
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200027
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus
           cases

    • Authors: Seethalakshmi Srinivasan, Thangam Menon
      Pages: 70 - 73
      Abstract: Seethalakshmi Srinivasan, Thangam Menon
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):70-73
      Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Results: 24/68 (35.29%) cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8%) patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):70-73
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200043
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Genotyping of clinical and environmental multidrug resistant Enterococcus
           faecium strains

    • Authors: Leili Shokoohizadeh, Ashraf Mohabati Mobarez, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali, Reza Ranjbar
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: Leili Shokoohizadeh, Ashraf Mohabati Mobarez, Masoud Alebouyeh, Mohammad Reza Zali, Reza Ranjbar
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):74-78
      Context: Multidrug resistant (MDR) Enterococcus faecium is a nosocomial pathogen and clonal complex 17 (CC17) is the main genetic subpopulation of E. faecium in hospitals worldwide. Aims: There has thus far been no report of major E. faecium clones in Iranian hospitals. Subjects and Methods: The present study analyzed strains of MDR E. faecium obtained from patients and the Intensive Care Unit environments using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and genetic features of the dominant. Results: clones of E. faecium. PFGE and MLST analysis revealed the presence of 17and 15 different subtypes, respectively. Of these, 18 (86%) isolates belonged toCC17. Most strains in this clonal complex harbored the esp gene and exhibited resistance to vancomycin, teicoplanin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and erythromycin. The MLST results revealed 12 new sequence types (ST) for the first time. Approximately 50% of the STs were associated with ST203. Conclusion: Detection of E. faecium strains belonging to CC17 on medical equipment and in clinical specimens verified the circulation of high-risk MDR clones among the patients and in hospital environments in Iran.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):74-78
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200048
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Phenotypic expression of HbO Indonesia in two Indian families and its
           interaction with sickle hemoglobin

    • Authors: Amar Das Gupta, Anita Nadkarni, Pallavi Mehta, Manju Goriwale, Manisha Ramani, Pradnya Chaudhary, Vishal Mehrotra, Roshan Colah
      Pages: 79 - 83
      Abstract: Amar Das Gupta, Anita Nadkarni, Pallavi Mehta, Manju Goriwale, Manisha Ramani, Pradnya Chaudhary, Vishal Mehrotra, Roshan Colah
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):79-83
      Background: Alpha globin chain variants are clinically significant since they directly influence the structure and function of the hemoglobin (Hb) molecules they constitute, either in combination with normal beta globin chains or with variant beta chains, thereby altering the morbidity and mortality associated with the resultant hemoglobinopathies. We describe here two unrelated families from Madhya Pradesh who had a nondeletional alpha-chain variant, HbO Indonesia (CD116 G → A). Members of one of the two families also had coinheritance of sickle hemoglobin (HbS). Aims: The aim was to study the phenotype of HbO Indonesia and its interaction with HbS. Materials and Methods: Hb electrophoresis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), covalent reverse dot blot hybridization, amplification refractory mutation system, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and direct gene sequencing were used to identify and characterize the variant Hbs. Results: The abnormal Hb moved in HbS region in Hb electrophoresis at alkaline pH but gave an abnormal peak in HPLC with a retention time (RT) of 4.86–4.89 min. In two members of the family with coinheritance of HbS, it produced small additional abnormal Hb peaks (4.6% in heterozygous and 11.9% in homozygous member) in HPLC with a longer RT (5.15–5.17 min) possibly resulting from a combination of HbO Indonesia alpha chain with HbS beta chain. Conclusions: It appears that depending on the zygosity of HbS, HbO Indonesia would subtract a variable amount of HbS beta chain from the total pool, thereby potentially reducing the clinical severity of HbS disease. HbO Indonesia per se does not cause anemia or alter the red cell indices.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):79-83
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200030
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Biclonal chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A study of two cases and review of
           literature

    • Authors: Kiran Ashok Ghodke, Nikhil V Patkar, PG Subramanian, Sumeet Gujral, Pratibha Aamre Kadam, Prashant R Tembhare
      Pages: 84 - 86
      Abstract: Kiran Ashok Ghodke, Nikhil V Patkar, PG Subramanian, Sumeet Gujral, Pratibha Aamre Kadam, Prashant R Tembhare
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):84-86
      Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common, immunophenotypically well-defined mature B-cell neoplasm. Demonstration of more than 5000/μL CD5+ B-cell population with co-expression of CD23, weak expression of CD20, and one type of immunoglobin light chain (either kappa or lambda) is necessary for the diagnosis of CLL. However, CLL with two populations of B-cells expressing both kappa as well as lambda (biclonal) light chains are extremely rare and has not been reported from India. We report two cases of biclonal CLL presented with leukocytosis, typical morphological features, and distinct immunophenotype of CLL. These cases are also an example which suggests that careful attention to the morphology of the blood smear and the entire immunophenotype panel is a must and will aid the proper diagnosis as only light chain ratios can be misguiding.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):84-86
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200019
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Identification of prognostic factors in patients with diffuse large B-cell
           lymphoma

    • Authors: Fang Peng, Liang Guo, Wei-Kai Yao, Yan Zheng, Ye Liu, Xiu-Mei Duan, Yin-Ping Wang
      Pages: 87 - 91
      Abstract: Fang Peng, Liang Guo, Wei-Kai Yao, Yan Zheng, Ye Liu, Xiu-Mei Duan, Yin-Ping Wang
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):87-91
      To identify prognostic factors for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), specifically those classified into conflicting subgroups by Hans' and Choi's classification algorithms. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and pathological data of 154 patients diagnosed with de novo DLBCL in the First Hospital of Jilin University from January 2004 to September 2011. All cases were classified into subgroups based on Hans' and Choi's algorithms with immunohistochemical markers. Statistical Analysis Used: The correlation between various clinicopathological factors and 5-year survival rate, the correlation between those factors with the International Prognostic Index, the concordance between Hans' and Choi's approach was evaluated. The survival in different subtypes as classified by Hans' or Choi's approach was mapped. Results: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score 2–5, positive Bcl-2 expression, negative CD10 expression or negative Bcl-6 expression significantly correlated with worse prognosis. The two algorithms showed good consistency (83% concordance, Kappa = 0.660, P < 0.001). By both classifications, the 5-year overall survival rate in germinal center B-cell-like subtype (GCB) lymphoma is significantly higher than that in the non-GCB subtype. There were 25 cases assigned to conflicting subtypes by the two approaches. Among these 25 cases, ECOG 2–5, positive Bcl-2 expression, negative CD10 expression, or negative Bcl-6 expression significantly correlated with worse prognosis. Conclusions: ECOG 2–5, positive Bcl-2 expression, negative CD10 expression, or negative Bcl-6 expression are independent markers for poor prognosis of DLBCL patients. There were 15% cases assigned to conflicting subgroups based on the two algorithms. For these cases, ECOG 2–5, positive Bcl-2 expression, negative CD10 expression, or negative Bcl-6 expression still significantly correlate with poor prognosis.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):87-91
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200056
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A 54-year-old male with rapidly progressive neurologic syndrome:
           Clinicopathologic correlation of a rare diagnosis

    • Authors: Deepti Mutreja, Nikhil Moorchung, Salil Gupta, Rajeev Saxena, Rohini S Doshetty, Bhaskar Nandi
      Pages: 92 - 96
      Abstract: Deepti Mutreja, Nikhil Moorchung, Salil Gupta, Rajeev Saxena, Rohini S Doshetty, Bhaskar Nandi
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):92-96
      Diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as primary presentation with central nervous system involvement as a rapidly progressive neurologic syndrome is extremely rare. We present a rare case of a 54-year-old hypertensive male patient, who presented with a fulminant neurologic syndrome. He presented with cerebellar and meningeal signs, aseptic meningitis and had a rapid downhill course following admission. A postmortem revealed feature of systemic connective tissue fulfilling diagnostic criteria of SLE with lupus cerebritis.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):92-96
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200026
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Trichoblastic carcinoma of the scalp with rippled pattern

    • Authors: Cem Leblebici, Dincer Altinel, Merdan Serin, Oguzhan Okcu, Sevgi Kurt Yazar
      Pages: 97 - 98
      Abstract: Cem Leblebici, Dincer Altinel, Merdan Serin, Oguzhan Okcu, Sevgi Kurt Yazar
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):97-98
      Trichoblastic carcinoma (TC) is a rare type of malignancy which is derived from the hair follicles. In this paper, we report a case with TC on the scalp characterized with rippled pattern. There have been reports of rippled pattern in trichoblastomas, sebaceomas, and basal cell carcinomas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature to report a rippled pattern in TCs.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):97-98
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200024
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Atypical parathyroid adenoma

    • Authors: Anikode Subramanian Ramaswamy, Thinakaran Vijitha, BN Kumarguru, Prashant Basavaraj Mahalingashetti
      Pages: 99 - 101
      Abstract: Anikode Subramanian Ramaswamy, Thinakaran Vijitha, BN Kumarguru, Prashant Basavaraj Mahalingashetti
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):99-101
      Parathyroid lesions clinically manifest themselves in the form of primary hyperparathyroidism most of the times. Parathyroid adenoma constitutes one of the important causes of the same. Although rare, they pose considerable diagnostic dilemma to the pathologist. A 50-year-old female presented to the surgical outpatient of our hospital with a history of recurrent pancreatitis. Clinical examination revealed a mass in the neck which was radiologically demonstrated as right inferior parathyroid mass. The same mass was surgically excised and histopathological features are discussed in this report.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):99-101
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200055
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it
           malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    • Authors: Thomas Alex Kodiatte, Sam Varghese George, Raju Titus Chacko, Banumathi Ramakrishna
      Pages: 102 - 104
      Abstract: Thomas Alex Kodiatte, Sam Varghese George, Raju Titus Chacko, Banumathi Ramakrishna
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):102-104
      Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):102-104
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200054
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor of the kidney: Report of a rare
           case with review of literature

    • Authors: Kavita Mardi, Lalita Negi, Srijan Srivastava
      Pages: 105 - 107
      Abstract: Kavita Mardi, Lalita Negi, Srijan Srivastava
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):105-107
      Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are uncommon tumors that exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and biological behavior. Primary NETs of the kidney, including carcinoid tumor, small cell carcinoma (SCC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) are exceedingly rare. Renal carcinoids are typically slow-growing tumors and pursue a variable clinical course. In contrast, SCC and LCNEC often present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and carry a poor prognosis. We herein report a rare cases of well-differentiated NET (carcinoid) in a 39-year-old male along with the immunohistochemical features. The rarity of these tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):105-107
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200020
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome associated renal
           cell carcinoma

    • Authors: Shraddha Adamane, Sangeeta Desai, Santosh Menon
      Pages: 108 - 110
      Abstract: Shraddha Adamane, Sangeeta Desai, Santosh Menon
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):108-110
      Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is a recently described entity with unknown exact prevalence. The affected individuals are predisposed to have multiple leiomyomas and renal cancer due to germline mutation in fumarate hydratase gene on chromosome 1. The knowledge of this rare tumour is essential for early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy, since they have a grave prognosis. Herein, we present the first case from India of HLRCC in a 42 year old lady who presented with a renal mass and metastasis with consequent fulminant course of disease. We discuss the detailed histomorphologic features and iunique immunohistochemical signature of this unusual renal tumour with discussion of differential diagnosis.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):108-110
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200025
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Dual tumor – Clear cell sarcoma of kidney with differentiating
           neuroblastoma: A rare case with review of literature

    • Authors: Preeti Rajeev Doshi, Manjiri N Karandikar, Ravi C Swami, Harvinder A Singh, Ravindra C Nimbargi
      Pages: 111 - 114
      Abstract: Preeti Rajeev Doshi, Manjiri N Karandikar, Ravi C Swami, Harvinder A Singh, Ravindra C Nimbargi
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):111-114
      Occurrence of two distinct synchronous primary tumors is a rare event in children as well as in adults. Here, we report an extremely rare case of an infant found to have two synchronous Tumours namely clear cell sarcoma of kidney(CCSK) and differentiating neuroblastoma of preaortic region. To our knowledge, this may be the first case of synchronous CCSK and differentiating neuroblastoma being reported.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):111-114
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200047
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Concurrent occurrence of neuroblastoma and clear cell sarcoma of kidney in
           an infant: Is it a random event?

    • Authors: Ramesh B Deshpande
      Pages: 115 - 116
      Abstract: Ramesh B Deshpande
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):115-116

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):115-116
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_663_16
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a mature cystic teratoma: A rare case report
           with review of literature

    • Authors: Yasmin Altaf Momin, Medha Pradip Kulkarni, Amitkumar Bapuso Pandav, Kalpana Ranjitsingh Sulhyan
      Pages: 117 - 118
      Abstract: Yasmin Altaf Momin, Medha Pradip Kulkarni, Amitkumar Bapuso Pandav, Kalpana Ranjitsingh Sulhyan
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):117-118
      Mature cystic teratoma, also known as dermoid cyst, is the most common germ cell tumor of the ovary with a relative incidence of 20%. Rarely, dermoid cysts undergo malignant transformation (0.94%–2%). We report a case of mucoepidermoid carcinoma within a mature cystic teratoma in a 35-year-old female.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):117-118
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200038
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma presenting as an isolated breast mass:
           A diagnostic pitfall and a review of literature

    • Authors: Trupti Pai, Nita Nair, Gauri Pantvaidya, Kedar Deodhar, Tanuja Shet
      Pages: 119 - 121
      Abstract: Trupti Pai, Nita Nair, Gauri Pantvaidya, Kedar Deodhar, Tanuja Shet
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):119-121
      Metastases to breast are much rarer than primary breast tumors. We now present a case of 45-year-old female, who presented with an isolated breast mass. A positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) done revealed hypermetabolic right breast nodules, soft tissue deposits, and multiple nodal involvement. The biopsy from the breast and axillary lymph node showed dense lymphoid infiltrate and was interpreted initially as granulomatous inflammation. However, the lumps were hard and suspicious for primary breast cancer, so an immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin was performed which highlighted the epithelial cell clusters masked within the inflammatory infiltrate and the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma, lymphoepithelioma-like was made. After the diagnosis was made, it was realized that the patient had been treated earlier for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The in situ hybridization (ISH) test for Epstein–Barr virus-encoded RNA ISH was positive in the tumor cells, and hence, a diagnosis of metastatic NPC was finally made. The patient subsequently developed extensive nodal, skeletal, and soft tissue metastatic disease but was alive till September 2015. Although extremely rare, metastatic NPC can occur in the breast and the above case highlights that it mimics an inflammatory lesion. This case highlights the importance of the multidisciplinary approach for appropriate tumor diagnosis and patient management.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):119-121
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200058
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A case of gallbladder mass: Malakoplakia (The tumor mimicker)

    • Authors: Kanwaljeet Singh, Tathagatta Chatterjee
      Pages: 122 - 124
      Abstract: Kanwaljeet Singh, Tathagatta Chatterjee
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):122-124
      Diagnosis of malakoplakia presenting as gall bladder mass is a diagnostic dilemma faced by pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons. Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disorder and tumor mimicker usually occurring in the urinary tract, may occasionally be found in gall bladder. Here, we present a rare case, presenting as gall bladder mass in a known case of gallstone disease, clinically suspected as carcinoma and later turned out to be malakoplakia in gall bladder.
      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):122-124
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200034
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Squash cytodiagnosis of synchronous papillary serous carcinoma of ovary
           and endometrium with demonstration of serous tubal intraepithelial
           carcinoma as a precursor lesion

    • Authors: Asaranti Kar, Tushar Kar, Ipsita Dha, Sasmita Panda
      Pages: 125 - 127
      Abstract: Asaranti Kar, Tushar Kar, Ipsita Dha, Sasmita Panda
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):125-127

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):125-127
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200039
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus

    • Authors: Barani Karikalan, Thanikachalam Pasupathi
      Pages: 128 - 129
      Abstract: Barani Karikalan, Thanikachalam Pasupathi
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):128-129

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):128-129
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200052
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in a neonate born to HIV-infected
           mother: A case report

    • Authors: Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar, Sushma Nagsen Ramraje
      Pages: 130 - 131
      Abstract: Dhaneshwar Namdeorao Lanjewar, Sushma Nagsen Ramraje
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):130-131

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):130-131
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200028
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Malignant transformation in an atypical endometrial cyst of the ovary

    • Authors: Manjula Jain, Shivali Sehgal
      Pages: 132 - 133
      Abstract: Manjula Jain, Shivali Sehgal
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):132-133

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):132-133
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200053
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: Small cell carcinoma lung metastasising into a
           follicular adenoma of the thyroid

    • Authors: Kiran Krishne Gowda, Amanjit Bal, Parimal Agrawal, Roshan Verma, Ashim Das
      Pages: 133 - 135
      Abstract: Kiran Krishne Gowda, Amanjit Bal, Parimal Agrawal, Roshan Verma, Ashim Das
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):133-135

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):133-135
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200037
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Pancreatic lipomatosis in a pregnant diabetic patient

    • Authors: Priyanka Bhagat, Kim Vaiphei
      Pages: 135 - 137
      Abstract: Priyanka Bhagat, Kim Vaiphei
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):135-137

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):135-137
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200035
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to multiple infections: Case
           report of a rare entity

    • Authors: Ankita Jaiswal, Varuna Mallya, Vishal Singh, Mandeep Walia, Nita Khurana
      Pages: 137 - 138
      Abstract: Ankita Jaiswal, Varuna Mallya, Vishal Singh, Mandeep Walia, Nita Khurana
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):137-138

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):137-138
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200033
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Crystalline inclusions in myeloma cells: Need to go beyond morphologic
           curiosity

    • Authors: Shobhana R Agashe, Jaydeep N Pol, Girish A Kadkol, Pramila P Patil
      Pages: 139 - 140
      Abstract: Shobhana R Agashe, Jaydeep N Pol, Girish A Kadkol, Pramila P Patil
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):139-140

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):139-140
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200036
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • The tattoo dilemma: Reading in between the ink

    • Authors: Kusum Jashnani, Heena Desai, Jyothi Shetty, Sweety Shinde, Vinaya Shah
      Pages: 141 - 142
      Abstract: Kusum Jashnani, Heena Desai, Jyothi Shetty, Sweety Shinde, Vinaya Shah
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):141-142

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):141-142
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200050
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • &#946;-lactam susceptibility in extended-spectrum
           &#946;-lactamase-producing isolates

    • Authors: Gopal Nandlal Agrawal, Hina Dilipsingh Rahangdale, Aparajit W Walawalkar
      Pages: 142 - 143
      Abstract: Gopal Nandlal Agrawal, Hina Dilipsingh Rahangdale, Aparajit W Walawalkar
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):142-143

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):142-143
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200044
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Social media: The new frontier for pathologists

    • Authors: Nadeem Tanveer
      Pages: 143 - 144
      Abstract: Nadeem Tanveer
      Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):143-144

      Citation: Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 2017 60(1):143-144
      PubDate: Tue,14 Feb 2017
      DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.200041
      Issue No: Vol. 60, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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